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LET Reviewer Professional Education

QUESTION: Bruners theory on intellectual development moves from enactive to iconic and symbolic stages.
a. Be interactive in approach
b. Begin with the abstract
c. Begin with the concrete
d. Do direct instruction

ANSWER: Begin with the concrete


Explanation: Cognitive psychologist Jerome Bruner felt the goal of education should be intellectual
development, as opposed to rote memorization of facts. He believed that learning should begin with direct
manipulation of objects. For example, in math education, Bruner promoted the use of algebra tiles, coins, and
other items that could be manipulated.

QUESTION: Mrs. Manalo who is a high school teacher in science would like to measure the specific learning
outcome recalls chemical formulas. What is the most appropriate objective test item to use for measuring it?
a. Test-retest
b. True-false
c. Matching Type
d. Multiple choice

ANSWER: Matching Type


EXPLANATION:
Matching type is effective when the teacher needs to measure the learners ability to identify the
relationship between similar items (Terms and definitions, Objects or Pictures and Labels, Symbols and
Proper Names, Causes and Effects and Scenarios and Responses).
True-false questions are typically used to measure the ability to identify whether statements of fact are
correct.
Test-retest reliability is a measure of reliability obtained by administering the same test twice over a period
of time to a group of individuals.
Multiple-choice items are best used for checking whether students have learned facts and routine
procedures that have one, clearly correct answer. However, an item may have two reasonable answer
options. Therefore, test directions usually ask test takers to select the "best" answer.

QUESTION: The principle of individual differences requires teachers to


a. give greater attention to gifted learners.
b. provide for variety of learning activities.
c. prepare modules for slow learners in class.
d. treat all learners alike while in the classroom.

ANSWER: provide for variety of learning activities.


EXPLANATION: The Principle of Individual Differences is a principle that states that, because everyone is
unique, each person experiences a different response to an exercise program.
QUESTION: Who among the teachers below performed a diagnostic assessment?
a. Teacher Tess who asked questions when the discussion was going on to know who among her students
understood what she was trying to stress.
b. Teacher Gilbert who gave a short quiz after discussing thoroughly the lesson to determine the outcome of
instruction.
c. Teacher Siena who gave a ten-item test to find out the specific lessons which the students failed to
understand.
d. Teacher Michelle who administered a readiness test to the incoming grade one pupils.

ANSWER: Teacher Michelle who administered a readiness test to the incoming grade one pupils.
EXPLANATION: Diagnostic assessments are sets of written questions (multiple choice or short answer) that
assess a learners current knowledge base or current views on a topic/issue to be studied in the course. The
goal is to get a snapshot of where students currently stand - intellectually, emotionally or ideologically -
allowing the instructor to make sound instructional choices as to how to teach the new course content and
what teaching approach to use.

QUESTION: Which of the following is true about human development?


a. Human development considers both maturation and learning.
b. Development refers to the progressive series of changes of an orderly coherent type toward the goal of
maturity.
c. Development is the gradual and orderly unfolding of the characteristics of the individuals as they go through
the successive stages of growth.
d. All of the above

ANSWER: ALL OF THE ABOVE

QUESTION: What do you call the quantitative increase in terms of height and weight as observed by the
school physician during the physical examination of the students?
a. Development
b. Growth
c. Learning
d. Maturation

ANSWER: GROWTH

QUESTION: Mrs. Gomez conducts research on the psychosocial domain of development. In what particular
area of the child's development is Mrs. Gomez most likely to be interested with?
a. Perceptual abilities
b. Brain-wave patterns
c. Emotions
d. Use of language

ANSWER: EMOTIONS
EXPLANATION: Human development is a lifelong process beginning before birth and extending to death.
Pyschosocial development features development in the person's emotions, personality, social interactions and
expectations.
Physical development is defined as the biological changes that occur in the body and brain, including
changes in size and strength, integration of sensory and motor activities, and development of fine and
gross motor skills.
Cognitive development is defined as the changes in the way we think, understand, and reason about the
world.
Stages of Cognitive Development according to Jean Piaget:
1. The Sensorimotor Stage: A period of time between birth and age two during which an infant's
knowledge of the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities. Behaviors are
limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli.
2. The Preoperational Stage: A period between ages two and six during which a child learns to use
language. During this stage, children do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate
information and are unable to take the point of view of other people.
3. The Concrete Operational Stage: A period between ages seven and eleven during which children gain a
better understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but
have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.
4. The Formal Operational Stage: A period between age twelve to adulthood when people develop the
ability to think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning and
systematic planning also emerge during this stage.

QUESTION: Which of the following is the correct order of psychosexual stages proposed by Sigmund Freud?
a. Oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stage
b. Anal stage, oral stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stage
c. Oral stage, anal stage, genital stage, latency stage, phallic stage
d. Anal stage, oral stage, genital stage, latency stage, phallic stage

ANSWER: Oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stage
EXPLANATION: Oral stage (O to 1 year) - the libido is centered in a baby's mouth. It gets much satisfaction
from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy the libido, and thus its id demands.
Anal stage (1 to 3 years) - The libido now becomes focused on the anus and the child derives great pleasure
from defecating. The child is now fully aware that they are a person in their own right and that their wishes
can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world
Phallic stage (3 to 6 years) - Sensitivity now becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation (in both
sexes) becomes a new source of pleasure. The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets
in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear which Freud called the
Oedipus complex (in boys) and the Electra complex (in girls).
Latency stage (6 to puberty) - The libido is dormant. Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed
during the latent stage and sexual energy can be sublimated towards school work, hobbies and friendships.
Genital stage (puberty to adult) - It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of
which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another person in our 20's. Sexual instinct is
directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self pleasure like during the phallic stage.

QUESTION: What is the best description of Erickson's psychosocial theory of human development?
a. Eight crises all people are thought to lace
b. Four psychosocial stages in latency period
c. The same number of stages as Freud's, but with different names
d. A stage theory that is not psychoanalytic

ANSWER: Eight crises all people are thought to lace


EXPLANATION: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, as articulated by Erik Erikson, in collaboration
with Joan Erikson, is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory that identifies a series of eight stages, in which a
healthy developing individual should pass through from infancy to late adulthood.

QUESTION: In Erickson's theory, what is the unresolved crisis of an adult who has difficulty establishing a
secure, mutual relationship with a life partner?
a. Initiative vs. Guilt
b. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
c. Intimacy vs. Isolation
d. Trust vs. Mistrust

ANSWER: INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION


EXPLANATION: Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other
people. It is forming close, intimate relationships as people enter adulthood that plays the critical role in the
intimacy versus isolation stage. Such relationships are often romantic in nature, but Erikson also believed that
close friendships were also important.

QUESTION: Alyssa is eight years old, and although she understands some logical principles, she still has
troubles in understanding hypothetical concepts. According to Piaget, Alyssa belongs to what particular stage
of cognitive development?
a. Sensorimotor
b. Preoperational
c. Concrete operational
d. Formal operational

ANSWER: CONCRETE OPERATIONAL


EXPLANATION: Stages of Cognitive Development according to Jean Piaget:
The Sensorimotor Stage: A period of time between birth and age two during which an infant's knowledge of
the world is limited to his or her sensory perceptions and motor activities. Behaviors are limited to simple
motor responses caused by sensory stimuli.
The Preoperational Stage: A period between ages two and six during which a child learns to use language.
During this stage, children do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information and
are unable to take the point of view of other people.
The Concrete Operational Stage: A period between ages seven and eleven during which children gain a better
understanding of mental operations. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty
understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts.
The Formal Operational Stage: A period between age twelve to adulthood when people develop the ability to
think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning and systematic planning also
emerge during this stage.

QUESTION: Which of the following provides the best broad description of the relationship between heredity
and environment in determining height?
a. Heredity is the primary influence, with environment affecting development only in severe situations.
b. Heredity and environment contribute equally to development
c. Environment is the major influence on physical characteristics.
d. Heredity directs the individual's potential and environment determines whether and to what degree the
individual reaches the potential.

ANSWER: Heredity is the primary influence, with environment affecting development only in severe situations.
EXPLANATION: Physical development and growth are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.
For example, malnutrition can delay a childs physical development significantly. On the other hand, the role of
some environmental factors, such as the amount of exercise the child is getting, has a much smaller effect on
physical development than was previously thought.
QUESTION: What is the correct sequence of prenatal stages of development?
a. Embryo, germinal, fetus
b. Germinal, fetus, embryo
c. Germinal, embryo, fetus
d. Embryo, fetus, germinal

ANSWER: Germinal, embryo, fetus


EXPLANATION: The germinal stage begins at conception when the sperm and egg cell unite in one of the two
fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg, known as a zygote, then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take
up to a week to complete. Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after conception.
The beginning of the third week after conception marks the start of the embryonic period, a time when the
mass of cells becomes distinct as a human. The embryonic stage plays an important role in the development
of the brain.
Once cell differentiation is mostly complete, the embryo enters the next stage and becomes known as a fetus.
The fetal period of prenatal develop marks more important changes in the brain. This period of develop begins
during the ninth week and lasts until birth.

QUESTION: When a baby realized that a rubber duck which has fallen out of the tub must be somewhere on
the floor, he is likely to achieved what aspect of cognitive development?
a. Object permanence
b. Deferred imitation
c. Mental combinations
d. Goal-directed behavior

ANSWER: OBJECT PERMANENCE


EXPLANATION: The main development during the sensorimotor stage is the understanding that objects exist
and events occur in the world independently of one's own actions ('the object concept', or 'object
permanence'). Object permanence means knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden. It requires
the ability to form a mental representation (i.e. a schema) of the object.
Deferred imitation involves the ability to reproduce or repeat a previously-witnessed action later on; rather
than copying it right away, the child is able to produce a mental representation of it and repeat the behavior
later on.
Children use mental combinations to solve simple problems, such as putting down a toy in order to open a
door. And they get good at pretending. Instead of using a doll as something to sit on, suck on, or throw, now
the child will sing to it, tuck it into bed, and so on.
Babies developed intentionality (goal-directed behavior) during the sensory-motor stage. They learn to execute
simple goal-directed plans, such as reaching out and grasping a pacifier.

QUESTION: Which of the following will be Freud's description of the child's behavior if he he has biting,
sarcastic manner?
a. Anally expulsive
b. Anally retentive
c. Fixated in the oral stage
d. Experiencing the crisis of trust versus mistrust

ANSWER: Fixated in the oral stage


EXPLANATION: The infant who is neglected (insufficiently fed) or who is over-protected (over-fed) in the
course of being nursed, might become an orally-fixated person. Said oral-stage fixation might have two
effects: (1) the neglected child might become a psychologically dependent adult continually seeking the oral
stimulation denied in infancy, thereby becoming a manipulative person in fulfilling his or her needs, rather
than maturing to independence; (2) the over-protected child might resist maturation and return to
dependence upon others in fulfilling his or her needs. Theoretically, oral-stage fixations are manifested as
garrulousness (talkativeness), smoking, continual oral stimulus (eating, chewing objects), and alcoholism.
Psychologically, the symptoms include a sarcastic, oral sadistic personality, nail biting, oral sexual practices
(fellatio, cunnilingus, analingus, irrumatio), et cetera.
Annal expulsive personality has a lack of self control, being generally messy and careless.
The Anal retentive personality is stingy, with a compulsive seeking of order and tidiness. The person is
generally stubborn and perfectionist.
Trust versus mistrust stage is under Erik Eriksons Psychosocial Development.

QUESTION: Which of the following can best describe the preschooler's readiness to learn new task and play
activities?
a. Emerging competency and self-awareness
b. Theory of the Mind
c. Relationship with parents
d. Growing identification with others

ANSWER: Emerging competency and self-awareness

QUESTION: James noted that when the preschoolers eagerly begin many new activities but are vulnerable to
criticism and feelings of failure, they are experiencing what particular crisis?
a. Identity vs. Role Confusion
b. Initiative vs. Guilt
c. Basic trust vs. mistrust
d. Efficacy vs. Helplessness

ANSWER: INITIATIVE VERSUS GUILT


EXPLANATION: According to Erikson's theory, the first two stages of children's development are concerned
with trust versus mistrust and autonomy versus shame and doubt. During these first two periods, the focus is
on children forming a sense of trust in the world as well as feelings of independence and autonomy. Each of
these foundational stages play a role in the later stages that will follow.

It is as children enter the preschool years that they begin the third stage of psychosocial development
centered on initiative versus guilt. If they have successfully completed the earlier two stages, kids now have a
sense that the world is trustworthy and that they are able to act independently. Now it is important for kids to
learn that they can exert power over themselves and the world.

QUESTION: What stage of Piaget's Cognitive Development does a person belong to when he can understand
specific logical ideas and apply them to concrete problems?
a. Preoperational thought
b. Operational thought
c. Concrete operational thought
d. Formal operational thought

ANSWER: Concrete operational thought


EXPLANATION: The concrete operational stage of development can be defined as the stage of cognitive
development in which a child is capable of performing a variety of mental operations and thoughts using
concrete concepts. Children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding
abstract or hypothetical concepts.
and motor activities. Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli.
The Preoperational Stage is a period between ages two and six during which a child learns to use language.
During this stage, children do not yet understand concrete logic, cannot mentally manipulate information and
are unable to take the point of view of other people.
The Formal Operational Stage is a period between age twelve to adulthood when people develop the ability to
think about abstract concepts. Skills such as logical thought, deductive reasoning and systematic planning also
emerge during this stage.

QUESTION: What is the best explanation of Piaget's concrete operational thought to describe the school-age
child's mental ability?
a. A child can reason logically about things and events he or she perceives.
b. A child's ability to think about how he thinks
c. Can understand that certain characteristics of an object remain the same when other characteristics are
changed
d. Can understand that moral principles may supersede the standards of society.

ANSWER: Can understand that certain characteristics of an object remain the same when other characteristics
are changed
EXPLANATION: At concrete operational stage, children gain the abilities of conservation (number, area,
volume, orientation) and reversibility. Conservation is the understanding that something stays the same in
quantity even though its appearance changes. To be more technical conservation is the ability to understand
that redistributing material does not affect its mass, number, volume or length.

QUESTION: Elisa who is in between 9 and 11 years of age are most likely to demonstrate moral reasoning at
which Kohlberg's stage?
a. Pre-conventional
b. Conventional
c. Post-conventional
d. None of the above

ANSWER: Conventional
EXPLANATION: At the pre-conventional level (most nine-year-olds and younger, some over nine), we dont
have a personal code of morality. Instead, our moral code is shaped by the standards of adults and the
consequences of following or breaking their rules.
At the conventional level (most adolescents and adults), we begin to internalize the moral standards of valued
adult role models. Authority is internalized but not questioned and reasoning is based on the norms of the
group to which the person belongs.
On post-conventional morality, individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is
based on individual rights and justice.

QUESTION: According to Kohlberg, a dutiful citizen who obeys the laws set down by society is at which level
of moral reasoning?
a. Pre-conventional Stage One
b. Pre-conventional Stage Two
c. Conventional
d. Post-conventional

ANSWER: Conventional morality


EXPLANATION: Conventional morality includes stage where social order is being maintained. The
child/individual becomes aware of the wider rules of society so judgments concern obeying the rules in order
to uphold the law and to avoid guilt.
QUESTION: Ana, who is low-achieving, shy and withdrawn, is rejected by most of her peers. her teacher
wants to help Ana increase her self-esteem and social acceptance. What can Joy's teacher suggest to her
parents?
a. Transfer her to a different school
b. Help their daughter improve her motor skills
c. Help their daughter learn to accept more responsibility for her academic failures
d. Help their daughter improve her skills in relating to peers

ANSWER: Help their daughter improve her skills in relating to peers

QUESTION: What is the most accurate definition of puberty stage?


a. Rapid physical growth that occurs during adolescence
b. Stage when sexual maturation is attained.
c. Rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that ends childhood
d. Stage when adolescents establish identifies separate from their parents.

ANSWER: Rapid physical growth and sexual maturation that ends childhood
EXPLANATION: Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult
body capable of sexual reproduction.

QUESTION: Fifteen-year old Marie is preoccupied with her "disgusting appearance" and seems depressed most
of the time. What is the best thing her parents can do to help her get through this difficult time?
a. Ignore her self-preoccupation because their attention would only reinforce it.
b. Encourage to "shape up" and not give in the self-pity
c. Kid her about her appearance in the hope that she will see how silly she is acting.
d. Offer practical advice, such as clothing suggestions, to improve her body image.

ANSWER: Offer practical advice, such as clothing suggestions, to improve her body image.

QUESTION: What can be the best comparison of the behavior of a 17 year old girl to that of her 13 year old
brother?
a. She is more likely critical about herself
b. She tends to be more egocentric.
c. She had less confidence in her abilities.
d. She is more capable of reasoning hypothetically.

ANSWER: She is more capable of reasoning hypothetically.

QUESTION: According to Erikson, what is the primary task of adolescent?


a. To establish trust
b. To search for his identity
c. To be more intimate with others
d. To establish integrity

ANSWER: To search for his identity


EXPLANATION: Identity versus confusion is the fifth stage of ego psychologist Erik Erikson's theory of
psychosocial development. This stage occurs during adolescence between the ages of approximately 12 and
18. During this stage, adolescents explore their independence and develop a sense of self.
QUESTION: What is the main source of emotional support for most young people who are establishing
independence from their parents?
a. Older adolescents of the opposite sex
b. Older sibling
c. Teachers
d. Peer groups

ANSWER: PEER GROUPS


EXPLANATION: Parents and family members continue to exert an influence on how teens feel about
themselves, but outside forces also become particularly important during this time. Friends, social groups,
schoolmates, societal trends, and even popular culture all play a role in shaping and forming identity.

QUESTION: The failure of independent study with most Filipino students may be attributed to students
a. unpreparedness for schooling
b. being responsible learners
c. high degree of independence
d. high degree of dependence on authority

ANSWER: high degree of dependence on authority

QUESTION: Republic Act No. 7836 otherwise known as LET is required for those who are engaged in teaching
in
a. all elementary and secondary schools
b. all public elementary schools
c. all private elementary schools
d. all public and private tertiary schools

ANSWER: all elementary and secondary schools


EXPLANATION: R.A. 7836, otherwise known as an act to strengthen the regulation and supervision of the
practice of teaching in the Philippines and prescribing a licensure examination for teachers and for other
purposes. In section 4 of this republic act, the word teachers is defined as all persons engaged in teaching at
the elementary and secondary levels, whether on full-time or part-time basis, including industrial arts or
vocational teachers and all other persons performing supervisory and/or administrative functions in all schools
in the aforesaid levels and qualified to practice teaching.

QUESTION: Teacher Celia always checks on entry knowledge and skills before she proceeds to her new lesson.
On which principle is Teacher Celias practice grounded?
a. Effective teaching proceeds from the concrete to the abstract.
b. Learning increases when the lesson is relevant.
c. Attention is essential for learning.
d. New learning builds on previous learning.

ANSWER: New learning builds on previous learning.


EXPLANATION: or the instructor, it is important to assess such prior knowledge or attitudes and beliefs very
early in the semester since the knowledge students possess may either promote or hinder their learning. It is
also important to assess prior knowledge and skills early since such information could be used to help foster
student engagement and critical thinking in the course.

QUESTION: Specialization is knowing more and more about less and less. Hence, it is better to be a
generalist, claims Teacher Nelcy. Which philosophy does Teacher Nelcy subscribe to?
a. Existentialism
b. Perennialism
c. Essentialism
d. Progressivism

ANSWER: Essentialism
EXPLANATION: William Bagleys essentialism philosophy states that the core of the curriculum is essential
knowledge and skills and academic rigor. Essentialists accept the idea that this core curriculum may change.
chooling should be practical, preparing students to become valuable members of society. It should focus on
facts-the objective reality out there--and "the basics," training students to read, write, speak, and compute
clearly and logically. Schools should not try to set or influence policies. Students should be taught hard work,
respect for authority, and discipline.

QUESTION: Which category of curriculum design is organized around the analysis of performance task and
process sequencing rather than content?
a. Academic curriculum design
b. Social curriculum design
c. Personal curriculum design
d. Technical curriculum design

ANSWER: Technical curriculum design

QUESTION: Zero standard deviation means that


a. The students scores are the same
b. 50% of the scores obtained is zero
c. More than 50% of the score obtained is zero
d. Less than 50% of the scores obtained is zero

ANSWER: The students scores are the same

EXPLANATION: Zero standard deviation means that all observations are identical.

QUESTION: What does a skewed score distribution mean?


a. The mode, the mean, and the median are equal
b. The mean and the median are equal
c. The scores are normally distributed
d. The scores are concentrated more at one end or the other end

ANSWER: The scores are concentrated more at one end or the other end

EXPLANATION: A distribution is skewed if one of its tails is longer than the other. A distribution is positively
skewed if the scores fall toward the lower side of the scale and there are very few higher scores. Positively
skewed data is also referred to as skewed to the right because that is the direction of the 'long tail end' of the
chart. A distribution is negatively skewed if the scores fall toward the higher side of the scale and there are
very few low scores.

QUESTION: Which graphic organizers are used to show event in chronological order?
a. Time line and Spider map
b. Time line and series of events
c. Cycle & Venn Diagram
d. Time line and Fishbone diagram

ANSWER: Time line and series of events

EXPLANATION: Timeline is use to outline a sequence of events

Chain/ series of events is use to organize steps in a process, to trace plot development, or to record the stages
of an event.

A Descriptive or Thematic Map works well for mapping generic information, but particularly well for
mapping hierarchical relationships.
Organizing a hierarchical set of information, reflecting superordinate or subordinate elements, is made
easier by constructing a Network Tree.
When the information relating to a main idea or theme does not fit into a hierarchy, a Spider Map can
help with organization.
When information contains cause and effect problems and solutions, a Problem and Solution Map can
be useful for organizing.
A Problem-Solution Outline helps students to compare different solutions to a problem.
A Sequential Episodic Map is useful for mapping cause and effect.
When cause-effect relationships are complex and non-redundant a Fishbone Map may be particularly
useful.
A Comparative and Contrastive Map can help students to compare and contrast two concepts according
to their features.
Continuum Scale is effective for organizing information along a dimension such as less to more, low to
high, and few to many.
A Cycle Map is useful for organizing information that is circular or cyclical, with no absolute beginning
or ending.

QUESTION: Which of the following democratizes access to education?


a. Using ones dialect in school campus
b. Freely choosing ones curricular subjects in school
c. Deciding not to come to school if not interested
d. Attending convocations on ones free will

ANSWER: Freely choosing ones curricular subjects in school


Explanation: Section 9 of Chapter 2 of Batas Pambansa Blg. 232, otherwise known as An Act Providing for
the Establishment and Maintenance of An Integrated System of Education states that student and pupils in all
schools shall enjoy the right to freely chose their field of study subject to existing curricula and to continue
their course therein up to graduation, except in cases of academic deficiency, or violation of disciplinary
regulations.

QUESTION: What primary criterion should guide a teacher in the choice of instructional devices?
a. Novelty
b. Cost
c. Appropriateness
d. Attractiveness
ANSWER: Appropriateness

QUESTION: The Philippine Teacher Professionalization Act of 1994 adapted and promulgated the
a. Code of Professional Teachers
b. Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers
c. Code of Ethics for Public School Teachers
d. Code of Ethics for Private School Teachers

ANSWER: Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers


Explanation: Republic Act No. 7836 - An act to strengthen the regulation and supervision of the practice of
teaching in the philippines and prescribing a licensure examination for teachers and for other purposes.

QUESTION: What is the main purpose of compulsory study of the Constitution?


a. Develop students into responsible, thinking citizen.
b. Acquaint students with the historical development of the Phil. Constitution.
c. Make constitutional experts of the students
d. Prepare students for law-making

ANSWER: Develop students into responsible, thinking citizen.


Explanation: All educational institutions shall include the study of the Constitution as part of the curricula. (2)
They shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect forhuman rights, appreciation
of the role of national heroes in the historical development ofthe country, teach the rights and duties of
citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage
critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational
efficiency. (3) At the option expressed in writing by the parents or guardians, religion shall be allowed to be
taught to their children or wards in public elementary and high schools within the regular class hours by
instructors designated or approved by the religious authorities of the religion to which the children or wards
belong, without additional cost to the Government.

QUESTION: Which does not belong to the group of alternative learning systems?
a. Graded education
b. Multi-age grouping
c. Multigrade grouping
d. Non-graded grouping

ANSWER: Graded education


EXPLANATION: Formal Education system is classroom-based, managed by trained formal school teachers.
ALS Non-formal Education happens outside the classroom, community-based, usually conducted at community
learning centers, barangay multi-purpose hall, libraries or at home, managed by ALS learning facilitators, such
as mobile teachers, district ALS Coordinators, instructional managers at an agreed schedule and venue
between the learners and facilitators.

QUESTION: As a teacher, you are a reconstructionist. Which among these will be your guiding principle?
A. I must teach the child every knowledge, skill, and value that he needs for a better future.
B. I must teach the child to develop his mental powers to the full.
C. I must teach the child so he is assured of heaven.
D. I must teach the child that we can never have real knowledge of anything.

ANSWER: I must teach the child every knowledge, skill, and value that he needs for a better future.
EXPLANATION: Reconstructionism is a philosophical theory holding that societies should continually reform
themselves in order to establish more perfect governments or social networks.
QUESTION: Which is a description of an electronic curriculum?
a. Those lessons learned through searching the Internet for information
b. Those things that students actually take out of classroom; those concepts and content that are truly
learned and remembered
c. Those processes, content, knowledge combined with the experiences and realities of the learner to
create new knowledge
d. None of these

ANSWER: Those lessons learned through searching the Internet for information
EXPLANATION: Electronic curriculum, or E-curriculum, refers to computer-based learning including educational
materials available on CD or DVD, online courses, electronic mechanisms to search the literature, email, and
various applications of instructional technology including providing laptops to students, multimedia projection
systems, and Internet-compatible classrooms.

QUESTION: Which statement about standard deviation is CORRECT?


a. The lower the standard deviation the more spread the scores are.
b. The higher the standard deviation the more spread the scores are.
c. The higher the standard deviation the less spread the scores are.
d. It is a measure of central tendency.

ANSWER: The higher the standard deviation the more spread the scores are.
EXPLANATION: Standard deviation is a measure of the dispersion of a set of data from its mean. It is
calculated as the square root of variance by determining the variation between each data point relative to the
mean. If the data points are further from the mean, there is higher deviation within the data set.

QUESTION: Which teaching activity is founded on Banduras social learning theory?


a. Questioning
b. Inductive reasoning
c. Modeling
d. Interactive teaching

ANSWER: Modeling
EXPLANATION: Banduras Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation,
imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning
theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.

QUESTION: Mrs. Santarin allows her 3 year old daughter to dress herself, fix her own room and sweep the
floor. What would Mrs. Santarins daughter develop?
a. Autonomy
b. Identity
c. Initiative
d. Mastery

ANSWER: Autonomy
EXPLANATION: In Erik Eriksons Psychosocial Stage, the child is developing physically and becoming more
mobile. Between the ages of 18 months and three, children begin to assert their independence, by walking
away from their mother, picking which toy to play with, and making choices about what they like to wear, to
eat, etc.

QUESTION: According to Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development, a child during the sensorimotor period
does not see things in abstract forms. Therefore, in teaching mathematics to young children, the
a. use of pictures may not be necessary.
b. use of concrete objects is not needed.
c. concrete state should precede the abstract style.
d. abstract stage must come before the concrete stage.

ANSWER: concrete state should precede the abstract style.


EXPLANATION: During the sensorimotor stage, an infant's knowledge of the world is limited to his or her
sensory perceptions and motor activities. Behaviors are limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory
stimuli. Children utilize skills and abilities they were born with (such as looking, sucking, grasping, and
listening) to learn more about the environment.

QUESTION: The Department of Education gives greater emphasis on the development of basic skills. What is
the philosophical basis for this?
a. Essentialism
b. Existentialism
c. Perennialism
d. Pragmatism

ANSWER: Essentialism
EXPLANATION: Essentialism is an educational philosophy whose adherents believe that children should learn
the traditional basic subjects thoroughly.

QUESTION: Teachers are encouraged to make use of authentic assessment. Which goes with authentic
assessments?
a. De-contextualized drills
b. Unrealistic performances
c. Answering multiple choices test items
d. Real world application of lessons learned.

ANSWER: Real world application of lessons learned.


EXPLANATION: According to Jon Mueller, authentic assessment is a form of assessment in which students are
asked to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of essential knowledge and skills.

QUESTION: Angela focuses her attention on the school work and vigorous play that consume most of her
physical energy. Which stage of psychosexual theory illustrates her behavior?
a. Oral
b. Anal
c. Phallic
d. Latency

ANSWER: Latency
EXPLANATION: Latency stage (6 years old to puberty) is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits
and social interactions.

QUESTION: Which of the following is likely to be developed if infants are shown genuine affection?
a. Trust
b. Autonomy
c. Initiative
d. Industry
ANSWER: Trust
EXPLANATION: During Trust versus Mistrust stage, the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live.
To resolve these feelings of uncertainty, the infant looks towards their primary caregiver for stability and
consistency of care. If the care the infant receives is consistent, predictable and reliable, they will develop a
sense of trust which will carry with them to other relationships, and they will be able to feel secure even when
threatened.

QUESTION: Christian develops an integral and coherent sense of self. He seeks answers to the question. "Who
am I"? Which of the following is Christian likely to develop?
a. Initiative
b. Identity and Role Confusion
c. Intimacy
d. Autonomy

ANSWER: Identity and Role Confusion


EXPLANATION: The fifth stage is identity vs. role confusion, and it occurs during adolescence, from about 12-
18 years. During this stage, adolescents search for a sense of self and personal identity, through an intense
exploration of personal values, beliefs and goals.

QUESTION: Ms. Reyes uses images and language to represent and understand her various lessons to
preschool learners. What stage in the cognitive theory of development explains this?
a. Sensorimotor
b. Preoperational
c. Concrete operation
d. Formal operation

ANSWER: Preoperational
EXPLANATION: According to Jean Piaget, during the pre-operational stage (age two and lasts up until the age
of seven), the children's play is mainly categorized by symbolic play and manipulating symbols.

QUESTION: To reach out to clientle who cannot be in the classroom for one reason or another, which of the
following was established?
K-12 program
Special education(SPED)
Pre-school education
Alternative learning delivery

ANSWER: Alternative learning delivery


Explanation: Formal Education system is classroom-based, managed by trained formal school teachers. ALS
Non-formal Education happens outside the classroom, community-based, usually conducted at community
learning centers, barangay multi-purpose hall, libraries or at home, managed by ALS learning facilitators, such
as mobile teachers, district ALS Coordinators, instructional managers at an agreed schedule and venue
between the learners and facilitators.

QUESTION: Teacher Cora observes cleanliness and order in her classroom to create a conducive atmosphere
for learning. On which theory is her practice based?
a. Psychoanalysis
b. Gestalt psychology
c. Behaviorism
d. Humanistic psychology

ANSWER: Behaviorism
EXPLANATION: Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable behaviors and
discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as nothing more than the
acquisition of new behavior based on environmental conditions. Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of
personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the
mind: the id, ego, and superego.
Gestalt psychology is an attempt to understand the laws behind the ability to acquire and maintain meaningful
perceptions in an apparently chaotic world. The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a
global whole with self-organizing tendencies.

QUESTION: Connie develops concepts necessary for everyday living, builds healthy attitudes towards oneself,
and achieve personal independence. These are among the attributes of an individual in what particular stage?
a. Infancy and early childhood
b. Middle childhood
c. Adolescence
d. Early adulthood

ANSWER: Middle childhood


EXPLANATION: Middle childhood includes personality, emotional development, motivation, and self-esteem.
School-age children acquire personal competencies through participation in academic, athletic, or artistic
activities; emotional attachments to family members and others; and a deepening sense of who they are and
what they can achieve through serious effort and commitment.

QUESTION: Some children are more active than others, as everyone knows-extremely highlevels of activity or
hyperactivity are considered problematic. How may a teacher help a child who is hyperactive?
a. Make him the leader of the class
b. Transfer him to another class
c. Give him challenging activities that are appropriate to his ability level and interests.
d. Allow him to spend longer at the playground until he gets tired.

ANSWER: Give him challenging activities that are appropriate to his ability level and interests.
EXPLANATION:

QUESTION: In Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development, which of the following statements would illustrate
Edward who is 11 years old?
a. Able to see relationships and to reason in the abstract.
b. Unable to breakdown a whole into separate parts.
c. Differentiates goals and goal-directed activities.
d. Experiments with methods to reach goals.

ANSWER: Able to see relationships and to reason in the abstract.


EXPLANATION: During Formational Stage (adolescence and into adulthood, roughly ages 11 to approximately
15 to 20), people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts.

QUESTION: Trisha goes with her mother in school. She enjoys the workplace of her mother. Which of the
following ecological theories is illustrated by the situation?
a. Microsystem
b. Mesosystem
c. Exosystem
d. Macrosystem

ANSWER: Exosystem
EXPLANATION: Urie Bronfenbrenners Ecological systems theory believed that a person's development was
affected by everything in their surrounding environment.
A microsystem typically includes family, peers, or caregivers. Your reactions to the people in your microsystem
will affect how they treat you in return.
The mesosystem is where a person's individual microsystems do not function independently, but are
interconnected and assert influence upon one another. These interactions have an indirect impact on the
individual.
The exosystem refers to a setting that does not involve the person as an active participant, but still affects
them. This includes decisions that have bearing on the person, but in which they have no participation in the
decision-making process.
The macrosystem encompasses the cultural environment in which the person lives and all other systems that
affect them.

QUESTION: Anna believes that authority is respected. She is now in what particular level in moral
development theory of Lawrence Kholberg?
a. Social contract
b. Law and order orientation
c. Interpersonal concordance
d. Universal ethics orientation

ANSWER: Social contract


EXPLANATION: Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Level 1 - Pre-conventional morality
Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. The child/individual is good in order to avoid being
punished. If a person is punished, they must have done wrong.
Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange. At this stage children recognize that there is not just one right
view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints.
Level 2 - Conventional morality
Stage 3. Good Interpersonal Relationships. The child/individual is good in order to be seen as being a
good person by others. Therefore, answers relate to the approval of others.
Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order. The child/individual becomes aware of the wider rules of society
so judgments concern obeying the rules in order to uphold the law and to avoid guilt.
Level 3 - Post-conventional morality
Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights. The child/individual becomes aware that while
rules/laws might exist for the good of the greatest number, there are times when they will work
against the interest of particular individuals.
Stage 6. Universal Principles. People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines
which may or may not fit the law. The principles apply to everyone.

QUESTION: Teacher A, a Values Education teacher emphasizes ethics in almost all her lessons. Which of the
following emphasizes the same?
a. Liberal Education
b. Moral Education
c. Religious Training
d. Social Education

ANSWER: Moral Education


EXPLANATION: Moral education, then, refers to helping children acquire those virtues or moral habits that will
help them individually live good lives and at the same time become productive, contributing members of their
communities.

QUESTION: Which reform in the Philippine Educational System advocates the use of English and Filipino as
media of instruction in specific learning areas?
a. Alternative Learning
b. Bilingual Education
c. K-12 Program
d. Multilingual Education

ANSWER: Bilingual Education


EXPLANATION: As embodied in the DECS Order No. 25, Pilipino (changed to Filipino in 1987) shall be used as
medium of instruction in social studies/social sciences, music, arts, physical education, home economics,
practical arts and character education. English, on the other hand is allocated to science, mathematics and
technology subjects. The same subject allocation is provided in the 1987 Policy on Bilingual Education which
is disseminated through Department Order No. 52, s. 1987.

QUESTION: Activities planned by school clubs/ organizations show school-community connection geared
towards society's needs. What philosophy is related to this?
a. Existentialism
b. Progressivism
c. Realism
d. Social reconstructionism

ANSWER: Social reconstructionism


EXPLANATION: George Counts social reconstructionism is a philosophy focused on achieving social change

QUESTION: Tessa gets jealous whenever she sees her father showing love and affection to her mother. Which
of the following is she showing according to Freud?
a. Complex
b. Phallic
c. Electra Complex
d. Oedipus Complex

ANSWER: Electra Complex


EXPLANATION: Electra Complex, which happens during Phallic Stage (3 to 6 years old), is a girl's psychosexual
competition with her mother for possession of her father.

QUESTION: What philosophy is related to the practice of schools acting as laboratory for teaching reforms and
experimentation?
a. Essentialism
b. Existentialism
c. Progressivism
d. Social Reconstructionism

ANSWER: Progressivism
EXPLANATION: According to John Dewey, progressivists believe that individuality, progress, and change are
fundamental to one's education. Believing that people learn best from what they consider most relevant to
their lives, progressivists center their curricula on the needs, experiences, interests, and abilities of students.

QUESTION: Which of the following situations presents a value conflict?


a. The teacher and his students have class standing as their priorities.
b. The teacher and the administrator follow a set of criteria in giving grades.
c. The teacher has students whose parents want their children to obtain higher grades than what they are
capable of getting.
d. The teacher sets high expectations for intelligent students such as getting higher grades.
ANSWER: The teacher has students whose parents want their children to obtain higher grades than what they
are capable of getting.

QUESTION: Which situation shows that a sense of nationhood is exemplified?


a. The class conducted a debate using Filipino as medium
b. The class is required to watch the TV sitcom of Oprah to improve their English communication skills.
c. The class opted to make a choral rendition of the theme song of a foreign movie.
d. When Teacher Chris asked her Grade 2 students in what country they wish to live, most of them chose
United States.

ANSWER: The class conducted a debate using Filipino as medium

QUESTION: A teacher who believes in the progressivist theory of education would embrace certain reforms on
methodology. Which reform would be consistent with this theory?
a. Active participation of teachers
b. Formal instructional pattern
c. Strict external discipline
d. Teacher domination of class activities

ANSWER: Active participation of teachers


EXPLANATION: In progressivism philosophy of John Dewey, the learner is a problem solver and thinker who
makes meaning through his or her individual experience in the physical and cultural context. Effective teachers
provide experiences so that students can learn by doing.

QUESTION: What philosophy of education advocates that the curriculum should only include universal and
unchanging truths?
a. Essentialism
b. Idealism
c. Perennialism
d. Pragmatism

ANSWER: Perennialism
EXPLANATION: Based on Robert Maynard Hutchkins philosophy, the focus of perennialism is to teach ideas
that are everlasting, to seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, as the natural and human
worlds at their most essential level, do not change.

QUESTION: Which of the following is not a function of the school?


a. Changing cultural practices
b. Development of attitudes and skills
c. Reproduction of species
d. Socialization among children

ANSWER: Reproduction of species


EXPLANATION: The main functions of school include conservation and promotion of culture; all-around
development of the individual; development of higher values of life; development of social responsibility;
citizenship training; adjustability in society; and, vocational training.

QUESTION: Which move liberalized access to education during Spanish period?


a. The education of illiterate parents
b. The establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each municipality
c. The hiring of tribal tutors to teach children
d. The provision of vocational training for school age children
ANSWER: The establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each municipality
EXPLANATION: Free access to modern public education by all Filipinos was made possible through the
enactment of the Education Decree of December 20, 1863 by Queen Isabella II. Primary instruction was made
free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory.

QUESTION: Which of the following is the chief aim of Spanish education?


a. Conformity and militarism
b. Perpetuation of culture
c. Propagation of the Catholic religion
d. Utilitarianism and conformity

ANSWER: Propagation of the Catholic religion


EXPLANATION: During the entire period of Spanish rule, education was controlled by the Catholic Church. In
the place of tribal tutors, Spanish friars and missionaries educated the natives through religion. Upon their
arrival, their main goals were to govern the islands, obtain a foothold in the spice trade, and to convert
indigenous populations to the Catholic faith.

QUESTION: Which of the following is the aim of our education during the Commonwealth period?
a. Designed after Japanese education
b. Patterned after the American curriculum
c. Predominantly religious
d. Purely nationalistic and democratic

ANSWER: Purely nationalistic and democratic


EXPLANATION: During the Commonwealth regime, an organized effort to develop a common national
language was stared in compliance with the mandate of the 1935 constitution. To help counteract the
American cultural influence among the Filipinos, President Quezon greatly encouraged the revival of native
culture as well as desirable Filipino values. And to help strengthen the moral fibers of the Filipinos and to
foster love of country especially among the youth, President Quezon issued his famous Code of Ethics which
was required to be taught in all schools.

QUESTION: Which of the following is not a reason why the basic education curriculum has been restructured?
a. To become globally competitive during this industrial age
b. To be relevant and responsive to a rapidly changing world
c. To empower the Filipino learners for self- development throughout their life.
d. To help raise the achievement level of students

ANSWER: To help raise the achievement level of students


EXPLANATION: The Revised Basic Education Curriculum (2002) aims to 1. provide knowledge and develop
skills, attitudes, and values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a
developing and changing society; 2. provide learning experiences which increase the child awareness of and
responsiveness to the changes in society; 3. promote and intensify knowledge, identification with and love for
the nation and the people to which s/he belongs; and 4. promote work experiences which develop orientation
to the world of work and prepare the learner to engage in honest and gainful work

QUESTION: Which philosophy of education influence the singing of the National Anthem in schools?
a. Nationalism
b. Naturalism
c. Pragmatism
d. Socialism

ANSWER: Nationalism
QUESTION: Who among the following believes that learning requires disciplined attention, regular homework,
and respect for legitimate authority?
a. Essentialist
b. Progressivist
c. Realist
d. Reconstructionist

ANSWER: Essentialist
EXPLANATION: William Bagleys essentialism philosophy states that the core of the curriculum is essential
knowledge and skills and academic rigor. Essentialists accept the idea that this core curriculum may change.
chooling should be practical, preparing students to become valuable members of society. It should focus on
facts-the objective reality out there--and "the basics," training students to read, write, speak, and compute
clearly and logically. Schools should not try to set or influence policies. Students should be taught hard work,
respect for authority, and discipline.

QUESTION: Which of the following is the main function of the philosophy of education?
a. Reconsider existing educational goals in the light of society's needs
b. Provide the academic background prerequisite to learning
c. Define the goals and set the direction for which education is to strive
d. Aid the learner to build his own personal philosophy

ANSWER: Define the goals and set the direction for which education is to strive
EXPLANATION: Behind every school and every teacher is a set of related beliefs--a philosophy of education--
that influences what and how students are taught. A philosophy of education represents answers to questions
about the purpose of schooling, a teacher's role, and what should be taught and by what methods.

QUESTION: Homeroom advisers always emphasize the importance of cleanliness of the body. Children are
taught how to wash their hands before and after eating. What is this practice called?
a. Folkway
b. Laws
c. Mores
d. Social norm

ANSWER: Social norm


EXPLANATION: Social norms efer to the ways that different cultures expect people to behave.
Mores refer to things that we, as a culture, consider to be deeply held values that we do not want to break.
So, these are much stricter than folkways. Laws are written and enforced rules that guide behavior. They are
more like a system of rules that are enforced by some institution, like the police or the government.
Mores are a society's most important values.Laws are different from mores in that they are guided by an
authority as opposed to a society's moral beliefs.
Folkways are behavior patterns of every day life which generally arise unconsciously in a group. A mode of
thinking, feeling, or acting common to a given group of people. Mans action repeated by him is his habit and
a repeated behavior by a group of people is a custom.

QUESTION: Which curricular move served to strengthen spiritual and ethical values?
a. Integration of creative thinking in all subject
b. Introduction of Values education as a separate subject area
c. Reducing the number of subject areas into skill subject
d. Re-introducing science as a subject in Grade 1

ANSWER: Introduction of Values education as a separate subject area


EXPLANATION: The values education was added as a separate subject in the Philippine education curriculum
under the Values Education Framework program of Dr. Lourdes Quisumbing, the Department of Education,
Culture, and Sports Secretary in 1988-1990. The Values Education Framework was conceptualized in 1987,
right after the 1986 EDSA Revolution and aimed to help in the development of a just and humane society.

QUESTION: The greatest happiness lies in the contemplative use of mind, said Plato. Which of the following
activities adheres to this?
a. Cooperative learning
b. Instrospection
c. Role Playing
d. Social Interaction

ANSWER: Instrospection
EXPLANATION: Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.

QUESTION: Your teacher is of the opinion that the world and everything in it are ever changing and so
teaches you the skill to cope with the changes. Which in his governing philosophy?
a. Experimentalism
b. Existentialism
c. Idealism
d. Realism

ANSWER: Experimentalism
EXPLANATION: Experimentalism believes that things are constantly changing. It is based on the view that
reality is what works right now and that goodness comes from group decisions. As a result, schools exist to
discover and expand the society we live in. Students study social experiences and solve problems.

QUESTION: Teacher Myra says: "If it is billiard that brings students out of the classroom, let us bring it into
the classroom. Perhaps, I can use it to teach Math". To which philosophy does teacher Myra adheres to?
a. Essentialism
b. Idealism
c. Progressivism
d. Reconstructionism

ANSWER: Progressivism
EXPLANATION: According to John Dewey, progressivists believe that individuality, progress, and change are
fundamental to one's education. Believing that people learn best from what they consider most relevant to
their lives, progressivists center their curricula on the needs, experiences, interests, and abilities of students.

QUESTION: Which of the following should be done to build a sense of pride among Filipino youth?
a. Replace the study of folklores and myths with technical subjects
b. Re-study our history and stress on our achievements as people
c. Re-study our history from the perspective of our colonizers
d. Set aside the study of local history

ANSWER: Re-study our history and stress on our achievements as people

QUESTION: A teacher who subscribes to the pragmatic philosophy of education believes that experience study
should follow learning in her teaching. Which of the following does she do to support her belief?
a. Encouraging learners to memorize factual knowledge
b. Equipping learners with the basic abilities and skills
c. Providing learners opportunities to apply theories and principles
d. Requiring learners full master of the lesson.
ANSWER: Providing learners opportunities to apply theories and principles
EXPLANATION: John Deweys pragmatism s an educational philosophy that says that education should be
about life and growth. That is, teachers should be teaching students things that are practical for life and
encourage them to grow into better people.

QUESTION: Which philosophy influenced the cultivation of reflective and meditative skills in teaching?
a. Confucianism
b. Existentialism
c. Taoism
d. Zen Buddhism

ANSWER: Zen Buddhism


EXPLANATION: The chief objective of Zen learning is to know oneself: "For the truth is not in what you hear
from others or learn through the understanding. Now keep yourself away from what you have seen, heard,
and thought, and see what you have within yourself."
Confucius' view of education is based on the conviction that "man is born with uprightness. "Even immoral
persons have an upright essence. So, Confucius said, "By nature men are alike." He honored and respected all
human beings, and for him all men were able to learn about the good and to do good. Therefore, "In
education there should be no class distinction."
Taoism believes that a persons action should be influenced by instinct and conscience,

QUESTION: Which of the following situation manifests a balance between teachers responsibility and
accountability?
a. She entertains her students with personal stories until the end of the period.
b. She spends most of the time on the latest gossips in showbiz.
c. She teaches as much as she could for duration of the period.
d. She teaches as well as entertains the students with per personal stories.

ANSWER: She teaches as much as she could for duration of the period.

QUESTION: Dr. Escoto, the school physician conducted a physical examination in Ms. Manuel's class. What
concept best describes the quantitative increase observed by Dr. Escoto among learners in terms of height and
weight?
a. Development
b. Growth
c. Learning
d. Maturation

ANSWER: Development
EXPLANATION: Development happens at all stages of a person's life. There are many aspects of
development: physical, social and intellectual. The three components of development include growth,
maturation, and learning.
Growth is the physical process of development, particularly the process of becoming physically larger. It is
quantifiable.
Maturation is physical, intellectual, or emotional. Often, maturation involves two or even all three. Additionally,
it is not quantifiable, and it too is mostly influenced by genetics.
Learning is changing in response to environmental stimuli.

QUESTION: Which situation best illustrates the concept of growth?


a. A kinder pupil gains 2 pounds within two months.
b. A high school student gets a score of 85 in mental ability test.
c. An education student has gained knowledge on approaches and strategies in teaching different subjects
d. An elementary grader has learned to play piano.
ANSWER: A kinder pupil gains 2 pounds within two months.
EXPLANATION: Growth is the physical process of development, particularly the process of becoming physically
larger. It is quantifiable.

QUESTION: Teacher Jesus in now 69 years old has been observing changes in himself such as the aging
process. Which term refers to the development change in the individual?
a. Development
b. Growth
c. Learning
d. Maturation

ANSWER: Maturation
EXPLANATION: Maturation is physical, intellectual, or emotional. Often, maturation involves two or even all
three. Additionally, it is not quantifiable, and it too is mostly influenced by genetics.

QUESTION: Manuel, a five-year old boy can hold his pen and write his name with his right hand. Which term
describes Manuel's action/ behavior?
a. Development
b. Growth
c. Learning
d. Maturation

ANSWER: Development
EXPLANATION: Development happens at all stages of a person's life. There are many aspects of development:
physical, social and intellectual. The three components of development include growth, maturation, and
learning.

QUESTION: Which of the following theory can help Miss Samson determine the readiness of her learners by
administering a readiness test?
a. Conditioning Theories
b. Cognitive Development Theory
c. Maturation Theory
d. Ethological Theory

ANSWER: Maturation Theory


EXPLANATION: Arnold Gessels Maturation Theory states that t all children go through the same stages of
development in the same sequence, although each child may move through these stages at their own rate.
Skinner and Pavlov introduced Classical and Operant Condition Theories which based on the idea that
behaviors that are reinforced will tend to continue, while behaviors that are punished will eventually end.
In Cognitive Development Theory, Jean Piaget explains how a child constructs a mental model of the world.
He disagreed with the idea that intelligence was a fixed trait, and regarded cognitive development as a
process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment.
Ethological theories are in large part about how behavior adapts to better ensure survival and is passed down
to the next generations.

QUESTION: Mr. Francisco was very much worried about the thumb sucking of his son. A friend of him says
that certain behavior among infants. Who presented that notion that certain behavior like thumb-sucking is
normal behavior?
A. Sigmund Freud
b. Erick Ericson
c. John Bowlly
d. Urie Bronfrenbenner

ANSWER: Sigmund Freud


EXPLANATION: Sigmeund Freud has proposed that a child goes through various distinct phases of
psychological development. In oral phase, it is believed that the mouth is erogenous zone. During this phase
child takes anything and everything to the oral cavity. It is believed that any kind of deprivation of this activity
will cause an emotionally insecure individual

QUESTION: A newborn infant moves his whole body at one time, instead of moving a part of it. Which of the
following principles is illustrated by his behavior?
a. Development proceeds from specific to general.
b. Development proceeds from general to specific.
c. Development follows an orderly pattern.
d. Development follows a general pattern.

ANSWER: Development proceeds from general to specific.

QUESTION: Train up a child in the way he should be; when he grows up, he will not depart from it. Which
principle supports this?
a. Development is determined by his heredity
b. Development is determined by the environment
c. Early development is more critical than the late development
d. Early development is less critical than late development.

ANSWER: Development is determined by the environment


EXPLANATION: Lev Vygotsky claimed that adult or peer intervention was a much more important part of the
developmental process. Vygotsky concentrated more on the childs immediate social and cultural environment
and his or her interactions with adults and peers. He argued that development occurred first through childrens
immediate social interactions, and then moved to the individual level as they began to internalise their
learning. Vygotsky saw the child as more of an apprentice, learning through a social environment of others
who had more experience and were sensitive to the childs needs and abilities.

QUESTION: Which of the following statements has a very limited definition of educational technology?
a. It is a profession composed of various job categories.
b. It refers to the computers used for teaching and learning.
c. It includes audiovisual materials, interactive multimedia and self-instructional materials.
d. It is the development, application and evaluation of system, techniques and aids to improve human learning

Answer: It refers to the computers used for teaching and learning.

QUESTION: Which of the following statements is correct about the domains of educational technology?
a. Design is the production stage while development is the planning stage.
b. Both the design and development are the planning stage.
c. Evaluation is synonymous with implementation.
d. Utilization is the action phase.

Answer: Utilization is the action phase.


EXPLANATION: The 5 domains of educational technology includes design, development, utilization,
management and evaluation.
Design - Establishing a framework to guide in planning the educational technolog
Development - Using the design or framework; materials are produced and developed
Utilization - Implementing and using the learning materials to enhance knowledge and skills of
learners. It is also known as the action phase.
Management - applied in the implementation of all the different domains and its effects on the
outcomes of learning
Evaluation - Monitoring, assessing and giving judgement on the extent of usefulness of learning
materials in achieving the expected outcomes.

QUESTION: Ms. Gomez is planning to integrate technology in her Mathematics class. What would be the
logical steps in doing this?
I. Set the objectives
II. Analyze the learners
III. Utilize the materials with showmanship
IV. Evaluate the performance of the students

Answer: Analyze the learners. Set the objectives. Utilize the materials with showmanship. Evaluate the
performance of the students.

QUESTION: Which of the following is a limitation of models and real objects in teaching and learning?
a. They pose problems on storage
b. They make learning more concrete.
c. They provide hands-on learning experiences.
d. They are readily available in the environment, around school and in the home.
Answer: They pose problems on storage

QUESTION: Which group of technologies has the highest degree of concreteness?


a. Realia and computer
b. Video, picture and television
c. Digital video, film, versatile compact disc
d. Book, imaginative literature, programmed instruction
Answer: Realia and computer
EXPLANATION: Realia are objects from real life used in classroom instruction by educators to improve
students' understanding of other cultures and real life situations. Computers, on the other hand, can be used
for visual illustrations.

QUESTION: What level has a four year old learner like Maryann reached when she acquired new skills such as
putting the same shapes and the same colors together?
a. Development
b. Maturation
c. Zone of Proximal Development
d. Learning

ANSWER: Zone of Proximal Development


EXPLANATION: Vygotsky's often-quoted definition of zone of proximal development presents it as "the
distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level
of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with
more capable peers."

QUESTION: Teacher A discovered that his pupils are very good in dramatizing. Which tool must have helped
him discover his pupils strength?

A. Portfolio assessment
B. Performance test
C. Journal entry
D. Paper-and-pencil test

ANSWER: Performance test


EXPLANATION: Performance assessment measures students skills based on authentic tasks such as activities,
exercises, or problems that require students to show what they can do.

QUESTION: Direct instruction is for facts, rules, and actions as indirect instruction is for __________,
__________, __________.

A. hypotheses, verified data and conclusions


B. concepts, patterns and abstractions
C. concepts, processes and generalizations
D. guesses, data and conclusions

ANSWER: concepts, processes and generalizations


EXPLANATION: Indirect instruction is a teaching approach that uses inquiry and encourages higher order
thinking skills in an environment that encourage problem-solving and or project based learning. Indirect
instruction is based on the philosophy of constructivism, which states that people derive meaning from their
own experiences.

QUESTION: Direct instruction is for facts, rules, and actions as indirect instruction is for __________,
__________, __________.

A. hypotheses, verified data and conclusions


B. concepts, patterns and abstractions
C. concepts, processes and generalizations
D. guesses, data and conclusions

ANSWER: concepts, processes and generalizations


EXPLANATION: Indirect instruction is a teaching approach that uses inquiry and encourages higher order
thinking skills in an environment that encourage problem-solving and or project based learning. Indirect
instruction is based on the philosophy of constructivism, which states that people derive meaning from their
own experiences.

QUESTION: Teacher Y does norm-referenced interpretation of scores. Which of the following does she do?
A. She describes group performance in relation to a level of mastery set.
B. She uses a specified content as its frame of reference.
C. She compares every individual students' scores with others' scores.
D. She describes what should be their performance.

ANSWER: She compares every individual students' scores with others' scores.
EXPLANATION: Norm-referenced tests report whether test takers performed better or worse than a
hypothetical average student, which is determined by comparing scores against the performance results of a
statistically selected group of test takers, typically of the same age or grade level, who have already taken the
exam.

QUESTION: The concepts of trust vs. maturity, autonomy vs. self-doubt, and initiative vs. guilt are most
closely related with the works of __________.

A. Erikson
B. Piaget
C. Freud
D. Jung

ANSWER: Erikson
EXPLANATION: Erik Eriksons stages of psychosocial development is a comprehensive psychoanalytic theory
that identifies a series of eight stages: Basic trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus self-doubt, initiative
versus guilt, industry versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation; generativity
versus stagnation, and ego integrity versus despair .
Jean Piaget introduced our stages of cognitive development: the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
operational and formal operational period.

Sigmeund Freud described children as going through multiple stages of sexual development, which he labeled
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital

Carl Jung states that there are 4 stages of life, namely The Athlete, The Warrior, The Statement and The
Spirit.

QUESTION: For maximum interaction, a teacher ought to avoid __________ questions.


A. informational
B. rhetorical
C. leading
D. divergent

ANSWER: leading
EXPLANATION: The major types of questions fall into four categories:
Managerial: questions which keep the classroom operations moving;
Rhetorical: questions used to emphasize a point or to reinforce an idea or statement;
Closed: questions used to check retention or to focus thinking on a particular point; and
Open: questions used to promote discussion or student interaction.

Questioning strategies
a. Probing questions - Series of questions which require students to go beyond the first response.
Subsequent teacher questions are formed on the basis of the student's response. (Clarifying, increasing critical
awareness, refocusing, prompting and redirecting to another student)
b. Factual questions - Questions which require the student to recall specific information s(he) has
previously learned. Often these use who, what, when, where, etc. (Simple bits of information and facts
organized into a logical order)
c. Divergent questions - Questions with no right or wrong answers, but which encourage exploration of
possibilities. Requires both concrete and abstract thinking to arrive at an appropriate response
d. Higher order questions - Questions which require students to figure out answers rather than remember
them. Requires generalizations related to facts in meaningful patterns. (Evaluation, inference, comparison,
application, and problem solving)
e. Affective questions - Questions which elicit expressions of attitude, values, or feelings of the student.
f. Structuring questions - Questions related to the setting in which learning is occurring.

QUESTION: What concept can best describes Francisco's ability to walk without a support at age of 12 months
because of the "internal ripening" that occured in his muscles, bones and nervous system development?
a. Development
b. Growth
c. Learning
d. Maturation

ANSWER: Maturation
EXPLANATION: Maturation is physical, intellectual, or emotional. Often, maturation involves two or even all
three. Additionally, it is not quantifiable, and it too is mostly influenced by genetics.

QUESTION: Teacher H gave her first-grade class a page with a story in which pictures take the place of some
words. Which method did she use?

A. The whole language approach


B. The Spaulding method
C. The rebus method
D. The language experience approach

ANSWER: The rebus method


EXPLANATION: The rebus offers a way to enable children to help read a story before they can decipher print.
In this type of story, a picture of, say, an apple, a cat, or a bird some simple object that the child can
identify and name is substituted for the word, so the child can read that part of the story.

The Spalding philosophy is child centered, that is the physical and mental well-being of students is a primary
concern of Spalding teachers. High expectations for all children are central to the philosophy. These principles
of learning and instruction are applied throughout the spelling, writing, and reading curricula.

The whole language approach to reading instruction focuses on children making important connections
between reading and real life. Instead of phonics instruction, the WLA teaches children to memorize words.
Teachers rely heavily on a sight word vocabulary, an increasingly complex list of words that children
memorize, both in and out of context.

The Language Experience Approach (LEA) is a method for teaching literacy based on a child's existing
experience of language.

QUESTION: Each teacher is said to be a trustee of the cultural and educational heritage of the nation and is,
under obligation to transmit to learners such heritage. Which practice makes him fulfill such obligation?
A. Use the latest instructional technology.
B. Observe continuing professional education.
C. Use interactive teaching strategies.
D. Study the life of Filipino heroes.

ANSWER: Study the life of Filipino heroes.

QUESTION: Which guideline in test construction is NOT observed in this test item: Jose Rizal wrote
__________.
A. The central problem should be packed in the stem.
B. There must be only one correct answer.
C. Alternatives must have grammatical parallelism.
D. The alternates must be plausible.

ANSWER: Study the life of Filipino heroes.


EXPLANATION:

QUESTION: Teacher Gs lesson objective has something to do with the skill of synthesizing? Which behavioral
term is most appropriate?
A. Test
B. Assess
C. Appraise
D. Theorize

ANSWER: Theorize
EXPLANATION: Key words for the synthesis category: blend, categorize, compile, compose, create,
design, develop, form, fuse, imagine, integrate, modify, originate, organize, plan, predict, propose, rearrange,
reconstruct, reorganize, solve, summarize, test, theorize, unite.

QUESTION: Helping in the development of graduates who are maka-Diyos is an influence of


A. naturalistic morality
B. classical Christian morality
C. situational morality
D. dialectical morality

ANSWER: classical Christian morality

QUESTION: Which statements below best describes development?


a. A high school student's height increased by 5'2" to 5'4"
b. A high school student's change in weight from 110 lbs. to 125 lbs.
c. A student had learned to operate the computer
d. A student's enlargement of hips

ANSWER: A student had learned to operate the computer


EXPLANATION: Development happens at all stages of a person's life. There are many aspects of development:
physical, social and intellectual. The three components of development include growth, maturation, and
learning.

QUESTION: To elicit more students response, Teacher G made use of covert responses. Which one did she
NOT do?
A. She had the students write their response privately.
B. She showed the correct answers on the overhead after the students have written their responses.
C. She had the students write their responses privately then called each of them.
D. She refrained from judging on the student's responses.

ANSWER: She showed the correct answers on the overhead after the students have written their responses.
EXPLANATION: A covert response is one which cannot be seen by other people. Covert responding is variously
referred to as cognitive processing, thinking, reflecting, working it out in the head, and so on. Covert
responding includes such activities as silent reading, thinking about the material which is being read,
constructing an answer to a problem in ones mind, self-rehearsal of selected facts, and so on. An overt
response is one which can be seen or heard by others. Some writers refer to these as public responses.
QUESTION: All men are pretty much alike. It is only by custom that they are set apart, said one Oriental
philosopher. Where can this thought be most inspiring?
A. In a multi-cultural group of learners
B. In multi-cultural and heterogeneous groups of learners and indigenous peoples' group
C. In a class composed of indigenous peoples
D. In heterogeneous class of learners

ANSWER: In multi-cultural and heterogeneous groups of learners and indigenous peoples' group

QUESTION: A guest speaker in one graduation rites told his audience: Reminder, you are what you choose to
be. The guest speaker is more of a/an __________.
A. realistic
B. pragmatist
C. idealist
D. existentialist

ANSWER: existentialist
EXPLANATION: Existentialism is a philosophy that emphasizes individual existence, freedom and choice. It is
the view that humans define their own meaning in life, and try to make rational decisions despite existing in
an irrational universe.

QUESTION: Which holds true to standardized tests?

A. They are used for comparative purposes


B. They are administered differently
C. They are scored according to different standards
D. They are used for assigning grades

ANSWER: They are scored according to different standards


EXPLANATION: A standardized test is any form of test that (1) requires all test takers to answer the same
questions, or a selection of questions from common bank of questions, in the same way, and that (2) is scored
in a standard or consistent manner, which makes it possible to compare the relative performance of
individual students or groups of students. While different types of tests and assessments may be
standardized in this way, the term is primarily associated with large-scale tests administered to large
populations of students, such as a multiple-choice test given to all the eighth-grade public-school students in a
particular state, for example.

QUESTION: A teacher/student is held responsible for his actions because s/he __________.

A. has instincts
B. is mature
C. has a choice
D. has reason

ANSWER: has a choice

QUESTION: In the Preamble of the Code of Ethics of Professional Teachers, which is NOT said of teachers?

A. LET passers
B. Duly licensed professionals
C. Possess dignity and reputation
D. With high-moral values as well as technical and professional competence

ANSWER: LET passers


EXPLANATION: Teachers are duly licensed professionals who possesse dignity and reputation with high moral
values as well as technical and professional competence in the practice of their noble profession, and they
strictly adhere to, observe, and practice this set of ethical and moral principles, standards, and values.

QUESTION: I drew learners into several content areas and encouraged them to solve a complex question for
inter-disciplinary teaching. Which strategy did I use?

A. Problem-centered learning
B. Unit method
C. Reading-writing activity
D. Thematic instruction

ANSWER: Problem-centered learning


EXPLANATION: Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a
subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem found in trigger material.
Thematic instruction is the development of instructional units based on a central theme

QUESTION: With which goals of educational institutions as provided for by the Constitution is the development
of work skills aligned?

A. To develop moral character


B. To teach the duties of citizenship
C. To inculcate love of country
D. To develop vocational efficiency

ANSWER: To develop vocational efficiency


EXPLANATION: Section 4 of Chapter 2 of Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 states that all educational institutions shall
aim to inculcate love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, and develop moral character, personal
discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency

QUESTION: Teacher A knows of the illegal activities of a neighbor but keeps quiet in order not to be involved
in any investigation. Which foundational principle of morality does Teacher A fail to apply?

A. The end does not justify the means.


B. The principle of double-effect
C. Always do what is right.
D. Between two evils, do the lesser evil.

ANSWER: Always do what is right.

QUESTION: I combined several subject areas in order to focus on a single concept for inter-disciplinary
teaching. Which strategy/method did I use?
A. Problem-entered learning
B. Thematic instruction
C. Reading-writing activity
D. Unit method

ANSWER: Unit method


EXPLANATION: Unit method combined several subject areas in order to focus on a single concept for inter-
disciplinary teaching.

QUESTION: Which method has been proven to be effective in courses that stress acquisition of knowledge?

A. Socratic method
B. Cooperative learning
C. Mastery learning
D. Indirect instruction

ANSWER: Mastery learning


EXPLANATION: Mastery learning is a method of instruction where the focus is on the role of feedback in
learning. It refers to a category of instructional methods which establishes a level of performance that all
students must master before moving on to the next unit.

Socratic method, also known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form
of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to
stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions.

Cooperative learning is a successful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different
levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject.

Indirect Instruction is a teaching approach that is. STUDENT-CENTERED. Indirect Instruction is based on the
higher levels of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains which include. ANALYZING, EVALUATING, AND
CREATING

QUESTION: In the context of grading, what is referred to as teachers generosity error?


a. Rewarding students who perform well.
b. Being overgenerous with praise
c. Giving high grades as compared to the rest
d. Giving way to students' bargain for more quiz.

ANSWER: Giving high grades as compared to the rest


Explanation: Generosity error is when a teacher grades too leniently

QUESTION: Which state of the psycho-sexual theory does young boys experience rivalry with their father for
their mother's attention and affection?
a. Oral
b. Anal
c. Phallic
d. Latency

ANSWER: Phallic
EXPLANATION: In the phallic stage (3 to 6 years old), begin to discover the differences between males and
females. A boy's decisive psychosexual experience is the Oedipus complex, his sonfather competition for
possession of mother. However, the child also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a
fear Freud termed castration anxiety.