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IEEE
SMART GRID
RESEARCH

IEEE SMART GRID VISION FOR VEHICULAR


TECHNOLOGY: 2030 AND BEYOND

IEEE 3 Park Avenue New York, NY 10016-5997 USA

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IEEE Smart Grid Vision for


Vehicular Technology:
2030 and Beyond

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Trademarks and Disclaimers


IEEE believes the information in this publication is accurate as of its publication date; such
information is subject to change without notice. IEEE is not responsible for any inadvertent errors.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.


3 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5997, USA

Copyright 2014 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.


All rights reserved. Published January 2014. Printed in the United States of America.

IEEE is a registered trademark in the U. S. Patent & Trademark Office, owned by The Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Incorporated.
PDF: ISBN 978-0-7381-8835-5 STDV98486
Print: ISBN 978-0-7381-8836-2 STDPDV98486

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To order IEEE Press Publications, call 1-800-678-IEEE.


Find IEEE standards and standards-related product listings at:
http://standards.ieee.org/

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IEEE Smart Grid Research has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, and
reviewed by credible members of IEEE Technical Societies, Standards Committees,
and/or Working Groups, and/or relevant technical organizations. Neither IEEE nor its
authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein,
and neither IEEE nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or
damages arising out of the use of this information.
Likewise, while the author and publisher believe that the information and guidance given
in this work serve as an enhancement to users, all parties must rely upon their own skill
and judgment when making use of it. Neither the author nor the publisher assumes any
liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work,
whether such error or omission is the result of negligence or any other cause. Any and all
such liability is disclaimed.
This work is published with the understanding that IEEE and its authors are supplying
information through this publication, not attempting to render engineering or other
professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate
professional should be sought. IEEE is not responsible for the statements and opinions
advanced in the publication.

Review Policy
The information contained in IEEE Smart Grid Research publications is reviewed and
evaluated by peer reviewers of relevant IEEE Technical Societies, Standards Committees
and/or Working Groups, and/or relevant technical organizations. IEEE acknowledges
with appreciation their dedication and contribution of time and effort on behalf of IEEE.

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Trademarks
Bluetooth is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG, Inc. (www.bluetooth.org/).
DeviceNet is a trademark of ODVA (www.odva.org/).
Fieldbus is a registered trademark of the Fieldbus Foundation (www.fieldbus.org/).
HART and WirelessHART are registered trademarks of the HART Communication Foundation
(http://www.hartcomm.org/).
IEEE and 802 are registered trademarks of The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers,
Incorporated (www.ieee.org/).
IEEE standards designations are trademarks of The Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers, Incorporated (www.ieee.org/).
IrDA is a registered trademark of the Infrared Data Association (www.irda.org/).
PROFIBUS is a registered trademark of PROFIBUS Nutzerorganisation e. V
(www.profibus.com/).
ZigBee Alliance is a trademark of the ZigBee Alliance (www.zigbee.org/).
All other trademarks belong to their respective owners.

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Dedication

To our families and friends

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Acknowledgments
IEEE wishes to thank the following people for their outstanding contributions to the IEEE Smart Grid
Vision for Vehicular Technology project:
Liuqing Yang
Joachim Taiber
Russell Lefevre
Hiroaki Nishi
Philip Krein
Koichi Inoue
Iqbal Husain
Over the past year, these project leaders worked tirelessly outside of their own academic and professional
endeavors to conceptualize and develop the framework of the vision and to oversee the writing and
execution of this final document. As contributing editors to the document, they were instrumental in
providing oversight, clarity, and overall direction to the men and women who authored this Smart Grid
vehicle technology vision.

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Authors

Xiang Cheng
Xiaoya Hu
Iqbal Husain
Koichi Inoue
Philip Krein
Russell Lefevre
Yaoyu Li
Hiroaki Nishi
Joachim Taiber
Feiyue Wang
Liuqing Yang
Murat Yilmaz

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary ............................................................................................... xii

Chapter 1
Social, Economic, and Political Implications ..............................................................1
1.1 Vehicle electrification and Smart Grid................................................................................... 1
1.2 Vision for sustainable electrified transportation pathway...................................................... 3
1.3 Societal implications ............................................................................................................. 6
1.4 Evolution from Smart Grid to Smart City and its service ...................................................... 7
1.5 Citations ................................................................................................................................ 8

Chapter 2
Intelligent Vehicles and Grid Interaction ...................................................................10
2.1 Intelligent vehicles and grid interaction .............................................................................. 10
2.2 Intelligent charging grid enhancements .............................................................................. 12
2.3 Future expectations ............................................................................................................ 13
2.4 Citations .............................................................................................................................. 14

Chapter 3
Infrastructure ...............................................................................................................18
3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 18
3.2 Impact of transportation electrification and renewable energy ........................................... 19
3.3 Impact of information and communication systems on transportation infrastructure ......... 19
3.4 How to finance the transportation infrastructure of the future ............................................ 20
3.5 The role of smart charging .................................................................................................. 21
3.6 Machine-to-machine system architectures as drivers of intelligent transportation
infrastructure ....................................................................................................................... 21
3.7 Citations .............................................................................................................................. 22

Chapter 4
Travelers ......................................................................................................................24
4.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 24
4.2 The traditional role of the traveler ....................................................................................... 24
4.3 The new freedom of the future traveler .............................................................................. 25
4.4 Public versus private traveler information .......................................................................... 26

Chapter 5
Communications .........................................................................................................27
5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 27
5.2 Unique ITS-Smart Grid functions........................................................................................ 28
5.2.1 Electronic and automatic transactions (EAT) ...................................................... 28
5.2.2 Optimum routing and charging (ORC) ................................................................ 28
5.2.3 Automatic parking and electricity leveling (APEL) .............................................. 28

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5.2.4 Automatic driving coordination (ADC) ................................................................. 29


5.2.5 Connected travelers ............................................................................................ 29
5.3 ITS-Smart Grid communication infrastructure .................................................................... 29
5.3.1 Highly heterogeneous architecture ..................................................................... 30
5.3.2 Hierarchically distributed quality-of-service (QoS)-oriented routing protocols .... 31
5.3.3 High-mobility high-fidelity .................................................................................... 31
5.3.4 Extensive information sharing ............................................................................. 32
5.4 Citations .............................................................................................................................. 34

Chapter 6
Systems, Operations, and Scenarios .........................................................................35
6.1 Vision: Application scenario enabled by future SOS solutions ........................................... 35
6.2 Paradigm shifts ................................................................................................................... 37
6.2.1 Shift to EV-integrated building energy management system .............................. 37
6.2.2 Shift from complex visualization to simple visualization and operation .............. 38
6.2.3 Shift from independent systems to integrated ITS and Smart Grid .................... 38
6.2.4 Shift from cloud-oriented service to a hierarchically distributed cloud service.... 39
6.2.5 Shift from message-passing communication to contents-centric communication
............................................................................................................................. 40
6.2.6 Shift from Smart Grid to Smart Community ........................................................ 40
6.3 The future model of systems, operations, and services ..................................................... 41
6.4 Challenges and issues ....................................................................................................... 43
6.5 Roadmap ............................................................................................................................ 43
6.6 Recommendations .............................................................................................................. 43
6.7 Citations .............................................................................................................................. 43

Chapter 7
Conclusions .................................................................................................................44

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Executive Summary
Vehicle electrification is envisioned to be a significant component of the forthcoming Smart Grid. In
this document, a Smart Grid vision of electric vehicle technology for the next 30 years and beyond is
presented from six different perspectives: 1) social, economic, and political implications,
2) intelligent vehicles and grid interaction, 3) infrastructure, 4) travelers, 5) communications, and
6) systems, operations, and scenarios.
From the social, economic, and political perspective (Chapter 1), a sustainable electrified
transportation pathway that incorporates renewable energy generation is envisioned, which will
provide energy production from renewable sources and bulk, distributed storage capabilities. In the
grid infrastructure, bulk energy storage technology and secondary use of batteries will be essential.
The combined capacity of numerous charging stations will also parallel the capacity of utility-scale
energy storage. Available, suitable charging station infrastructure and standardize interfaces will be
critical societal aspects of electrified transportation. The envisioned electrified transportation system
will also be an integral part of the future Smart City as a business platform with an open architecture
for third-party applications.
From the intelligent vehicles and grid interaction perspective (Chapter 2), the implication of
intelligent vehicle charging is introduced. Such units offer both assurance for users and flexibility for
the utility. The interactive energy storage to enable more advanced vehicle-to-grid systems, including
unidirectional or bidirectional battery chargers, needs to be established. Compared with the
unidirectional alternative, the bidirectional model will provide more flexibility in the long run. Mobile
inductive charging might overcome the basic range-limitation of plug-in electric vehicles.
From the infrastructure perspective (Chapter 3), the future smart infrastructure and how the world is
split in the future mature transportation market are described. The challenge is to ensure fully
synchronized energy flow, transportation flow, and communication flow for existing infrastructure
modernization and unification. Battery technology and its economics will be critical in the evolution
of transportation electrification. Renewable energy sources will also play a significant role in low-
density and remote locations with plentiful solar or wind energy. Future information exchange will
require high-bandwidth, high-performance, and highly versatile cloud service platforms. Automated
parking and automated or assisted driving will also help optimize charging infrastructures utilization.
From the perspective of the traveler (Chapter 4), this document describes how the travelers role will
evolve rapidly from the traditional picture. In the future, the traveler as a mobile node will be able to
optimize its movement in a multidimensional grid, including energy, travel time, environmental
impact, and data connectivity optimization. However, seamless system connectivity might lead to
privacy issues.
From the communication perspective Chapter 5 discusses unique Smart Grid/intelligent transportation
system (ITS) functions and the communication and networking infrastructure supporting the Smart
Grid/ITS integration with unique functions. To support a broad array of new and extended Smart
Grid/ITS functions, the envisioned communication and networking infrastructure is highly
heterogeneous, with hierarchically distributed quality of service-oriented routing; high-mobility, high-
fidelity connections; and extensive information sharing. It is also envisioned that high-mobility, high-
fidelity communication technologies will be jointly developed and will benefit from nontraditional
technologies such as wireless charging.

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From the systems, operations, and scenarios perspective (Chapter 6), a scenario of future electric
vehicles, cities, and infrastructure is described, and a series of paradigm shifts are discussed. A future
integrated model of systems, operations, and services is also presented. In this model, the main
challenge is expected to be the commerce match and privacy control.
Following the chapters focusing on these distinct perspectives, conclusive remarks will overview the
interconnections among all chapters. Discussions of key technologies dictating the real future of the
evolution of vehicle electrification will also be included.
We hope that the joint efforts of the authors will serve the purpose of stimulating the readers keen
interest, as well as inspiring the readers imagination in vehicle electrification and electrified vehicles
as part of the Smart Grid.

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Acronyms and Abbreviations


ADC automatic driving coordination
APEL automatic parking and electricity leveling
API application programming interface
BEMS building energy management system
CEMS community energy management system
DES distributed energy storage
DBMS database management system
DSRC dedicated short-range communication
EAT electronic and automatic transaction
EMS energy management system
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
ERP enterprise resource planning
ETC electronic toll collection
EV electric vehicle
FTTH fiber to the home
G2V grid-to-vehicle
GHGRP greenhouse gas reporting program
GPRS general packet radio service
HEMS home energy management system
ICE internal combustion engine
ICT information and communication technology
IoT Internet of things
ITS intelligent transportation system
M2M machine-to-machine
NEZB net-zero energy building
OEM original equipment manufacturer
OLT optical line terminal
ORC optimum routing and charging
PDA personal digital assistant
PEV plug-in electric vehicle
PON passive optical network

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Acronyms and Abbreviations

PRT personal rapid transit


PV photovoltaic
QoS quality-of-service
RPEV roadway powered electric vehicle
UMTS universal mobile telecommunications system
UWB ultra-wideband
V2I vehicle-to-infrastructure
V2G vehicle-to-grid
V2V vehicle-to-vehicle
VMT vehicle miles travelled
WTP willingness to pay
XML extensible markup language

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Chapter 1 Social, Economic, and Political


Implications

Iqbal Husain, North Carolina State University


Hiroaki Nishi, Keio University
Koichi Inoue, National Institute of Informatics

1.1 Vehicle electrification and Smart Grid


Electric power generation through conventional power plants and the dependence on fossil fuel as
the sole source of energy for passenger and commercial vehicles has global economic, political,
and environmental implications. Todays electric power systems are based on centralized
generation transmitting bulk power with no intelligence appended to it, which leads to inefficient
management of load, generation, and storage while exposing the system to greater security risks.
Electric vehicles are tied at the distribution edge of the electrical grid system, which plays the
dual role of demanding increased power from the grid system and simultaneously offering the
potential for distributed energy storage. Electric vehicle sales are steadily increasing worldwide
and the revolution in electrified transportation is opening doors for innovations and business
opportunities that stimulate economic growth. The reported data in the power system and
transportation sectors suggests that the drivers for both the smart electrical system and the
electrified vehicles are environmental issues, energy security, and economic potentials.
In the US and elsewhere, the majority of power generation is derived from the burning of fossil
fuels. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) greenhouse gas reporting
program (GHGRP) data, power plants accounted for about 40% of US carbon pollution and 67%
of direct emissions in 2012 [10]. Power plants accounted for 2.09 billion metric tons CO2e, which
represents 67% of emissions reported to the GHGRP and 31% of total U.S. greenhouse gas
emissions.
In the transportation sector, internal combustion engine vehicles are a major source of urban
pollution, responsible for the greenhouse effect that causes environmental concerns [10, 11].
Transportation accounts for one-third of all energy use, and carbon emissionsprimarily from
personal vehiclesis one of the biggest challenges for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases
[11]. According to the EPA [11], transportation is the largest end-use source of greenhouse gases
(including direct emissions and emissions from electricity use) and accounts for 45% of the net

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increase in total US greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2010. Electric vehicles have no direct
carbon emissions, and have the potential to curb the pollution problem in an efficient way. Plug-
in electric vehicles (PEVs) do suffer from the low upstream energy conversion efficiency from
raw source of energy to electricity, but the overall energy efficiency from raw fuels to output at
the wheels for these vehicles can be improved through the increased penetration of renewable
energy sources for electricity production [4, 6]. In the most desirable scenario, if electricity can be
produced from renewable energy sources such as wind or solar, then power plant pollution
problems can be practically eliminated. A smart electrical power system implemented through
Smart Grid concepts and vehicle electrification must be implemented simultaneously to achieve
the full carbon problem solving potential.
Vehicle manufacturers are offering more and more PEV models, and the number of sales for
these vehicles shows steady growth. Most automakers now offer a broad range of hybrid and
electric vehicle drive solutions in all of their car segments. The largest growth is, however, in
electric two-wheeled vehicles, including e-bikes, e-scooters, and e-motorcycles. There are multi-
millions of electric two-wheelers on the road today. The market drivers for the economic growth
in the electrified transportation sector are technological advances in electric propulsion, advanced
telematics in electric vehicles, innovation opportunities, and job creation. The widespread interest
in owning an electric vehicle will come from cost reductions through innovation, and the features
enabled by the information and communication technologies (ICT). Currently, ICT in a vehicle is
embedded in the sensors and electronics, and automakers are continuously adding ICT-enabled
features to maintain a competitive edge in the marketplace. In the future, the notable contributions
of ICT in a vehicle will be to improve driving performance and comfort, to enhance both passive
and active safety, and to interact with businesses during travel. Once again, vehicle electrification
and Smart Grid have to go hand-in-hand in the electrified transportation of 2030.
Gasoline prices are continuously on the rise, and the extensive use of fossil fuels rapidly
diminishes the finite world oil reserves. Moving away from fossil fuels requires a vision for
sustainable transportation, which means moving towards more renewable energy sources, which
are inherently distributed energy sources. Renewables have their variability in supply, but can
benefit significantly from energy storage to ensure steady and predictable supply of energy.
Energy storage can come from a utility scale installation or from battery packs in electric
vehicles. When electric vehicles are in circulation in large numbers, their collective distributed
energy stored in their battery packs will meet this need to a great extent and simultaneously help
avert security risks. Electrified transportation, with the use of renewable and distributed energy
sources, is thus increasingly seen as a key element to address energy security concerns. For
reliable, efficient, and cost-competitive power delivery to customers of all kinds from a combined
portfolio of centralized and distributed sources, an intelligent grid that can communicate with the
electric vehicles is essential.
Electrified transportation enhanced with intelligent information and communication technologies,
powered by high energy density, long cycle life battery technologies, driven by high-efficiency
electric motors and controllers, and recharged from alternative and clean energy sources can
provide the means for an efficient and environmentally friendly urban transportation system.
Smart Gridenabled vehicle transformation must facilitate large penetration of electric vehicles
without damage to the local grid infrastructure, use renewable distributed energy resources as
much as possible, benefit customers by automated price-based charging of vehicle batteries,
ensure safety and reliability of the traveler, and support a broad array of ITS features and
functions. Our Smart Grid vision for vehicle transportation in 2030 is built around a commitment

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to the environment through a sustainable energy pathway inclusive of renewable and distributed
energy sources; an infrastructure to prepare the grid with the challenges of electrified
transportation; a set of technologies for safety, security, and comfort for the traveler; and a
potential for innovation in vehicle and communication technologies for cost competitiveness and
market growth.

1.2 Vision for sustainable electrified transportation


pathway
The vision for 2030 includes a sustainable electrified transportation pathway that incorporates
renewable energy generation. The transportation pathway originates from offshore or land-based
utility scale energy sources such as wind, wave/tidal, and solar and ends with electric vehicle
(EV) charging stations. Adoption and proliferation of electrified transportation is contingent upon
availability of charging stations. Meeting energy sustainability and security depends significantly
on the energy storage capacity of charging stations. At a level of electric vehicle deployment,
dependence of charging infrastructure on fossil fuels is not only unsustainable, but also has the
drawback of offsetting reductions in emissions gained through electrified transportation. The
envisioned sustainable transportation infrastructure in 2030 will have suitable technologies that
provide for electrical energy production from renewable sources, as well as both bulk and
distributed storage capabilities [12]. The sustainable pathway thus envisioned is shown in Figure
1.1. This integrated system will serve as a pathway for EV infrastructure development and
deployment, energy transmission to distributed locations, and fast dispersion of the energy to
zero-emission vehicles on demand, using effective information exchange and intelligent decision-
making processes. In parallel, the goal has to be achieved through an environmentally sustainable
and economically viable approach.

Communication and controls infrastructure Pricing and convenince

Co-ordination of
Renewable Vehicle Use
Usage in a region

Charging
Solar, Wind/ Transport to Transmission Station
Electricity
Wave Collector & (Distributed
Generation
Energy Point Distribution Storage)

Off-shore or land-based Fast charging technology


energy conversion devices
Bulk
Storage

Energy Storage and Management

Figure 1.1 Sustainable transportation pathway with offshore energy extraction

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The enhancement of various types of bulk energy storage is required to overcome the challenges
of variability in renewables. Renewable energy generation plants are not typically located close to
population centers. The availability of bulk energy storage mechanisms is essential for successful
integration of renewable energy sources. The bulk storage technology, which can be offshore or
land-based, can be either high-energy density batteries, or compressed hydrogen or compressed
air. Also expected to be prevalent in 2030 is the concept of secondary batteries, which are
batteries that have run their life in EVs but still have significant life for use in stationary storage
facilities. As plug-in vehicles continue to gain market share, concerns about battery recycling or
disposal have become increasingly important. Because batteries are designed to last the life of the
vehicle, there could be substantial residual battery life at the end of the vehicles life. The battery
performance requirements in a vehicle are significantly more severe than in stationary
applications. Therefore, the opportunity exists for secondary use of these batteries to support the
power grid so that their useful life is extended and costly recycling is deferred. This secondary
battery usage will enable greater electric service reliability, better power quality, and higher
penetration levels of renewable generation such as wind, solar, and ocean waves.
The distributed storage in the charging stations will interface with customers and facilitate power
exchange between vehicles and stations. In comparison to utility-scale energy storage, charging
station storage has the advantage of being closer to the point of use, thus improving efficiency
and alleviating local distribution bottlenecks. The combined capacity of numerous charging
stations, when controlled in concert as a fleet, parallels the capacity of utility-scale energy
storage.
Conventional EVs that can only be charged while stationary have limited function, which raises
infrastructure demands (e.g., requiring more charging stations), and increases battery size and
cost. If an EV is designed for a longer range, vehicle efficiency is reduced due to added weight of
the energy storage unit. Currently, two methods have been proposed to extend vehicle range:
vehicle hybridization with internal combustion engines (ICE) and battery swapping.
Hybridization increases the vehicle weight, cost, and complexity in addition to introducing the
use of hydrocarbons. Battery swapping introduces logistical problems, questions of battery
ownership and standardization, cost of the additional batteries (which is the most expensive
component in the vehicle), and significant swapping infrastructure costs.
Vehicles enabled with power exchange between the vehicle and the grid would draw power from
the grid as they move, as well as while stationary. These vehicles are called roadway powered
electric vehicles (RPEV) and their benefits are substantialsimpler and lighter vehicle designs,
all-electric propulsion, and a much smaller battery investment. For roadway vehicles, it is not
possible to transmit power using contact systems because roadway vehicles do not move along a
predetermined path. Thus, a dynamic wireless charging infrastructure is required. A noncontact or
wireless power transfer for both stationary and roadway vehicle charging will bring a change in
social behavior in the not-so-distant future.

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Other Lanes

Charging Lane

Wireless
Charging Coil
communication Wireless
Charging Coil
Wireless communication
communication
Communication
On Site DES
Communication Charging EMS
On Site
DES
Charging
EMS

DES = Distributed Energy Storage


EMS = Energy Management System
Wireless
communication

Wireless
To
communication
Transmission
System

Renewable Energy Source


To
(Wave, Wind, PV, etc.)
Transmission
System

Renewable Energy Source


Bulk Storage
(Wave, Wind, PV, etc.)

Bulk Storage

Figure 1.2 Sustainable electrified transportation pathway with communications and


control

The sustainable transportation pathway with communication and control features is shown in
Figure 1.2. The charging infrastructure envisioned will allow both stationary and roadway vehicle
charging through wireless chargers, which would cater to the societal needs of convenient
charging during off-peak and at charging stations at reduced rates, and fast charging on the
roadway available at a premium. The communications and controls in the sustainable
transportation pathway will include physical/electrical constraints and state variables. The
physical and cyber aspects of the electrified transportation pathway will need to be jointly
formulated, logically integrated, and jointly optimized and controlled. The queuing and inventory
models for vehicle distribution (routing) policies, control algorithms, and scheduling techniques
have already started to emerge and will become mature by 2030 [1, 2]. The emphasis on
communications aspects in this cyber-physical system will be on vehicle to station, dispatcher,
controller, or a combination without hand-offs; communication between distributed charging
stations to execute the distributed energy management system (EMS) algorithm; and
communication between the charging system and the generation facilities. The cyber-physical
framework must incorporate congestion signaling (due to low generation or high demand) with
pricing or priority signaling both between infrastructure and generation site, and within the EMS.

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The cyber-physical resource allocation involving pricing and incentive signals will have a joint
energy and communication bandwidth optimization function in the future [5]. Vehicles will
receive navigation signals based on the conditions of the grid, and incentives will be designed to
ease grid congestion. Drivers will have the option of accepting or declining the rewards based on
their personal preferences.

1.3 Societal implications


The societal adoption of the sustainable transportation pathway put forth has to come from both
environmental and economic incentives. The sustainability provision has a lot more to do with the
environmental issues and the concerns for future generations. From a societal perspective, most
individuals are less committed to paying the additional costs in an electrified vehicle
transportation system that helps reduce environmental pollution, but are more likely to adopt new
measures through collective efforts. Society will make a difference through political changes that
will facilitate government regulations that push everyone towards adopting environmentally
friendly measures. Incentives to individuals can also come through regulations.
Migration from the current modes of transportation will be easier where regulatory changes are
complemented with economic incentives and technological advancement. The difference in the
modes of personal transportation in 2030 is likely to come through the infrastructures added to
facilitate the electrified transportation system and the features added in vehicles for the safety and
comfort of individual travelers. The smart infrastructures will have to be built to synchronize the
energy flow, transportation flow, and communication flow. While the image of driving home in a
vehicle charging lane seems highly futuristic, the engineering solutions are emerging, and positive
signs of social acceptance are visible for such a system in 2030. Research, education, and
outreach must continue at an accelerated pace for the vision to become a reality. Early adoption
might be incremental due to the initial cost of renewable energy and wireless fast charging.
However, costs will fall with broader penetration of renewables, innovations in the renewable
energy and transportation sector, and societal acceptance.
The charging station infrastructure and interface with the consumer is a critical societal aspect of
electrified transportation. The density of stations and the price of charging at these stations
(whether stationary or roadway-based) will dictate the social acceptance of electrified
transportation in the future. A dense network of fast-charging stations acts to increase the range of
EVs by allowing charging at any time of day or at locations other than ones home. The critical
societal factor will be the household willingness to pay (WTP) for convenient charging, which
includes increased density of stations, fast charging and roadway charging, and amount of
renewable content. The WTP will vary widely among different societies in different cities around
the world. The average driving distance to work will dictate the charging infrastructure in a
particular city. While roadway charging stations will be more prevalent in cities with longer daily
commutes, home overnight charging will be sufficient in smaller cities. Roadway charging
stations are essential in the highway systems for an acceptable electrified transportation pathway.
While the number of personal vehicles around the world will grow significantly in 2030 [9] and
current modes of transportation will still be prevalent, autonomous vehicles and personal rapid
transits (PRTs) will enter the marketplace in places where the transportation flow is feasible and
there is societal demand. A PRT is a semipublic mode of personal transportation featuring small
automated vehicles operating on a network of specially built guide ways allowing for nonstop,
point-to-point travel bypassing all intermediate stations. PRT is an evolving concept that will

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provide a level of service superior to the mass public transport system with a user responsive,
environmentally friendly transport system that has the potentials of economic sustainability [7].

1.4 Evolution from Smart Grid to Smart City and its


service
The electrified transportation system will be an integral part of the Smart City in the future [8].
Although a clear definition of Smart City has not yet been established, Caragliu et al. state that
the Smart City is a concept for improving the quality of life of its citizens by using human
resources infrastructure, social capital, and traditional infrastructures, in addition to investments
in ICT infrastructure [3]. The Smart Grid, which is an essential technology for electrified
transportation, is also based on ICT. In the sophistication processes of the various infrastructures,
the fusion of information technologies is essential. The definition of the Smart City can be
narrowed down to the synergy of sophisticated water supply and sewerage, gas, electric power,
building structures, medical, and other infrastructures based on ICT.
In a variety of infrastructures for daily living, smarter processes are being established. The
improvement of traffic safety and traffic congestion by ITS have been achieved. In the future,
efficient use of distributed electric power generation, including EV quick-charger infrastructure
associated with the spread of EVs, will be established through the analysis and optimization of
these devices for grid stability and power demand control by the charging and discharging of the
EV batteries. This technology is known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G). Electric vehicle personal
mobility is expected to provide assistance for a senior-friendly society that addresses the
problems associated with aging.
As shown in Figure 1.3, the smart next-generation infrastructure is a business platform with an
open architecture for third-party applications. That is, the business ecosystem is no longer closed
to limited playersrather, various service providers can participate. Unlike periods of high
economic growth, consumers demands in the 21st century will be more diversified, and even
infrastructure services such as water supply and sewerage, gas, and electric power will not be
stand-alone entities, but rather be integrated into a larger and open business ecosystem with
various service providers that might satisfy those demands. With the standardized Smart Grid
technologies and ICT, the infrastructure works as a platform: EVs work as terminals, and various
third-party applications work as service providers that take advantage of data obtained in the
infrastructure. Besides well-rounded creativities, different business models for each third-party
are required to satisfy various and trivial demands in the mature society.
The most important and necessary technological innovation in ICT is developing the platform and
protocols to transform existing infrastructure services into an open service platform. The
challenge is to develop a common application programmable interface (API) to access data
obtained by those infrastructure services. The technologies in the spotlight are the Internet of
Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine or Machine-to-Management (M2M). In addition, there are
the concrete movements for the platform and protocols, because these technologies make it
possible to connect every device to each other and to express the real objects in the real world.
The Smart Grid is on the crest of a tide that will help realize a new society that provides
unprecedented services by integrating separate infrastructures, services, and systems, and by
changing the generated data into contents. This movement has the power to change citizens
lifestyles and enhance the future transformation and flexibility of companies and organizations.

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Figure 1.3 New open service platform for integrating next-generation infrastructures

1.5 Citations
[1] Bae, S., Kwasinski, A. 2012. Spatial and Temporal Model of Electric Vehicle Charging
Demand. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 3, no. 4: 18671876.
[2] Ban, D., Michailidis, G., Devetsikiotis, M. 2012. Demand Response Control for PHEV
Charging Stations by Dynamic Price Adjustments. 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart
Grid Technologies, January 1620, 2012, Washington DC.
[3] Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., Nijkamp, P. 2009. Smart cities in Europe. Serie Research
Memoranda 0048, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business
Administration and Econometrics. [Online]. Available:
http://ideas.repec.org/p/dgr/vuarem/2009-48.html.
[4] Husain, I. 2010. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles: Design Fundamentals. 2nd Edition. Boca
Raton: CRC Press.
[5] Kallitsis, M., Michailidis, G., Devetsikiotis, M. 2012. Optimal Power Allocation under
Communication Network Externalities. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 3, no. 1: 162
173.
[6] Kreith, F., West, R. E., Isler, B. E. 2002. Efficiency of Advanced Ground Transportation
Technologies. Journal of Energy Resources Technology 124, no. 3: 173179.
[7] Moving Ahead with PRT. European Commission Research & Innovation. [Online].
Available: http://ec.europa.eu/research/environment/newsanddoc/article_2650_en.htm.

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[8] Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency.


2012. EV City Casebook. [Online]. Available:
http://www.iea.org/evi/evcitycasebook.pdf.
[9] Sperling, D., Gordon, D. 2009. Two Billion Cars: Driving Toward Sustainability. 1st
Edition. Oxford University Press, 2009.
[10] United States Environmental Protection Agency. Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program
2012: Reported Data. [Online]. Available
http://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting/ghgdata/reported/index.html.
[11] United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2012. U.S. Transportation Sector
Greenhouse Gas Emissions 19902010. EPA-420-F-12-063.
[12] Von Jouanne, A., Husain, I., Wallace, A., Yokochi, A. 2005. Innovative Hydrogen/Fuel
Cell Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Based on Renewable Energy Sources. IEEE Industry
Applications Magazine 11, no. 4: 1219.

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Chapter 2 Intelligent Vehicles and Grid


Interaction

Philip Krein, University of Illinois at Urbana


Murat Yilmaz, Istanbul Technical University

2.1 Intelligent vehicles and grid interaction


Charging stations and their consumer interfaces are critical aspects of transportation
electrification. The most direct impacts of electric vehicles on the electric power grid come
through a charger. The most direct impacts on users and consumers, beyond transportation, come
through the energy management and economic aspects of the charging interface. An intelligent
vehicle charging unit must be much more than an energy delivery device, and the potential for
added value is a vital consideration. From the user perspective, a suitable charger offers assurance
about when a battery pack is fully charged and ready, and includes diagnostics to monitor the
vehicle and battery. It can manage the timing of a charge in a manner that reduces energy cost,
optimizes battery life, and maintains safe conditions. Most likely, it is also a communication
device that tracks expenditures and interfaces to an Internet cloud. From a utility perspective, it
offers flexibility. Because a car is parked most of the time, the timing of a charge can be adjusted
to provide benefits. To a limited extent, it can serve as an energy storage resource for the grid, or
interact more directly with time-varying renewable resources such as wind and solar power. In
order to provide the benefits envisioned for grid flexibility, intelligent charging devices for
electric vehicles are essential, whether or not electric vehicles experience widespread success.
A key issue for plug-in vehicles 1 is management of their utility interaction. It is well-established
that uncontrolled on-demand battery charging makes vehicles appear as uncontrolled loads on the
grid, and tends to overload distribution devices. Several studies suggest substantial life reduction
in grid transformers, and reduced customer reliability, when charging is not subject to control
[20, 22]. However, there is good reason to expect that consumers will be motivated to take

1
Electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles that support intelligent grid interaction are usually called plug-in
vehicles. The intelligent interaction between a plug-in vehicle and the power grid falls into the broad
category of vehicle-to-grid or grid-to-vehicle (V2G or G2V) concepts.

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advantage of controlled charging. In many systems, for example, the ratio of peak daytime
electricity prices to late nighttime prices is 4:1, 6:1, or even more. Because even during the day,
real-time prices tend to be highest during only one or two hours, even limited flexibility has
noticeable economic benefits.
Consumers are likely to make use of low off-peak and controllable electricity prices, provided
that two conditions are met:
1. The charger that interacts with the vehicle is highly automated and easy to set up.
2. The consumer can invoke an energy guarantee, by which a battery pack will be assured
of a certain target energy state no later than a specified target time.
An intelligent plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) acts as an energy load in the sense that the typical
requirement is for a specific amount of energy to be delivered over a relatively flexible time
interval (e.g., provide 10 kWh total no later than 6:00 A.M. tomorrow). Energy loads are
relatively rare in residential systems, but are actually fairly typical on the supply side, where the
concept is common for large-scale energy exchange (e.g., deliver 200 MWh between 2:00 P.M.
and 4:00 P.M. next Tuesday).
The implication of both conditions is that an intelligent PEV, although a significant consumer of
energy, can sell flexibility to the grid operator. From a consumer perspective, if a car is connected
at 7:00 P.M. with a requirement to have 10 kWh provided by 6:00 A.M. the next morning, it makes
little difference whether the energy is delivered at a rate of 10 kW in an interval of one hour, at a
rate of 1 kW delivered over 10 hours, or according to a more complicated schedule that, for
instance, depends on the tracking of a regional wind generatorprovided that the correct total of
energy is ultimately delivered on time. Intelligence is essential here: a car that merely plugs in
and draws charge offers no suitable benefit to exchange with a utility provider. The potential
nature of this intelligence ranges from the near trivial (e.g., timer-based charging) to
comprehensive adaptive learning. An adaptive learning charger might evaluate past patterns,
examine published day-ahead electricity prices, consider the weather forecast, and then draw the
energy in a manner most likely to minimize cost.
Interactive energy storage is widely discussed as a possibility for more advanced vehicle-to-grid
(V2G) systems [10, 37]. The potential benefits are to use vehicle battery packs as a tool for
smoothing the rapid fluctuations experienced with many renewable resources [15, 25, 29]. There
are two fundamental alternatives for interactive storage:
1. If a battery charger is unidirectional (i.e., it only delivers charge to the battery and never
discharges it, the storage function is a virtual one, based entirely on flexibility. For
example, if a cloud passes over a solar array, a corresponding number of plug-in
chargers are throttled back or turned off until energy production is restored.
2. If a battery charger is bidirectional, the energy stored in the pack is potentially available
for use by the utility.
At present, there are many reasons to prefer the unidirectional alternative [11]. Because it never
discharges batteries, the grid does not put extra cycling stress on a battery pack. Unidirectional
charging avoids safety issues such as grid outage and islanding protection, the potential for high
backfeed power flows, extra bidirectional metering issues, and extra cost of the charger itself. It
can be an effective strategy, provided that there are enough vehicles and that their batteries are
not so full that the load on the grid can be altered quickly by turning some off. Bidirectional

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energy flow makes any parked plug-in car a potential grid resource. If a vehicle is merely plugged
in, it can provide fast dynamic energy exchange and the associated benefits and even can be
treated as spinning reserve [24].
Interactive storage, whether virtual or fully bidirectional, requires a comprehensive
communications infrastructure. Individual vehicles are too small, in an electrical sense, to
function autonomously based on local voltage control or other large-scale grid control method.
Their size necessitates either a central coordinating entity or a distributed strategy in which
control needs propagate as chargers communicate with their neighbors. For more general needs, a
dynamic system price update might be sufficient for control: the utility sends out price signals,
either wirelessly or by means of a low-bandwidth modulation method on the grid itself, with
updates every minute or so. With this information, basic charger intelligence can function, with
good use of charging flexibility. For storage exchange, this charging might not be fast enough or
localized enough. In this case, separate wired or wireless Internet feeds would be beneficial. An
alternative is a vehicle aggregator [1, 14, 16], a commercial entity that assembles vehicles either
with dispersed communication and control devices or in a parking lot, and then presents the
combination to the utility grid as a large flexible regulation resource.
Wider communications requirements enter the picture when geographic flexibility becomes
important. A consumer will expect to charge at home or at work, and potentially at nearly any
location where a car might be parked. Although the basic infrastructure requirement can be as
simple as an electrical outlet, mechanisms that can bill the energy cost to the vehicle rather than
the premises will be important. The mobile phone network offers one model, which might be
sufficient as the communications overlay. The on-board charger on the vehicle can identify itself
and establish a billing protocol before drawing energy. The vehicle can be programmed not to
charge without permission, although many businesses might elect to provide free charging
services to customers and employees [27]. The communications issues become more interesting
with active charging systems, such as potential future systems in which inductive chargers are
embedded in roadways [4, 13, 35]. In this case, a vehicle encounters a charge loop, establishes the
billing protocol, and turns on the charger within a millisecond or so, maintaining energy flow as
the car moves across the loop.

2.2 Intelligent charging grid enhancements


Coordinated smart charging and discharging offers extensive possibilities in the utility grid, as
Yilmaz and Krein mentioned [36], and summarized in part here. It can flatten the voltage profile
of a distribution node [8, 30]. Regulation services are a likely first step for V2G because of high
market value and minimal stress on vehicle energy storage systems [9, 31]. Frequency regulation
is used to balance supply and demand for active power [32]. Currently, frequency regulation is
achieved mainly by cycling large generators in a swing-bus role. Fast charging and discharging
rates of PEV batteries makes V2G a promising alternative [16]. Voltage regulation is used to
balance supply and demand for reactive power. PEVs can respond quickly to regulation signals
[17]. Each PEV can control this regulation independently. A voltage control can be embedded in
the battery charger. A charger can compensate inductive or capacitive reactive power by properly
selecting the current phase angle. When the grid voltage becomes too low, vehicle charging can
stop. When the voltage becomes high, charging can start. Local regulation based on reactive
power is also possible [6].

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Optimization of charging time and energy flows reduces daily electricity cost with little effect on
peak capacity needs. Cao et al. propose an intelligent method to control PEV charging loads in
response to time-of-use price in a regulated market [5]. A heuristic method was implemented to
minimize the charging cost considering the relation between the acceptable charging power of
PEV batteries and their state of charge.
While it is difficult to determine whether a particular vehicle will be parked or on the road at a
particular time, aggregation is likely to be more predictable, perhaps even supporting a unit
commitment approach [28]. PEV aggregations can also provide spinning reserves. These reserves
are normally provided by additional generating capacity that is synchronized to the system. They
must respond immediately. PEV aggregations can easily start generating within a conventional
10-minute requirement [17]. Bessa et al. present an optimization approach to support the
aggregation agent participating in the day-ahead and secondary reserve in Iberia [3].
Communication and control between the aggregator and PEVs are likely to be more manageable
than an individual structure. The aggregated entity can make purchases more economically than
individual PEV owners [14]. The aggregation concept has been implemented in some projects
such as Portugal, the industrial network MOBIE [21], and Better Place [2]. In these models, the
aggregator buys electrical energy in the market for their clients but has no direct control over
electric vehicle (EV) charging rates.

2.3 Future expectations


By 2030, flexible billing methods that permit PEVs to draw energy from nearly any electrical
outlet in the world will probably be routine, with rates and costs governed by a contract between
the vehicle owner and a designated utility company. The model, as in existing mobile phone
systems, is likely to provide time-sensitive rates, various types of energy guarantees, roaming
capabilities, and battery diagnostics. In locations where energy storage provides premium value
for interaction with renewable energy, there will be incentives to connect vehicles whenever they
are parked. Owners of parking garages and apartment complexes might also have entered the
market as infrastructure providers. Like cell tower owners, they might obtain economic benefits
from providing suitable outlets. Notice that the theme is flexible billingthe intelligence is in the
vehicle and the communications infrastructure, and not necessarily in the outlets or utility
infrastructure.
In the premium automotive sector, wireless charging could play a role in the future as a more
convenient type of vehicle-charging process, because it is highly automated and requires no
cables [23]. Dynamic wireless charging systems might play a role in autonomous-driving
personal rapid transit systems, as well as in technologies that will support long-range driving of
electrical vehicles. Ultimately, wireless charging systems will be standardized, which will drive
down their cost and ensure safe operation and interoperability.
By 2050, bidirectional PEVs, able to provide active energy support services to the grid, could be
popular. Well before that time, the processes and algorithms needed to support comprehensive
bidirectional V2G services, while preserving or at least properly valuing battery life impacts, will
become available. These processes will have the vital benefit of rapid coordination between solar
resources and energy storage, helping to resolve the most fundamental limitation of renewables.
In this timeframe, it will be feasible to develop roadway energy technology that can maintain
battery charge in a PEV during long-range driving on intercity expressways, most likely based on
mobile inductive charging. Rapid management of chargers is a necessary development to support

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mobile charging of this type. If this development can be implemented at a reasonable cost, it will
overcome the basic range limitation of PEVs and allow wide use of electric cars.
In the coming decades, it is expected that significant research will lead to major improvements in
electric vehicles. This research will lead to improved efficiency and reduced weight, and to
improvements in power electronics, electric motor drives, and other vehicle elements. These
broad improvements will be incremental, as available electric and hybrid cars meet most modern
performance expectations other than range. It remains true that electric vehicle batteries require
the most improvement, and it is widely acknowledged that the high cost and limited range of
electric vehicles has led to a lack of wide acceptance by the public. Cost and range are directly
affected by the battery. While most observers believe that the cost of electric vehicle batteries will
be reduced as sales volumes improve, vehicle range shortcomings will require significant
improvements in battery technology.
Current lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries improve dramatically over lead-acid and nickel chemistries.
Even so, achieving long electric range with a Li-ion battery requires more battery mass than a
typical family vehicle can accommodate. Various metal-air batteries [26] overcome that
limitation because their theoretical energy density (i.e., the amount of energy that can be stored
per unit mass or volume) is much higher than that of Li-ion batteries. For example, lithium-air
batteries [12] might be capable of competing with internal combustion engine ranges when fully
developed and commercialized. The capacity of these types of cells approaches 11.7 kWh/kg,
which is almost as much as gasoline (approximately 12 kWh/kg). By contrast, the best reported
Li-ion energy density is 400 Wh/kg [7]. Aluminum-air batteries, while not as energy dense as
lithium-air batteries, also have generated interest and provide much higher energy density than
Li-ion cells [33].
There are several organizations involved in Li-air research. One prominent organization is IBM,
which launched a major research effort in 2009 called Battery 500. A report by Bloomberg.com
[19] indicated that an IBM battery successfully stored and released power through 10 charges.
Another Li-air research project is a partnership between Toyota Motor Corporation and BMW
[18]. It is difficult to predict battery developments in the coming decades. There have been
frequent press releases announcing impressive breakthroughs, but these rarely translate into
viable products. However, the significant funding dedicated to battery research should result in
major developments, and metal-air technologies have considerable promise to meet critical
technology needs for viable electric vehicle batteries.

2.4 Citations
[1] Aabrandt, A., Andersen, P. B., Pedersen, A. B., You, S., Poulsen, B., OConnell, N.,
Ostergaard, J. 2012. Prediction and optimization methods for electric vehicle charging
schedules in the EDISON project. 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies,
January 1620, 2012, Washington DC.
[2] Andersen, P. H., Mathews, J. A., Raska, M. 2009. Integrating private transport into
renewable energy policy: The strategy of creating intelligent recharging grids for electric
vehicles. Energy Policy 37, no. 7: 24812486.

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[3] Bessa, R. J., Matos, M. A., Soares, F. J., Lopes, J. A. P. 2012. Optimized Bidding of a
EV Aggregation Agent in the Electricity Market. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 3,
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[4] Budhia, M., Covic, G. A., Boys, J. T., Huang, C. Y. 2011. Development and evaluation
of single-sided flux couplers for contactless electric vehicle charging. 2011 IEEE Energy
Conversion Congress and Exposition, September 1722, 2011, Phoenix, AZ.
[5] Cao, Y., Tang, S., Li, C., Zhang, P., Tan, Y., Zhang, Z., Li, J. 2012. An Optimized EV
Charging Model Considering TOU Price and SOC Curve. IEEE Transactions on Smart
Grid 3, no. 1: 388393.
[6] Clement-Nyns, K., Haesen, E., Driesen, J. 2010. The Impact of Charging PHEVs on a
Residential Distribution Grid. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 25, no. 1: 371380.
[7] Coxworth, B. 2012. Envia Systems claims energy density record for lithium-ion
batteries. Gizmag. [Online]. Available: http://www.gizmag.com/envia-systems-record-
lithium-ion-battery/21653/.
[8] Crabtree, D., Faney, T., Koudigkelis, K., Papavasiliou, A., Sidhu, I., Kaminsky, P.,
Tenderich, B. 2009. Optimal Charging of Electric Vehicles. Technical Brief, 9-2009.
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[9] De Los Rios, A., Goentzel, J., Nordstrom, K. E., Siegert, C. W. 2012. Economic
Analysis of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G)-Enabled Fleets Participating in the Regulation Service
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[10] Erb, D. C., Onar, O. C., Khaligh, A. 2010. Bidirectional charging topologies for plug-in
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[11] Fasugba, M. A., Krein, P. T. 2011. Cost benefits and vehicle-to-grid regulation services
of unidirectional charging of electric vehicles. 2011 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress
and Exposition, September 1722, 2011, Phoenix, AZ.
[12] Girishkumar, G., McClosky, B., Luntz, A. C., Swanson, S., Wilcke, W. 2010. Lithium-
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[13] Green, A. W., Boys, J. T. 1994. 10 kHz inductively coupled power transfer concept and
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[14] Guille, C., Gross, G. 2009. A conceptual framework for the vehicle-to-grid (V2G)
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[15] Kempton, W., Tomic, J. 2005. V2G power implementations: from stabilizing the grid to
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[16] Kempton, W., Tomic, J. 2005. Vehicle-to-grid power fundamentals: calculating capacity
and net revenue. Journal of Power Sources 144, no. 1: 268279.
[17] Kempton, W., Tomic, J., Letendre, S., Brooks, A., Lipman, T. 2001. Vehicle-to-Grid
Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric
Power in California. CEPA, Los Angeles, CA, Res. Rep. UCD-ITS-RR-01-03, 2001.
[18] Kubota, Y. 2013. Toyota, BMW to research lithium-air battery. Reuters. [Online].
Available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/24/us-toyota-bmw-fuelcell-
idUSBRE90N0L020130124.
[19] Martin, C. 2013. Lithium air battery gives IBM hope of power without fires.
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21/lithium-air-battery-gives-ibm-hope-of-power-without-fires.html.
[20] Masoum, M. A. S., Moses, P. S., Hajforoosh, S. 2012. Distribution Transformer Stress
in Smart Grid with Coordinated Charging of Plug-In Electric Vehicles. 2012 IEEE PES
Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, January 1620, 2012, Washington DC.
[21] MOBIE May 2011 [Online]. Available: http://www.mobie.pt.
[22] Moses, P. S., Masoum, M. A. S., Hajforoosh, S. 2012. Overloading of Distribution
Transformers in Smart Grid Due to Uncoordinated Charging of Plug-In Electric
Vehicles. 2012 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, January 1620, 2012,
Washington DC.
[23] OSullivan, D., Willers, M., Egan, M. G., Hayes, J. G., Nguyen, P. T., Henze, C. P. 2000.
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Ireland.
[24] Rahmani-andebili, M. 2012. Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PIEVs) Aggregator as a Source
of Spinning Reserve. International Journal of Energy Engineering 2, no. 4: 143149.
[25] Ramos, A., Olmos, L., Latorre, J. M., Perez-Arriaga, I. J. 2008. Modeling medium term
hydroelectric system operation with large-scale penetration of intermittent generation.
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[26] Riezenman, M. J. 2001. Metal fuel cells. IEEE Spectrum 38, no. 6: 5559.
[27] Roush, M. 2013. Ford offers employees free EV charging. CBS Local Detroit.
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ev-charging/.
[28] Saber, A. Y., Venayagamoorthy, G. K. 2010. Intelligent unit commitment with V2G
A cost-emission optimization. Power Sources 195, no. 3: 898911.
[29] Short, W., Denholm, P. 2006. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric
Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Technical
Report NREL/TP-620-39729.

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[30] Singh, M., Kumar, P., Kar, I. 2012. Implementation of Vehicle to Grid Infrastructure
Using Fuzzy Logic Controller. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 3, no. 1: 565577.
[31] Tomic, J., Kempton, W. Using fleets of electric-drive vehicles for grid support. Journal
of Power Sources 168, no. 2: 459468.
[32] Wu, D., Chau, K. T., Liu, C., Gao, S., Li, F. 2012. Transient Stability Analysis of SMES
for Smart Grid with Vehicle-to-Grid Operation. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 3, no.
1: 14.
[33] Yang, S., Knickle, H. 2002. Design and analysis of aluminum/air battery system for
electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources 112, no. 1: 162173.
[35] Yilmaz, M., Buyukdegirmenci, V. T., Krein, P. T. 2012. General design requirements
and analysis of road-bed inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle charging.
2012 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference, June 1820, 2012, Dearborn, MI.
[36] Yilmaz, M., Krein, P. T. 2012. Review of the impact of vehicle-to-grid technologies on
distribution systems and utility interfaces. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 28,
no. 12: 56735689.
[37] Zhou, X., Lukic, S., Bhattacharya, S., Huang, A. 2009. Design and control of grid-
connected converter in bidirectional battery charger for plug-in hybrid vehicle
application. 2009 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, September 711,
2009, Dearborn, MI.

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Chapter 3 Infrastructure

Joachim Taiber, Clemson University

3.1 Introduction
Over the next few decades, energy demand will dramatically shift from established regions of the
world to emerging regions, due to economic development growth as well as population growth.
This shift will have a significant influence on the infrastructure development for transportation.
On the one hand, aging infrastructures must be modernized to support energy efficiency and safe
and fast transportation, while on the other hand, new infrastructure must be created in developing
urban areas.
A key aspect is the interaction between transportation vehicles and the road, energy, and
communication infrastructure. Intelligent vehicles need to collaborate with smart infrastructures
in order to optimize transportation-related tasks. Thus, energy flow, transportation flow, and
communication flow are synchronized (see Figure 3.1).

Figure 3.1 Synchronization of energy flow, traffic flow, and communication flow [1]

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3.2 Impact of transportation electrification and renewable


energy
There are a number of key aspects that will need to be addressed during this projected
infrastructure development. The first is the interaction between transportation vehicles and the
infrastructure itself. Due to future transportation electrification and renewable energy generation,
all major transportation markets will need to integrate the intelligent Smart Grid infrastructure
with intelligent transportation systems.
Transportation electrification is linked to the electrification of the powertrain of vehicles, which
ultimately requires new forms of energy storage as well as new forms of energy transfer. Battery
systems with very high power density levels and the ability to quickly absorb large quantities of
energy will be required to reduce todays dominant role of internal combustion engine vehicles.
In addition, energy transfer systems are needed that can recharge a battery in an equivalent time
frame as that of refueling a gasoline tank for a combustion engine automobile at a comparable
range. This need will trigger the development of automotive standards to support high-power
transfer by wired and wireless interfaces between the vehicle and the charging infrastructure. It is
essential to find ways to make batteries more cost-competitive and to reduce the huge weight
penalty that affects vehicle dynamics and vehicle energy efficiency. Breakthough developments
on the battery technology side and battery economics need to be considered in context with the
development of a standardized charging infrastructure and the required density of the charging
points.
The production of energy from renewable sources is desirable from a true zero-emission
philosophy. However, it is more difficult to integrate these sources into an energy grid system that
combines predictable usage patterns with random demand peaks. A potential approach is to
combine renewable energy sources with a charging infrastructure in low-density and remote
locations, or at locations where solar energy, wind energy, or both is plentiful. Suitable energy
storage solutions need to be developed to buffer the energy that cannot be consumed immediately.

3.3 Impact of information and communication systems on


transportation infrastructure
Another important long-term trend to consider is the massive expansion of a broadband wireless
network infrastructure that will establish a close interaction between data centers, mobile devices,
transportation vehicles and transportation infrastructure, and energy distribution infrastructure.
The hyperdynamic growth of smart phones and tablets over the last few years is only the
beginning of a longer transition period of connecting mobile and stationary processors and data
storage items in a worldwide information and communication network. This development is an
excellent opportunity to implement a physical Internet, in which physical goods as well as people
can be transported in a more efficient way by using standardized technology and interfaces. There
is no doubt that connected vehicles will generate large amounts of data that can be mined (big
data) to optimize traffic flow, increase safety, and optimize the energy used. Traditional passive
information sources that affect traffic (e.g., FM radio) will be replaced by active control
mechanisms (e.g., speed control).
From a safety perspective, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication will become very relevant,
but in the long run, such communication might be replaced or at least complemented by low

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latency vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) solutions. There is no doubt that energy efficiency (in
combination with safety) becomes the major driver of active traffic flow control. This requires
bidirectional communication between the vehicles being monitored and the control data centers.
The key question is: What degree of manual driving will be possible in highly automated traffic
flow scenarios of the future? Highway traffic will likely be largely automated on high-density
roads in urban areas, whereas manual driving will still prevail in rural areas and on low-density
urban roads. Therefore, from a safety perspective, the transition from automated driving to
manual driving (e.g., when exiting a highway and entering a low-density roadway) and vice versa
are the most vulnerable situations for travelers. Fully automated driving is highly desirable for
specific groups of people, such as children, senior citizens, and people with severe medical issues.
However, fully automated driving requires an information and communication infrastructure that
guarantees a safety level that is significantly superior to manual driving scenarios. Whether true
driverless operation on public roads will ever be permitted largely depends on the penetration
level of autonomous-enabled vehicles on the road, as well as legal considerations in terms of
liability.

3.4 How to finance the transportation infrastructure of the


future
Financing these transportation infrastructure improvements and new infrastructure requires new
ways to generate revenue in public-private partnerships. The following key challenges apply to
transportation infrastructure costs:
1. As vehicles become more fuel efficient, and the maturity level of overall growth of
transportation becomes high, the revenue potential from the gasoline tax as the main
funding source for road maintenance and expansion becomes limited, if not shrinks.
2. Connectivity to the power grid and the communication grid is essential for the
transportation of the future, and needs to be considered in the transportation
infrastructure cost calculation.
3. Active control of traffic by V2I technologies requires information and communication
technology (ICT) services that need to be considered in the transportation infrastructure
cost calculation.
4. Vehicle original equipment manufacturers (OEM) need to invest in vehicle components
that are designed to interact with the intelligent transportation infrastructure through
standardized interfaces.
To deal with Challenge 1, a promising concept is collecting road usage fees based on vehicle
miles travelled (VMT) instead of collecting a gas tax. A VMT fee could be structured according
to vehicle emission level (where zero-emission vehicles would pay the lowest fee). After the
VMT system is implemented, it can also collect fees for additional communication and energy-
related services (e.g., infotainment services or charging services). Obviously, a major question
is whether the VMT system should be operated by a public or private services agent, or through a
public-private partnership.

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3.5 The role of smart charging


With the development of a smart charging infrastructure, the further expansion of vehicle
electrification can be supported. Whereas pure electric vehicles (EV) will have their primary
markets in urban areas, plug-in hybrids can be used both in rural and urban areas. With the
introduction of dynamic wireless charging (charging of electrical vehicles that are in motion) [2]
and quasi-dynamic charging (charging of electrical vehicles that stop while en route, such as at a
traffic light), the range limitation of EVs can be overcome and the battery cost per vehicle can be
limited (see Figure 3.2), but the cost of the infrastructure will be influenced by the length of
charging lanes and power levels required for energy transmission and needs to be covered by a
reasonable business model.

Figure 3.2 Concept and benefit of wireless charging

As transportation electrification further develops, it is important to make the right decisions in


positioning charging points [3]. An area of future research might be the introduction of mobile
charging points to react to changes in demand patterns. In urban areas in particular, smart parking
systems need to be developed in order to map EV charging needs with charging capabilities and
available parking capacities. As indicated earlier, renewable energy sources in combination with
energy storage systems used as a temporary buffer can play a significant role in enabling zero-
emission transportation scenarios. Integrating the renewable energy sources into a zero-emission
transportation energy concept will require the implementation of Smart Grid components.

3.6 Machine-to-machine system architectures as drivers


of intelligent transportation infrastructure
The traditional transportation concept of the human machine interface is essential for the control
of todays vehicles. In the future, however, machine-to-machine (M2M) system architectures will
turn vehicles into mobile robots that are able to communicate with each other, as well as
communicate individually or in clusters with data centers.
Autonomous and remotely controlled vehicles will play a much bigger role in the future, as they
can extend road trips significantly in a safe way, and help alleviate critical traffic situations.
Furthermore, vehicle fuel efficiency can be optimized by using an autopilot mode similar to those
used by airplanes.

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If we compare automotive vehicles with cell phones, we can find interesting analogies:
Originally, cell phones were primarily used for voice communication. Now, they are used
for a variety of additional services, including social networking, navigation, e-mail,
media-streaming, and electronic payments.
Currently, automotive vehicles are used primarily to drive from point A to point B. In the
future, transportation services will be bundled in an intelligent manner across multiple
transportation modes to minimize travelling time and optimize energy efficiency.
Furthermore, drivers and passengers will use their transportation time by using all of the
communication services offered by mobile devices, without compromising safety or
quality of connectivity.
The automotive industry is following the telecommunication industry by offering a variety of
services that have a major impact on consumer lifestyles, and by providing more choices in
general. Transportation, therefore, is becoming commoditized without compromising
individuality; however, individual needs will become more defined by software and content that
by hardware (including the vehicle itself).
The transition of the transportation ecosystem from a primarily class-layered model (public
transportation for the masses, individual transportation with differentiation of the vehicle choice
as status symbol) to a service-oriented multiple-mode model suited to everybodys need is largely
enabled by the pervasive build-up of an information and communication infrastructure in which
mobile devices and cloud-based services are providing the backbone to manage transportation
needs and transportation flows in the most efficient way. Vehicles can be considered as mobile
communication nodes communicating with fixed communication nodes with a secure, intelligent,
high-performance network.
Datacenters and their related wired and wireless communication infrastructures will become as
important as the physical road infrastructure to solving future transportation problems [4]. All
payment-related activities required during transportation will be accomplished wirelessly and
without the need for cash or physical credit cards. The time and location of refueling vehicles will
be optimized by the information network, which will consider the specific energy needs and range
constraints of the vehicle (whether gasoline, alternative fuel, electrical energy, or hydrogen); a
multiple-fuel infrastructure will be developed according to the needs of the transportation market.

3.7 Citations
[1] Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research. www.cuicar.com.
[2] Gil, A., Taiber, J. 2013. A Literature Review in Dynamic Wireless Power Transfer for
Electric Vehicles: Technology and Infrastructure Integration Challenges. Proceedings of
the 5th International Conference on Sustainable Automotive Technologies, September
2527, 2013, Ingolstadt, Germany.
[3] He, Y., Chowdhury, M., Duanmu, J., Lorico, A., Taiber, J., Yanni, T. 2013. Charging
Options supported by Connected Vehicle Technology An Analysis. Research paper
presented at 17th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics,
July 912, 2013, Orlando, Florida.

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[4] Johnson, J., Chowdhury, M., He, Y., Taiber, J. 2013. Utilizing real-time information
transferring potentials to vehicles to improve the fast-charging process in electric
vehicles. Transportation Research Part C 26 (January): 352366.

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Chapter 4 Travelers

Joachim Taiber, Clemson University

4.1 Introduction
The role of the traveler will change rapidly with the development of a smart transportation
ecosystem. Physical transportation and participation in a virtual collaboration space can be
blended without compromising the safety of the traveler. However, this collaboration comes with
a priceif the future traveler wants to participate in and share certain services for free, their
travel status and consumption behaviors can be shared with third parties through the collaboration
space.

4.2 The traditional role of the traveler


Let us first define the traditional role of the traveler. The traveler is a person who wants to move
physically in a safe way from Location A to Location B under certain time and cost constraints
with the need of a certain amount of space for physical storage. In general, the traveler has to
make the decision whether to use public transportation or individual transportation. Whereas in a
public transportation system with travel plans scheduled and transportation processes
standardized, individual transportation allows more flexible travel plans, and typically comes with
a higher level of convenience, including more freedom with physical storage. Individual
transportation requires that at least one of the travelers using a specific transportation vehicle is
also a driver, whereas in public transportation the traveler is always a passenger. In the traditional
role, the traveler is disconnected from all forms of real-time communication while travelling.
The future role of the traveler will be very different from the traditional role:
1. Future travelers are expected to be constantly connected with their professional and
private networks, and responsive in real time if necessary.
2. They are expected to be highly productive and able to work while travelling.
3. Time and cost efficiency have a significant higher priority than in the past.

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4. Weather, traffic, and environmental-related delays of physical travel need to be


compensated with technology as best as possible, and new methods of real-time
collaboration need to be applied if physical presence cannot be achieved.
5. The future traveler has access to the latest mobile device technologies using multiple
state-of-the-art, high-performance broadband wireless networks.
Future travelers becomes mobile nodes that can optimize their movement in a multidimensional
grid that considers optimal energy used, optimal travel time used, minimum environmental
impact achieved, and optimal data connectivity reached. There is no doubt that future travelers
have to balance multiple (and sometimes conflicting) goals:
1. Reach the destination in a specific time.
2. Keep the travel budget under a certain limit.
3. Comply with governmental rules related to use of a transportation device.
4. Stay connected with key networks while travelling (e.g., human beings, data).
5. Minimize risks of self-implied travel delays or travel termination.
Of course, future travelers will have more choices to optimize travel activities according to their
preferences, due to future technological developments.

4.3 The new freedom of the future traveler


The future traveler will gain new freedom with respect to communication choices during travel,
efficiency of travel itself, and services available during the travel process.
Example: Long-range driving
Autonomous driving technology will allow travelers to substantially extend their potential
travelling durations without compromising their safety. Autonomous driving can also be
used by the traveler for working, personal entertainment, or resting/sleeping periods.
Even automated refueling stops could be integrated into autonomous driving sessions.
Example: Navigating through urban areas
The traveler can move through an urban area to a defined destination with higher
certainty of on-time arrival, while optimizing the resources involved. Route optimization
as well as automated parking (including automated information of critical collaborators
about the status of the travel) will become the norm.
Example: Organizing breaks and overnight stops
Organizing a hotel stay or ordering food and beverages from drive-through restaurants
(including payment automation) from the vehicle in a safe manner while driving will be
significantly simplified. Digital coupons will be automatically identified and can bring
down the cost of travel.

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4.4 Public versus private traveler information


Future travelers can count on the seamless integration of services that manage both their physical
travel needs and personal needs. A smart infrastructure system will connect personal information
stored in mobile devices and back-end systems with information that is generated by the
transportation systems that they are using to move from Location A to Location B. Some of this
information can be shared with trusted parties of their social networks, private or professional. In
emergencies, some critical information can be shared with first responders. Information can also
be shared with commercial or governmental entities, and therefore protecting the information of
the individual traveler becomes a very important matter. To what degree personal and private
information is shared is also the choice of each traveler. For example, some services consumed by
the traveler might be linked to a subscription or transaction fee to protect privacy. Accepting
advertisements with the use of free services might be a price the traveler has to pay.

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Chapter 5 Communications

Liuqing Yang, Colorado State University


Xiaoya Hu, Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Xiang Cheng, Peking University

5.1 Introduction
Within the next three decades, automotive vehicles will have fully electric powertrains, fully
autonomous driving capabilities, and will be remotely controllable. Some of these functions, such
as automatic route planning, automatic parking, and automatic driving, among many others, have
already been envisioned in general intelligent transportation systems (ITS) for generic vehicles.
With all or most vehicles being electric, however, their integration and interaction with the Smart
Grid must be taken into account. From the Smart Grid perspective, future electric vehicles will be
highly mobile loads, energy sources, and energy storage units integrated with the Smart Grid
through an adaptable charging infrastructure. In this sense, not only must the Smart Grid be
seamlessly integrated, but such integration is expected to impose modifications on general ITS
functions as well as add brand new ones. All of these functions will certainly broaden the horizon
of communication and networking technologies that serve as fundamental enablers for such
functions.
Traditionally, the main objectives of ITS include these topics:
Transportation safety. Enhance transportation safety, suppress accident probability, and
limit the damage severity.
Traffic smoothness. Improve transportation efficiency, traffic network throughput, and
facility use.
Environmental conservation. Reduce traffic congestion and pollution, and alleviate
environmental impact.
The envisioned integration with the Smart Grid inevitably imposes one additional objective:
Grid efficiency. Coordinate vehicles with charging and electricity-leveling infrastructure
to help maintain the power quality, efficiency, and stability.

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This chapter begins with brief descriptions of some unique ITS-Smart Grid functions envisioned
towards achieving these objectives. Then, based on their requirements, we extract the expected
features and trends of the facilitating communication infrastructure.

5.2 Unique ITS-Smart Grid functions

5.2.1 Electronic and automatic transactions (EAT)


Traditionally, the only monetary transaction involved in ITS is electronic toll collection (ETC),
where users purchase in-car ETC devices that link uniquely to customer accounts and
communicate with toll stations by dedicated microwave short-range communication. Even though
ETC has been shown both by research and practice to be beneficial both in saving travel time and
alleviating manual toll collection bottlenecks, some travelers still opt not to use ETC devices due
to their deep-rooted faith in cash-based transactions. Not only is this allegiance expected to
change drastically in 30 years, but with frequent charging and discharging activities necessitated
by electric vehicles (EV)coupled with the dynamic electric gridhuman intervention in each
transaction is unrealistic and unbearable to customers. As described in Chapter 1, it is envisioned
that the user need only set a preference in a largely simplified interface; electricity trading
transactions then will be automatically optimized and electronically accomplished jointly with
route planning.
Within the next 30 years, a vehicle miles travelled (VMT) road usage fee system will likely be
widely implemented (at least on highways), which would replace the gasoline tax as a primary
revenue generator to develop and maintain road infrastructure. The VMT fee could also be used
to cover the cost of charging as well as the communication infrastructure. Dynamic pricing
models can be considered to actively control different traffic situations. Furthermore, the VMT
fee system could be used to integrate billing for charging stations (e.g., fast charging) or dynamic
wireless charging lanes (i.e., charging while vehicle is in motion).

5.2.2 Optimum routing and charging (ORC)


In traditional optimum routing, decisions usually are made based on parameters such as real-time
locations, traffic conditions, and user preferences. In 30 years, EVs and the Smart Grid could
benefit significantly from the optimization of charging in terms of the charging level and charging
site. The latter is clearly associated with the task optimum routing, and is even more so in the case
of road-based wireless charging. As a result, ORC calls for the joint consideration of the
aforementioned ITS parameters with Smart Grid parameters such as load distribution and
prediction, dynamic electricity pricing, power balancing concerns, and the actual charging
capability of the road. In other words, ITS information and Smart Grid information should be
managed together and should allow for real-time sharing.

5.2.3 Automatic parking and electricity leveling (APEL)


The main purpose of existing automatic parking in ITS is to save parking time, improve facility
usage, and reduce pollution. Usually, this efficiency is achieved by identifying parking slot
availability, distributing such information by visualization or electronic dissemination,
incorporating such information into the routing algorithm, and even allowing for remote parking

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slot reservations, either manually or automatically. It is envisioned that, by 2050, automatic


parking facilities will be equipped with electricity-leveling capabilities to benefit the EV owners,
the Smart Grid, and the parking facilities. As detailed in Chapter 2, individual vehicles are too
small (in an electrical sense) for interactive storage to function autonomously. It takes groups of
coordinated EVs to affect reasonable control mechanisms at the grid level. In other words,
parking in an empty lot might not be very rewarding in terms of potential electricity-leveling
incentives. Hence, the parking location of a particular EV with a certain charging profile needs to
be optimized in coordination with actual parking lot utilization information, the local power
system status, user preferences, and traffic conditions.

5.2.4 Automatic driving coordination (ADC)


Todays ADC capabilities include mutual impact warning, lane shift assistance, traffic data and
risk warning, pre-accident and post-accident warning, traffic congestion forecast, and emergency
vehicle priority. By 2050, when transportation safety, traveling speeds, and road utilization
efficiency are all expected improve significantly, fully automatic driving coordination will
become a reality. This coordination not only relies on more penetrating real-time communications
of neighboring vehicle intentions and the timely availability of overall traffic conditions, but it
also needs to account for the status of wireless charging of certain vehicles, because the latter
might not allow for operations such as flexible and swift lane shifting and speed alteration.
Until 2050, the majority of the vehicles on the road will be vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-
to-infrastructure (V2I)-enabled. These connections will have a significant impact on road safety
and traffic flow conditions. Automated high-speed vehicles systems with dynamic wireless
charging capabilities might even operate on highways within dedicated lanes.

5.2.5 Connected travelers


After travelers are relieved from the tiring tasks of maintaining safety, selecting routes, making
charging decisions, and so on, they will be able to work productively while travelling. With the
explosive growth of cloud-based productivity services, travelers will need to be constantly
connected with their professional and private networks in order to respond in real time if desired.

5.3 ITS-Smart Grid communication infrastructure


In order to meet the five ITS-Smart Grid objectives described previously, the communication and
networking infrastructure supporting these functions is expected to have the following key
features:
Highly heterogeneous architecture
Hierarchically distributed quality-of-service (QoS)oriented routing protocols
High-mobility, high-fidelity connections
Extensive information sharing among multiple entities

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5.3.1 Highly heterogeneous architecture


As stated previously, the communication and networking infrastructure needs to support a broad
array of services and functions. All of these call for communication services at various
granularities, reliabilities, bandwidths, and latencies. Based on the physical laws governing
frequency versus distance, bandwidth versus data rate, and user number versus latency, it is
doubtful that by 2050 a ubiquitous and universal wired or wireless technology will be capable of
supporting all of these needs simultaneously.
It is henceforth envisioned that heterogeneous communication technologies are required to meet
the diverse needs of such a complex system that integrates the Smart Grid and ITS [3, 8], many of
which are already in place today. For example, short-range wireless technology similar to
Bluetooth or ultrawideband (UWB) could be used for communication between parked vehicles or
power grid interfaces and charging stations. IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) and IEEE 802.11
(WiFi) could be used for communication between low-speed vehicles and charging stations in the
form of local area networks. Dedicated short-range communication (DSRC) can facilitate high-
speed V2V or V2I communications. Cellular wireless such as General Packet Radio Service
(GPRS), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), and 3G/4G technologies might
be used for the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) communication or communication between charging
stations [9, 10, 12, 13]. By 2050, more advanced versions of these technologies are expected to
available, with improved data rates, multiple-access capacities, power-performance trade-offs,
and energy scavenging capabilities.
In addition, the integration of ITS and the Smart Grid through EVs and the charging infrastructure
provides new venues for communications [4]. For example, at charging stations, parking lots, or
home garages, EVs will often be connected to charging interfaces that lead to the power grid.
Information exchange can then take place over power lines. Today, the field of power line
communications is already starting to receive attention from various academic and industrial
sectors [1]. The inevitable integration and interaction with the Smart Grid will undoubtedly bring
such research and development to a whole new level. Another yet to be investigated
communication medium is the wireless charging interface [6]. Because vehicles are to be charged
wirelessly on the road, such well-secured and relatively long-term connections can potentially be
used for simultaneous data access. Both technologies have the potential to resolve some
challenging issues faced by the ITS. For instance, precise localization in a parking garage often
requires extra hardware and careful calibration. An EV-capable parking garage could easily solve
this problem by mapping charging interfaces with physical parking slots. Lane tracking is another
sensitive issue in automatic driving coordination. Roads equipped with wireless charging
capabilities can help resolve this issue by incorporating the necessary tracking and correcting
function in the wireless charging link to EVs.
With all of these evolutionary and revolutionary communications technologies available by 2050,
interoperability becomes one of the most essential issues for the communication infrastructure
supporting the integration of the Smart Grid and ITS. In fact, instead of the development of any
specific communication technology, the bottleneck of an enabling communication platform might
likely be the interoperability agreement and compatible interface hardware and packet formats
that can seamlessly bridge the different standards of various communication technologies. To this
end, generic application programming interfaces (APIs) and middleware will also play critical
roles [2].

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5.3.2 Hierarchically distributed quality-of-service (QoS)-oriented


routing protocols
The envisioned communication infrastructure incorporating EVs, roadside information units,
parking management sites, wireless charging facilities, and charging stations is expected to
involve a large number of networked devices operating on various wired and wireless
communication standards. As a result, it is difficult, if not impossible, for the routing
infrastructure based on algorithmic optimization to provide unique locaters to each of these
devices. Further, the routing nodes are unable to cope with the exponential growth in routing table
sizes and the number of update messages due to the dynamic nature inherent in mobile
communications. In addition, as stated in Chapter 1, the merged ITS-Smart Grid information will
induce a significant increase in the amount of data to manage, so that a hierarchically distributed,
cloud-oriented service will be more reasonable. Correspondingly, it is expected that hierarchically
distributed routing protocols will be more suitable for the envisioned ITS-Smart Grid integration
by 2050.
Such routing protocols should be designed to provide certain QoS insurance. The latter, however,
has two distinct aspects unique to the context of the joint ITS-Smart Grid scheduling and
optimization: how to specify the QoS requirement and how to ensure the QoS requirement [5].
A QoS requirement usually includes specifications like average delay, jitter, and connection
outage probability. However, in this context, this requirement will also undoubtedly relate to the
specific mechanism of dynamic electricity pricing based on load variation, load prediction, and
the charging reward system. Based on such a mechanism, the impact of QoS parameters on the
EV reward and travel time variation might become analyzable and thus optimizable. As to the
second aspect, one is faced with a performance-guaranteed, multiply constrained QoS routing
problem, which not only involves the aforementioned heterogeneous communications
architecture, but also deals with a large distributed system. Instead of requiring the global
knowledge of the network in traditional QoS routing schemes, we expect that the QoS routing
decisions be made at various hierarchical levels in a distributed manner using only the local
information.
As of 2013, similar approaches have already been adopted for the Internet. However, a significant
overhaul of existing protocols along this line is still required due to some additional distinct
features of the ITS-Smart Grid infrastructure. These include not only the heterogeneity and
remarkable scale of the communication network, which is to some extent shared by the Internet,
but also the rapidly changing topology due to high vehicular speeds as well as volatile vehicular
connectivity. For example, the default renew time of routing packets at most routers is 30 seconds
in the current Internet. Even at todays modest vehicular speed of 60 km/hr, this time interval
corresponds to 500 meters of traveling distance and in turn to a significant change of the network
topology.

5.3.3 High-mobility high-fidelity


By 2050, highly or fully automatic driving coordination (ADC) is expected to bring transportation
safety, travel speed, and road utilization efficiency to a whole new level. The high mobility and
high density of EVs raise challenges that are unprecedented in the history of terrestrial wireless
communications. It is well understood that high mobility will lead to non-negligible Doppler
shift. In a broadband high data rate communication system, which is a must for always-connected

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travelers, such an effect becomes a Doppler spread that consists of one main cause of channel
variation. When the surrounding environment is packed with other EVs made of metallic
materials and at comparable speed, the time variation of the wireless communication channel will
be further accompanied by significant multipath propagation. All of these render the wireless
communication conditions very reminiscent to one of the most challenging environments, namely
the underwater acoustic communication environment. As regular ADC and EAT are becoming
necessities for EVs, high fidelity of the transmitted and received information must be guaranteed
for physical safety and cyber security concerns. Hence, it is expected that research and
development of these high-mobility high-fidelity communication technologies will be taken
jointly with, and benefit from, the underwater acoustic communications technologies.

5.3.4 Extensive information sharing


All aforementioned ITS-Smart Grid functions entail extensive information sharing through a
highly heterogeneous communication network. This sharing makes content-centric or content-
aware communication a very attractive solution, as detailed in Chapter 1. Such content awareness
is also expected to penetrate both the selection of communication technology based on the
reliability and latency concerns, and the determination of routing protocol based on the QoS
consideration.
On many occasions, information exchange not only occurs at the interface between ITS and the
Smart Grid, after they each collect the corresponding information from EVs, but might also occur
among EVs to facilitate, for example, ADC functions or even electricity-loaning activities under
special circumstances. With content-centric communications, there could be an elevated risk of
leaking critical private or secure information and rendering the pertinent EVs or their drivers
vulnerable to various levels of privacy attacks, security attacks, or both. This risk might be more
prominent when information exchange occurs among EVs that are within each others geological
proximity, which is more often the case than not.
At the individual level, EVs and their drivers are to be protected from financial or physical
attacks. At an ITS and Smart Grid system level, highly sufficient authentication is required,
because both systems can potentially pose drastic safety risks to the entire society if
inappropriately manipulated [7, 11]. Fortunately, the recent popularity of smart meters has
already raised much interest from various government, academic, and industrial sectors. Although
many solutions have been proposed to date for the security and privacy issues related to smart
meters, they are far from sufficient in solving similar problems in the integrated ITS-Smart Grid
with EVs. The main issues are: 1) smart meters are fixed whereas EVs are highly mobile, and 2)
smart meters are designated to a handful of functions, whereas EVs will be involved in a wide
variety of functions, spanning personnel safety, financial security, societal safety, and stability.
By 2050, we expect some paradigm-shifting advance in this field related to device security-
ensuring mechanisms that facilitate all aforementioned ITS-Smart Grid functions with huge scale
and highly mobile networked entities.

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Electronic &
Automatic
Transactions

Optimum Automatic
Routing Parking &
& Charging ITS-SG Electricity
Leveling

Automatic
Driving Connected
Coordination Travelers

Figure 5.1 ITS/Smart Grid functions

Electric Power Grid (Energy Source)

Wireless:
E.g.
Bluretooth,UWB

Wireless:GPRS,UMTS,
3G/4G Charging
Charging Wireless: Station
Station E.g. IEEE802.15.4(ZigBee)
IEEE802.11(WiFi)

Charging Lane
Wireless: DSRC

Other Lane

Roadside Base Roadside Base


Station Station

Figure 5.2 Example of highly heterogeneous architecture

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5.4 Citations
[1] Barmada S., Raugi M., Rizzo R., Tucci M. 2012. Channel evaluation for power line
communication in plug-in electric vehicles. IET Electrical Systems in Transportation 2,
no.4: 195201.
[2] Fan, Z., Kalogridis, G., Efthymiou, C., Sooriyabandara, M., Serizawa, M., McGeehan, J.
2010. The New Frontier of Communications Research: Smart Grid and Smart
Metering. ACM e-Energy 10, April 1315, 2010, Passau, Germany: 115118.
[3] Gao, J., Xiao, Y., Liu, J., Jiang, Chen, C. L. P. 2011. A survey of
communication/networking in Smart Grids. Future Generation Computer Systems 28,
no. 2: 391404.
[4] Kabisch, S., Schmitt, A., Winter, M., Heuer, J. 2010. Interconnections and
Communications of Electric Vehicles and Smart Grids. 2010 First IEEE International
Conference on Smart Grid Communications, Oct 46, Gaithersburg, MD, USA: 161166.
[5] Li, H., Zhang, W. 2010. QoS Routing in Smart Grid. IEEE Global Telecommunications
Conference (GLOBECOM 2010), Dec 16, 2010, Miami, FL, USA.
[6] Madawala, U. K., Thrimawithana, D. J. 2011. A Bidirectional Inductive Power Interface
for Electric Vehicles in V2G Systems. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 58,
no. 10: 47894796.
[7] Metke, A. R., Ekl, R. L. 2010. Security Technology for Smart Grid Networks. IEEE
Transactions on Smart Grid 1, no. 1: 99, 107.
[8] National Institute of Standards and Technology. 2010. NIST framework and roadmap
for Smart Grid interoperability standards, Release 1.0. [Online]. Available: http:
//www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/upload/smartgrid_interoperability_final.pdf.
[9] Parikh, P. P., Kanabar, M. G., Sidhu, T. S. 2010. Opportunities and Challenges of
Wireless Communication Technologies for Smart Grid Applications. IEEE Power and
Energy Society General Meeting, July 17, 2010, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
[10] Qu, F., Wang, F.-Y., Yang, L. 2010. Intelligent transportation spaces: vehicles, traffic,
communications, and beyond. IEEE Communications Magazine 48, no. 11: 136142.
[11] Su, H., Qiu, M., Wang, H. 2012. Secure Wireless Communication System for Smart
Grid with Rechargeable Electric Vehicles. IEEE Communications Magazine 50, no. 8:
6268.
[12] Wang, F.-Y., Zeng, D., Yang, L. 2006. Smart cars on smart roads: An IEEE intelligent
transportation systems society update. IEEE Pervasive Computing 5, no. 4: 6869.
[13] Yang, L., Wang, F.-Y. 2007. Driving into intelligent spaces with pervasive
communications. IEEE Intelligent Systems 22, no. 1: 1215.

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Chapter 6 Systems, Operations, and Scenarios

Hiroaki Nishi, Keio University


Koichi Inoue, National Institute of Informatics

6.1 Vision: Application scenario enabled by future SOS


solutions
In the future, the conversion of vehicles to electric vehicles (EV) will bring diversification to
these agents of transportation and mobility. To illustrate our vision of the future of EVs, including
the cities and infrastructure that will support them, the story of Steve Green and his EV is
presented here (see also Figure 6.1).

Steve Green and his 2050 electric vehicle

Today is New Years Day, 1 January 2050, and Steve Green is expecting guests in
a couple of hours for the first dinner of the new year. However, because he forgot
to buy dessert for his guests, Steve must unexpectedly drive his EV to the food
store that is 20 km away. Steve exits his house and walks to his car, which is
connected to his home energy management system (HEMS) by a charging cable.

Steves EV charges automatically and optimally in accordance with the dynamic


fare rates of his local power company, and also monitors his homes overall power
demands. Last night, Steve used more electric power than usual because he
hosted a New Years Eve party. Moreover, because of the holiday weekend,
yesterdays electric power rates were higher than normal. Therefore, over the past
24 hours, the stored electricity from Steves EV battery was used as an alternative
energy source to reduce the total electric power consumption of his house.

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Steve needs to go to the food store. But does his EV have enough electrical
charge to get him there? In the old days, Steve would have to check the charge
level of the EV battery himself. But its 2050 and times have changed. After typing
the location of the food store into his cloud-based scheduling software, Steves
HEMS retrieves the trip information from the cloud and charges the EV battery
enough so that Steve will have no problem making the journey. Steve smiles
because his HEMS is smartand so was he for buying it!

Steve gets in the EV and begins his journey. The EVs navigation system
automatically guides Steve according to a calculated route that minimizes power
consumption. And, because Steve is driving the vehicle in the highways EV-only
lane, the EV is able to run in automatic-operation mode. In this mode, the vehicle
can communicate with other EVs in the lane, helping to maximize safety and
minimize energy consumption by automatic cruising and cooperative rules (such
as minimum distance apart and speed).

Although wireless vehicle battery charging is available in the EV-only lane, Steve
declines to use it because wireless charging is more expensive on holidays, and
his battery has sufficient charge to get him to the store. As Steve nears the food
store, the EVs navigation system shows the locations of available parking lots. It
also displays the following message:
Parking Lot D has a discount charge option for enough
electricity to get you to your prior destination. This
lot also requests the approval to use your EV for
electricity leveling in this area.

Steve reserves a parking spot in Lot D through the navigation system, and parks
his vehicle at the front of the food store. The vehicle is moved automatically to Lot
D, a high-density parking lot where EVs are tightly arranged to maximize parking
spaces and reduce land costs. The land surrounding the food store has
photovoltaic and wind turbine power generators that provide free power to the
store.

Steve does his food shopping and then pushes his cart to the stores payment
processing area. The payment system identifies Steves smart phone using near-
field wireless communication, and processes his payment using electronic money
transfer. Steve notices that he has saved some money by allowing his EV to
contribute to the food stores load leveling program. Upon final payment, the EV
moves automatically to the food stores front door, where Steve packs his bags,
enters the vehicle, and begins his journey back home.

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Figure 6.1 Example structure of future EV driving and living under the support of an
intelligent transportation system

6.2 Paradigm shifts


In this section, we discuss a series of paradigm shifts that will occur as we move to the 2050
vision described in the previous section.

6.2.1 Shift to EV-integrated building energy management system


The penetration of EVs will make an impact on the future of building energy management
systems and the development of net-zero energy buildings (NEZB). Most current studies of EV
charging strategies focus on residential charging at night and support the valley-filling strategy
for power demand. Meanwhile, parking lot charging at commercial buildings would be a very
attractive solution for commuters, who could park and charge their EVs while they are at work.
For these consumers, such a possibility would reduce their onboard battery capacity needs from
round-trip to one-way, which would dramatically improve the payback economy and eventually
promote the significant deployment of EVs.
However, parking lot charging would present challenges at the distribution level. Building energy
management would become more complicated, because the daytime power demand for a
commercial building will have to include battery charging for commuters EVs. Within the
foreseeable future, the limited distribution-level transformer capacity will force a more
collaborative optimization between conventional building power usage (e.g., lighting, office
equipment, and especially the HVAC systems) and the EV charging. By interfacing the EVs

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onboard GPS and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication with the existing building
control network (e.g., BACnet), while incorporating necessary cyber security, building energy
management will move towards a new paradigm.
On the other hand, parking lot charging should not be viewed as merely a burden of building
operations. With the inevitable trend of NEZBs, the development of local renewable/conventional
power generation facilities would dramatically increase. Significant onboard battery storage and
the controllable charging process will be positive developments for power quality control and
arbitrage, among others, as they represent fluctuating renewable power sources. The vehicle-
borne intelligent transportation system (ITS) and communication systems, building control
systems, building information management systems, and corporate enterprise resource planning
(ERP) systems could eventually merge into the overall Smart Grid to provide better vehicle
charging and building operations in the future.

6.2.2 Shift from complex visualization to simple visualization and


operation
Although visualized systems offer much information, they might offer little value to the average
user if they are too complicated or provide too much information. For typical at-home users,
useful systems should not show complicated information, but rather only the exact information
required at that time, which is highly processed and sophisticated.
Therefore, a useful HEMS would not operate household appliances by complex visual units such
as personal digital assistants (PDA). Instead, a HEMS interface should be stripped-down and
simple to operate. The interface of an at-home air conditionersimple for anyone to useis an
excellent example: a Cool button is pressed when the user feels warm, and a Warm button is
pressed when the user feels cold. A HEMS should employ a similar interface. For example, users
would turn the HEMS control knob to Comfort if they want to feel comfortable at that time. If the
users want to save energy, perhaps when they are alone in the house, they would turn the control
knob to an Energy Savings mode.
When users turns their HEMS control knob to a setting, their EV charging and discharging
control would be automatically issued under consideration of tariffs, the date and time of day,
status of power consumption, etc. In addition, the system would carry out the automatic control of
the homes air conditioning system and household appliances according to optimized calculations
based on clear indices (such as the charge condition of EVs battery, the operation or utility
schedule of household appliances, and indoor comfort). No associated systems should provide
any additional levels of complexity to the simple, nonvisual HEMS interface.

6.2.3 Shift from independent systems to integrated ITS and Smart


Grid
The future Smart Grid system should observe a local balance of electric power supply and
demand, and should be capable of giving commands to navigate an EV to an optimally located
battery charging system. Thus, ITS information and Smart Grid information should be managed
together. An EV quick charger also should have both connections to the ITS center for navigation
or to the Smart Grid center for reserving the electricity required in an EV charging event. Some
EV quick chargers might use batteries to achieve very quick charging. The state of charge
information of this quick charger battery becomes useful information for electric power system

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stabilization, and the control of this battery should consider the local electricity balance and be
controlled by a Smart Grid system. The prediction of electricity demand should be conducted by
using the information of when and how long an EV is parked and charged; this information is
given by the ITS.
Moreover, another infrastructure management system will be required to achieve precise demand
prediction. Air conditioning systems in EVs must operate more intensively in the winter than in
the summer. An EV does not have a heat engine, and the difference in temperature between the
interior and exterior of the EV in the winter is greater than in the summer. Accordingly, the
cruising distance of an EV is shorter in the winter. For example, according to the real usage
history of EVs in experimental EV towns on the Goto Islands, Nagasaki, Japan [3], an EV that
can travel 90 km on average in the summer reduces its average cruising distance to 60 km in the
winter, mainly due to use of the cars heating system. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate
estimated cruising distances correctly by measuring or predicting outside air temperatures and
estimating comfortable indoor vehicle temperatures for the driver.
Additionally, by integrating this information with information from the local electric power grid,
an optimal EV charge can be chosen and usednot only in consideration of charging costs, but
also in consideration of electricity supply and demand. For example, the integrated system might
recommend that the driver reduce the power consumption of the EVs air conditioning system. In
order to build a system that provides such services, it is necessary to manage the integrated
information in ITS, Smart Grid, and other infrastructures. The core of the services will benefit all
users, and appropriate system operations will meet the requests of EV drivers.

6.2.4 Shift from cloud-oriented service to a hierarchically distributed


cloud service
Unifying the information in ITS and Smart Grid infrastructures might cause an increase in the
amount of data to manage. Although it will be possible to manage these large amounts of data in a
cloud, management and calculation costs might rise too much if local information everywhere is
centralized into a cloud, processed, and fed back again to local systems. Because of these
increased calculations and communication delays, currently existing cloud systems would be
difficult to use for real-time or time-critical services. Moreover, privacy management and control
should be considered, especially in the case of centralizing data into a cloud service.
For example, consider the Internet, which has a hierarchical structure. It is composed of xDSL,
WiFi, and passive optical network (PON) of fiber to the home (FTTH) in a local area; the edge
area of the structure is a tree, and the core area is composed of a mesh network. By using this
hierarchy, effective management of time-critical operations and privacy control can be
accomplished. In each layer of the hierarchical structure, pertinent information would be handled
directly with a contents-based processing scheme. In this scheme, simplified and abstracted
information is sent to a cloud to compress the size of information and achieve high performance
processing. Simultaneously, the cloud feeds back the control command issued by a simple
calculation into the lower layer to accomplish low-latency processing within a local area in
critical cases. This real-time processing is enabled by using a distributed cloud system. In the
future, this distributed cloud system integrates the information of ITS and the Smart Grid,
especially the stabilization of electric power grid, which requires delays of 10 ms or less. This
hard real-time application can be attained by not only a cloud service, but also through
cooperation with a distributed cloud service.

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6.2.5 Shift from message-passing communication to contents-


centric communication
Some Smart Grid standards such as IEEE 1888 use Extensible Markup Language (XML)-based
protocols, which have become popular for modern web services because they provide flexibility
for applications. However, XML-based processing is more complex compared with common bit-
operation-based protocols. In some cases, advanced string manipulation might be needed for the
text-based communications such as XML, and specified embedded hardware might be required to
process multiple character strings at high throughput.
Despite its complexity, the XML text-based protocol has significant merit. Message-passing
communication establishes a communication path between the sender and receiver with a
predefined purpose. In contents-centric communication, the sender might send information to a
cloud service. This service will not limit the distribution and will permit intermediate observation
of the contents.
When considering EV communications, its communication and information distribution area will
be generally limited to the immediate town or city. The HEMS information distribution area will
generally be limited to the dedicated house, although this area can vary by the layer of its
hierarchical structure and its target application. In future EV and HEMS messaging, the purpose
of the data usage will not be defined beforehand. That is, if the user who owns the information
permits its use to certain applications, then the size of the data varies according to the layer that
handles an XML message in order to solve a problem. While a message ascends to the upstream
of the network hierarchy, an appropriate layer inspects the message and uses the message to solve
a problem in an application. As a result, a message-passing system that communicates by having
a certain purpose and a clear destination and initiator address will be significantly changed to a
multipurpose unspecified-target communication by a contents-centric strategy. As a result, an
open system will be required. The infrastructure, including ITS and the Smart Grid, becomes a
source of unique and useful services, as well as providing Internet services by the open system.
Penetration of the text-based protocol requires the advancement in string processing hardware.
Modern microprocessors have an XML-parsing accelerator. As an enhancement of this function,
stream-based string processing accelerators or gzip compression-decompression hardware and
wire-rate key-value store management with a stream database will be required in the future
network traffic. These accelerator devices will be embedded in all network modules.

6.2.6 Shift from Smart Grid to Smart Community


As described, the Smart Grid and ITS have a particular affinity in providing integrated services.
In the future, various infrastructures using information technologies will be integrated into
systems accessed by EVs. For example, meteorological data can be used to obtain an exact
cruising distance estimate; medical history of a driver can be accessed in case of a highway
accident; and cost management information for an EV can be obtained. Although this information
would be used mainly in a local area, it can be enhanced and applied to the idea of a Smart
Community. A Smart Community would apply its collective knowledge and data to help enable
better city and highway designs, and would provide many applications related to power demand
and supply balancing. Such a unified infrastructure could also support effective services of
battery sharing of EVs and EV sharing.

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6.3 The future model of systems, operations, and services

Figure 6.2 Example structure of future systems, operations, ash services hierarchical
communication infrastructure integrating Smart Grid and ITS

As described in previous sections, a future integrated model of systems, operations, and services
would be constructed with a hierarchical structure similar to todays Internet (see Figure 6.2).
Objects including people, associated data including ID, and resources including energy are
migrated from a leaf of the structure, and community energy management system (CEMS)
endpoints to another leaf. The system manages these migrations. In data handling in the
migrations, there are two different management methods, which are frequently discussed as data
updating and data invalidation. An optimal data consistency model will be designed with CAP
theorem according to each requirement of an application because the CAP theorem proves the
existence of a trade-off between consistency, availability, and partition tolerance [2].
From the viewpoint of effective division of tasks, the cloud should achieve non-time-pressured
complex processing with a highly functional database management system (DBMS), a Core or
edge router or gateway should achieve time-pressured processing with on-memory DBMS, and
CEMS line terminals such as optical line terminal (OLT) of PON should achieve hard real-time

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processing with high-throughput simple database such as key-value store, or event driven
processing such as a stream database.
As shown in Figure 6.3, a hierarchical tree structured system is required to support data
capsuling, hard real-time operation, and data processing optimization. The figure shows an
example of a hierarchical structure of an information infrastructure by using PON and local
wireless networks.

Figure 6.3 Example of future hierarchical communication infrastructure with real-time


processing capability

A significant point here is that the move of one object or piece of data always has a linkage with
another move. If people move, an EV might move, which will also lead to a change in electric
power demand. This relationship means that optimal movement of people is important to obtain
efficient electric power management, or an optimal arrangement of locations is required to park
EVs in an EV sharing environment. If an EV moves, it means that the battery (an electric power
resource) moves. All of these moves involve indispensable information for electric power
resource management and demand and supply prediction. The system should handle the
information uniformly, and this management should be accomplished using a technology
standard. A system based on this kind of infrastructure and a standard can attain low cost.
Moreover, flexible and open services with many applications can be used. Recommended moves,
EV sharing, acting as a data broker for other services, automatic navigation of EVs considering
optimization of resource allocation, automatic grid control including EV charge prediction, and
demand prediction for electricity pricing are all examples of these services.

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6.4 Challenges and issues


All businesses are concerned with the essential question of how to earn money. Data content
providers and Internet service providers are primary players in this model (although the network
neutrality problem is still discussed in the network area). Carrier and infrastructure construction
are difficult to use as revenue generators, because the service is basically a constant rate tariff and
they have strong competition. In the proposed system, the carrier can also be a player by using the
deep packet inspection function in a network. The carriers can contract with content providers to
penetrate future rich services by using the inspected data.
Privacy control is an important issue in these services, and the Op-In method is the only current
method to make these services secure. In the future, privacy-preserving data publishing will be a
new field to preserve privacy information, by masking the information with k-anonymity, l-
diversity, and other methods. These discussions will help develop clear guidelines to use to
protect encapsulated privacy information.

6.5 Roadmap
2020s: Fundamental systems and some parts of the concepts are established and tested.
Some special business zones are established to confirm the privacy control.
2030s: Experimental systems are proposed and demonstrated. Proposed systems are
established and managed in a real community area such as a town or city.
2040s: Proposed systems are widely available, and they play an important role in a Smart
City or Smart Community.

6.6 Recommendations
The proposed systems envisioned here should be related to the knowledge of social capital, an
index of community interaction and support [1]. Currently, the relationship between social capital
and health, social capital and medical services, and social capital and energy-saving activity are
studied. In many cases, there are strong relationships, and social capital should be grown for
attaining a rich and good life. Multidisciplinary discussion is required to clarify the future
community with EVs and the Smart Grid.

6.7 Citations
[1] Dinh Phung, Guputa, S. K., Thin Nguyen, Venkatesh. S. 2013. Connectivity, Online
Social Capital, and Mood: A Bayesian Nonparametric Analysis. IEEE Transactions on
Multimedia 15, no. 6: 13161325.
[2] Gilbert, S., Lynch, N. A. 2012. Perspectives on the CAP Theorem. Computer 45, no. 2:
3036.
[3] Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency.
2012. EV City Casebook. [Online]. Available:
http://www.iea.org/evi/evcitycasebook.pdf.

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Chapter 7 Conclusions

The authors of this document explored a variety of concepts and viewpoints to derive a Smart
Grid vision for vehicle technology into the year 2030.
In Chapter 1, Social, Economic, and Political Implications, the authors developed a scenario of
a sustainable electrified transportation pathway that incorporates renewable energy generation.
Bulk energy storage technology and secondary use of batteries will play roles in the intelligent
grid infrastructure. An important aspect is the distributed energy storage by charging stations,
which, when controlled in context, can be compared to the capacity of utility-scale energy
storage.
Conventional electric vehicles (EV) can only be charged while stationary, either as plug-in
hybrids EV/EV or by battery swapping. In contrast, roadway-powered EVs can be charged by
wireless power transfer in both stationary and dynamic situations. The benefits of this technology
are simpler and lighter vehicle designs, all-electric propulsion, and downsized batteries.
From societal and economic perspectives, the broader the adoption of the concepts of the
electrified transportation pathway, the more affordable it will be for the consumer, which supports
the societal acceptance. Critical elements are the availability of a suitable charging station
infrastructure, and standardized interfaces between vehicle and infrastructure. The density of the
charging points and the price to charge will determine the household willingness to pay, which
can vary substantially between different societies and cities around the globe.
The creation of a smart next-generation infrastructure into a business platform with an open
architecture for third-party applications will offset a multitude of innovations and service
improvements. The services that are made available to the consumer will fuel the investment in
the further improvement of the infrastructure, similar to what we already witnessed with the
Internet.
In Chapter 2, Intelligent Vehicles and Grid Interaction, the authors discussed the principles of
intelligent vehicle charging. A key component is providing incentives to consumers to accept
controlled charging models; this acceptance will happen when 1) the process is highly automated,
and 2) the battery pack is assured a certain target energy state no later than a specified time. A
next step is the interactive energy storage to enable more advanced vehicle-to-grid systems,
where a unidirectional and a bidirectional battery charger needs to be distinguished. At present,
the unidirectional alternative should be preferred, both from a safety perspective and battery
lifecycle perspective. In the long run, after a suitable comprehensive communications

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infrastructure is in place, the bidirectional model will provide more flexibility. This development
is especially important to enable flexible vehicle-specific billing models that are location- and
utility-agnostic. Vehicle-to-grid systems will support the application of renewable energy sources.
Mobile inductive charging technology might be required to overcome the basic range-limitation
of plug-in EVs.
In Chapter 3, Infrastructure, the author described how the world is split into a mature
transportation market with fully developed and aging infrastructure, and an emerging market in
which new infrastructure systems are being developed. The challenge is to modernize existing
infrastructure while building new infrastructure, with a unified concept of standardized vehicle-
to-infrastructure interaction that fully synchronizes energy flow, transportation flow, and
communication flow.
The progress of the transportation electrification in combination with energy production from
renewable sources depends significantly on the further technological development of battery
technology and its economics, which ultimately has a major influence on technology options of
the charging infrastructure and the required density in target areas. Renewable energy sources can
play a significant role in low-density and remote locations, as well as in locations where solar
energy, wind energy, or both are plentiful.
The role of information and communication infrastructure in future transportation ecosystems is
significantly more important than today. Reaching all connected devices in a vehicle, and
managing the data transfer relationships between vehicle systems as mobile nodes and the data
transfer relationships to infrastructure systems as stationary nodes, requires a high-bandwidth,
high-performance network infrastructure and highly versatile cloud service platforms.
From a business model perspective, one of the biggest concerns is how to fund the capital-
intensive enhancements and developments of an intelligent transportation infrastructure. One of
the most promising concepts is collecting road usage fees based on vehicle miles travelled,
instead of collecting gas tax.
One of the biggest risks in deploying a charging infrastructure is locating the charging points
inefficiently and missing the demand patterns. Active controlled systems such as automated
parking and automated driving or assisted driving can help to optimize the use of charging
infrastructures.
The way drivers and passengers will use information services in a vehicle will change drastically,
especially in conjunction with better connectivity and the development of a large variety of
applications that support both the act of driving as well as spending time in a vehicle.
In Chapter 4, Travelers, the author described how the role of travelers will rapidly change as
they become more connected in a smart transportation ecosystem. The traveler can be considered
a mobile node that can optimize its movement in a multidimensional grid that considers optimal
energy used, optimal travel time used, minimum environmental impact achieved, and optimal
data connectivity reached. However, the freedom of choices gained by the connectivity can also
lead to privacy issues, in particular when the traveler decides to accept free-of-charge content and
free-of-charge services.
In Chapter 5, Communications, the authors explained how communication and networking
technologies act as enablers for the Smart Grid and the intelligent transportation system (ITS).
With a higher penetration rate of electrical vehicles, electronic and automated transactions will be
required as frequent charging and discharging activities become necessary. These activities will

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be combined with optimum routing and charging, where parameters from both the ITS and the
Smart Grid need to be jointly evaluated. In the future, automated parking capabilities will be
equipped with electricity-leveling capabilities to benefit EV owners.
By 2050, automatic driving coordination can be expected to become a reality, with the majority of
vehicles V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle)-enabled and V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure)-enabled. One
vision includes automated high-speed vehicle systems with dynamic wireless charging
capabilities that operate on highways within dedicated lanes.
The author expects that heterogeneous communication technologies are required to meet the
needs of the Smart Grid/ITS by 2050, when significant improvements of performance and energy
efficiency can be expected.
The envisioned communication infrastructure will consist of a multitude of networked devices
operating on various wired and wireless communication standards. As the convergence of ITS
and Smart Grid information will lead to a huge amount of data to be managed, a hierarchically
distributed cloud-oriented service architecture is recommended. Due to extensive data sharing
among the different users of the converged Smart Grid/ITS infrastructure, specific attention has to
be paid to privacy and safety concerns.
In Chapter 6, Systems, Operations, and Scenarios, we learned about the authors vision of the
future deployment of EVs in context with the infrastructure required. One important aspect is the
need to charge EVs at commercial buildings. This need requires connecting EVs onboard GPS
systems and V2I interfaces to existing building control networks.
Furthermore, it is essential to cooperatively manage ITS and Smart Grid information, in order to
bring power supply and demand in balance and to route the EV to an optimally located battery
charging system. It is recommended to enable real-time processing of the converged system by a
hierarchically distributed cloud service.
Reflecting upon all of the chapters in this document, we can see that the domains of ITS and
Smart Grid will ultimately converge, providing new opportunities to build an electrified
transportation ecosystem. A key aspect that will determine whether the projected scenarios
become true is whether significant progress will be made in battery and charging technologies
and their related economics. Information and communication technologies will further develop,
and are key enablers to operate the converged infrastructures as well as smart vehicles. In order to
finance the transportation infrastructure improvements, new business models need to be
established, such as the vehicle-miles-travelled model.

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