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The aim of the experiment is to determine the Langmuir adsorption Isotherm for the
adsorption of acetic acid. Langmuir Isotherm could be used to determine the surface area of
the activated carbon for adsorption for acetic acid. An acetic acid-charcoal isotherm was
prepared by allowing acetic acid solutions of various concentration to equilibrate or setting
for half an hour with a given mass. The amount of Acetic acid that has adsorbed to a give
mass of the charcoal could be determine with the chemical reaction shown as below:

HAc ( aq ) + NaOH ( aq ) NaAc ( aq ) + H 2 O

While the sodium hydroxide is added to the acetic acid drop by drop, the adsorption of acetic
acid is keep going on until it reached the end point. The end point is a titration indicated once
the equivalence point has been reached. It is indicated by phenolphthalein indicator and hence
the colour will depends on what type of indication that we being use. Therefore, based on the
result obtained, 0.3732 L the most volume will be needed to titrate an absolute 1M of acetic
acid while 0.0922 L is required to titrate a 0.2 M acetic acid. This indicates that our titration
volume increases when the acidic of solution increases.

At the end, a final result could be make as 1.268 mol/g of acetic acid was adsorbed by
per gram of activated charcoal for the 1 M acetic acid solution whereas 0.077 mol/g of acetic
acid was adsorbed by per gram of activated charcoal for the 0.2 M acetic acid solution. A

1 1
graph of against was plotted at the end to prove the Langmuir isotherm.
q Co

Based on the graph, we can get a linear for the graph as the greater the , the

greater the . A slope of y=274.08x was obtained at the end. By applying the Langmuir
isotherm which shown as below:

1 1
= (
q K A qm )( C1 )+ q1
0 m

A K constant could be obtained based on this equation and the K value is 0.4981 mol/L in this
experiment. This value is as known as adsorption isotherm. K is defined as an affinity
parameter related to the bonding energy to the surface. It describing the adsorption or
desorption equilibrium for each reactant in contact with surface. Since a straight line was
obtained and this proved that Langmuir isotherm is applicable for this experiment.

There is certain error occurred during the experiment. Parallax error affects the reading
obtained while taking the measurement, especially measured by using the burette which come
with high sensitivity. Eye level was recommended to be perpendicular to the scale of eye
level in order to minimize the error. Other than that, contamination should be prevented when
preparing the titration solution which is NaOH during the experiment as it might influence
our result as well. Human error might be considered and this will lead the concentration of
solution will be different as expected.

Limitation and Precaution

1. The instrument must make sure to be clean before using it as contamination of

solution could influence the result very badly.
2. Observe angle should be exactly right angle to the scale to prevent any parallax error.
3. Solution was prepared by different students and this could lead the concentration of
the solution not the exact as what expected for this experiment.

4. The change of colour of the solution during titration is hard to observe and may cause
inconsistency of the readings (different intensity of pink colour in different titration).
5. Gloves must be worn to prevent any injury when handling sodium hydroxide and
acetic acid.

6. The charcoal may be not distributed equally over the five sample solution due to
different magnetic stirrer was used. This may causes uneven mixing of the solution
throughout the samples.