You are on page 1of 20

DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:

Kenmare Moma Processing


April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 1 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

MODULE 1

OPERATION OF A CONVEYOR
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 2 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

INTRODUCTION:

Injuries caused by machines are usually severe and permanent and in


some cases even fatal.

Belt conveyors fall under the above. So it is of the utmost importance that
all safety rules related to the above be adhered to when working on or in
the immediate area of the systems.

Conveyor belts are among the most important and expensive items in the
MSP. It is therefore appropriate that we examine the operation and carry
out daily checks to ensure the safe and efficient operation of the
conveyors.

It is important to know how the conveyor belt is driven so as to


understand why the belt slips.

The traction force to drive the belt is provided by the friction developed
between the belt and the drive pulley. If for any reason this friction is
reduced, then slipping occurs between the pulley and the belt.
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 3 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

A typical conveyor belt comprising of the following:

Head Pulley (or drive pulley)

Tail Pulley.

Troughing Idlers.

Return Idlers.

Impact Idlers.

Feed Chute & Discharge Chutes.

Conveyor Belt.

Hold Back safety device.

Scraper.

Tension pulley (or Take-up Pulley)

Speed Switch (Motion detector)

Conveyor Covers.
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 4 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Head Pulley (or drive pulley)

The pulley is mounted to a gearbox driven by an electrical motor. This


pulley is covered with rubber to prevent the belt from slipping when the
belt is very wet or overloaded.

All pulleys are fitted with guards which prevent a person from putting his
hands or any cleaning objects between the pulley and belt, this is referred
to as a Nip Point.
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 5 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Tail Pully:

The tail pulley is situated at the rear end of the belt and is normally the main
pulley to be adjusted when the belt needs to be tensioned or runs off track.

NOTE:

Any adjustment made to tension the conveyor belt e.g. the alignment
of the tail pulley will cause the belt to run off-centre.
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 6 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Troughing Idlers:

Troughing idlers are consist of a horizontal roller in the centre and a angled
idler on each side.
The angled idlers partially fold the conveyor belt at each end which assists to
contain the mineral in the centre of the belt in order to prevent spillage.

Angled
Idler

Angled
Idler

Horizontal
Idler

Note: idlers that are not turning must be replaced before they wear through
the casing as they will damage the conveyor belt.
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 7 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Return Idlers

Return idlers support the conveyor belt on the return (bottom) side of the
belt.
They must also be replaced if not turning in order to prevent belt damage

Return Idler
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 8 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Impact Idlers
Impact idlers are normally installed under large feed hoppers where a large
amount of mineral falls onto the conveyor belt at one time.
A typical example is the HMC Feed hopper that is loaded by a Front End
Loader.

Impact Idler

The rollers are made out of hard rubber and with heavy duty roller bearings
to handle the heavy load that falls onto the belt.
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 9 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Feed & Discharge chutes:

Mineral is fed onto a conveyor by means of a feed chute.


Feed Chutes come in all shapes and sizes but are all designed to contain the
impact of mineral into the centre off the conveyor belt in order to minimize
spillage.

Conveyor Discharge Hopper


Conveyor Feed Hopper

A Conveyor discharge chute transfers mineral to the next stage of a


process, examples: to an Elevator, another conveyor or to process
equipment.
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 10 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Conveyor Belt

A conveyor belt consists of a number of plies (layers) which can vary


depending on the load that it has to carry.

The top and underside layer of a belt is made out of rubber, sandwiched
between these two layers you will find a number of layers made out of
woven nylon.
In some heavy duty cases a fine wire mesh or strands are used, which
gives the conveyor belt its extra strength.

Conveyor Belt

Belts can be joined by cold or hot vulcanising(called splicing) or steel


clips.
Splicing is done by exposing the layers on each end of the belt then joined
together with vulcanizing glue.

Conveyor belting is flammable and is not oil resistant(high temperature


belts are available)
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 11 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Hold Back Safety device.

The hold back is a safety device, which prevents the belt from running
backwards, should the drive motor trip or sop under load.
The back stop is located within the drive motor gearbox.

Inclined conveyors are more susceptible to run back because of the angle
that they operate at.

Belt Scraper.

A Belt scraper is installed on the return side of the belt at the discharge
pulley end.
A scraper is used when wet or moist mineral is conveyed, this is because
when the mineral is wet a small amount of mineral stays on the belt.

The wet mineral either falls off on its way


back towards the tail pully which then creates
spillage or when it arrives at the tail pulley it
builds up between the belt and pulley.
Spillage on the tail pulley will cause the belt
to go off track. Belt Scraper

Always ensure that the belt scrapers are


working properly and if not, report it to your Mineral
Supervisor.

Discharge
Hopper
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 12 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Take Up Pulley:

This system maintains the belt tension by means of weights acting under
gravity. The tension pulley carries the weights which moves vertically
between slide pipes or rails and operates on the return side of the
conveyor belt.

The purpose of take-up devices in belt conveyors is to establish and


preferably to maintain predetermined tension in the belt at some critical
point.

"Take-up Pulleys derive their name from the fact that they take up
changes in belt length. In taking up length, they maintain tension, which is
their primary purpose.

Two types of take ups are used on belt


conveyors.

Manual take-up:

Manual take-up, are usually screw


operated and permit moving the tail pulley
to tighten the belt.

These screw take-up devices, give no


indication of the tension they establish and
are adjusted by trial methods until belt Tail Pulley Adjustment Slide
slippage is avoided.
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 13 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:

Take Up Pulley Contd:

Automatic take-up:

Automatic take-up devices maintain a predetermined tension, at the point


of take-up regardless of length changes resulting from load changes.
stretch etc.

Usually automatic take-up devices depend on gravity. These take-up


devices are located at any point along the return run or at the tail pulley of
the conveyor.

Conveyors at the MSP use take-up devices on the


belt return side with vertical weights to provide the
proper tension, this type of take up is normally
installed on long conveyors such as the HMC Feed
Conveyor to the Dryer. Tension
Pulley

Weights

Slide Cage

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 14 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

Speed Switch
A speed switch is installed primarily to prevent damage to the conveyor
belt.
A proximity switch is installed on the side of the tail pully, welded to the
side of the tail pulley are a number of flat steel plates.
As the pulley rotates the proximity switch picks up the steel plates as they
rotate past it (this can be confirmed by a flashing LED on the proximity
switch)
The plant PLC counts the number of times the proximity switch is
activated, if the count drops below a certain point the conveyor will
automatically stop.

A drop in the count level indicates that the


conveyor has started to slip.

A slipping conveyor indicates that:

The belt is overloaded.


The belt is off track and running
against the conveyor steel work.

In both of the above cases the conveyor belt could be badly damaged, that
is why it is automatically stopped.

The reason why the proximity switch is fitted to the tail pulley is that if it
was on the head pulley the belt could snap but the drive motor will still
keep on turning the head pulley.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 15 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

Conveyor Covers

The purpose of covers inside the plant is to prevent contamination fro


spillage, mainly on final product conveyors.
They are also used to protect the mineral from rain, especially outside
conveyors that feed dryers.

Safety

Trip wires:

It is a legal requirement that all conveyor belts are fitted with an


emergency trip wire along the length of the conveyor, on the side(s) that
can be accessed by plant personnel.

Pulling the trip wire will stop the belt; the belt will not re-start unless the
trip switch is reset.

If the Trip Flag as shown is in the


vertical position it is not activated. In
the horizontal position the trip wire has Trip Flag
been pulled.

To reset it must be pushed back to the


Trip Wire
vertical position
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 16 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

Safety

Alarms:

All conveyors must have a pre start up siren to warn any personnel that
are on or close to a conveyor.
As soon as the start button is pushed and providing the trip switches are
reset and it is not isolated in the MCC, the alarm will sound for a time
period of 30 seconds before the belt drive motor starts.

Starting a Conveyor:

Before starting a conveyor always ensure that the following checks


are carried out:

Check that nobody is working on or under the conveyor.

Ensure that all safety guards are in place and all are secured.

Check the head, tail and pulleys for any mineral build-up

NOTE:

Mineral build-up on pulleys can cause conveyor belts to run off-


centre; this will cause spillage or damage to the conveyor belt.
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 17 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

Safety

Starting a Conveyor

Before starting a conveyor always ensure that the following checks


are carried out:

Check the conveyor for any missing or holed idlers. Missing or holed
idlers can tear the belt.
Check for build-up and blockages in the feed Chute.
Ensure that the safety alarm is sounded before starting the conveyor.
The alarm warns people in the vicinity that it is about to start up.

Stopping a Conveyor:

Always stop the mineral feeding onto the first conveyor in a circuit, to
allow the down stream conveyors to run empty.
Stop the conveyor by pressing the stop button on the Scada system.
The conveyor can also be stopped by pulling the emergency pull cord
or the local stop button.

The conveyors are electrically driven and as such have moving


parts which are considered hazardous areas. No work is to be
performed on any pump without first performing the
prescribed lock out procedure.

Safety
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 18 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

General safety rules:

No person may work on any conveyor unless a MSP permit to


work and isolation procedure has been applied.

No person may touch a moving conveyor for the purpose of cleaning


it either by hand, spade, scraper or other spillage cleaning tool

Ensure tail, head and nip point guards are in position and in good
order.

All units start-up automatically. Keep away from any conveyor, which
appears to be standing, particularly if you hear the start-up siren or
warning.

Never poke your fingers or other objects through the mesh guarding of
any unit.

Persons assigned to clean around conveyors must be aware of their


potential dangers especially when working near tail pulleys.

Never push a shovel or other tool under or inside a guard to remove


spillage.

All conveyor emergency pull cords must be in place and in working


condition (to be physically tested on each maintenance day)

Safety
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 19 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

General safety rules:

.
No person may climb over or ride on a moving conveyor.

Do not use compressed air to blow belts clean.

Ensure that the conveyor start-up siren activates before starting up a


conveyor

Do not climb into any operating conveyor feed or discharge hopper in


order to remove rubbish, or for any other reason.

Do not remove any safety guards from a operating conveyor for the
purposes of cleaning or any other duty.

Always replace any guards, which have been removed before starting
the unit
.
Make use of the emergency pull cord to stop the belt should an unsafe
condition arise or use the local push button if closer to you.

Never start a conveyor that is without a safety guard or if the safety


guard is defective.

Safety
DATE: Kenmare Moma Mining (Mauritius) Limited PAGE:
Kenmare Moma Processing
April 2010 (Mauritius)Limited 20 OF 20
ISSUE: NO.1 REVISION: NO.1
EFF. DATE OF DOCUMENT TITLE
SUPERSEDED REV. RELEASED BY
Training module on the Operation of a ADMINISTRATION
Last saved by DJ. Rowland Conveyor

General safety rules:

Report any guarding defects or other unsafe conditions on conveyors


to your Supervisor without delay.

Do not remove any safety guards from a conveyor during operation


for the purpose of cleaning or other duties. Always replace any guards,
which have been removed before de isolating the unit