AbstractThe conventional reactive power in singlephase or three quantities as the instantaneous space vectors. For simplicity,
phase circuits has been defined on the basis of the average value concept the threephase voltages and currents excluding zerophase se
for sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms in steady states. The instan quence components will be considered in the following.
taneous reactive power in threephase circuits is defined on the basis of the In abc coordinates, the a, b, and c axes are fixed on the
instantaneous value concept for arbitrary voltage and current waveforms,
including transient states. A new instantaneous reactive power compensa same plane, apart from each other by 27r/3, as shown in Fig. 1.
tor comprising switching devices is proposed which requires practically no The instantaneous space vectors, ea and ia are set on the a
energy storage components. axis, and their amplitude and (,) direction vary with the
passage of time. In the same way, eb and ib are on the b axis,
INTRODUCTION and ec and ic are on the c axis. These space vectors are easily
TARIOUS TYPES of reactive power compensators has been transformed into a3 coordinates as follows:
V researched and developed to provide power factor correc
tion [1] [5] . Notably, the static reactive power compensator L[ed1] [1 1/2 1/2 ia
tive power in transient states and the harmonic currents has (2)
not yet been discussed in detail.
J712 L'ciJ
In this paper, the instantaneous imaginary power, which is a
new electrical quantity, is introduced in threephase circuits. where the a and , axes are the orthogonal coordinates. Neces
Then, the instantaneous reactive power is defined as a unique sarily, e, and iot are on the a axis, and ep and ig are on the,B
value for arbitrary threephase voltage and current waveforms axis. Their amplitude and (,) direction vary with the passage
including all distorted waveforms, by using the abovementioned of time.
instantaneous imaginary power. According to the theory de Fig. 2 shows the instantaneous space vectors on the aj3 co
veloped in this paper, a new instantaneous reactive power com ordinates. The conventional instantaneous power on the three
pensator is proposed, comprising switching devices without en phase circuit can be defined as follows;
ergy storage components. This compensator can eliminate not
only the fundamental reactive power in transient states but p = eo  i + ep ff3 (3)
also some harmonic currents. For example, the harmonic cur
rents having the frequencies of f 6f0 in a threephaseto where p is equal to the conventional equation:
threephase naturally commutated cycloconverter can be
eliminated, where f is the input frequency and f is the output p = eaia + ebib + ecic
frequency. The validity of the compensator is confirmed by
experiments. In order to define the instantaneous reactive power, the
authors introduce the instantaneous imaginary power space
INSTANTANEOUS REACTIVE POWER THEORY vector defimed by
Definition of Instantaneous Imaginary Power
q =e., X i+eg X io. (4)
To deal with instantaneous voltages and currents in three
phase circuits mathematically, it is adequate to express their As shown in Fig. 2, this space vector is the imaginary axis vec
Paper IPCSD 8346, approved by the Static Power Converter Committee of tor and is perpendicular to the real plane on the a( coor
the IEEE Industry Applications Society for presentation at the 1983 Industry dinates, to be in compliance with the righthand rule. Taking
Applications Society Annual Meeting, Mexico City, Mexico, October 37. into consideration that eoe is parallel to i,, and e to i,, and
Manuscript released for publication September 9, 1983.
The authors are with the Faculty of Engineering, Technological University that eO, is perpendicular to ig and eg3 to io, the conventional in
of Nagaoka, Nagaoka 94954, Niigata, Japan. stantaneous power, p and the instantaneous imaginary power q,
O e _AS
[aq~
[api +
(7)
Li Lp qq
where
Fig. 1. afl coordinates transformation. aaxis instantaneous active current: ip e2 + e2 P
ep 2
aaxis instantaneous
13axis active current: ~~~~~~P2 + 2P
1q= e2
ea +.ep
P
ea
1axis instantaneous reactive current: 
1oq e2 + e132 q.
Both the physical meaning and reason for the naming of the
P [WI instantaneous active and reactive currents are clarified in the
RELPLANE following.
Let the instantaneous powers in the a. axis and the 13 axis be
Fig. 2. Instantaneous space vectors. Pa! and p,p respectively. They are given by the conventional de
finition as follows:
which is the amplitude of q, are expressed by
[Pa] Oala ] eaia]l +[eaIq (8)
LI Fea e,] a 5 lP ep i, Ler p ep i#qI
q ep ea 1p The instantaneous real power in the threephase circuit p is
given as follows, using (7) and (8):
In (5) eaqai and eg i; obviously mean instantaneous power
because they are defined by the product of the instantaneous e2 e2
voltage in one axis and the instantaneous current in the same P Pap eP2 +e2 + ep2
axis. Therefore, p is the real power in the threephase circuit,
e. +ea2+2peP
and its dimension is [W]. Conversely, ea ti and ep 'a are not e,ep eaep q
e 2+ epg2 e2 eg2
(9)
instantaneous power because they are defined by the product
of the instantaneous voltage in one axis and the instantaneous Note
that the sum of the third and fourth terms of the right
current not in the same axis but in the perpendicular axis.
side in (9) is always zero. From (8) and (9) the following
Accordingly, q cannot be dealt with as a conventional electrical hand are obtained:
quantity. So a new dimension must be introduced for q, be equations
cause the dimension is not [W], [VA], or [var]. Hereinafter, pe(ap + eig1p pap + Ppp = (10)
the authors have named the conventional instantaneous power
p as "instantaneous real power" to distinguish the conventional 0=e,iaq + egpipq paeq + Ppq (11)
instantaneous power from the instantaneous imaginary power.
where
Definition and Physical Meaning of Instantaneous ea2
Reactive Power aaxis instantaneous active power: Pap 2 p2 P
e2ep
Note that the determinant with respect to ea and eg in (6) is
not zero.
The instantaneous currents on the coordinates, ia and ig
a13
13axis instantaneous reactive power: p ea2 + 2 q.
are divided into two kinds of instantaneous current compo
AKAGI etal.: REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATORS 627
static power converter system such as a threephasetothree Fig. 4. Basic compensation scheme.
phase cycloconverter. As shown in this figure, the instantaneous
reactive powers, Paq and ppq on the input side, are the in
stantaneous powers circulating between the source and the cause Pc is always zero. From (6), the instantaneous com
static power converter, Paqf' and ptqt are the instantaneous pensating currents on the a3S coordinates, ica and i are
powers circulating between the static power converter and the given by
the output side q': The basic principle of the compensator will now be con
sidered, concerning the ax axis instantaneous current on the
q 0q'. load side. The instantaneous active and reactive currents are
Assuming that there are neither energy storage components divided into the following two kinds of instantaneous currents,
nor losses in the static power converter, the following relation respectively:
ship exists: e.
2 _ e,x _ e 
P P e. 2+ep Pe. + ep2 ePe2+ep
Furthermore, it is evident that both the instantaneous real
power and the instantaneous imaginary power in a balanced +  q (15)
e2+ ep/
a~
sinusoidal threephase circuit become constant. Necessarily,
the instantaneous real power coincides with three times the where p and are the dc and ac components of the instantane

conventional active power per one phase. In addition, the in ous real power and qj and q are the dc and ac components of
stantaneous imaginary power is numerically equal to three the instantaneous imaginary power. The first term of the right
times the conventional reactive power per one phase. How hand side of (15) is the instantaneous value of the conventional
ever, the instantaneous imaginary power is quite different in fundamental reactive current. The third term is the instantane
definition and physical meaning from the conventional reac ous value of the conventional fundamental reactive current.
tive power based on the average value concept. The instan The second term is the instantaneous value of the harmonic
taneous reactive power theory, including zerophase sequence currents which represents the ac component of the instan
components, is discussed in the Appendix. taneous real power. The fourth term is the instantaneous
value of the harmonic currents which represents the ac com
CONTROL STRATEGY ponent of the instantaneous imaginary power. Accordingly,
Fig. 4 shows a basic compensation scheme of the instan the sum of the second and fourth terms is the instantaneous
taneous reactive power. Where Ps and qs are the instantane value of the conventional harmonic currents. Note that the
ous real and imaginary powers on the source side, Pc and qc second and fourth terms include a conventional negative se
are those on the compensator side, p and q are those on the quency component.
load side. Equation (15) leads to the following essential conclusions.
The instantaneous reactive power compensator proposed in 1) The instantaneous reactive power compensator elimin
this paper eliminates the instantaneous reactive powers on the ates both the third and fourth terms. For this reason, the
source side, which are caused by the instantaneous imaginary displacement factor is unity not only in steady states but also
power on the load side. The compensator consists of only in transient states.
switching devices without energy storage components, be 2) The harmonic currents represented by the fourth term
628 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. IA20, NO. 3, MAY/JUNE 1984
63A
17A
5OHz/DIV 5OHz/DIV
Fig. 11. Spectrum of is and i4.
Inverse transformation of (19) gives in the threephase circuit which is represented by the sum of
po and p, because the sum of the instantaneous reactive powers
io 0 0  Po e0 0 is always zero; that is,
E = 0 ec, e3 O + 0 ea e
ip ep ea, 
O 0 ea e Paq + Pbq + Pcq = 0. (23)
O eo O~ 1 01 REFERENCES
.P + O ea [I] K. Tsuboi, F. Harashima, and H. Inaba, "Reduction of reactive power
ep O and balancing of supply currents for threephase converter systems, " in
IEEE/IAS ISPCC, 1977, p. 365.
[2] H. Achenbach, W. Hanke, and W. Hochstetter, "Controllable static
0~~~~~~~ power compensators in electric supply system," in Proc. IFAC, 1977,
_O_ Op1+
_
3q l p. 917.
[3] L. Gyugyi and E. C. Strycula, "Active ac power filters," in Proc.
IEEE/lASAnnu. Meeting, 1976, p. 529.
[4] P. M. Espelage and B. K. Bose, "Highfrequency link power
conversion," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA13, p. 387, 1977.
From (20), the instantaneous currents on the abc coordinates [5] 1. Takahashi and A. Nabae, "Universal power distortion compensator
are divided in the following three components, respectively: of line commutated thyristor converter," in Proc. IEEE/IA S Annu.
Meeting, 1980, p. 858.
ial [I/V 1 0 [iol [6] L. Gyugyi and F. Cibulika, "The high frequency base converterA
new approach to static high power conversion," in Proc. IEEE/IA
S
lb L 1/ 1/2 /3j2 ISPCC, 1977, p. 137.
[7] L. Gyugyi, "Reactive power generation and control by thyristor cir
ic INf1/ 1/2 4/32 0_ cuits," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. IA15, no. 5, 1978.
[8] Y. Harumoto, Y. Hasegawa, T. Yano, M. Ikeda, and K. Matsuura,
1 0 "New static var control using forcecommutated inverters," presented
at the IEEE/PES Winter Meeting, 1981.
+vf 1/,2 1,/2 J3/2 i ap [9] H. Akagi, Y. Kanazawa, and A. Nabae, "Generalized theory of the
instantaneous reactive power in threephase circuits," in Proc. JIEE
L1/V 1, 1/2 V'3/2J Li"J IPECTokyo, 1983, p. 1375.
Iyf0 0
+4
N  I/V 1/2 43/12 iaq I Hirofumi Akagi was born in Okayama Prefecture,
.1N/ 1/2 \ 3 2 1 i,sq] Japan, on August 19, 1951. He received the B.S.
degree in electrical engineering from Nagoya Insti
tute of Technology, Nagoya, Japan, in 1974 and the
M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering
[iao] [iap]1 Liaq]
from Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan,
_ 1 0 ~in 1976 and 1979, respectively.
Al
=
ibO0 + Iibp + icq (21) Since 1979, he has been an Assistant Professor at
L4cOJ L'cp J [icqJ the Technological University of Nagaoka, Japan. He
is engaged in research on ac drive systems and
instantaneous
reactive power compensator systems.
instantaneous instantaneous Dr. Akagi is a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan.
curopaen
zerophase sequen
sequence
current active current reactive current
Yoshihia Kanazawa was born in Niigata Prefec
ture, Japan, on August 14, 1938. He received the
where B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Niigata
University, Niigata, Japan, in 1964.
1aO = ibO = icO =
iO/VI3 He was with Niitsu Techinical High School from
Let the a, b, and cphase instantaneous powers be Pa, Pb, 1964 to 1980. Since 1980, he has been an Assistant
Professor at the Technological University of Na
and pc, respectively. By applying (21), the following is ob gaoka, Japan. He is engaged in research on power
tained: electronics.
Mr. Kanazawa is a member of the Institute of
Pa [eaiaO Jeaiap][ealaq] Electrical Engineers of Japan.
Pb = ebb0 + ebibP  + ebibq
Akim Nabae (M'79) was born in Ehime Prefecture,
PPCJ eCibJ Japan, on September 13, 1924. He received the B.S.
Lec ecicp ec i9J degree from Tokyo University, Tokyo, Japan, in
rPap 1 Paq
1947, and the Dr. Eng. degree from Waseda Univer
FPaol sity, Japan.
= Pbo + IPbpI + IPbq  (22) He joined Toshiba Corporation in 1951. From
1951 to 1970, he was engaged in the research and
LP oJ LPCP J PcqJg development of rectifier and inverter technology at
_g_
t Tsurumi Works Engineering Department. From
ins~tantaneous instantaneous 1970 to 1978, he was involved in the research and
development of power electronics, especialy ac
instantaneous