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1 What is pop?
, ln 1956, a young man from the fun, it can be dangerous. For the
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south of the United States made a people who work in the pop
record called Heartbreak Hotel. business, it is usually about
The young man was Elvis Presley. making money. For most people,
Eight million people bought his ºit is about having a good time.
record and it went straight to Pop is for now.
number one in the US charts.
lt was the first of many hits for
Elvis and it was also one of the
first modem pop records.
'Pop' is popular m usic: the
music of the people. There has
always been popular music, but
pop was born around the time
that Elvis began singing - more
than forty years ago . Pop songs
are about girls and boys, going
out, dancing, having a good time, Pop can be fun : Roy Wood
being in love and being out of
love. Pop is for the young. lt is Most pop doesn't mean very
about growing up and about not much. And yet, now and then,
growing up. lt is about feeling pop says something importam in
different. Pop tells you a beautiful way. There are some
it is OK to feel the songs and sounds which speak to
way you do. Pop everyone. This book tells you
can be happy or about some of the great stars and
sad. It can be the great sounds of pop during
strange, it can be the last forty years.

Pop ca n be strange: Alice Cooper

They had money . . and rock and singer and he was differcnt. Elvis Before Elvis. Young playi~g R and B. They had money to Heartbreak Hotel. Sudden ly he buy electric guitars. he heard bla. Presley was bom in Forty years ago in the United 1935 in Tupelo.2 2 The fifties So how did it all begin ? was a boy. the music of the church. and gospel music in his parems' gospel. different kinds of popular music: When he was a boy. there were already many carne from a poor white family. They began was famou s and he was rich. Girls roll. looked good.ck music. H e made his people had jobs. first record in 1954 and in 1956 to buy radios and to listen to the he had his first number one hit: new records. he was a great rhythm and blues. church and he heard black people America was rich. white music. liked him . most young Elvis Presley listened to these people were like their mothers different kinds of music when he Black music: John Lee Hooker White music: Hank Williams '. Boys wanted to be like him. H e to play the new music: R and B . Mississippi: He States.

He was the man who. Young people wanted to be different. there than any other changed pop music: Elvis. millions have been many stars of pop and still remember him and still call many different kinds of music. started the story of pop. Jerry Lee Lewis. Since the 1950s. Sounds of the fifties Listen to singles from Elvis like: Heartbreak Hotel.the King of Rock But in the 1950s. Forty Years of Pop . 3 and fathers. Eddie Cochran. They wanted different clothes. Presley's later life was not so ha ppy. Gosp el music . Hound Dog. Elvis was the first star of rock and roll. Today.çecords o. ln the seventies he sang in Las Vegas.f other great names from the 1 950s~ Chuck Berry. And to the . the first pop s'tar. Buddy Holly. they did the sarne things. They had different music. They wore the sarne clothes. him the King . everything changed. but he had problems with drugs Girls liked E/vis and died in 1977. He ma de some bad records and bad films. jailhouse Rock. one man more and Roll. After Elvis. Little Richard. more than any other. Lave Me Tender..

Mountain High) and girl groups like The Ronettes.4 3 The sixties (1): the USA Some people call the sixties a group of (older!) British pop golden time for pop. Phil Spector. there was the black sou! music of Marvin Gaye and Otis Redding. was the surfing sound of the Beach Boys: the most successful American group of the sixties. became big number one? . the record producer. Sloop John B. kinds of pop carne from the rock Ih Detroit (Motown. The Beach Boys go surfing One new kind. a British pop magazine asked a Motown: The Supremes ' . the city of and roll of the fifties. the motor car). was building something he called the Wall of Sound with mainly black singers. here too. from California. And many different Sounds. Pop became music writers to name the best a voice for millions of young pop album of all time: their people and it. like Ike and Tina Turner (River Deep.Brian Wilson's Pet business. Brian Wilson wrote most of their songs (God Only Knows. H e was always trying to do new things with his music. Good Vibrations). ln 1995.

Otis Redding Bob Dylan . Dylan also died from drugs. then 300. But songs in modem music like Ali this was the year that Brian Jones along the Watchtower. And a showed that pop music can be young man was killed while The exciting and serious. They listened to the What's Going On.. Cal ifornja... Rolling Stones played at a concert The 1960s was a time when in Altamont..Forty Years of Pop 5 And there was also the completely Hendrix. One year later.. who guitarists of rock. Mr of the Rolling Stones died because Tambourine Man and A Hard of drugs. Marvin Gaye's to the world... More than started as a folk singer. Bob Dylan's Highway 61 and rhythm and blues of the Revisited. He wrote some of the best listen to this kind of music. sex and drugs and rock music Sounds of the sixties (USA) (the kind of music which carne Listen to the Beach Boys' Pet straight from the rock and róll Sounds. The Velvet psychedelic music of groups like Underground aríd Nico's The The Grateful Dead and of Jimi Velvet Underground.. Jimi Hendrix's Are You fifties) would give love and peace Experienced?. one of the great different voice of Bob Dylan.000 people went to the changed to an electric guitar in Woodstock Festival in 1969 to 1966. lt was many young people believed that the end of the dream. Hendrix Rain's A-Gonna Fali.-.

their hair w ere different hits in the UK. but about their groups which changed pop music clothes. and they stopped working together campletely in 1970. Paul M cCartney. but whole world seemed to go crazy the sixties was also a golden time about the Beatles: not just about for pop in the UK.' they were freer. Two of the their music. The Beatles had eighteen number one The Beatles. new kind of energy and Lennon and McCartney wrote great The Beatles songs.6 4 The sixties (2): the U K In the 1950s. After that they only made records. George Between 1963 and 1969. a man killed John . Their music was fu ll of a and The Rolling Stones. the way they most were English: the Beatles talked. things. But they stopped playing in front of people in 1966. always trying to do new The Beatles were John Lennon. and Ringo Starr. But the were from Liverpool. Pop music Beatles' records had the top five changed too. They tried to be like Elvis. The music carne from the USA. for the young people of the rich they were the most famous group world. their ha ir. Two years 1960s was a time of big changes after their first record in 1962. M ost of the new places in the US charts. ln 198 0. They had more money and in the world: in M arch 1964. Their c/othes. so the Beatles can never play a concert together again. many pop stars H arrison. But the . Lenno:p in a street in New York. Then they started to disagree.

The Rolling Stones: the bad boys of rock . Sounds of the sixties {UK) Listen to The Beatles' Sergeant Pepper and R evolver. They thirty years ago. but the Rolling Stones. The Kinks' Collection.. Mick Their songs will last Jagger. Their Get No Satisfaction and music is not as strong as it was Sympathy for the D evi!. The Rolling Ston~s Young people and old liked the Beatles. Their singer. They had problems with the police because of drugs. They didn't smile. they looked angry. Keith Richard.still go to see them. The music of tbe Stones was angry too.___7_ Beatles' music will always live.. The Who's Who is Better. The Beatles gave something new and exciting to pop.-. were the bad boys of rock. Forty Years of Pop . But millions - made their first record in 1962 young and old . and guirarist. wrote some of the great and they are still playing today. from London. The Rolling Stones' Beggar's Bapquet and Let It Bleed.. songs of rock: songs like I Can't Now they are very rich. They call themselves 'the grearest rock and roll band in tbe world'.-.-. Cream's Disraeli Gears. Who is Best.

. Zeppelin. stronger kind of music. was both a ln New York. Progressive rock. carne from the psychedelic music of the sixties. There were not so many new and interesting sounds. pop music started to get boring. Robert Plant. started in 1968 with Punk and the Sex Pistols singer Jimmy Page and guitarist Things were different in the USA. ln the US. Leâ mus1c. punk was just another kind of music. .8 5 The seventies Progressive rock and heavy metal ln the early seventies. T hey wanted to wake people up. T hey wore strange new clothes: it was called the glam look. But in Britain.the music CfÍ the seventies. This was the start of punk . hard rock or heavy metal group. Pink Floyd played long concerts Heavy metal is very loud rock wit4 big light shows. bands like The progressive group and the first Stooges and The New York Dolls were making a new. played by groups like Pink Floyd and Progressive: Pink F/oyd Genesis. when John Lydon changed his name to Johnny Heavy metal: Led Zeppelin . Two of the more interesting kinds of pop were progressive rock and heavy metal.

a film Mo on.. the most different thing since .. It was angry because there was a lot to be angry about: Johnny Rotten many young people were poor. Pink of music was also popular at the Floyd's The Dark Side of the sarne time: disco.Greatest Di sco Hits.. with music from the Bee was very different from the !ove Gees. Sid Clash. he too was dead like The Bee Gees and the from drugs. there was No Future.-. Punk music was ugly because life was ugly. Punk dancing. .. .. ln 1978. made disco tl-}e most and peace of the sixties.. While punks...Sid Vicious .the Beatles. punk. lt was not the end of Swedish group. many young people were still But the Pistols were stars for listening to punk bands like The only three years. Abba. A few sound was the music of groups months later. For the popular music of the time.. the new international Vicious killed his girlfriend.joined in 1976). Listen to Abba's Gold . as so often in pop. The Sex Pistols' Here's the called Saturday Night Fever. young people immediately knew that this was differ~nt. Stevie Wonder's about disco life and disco I nnervisions. but it was the end for the Sounds of the seventies Pistols. Their music was loud and unmusical..-....many did not have jobs. ln 1977. Fali of Ziggy Stardust. Sex ?istols.Forty Years of Pop .. David Bowie's The Rise and And yet. Led another completely different kind Zeppelin's Led Zeptfelin IV. 9 L------1 Rotten and joined The Sex Pistols in 1975 (John Beverley . But that didn't matter..

making hit was not the angry sound of the records with his brothers in The Sex Pistols. Pop was bec. interested in selling records and making money. A lot of it was like old pop. There were new sounds made by . but it star when he was six. But there were differences. The other was a woman . ln the eighties.10 6 The eighties computers and synthesizers (see pages 14-15). with bands like Blondie Michael Jackson singing simple three-minute songs again. Pop was big business. And New Romantics like Duran Duran and Culture Club were not angry either. not like punk. most stars were white men. one of the Culture Club biggest stars was black. and pop stars were business people as well as musicians.oming more and more international: young people in Japan were now spending more money on records than in any country outside the USA. New pop Michael Jackson The new pop of the early eighties The biggest superstar of the was 'new' mainly because it was eighties was Michael Jackson. Some New Wave Michael Jackson was already a music had a punk sound. Before. And the new superstars of the eighties were also different.

Madonna. which from the life of most people. . __ . Takes A Nation Of Millions To her music was loud. decided Thriller. H e helped the songs to do well. she was always on TV.____11 _ Jackson Five. When he was older. with Madonna often showed herself in animais and children as his contrai of men. Prince's Purple Rain. more difficult for him to be as Madonna showed the way to popular as he was in the eighties. Jackson was the richest ~tar in an important way for women to pop. U2's The ]oshua disco music. exciting H old Us Back.-..and many are now following.. he made more hits. M ichael Jackson is still people went to see her. She said that sex was Tree.. morethan Listen to Michael Jackson's any woman singer before. H e was already rich when he bought the Beatles' songs and these made him even richer. Madonna The other eighties superstar was Sounds of the eighties Madonna.. but it is now films. Thousands of friends.. was a very good Collection. other women in pop . what she did and controlled what Madonna 's The Im'maculate she did.. And in her videos. H e was a wonderful dancer: he had a new dance called the Moonwalk. Public Enemy's It dancer and. she made making hit records. fast. His life was very different be free. like Michael Jackson. Pop videos were becoming almost as important as pop records and Jackson's videos were new and exciting. She. lived alone in a big house. too. Madonna in contrai By the end of the eighties. He was also a dever businessman. Forty Years of Pop .

the city streets. ln the seventies. Rap. new styles of music were coming They speak their words fast over from all over the w9rld . The rock and roll of the fifties carne from black music.Salsa music. and the words funk was the black bridge were about life on the city streets. And rappers talk more than they sing. Black music has always been important to the story of pop. between rock and disco. was the music of international stars. like punk and many more.12 7 The nineties Rap The most important new music of the nineties was rap. jockey) taking sounds from Township Pop from South Africa different records. which can come from live from Latin America. But by the early nineties. Groups music since punk. Bob Marley and the Rap: Pub/ic Enemy Wailers from Jamaica gave reggae to the world and became in the seventies. . twenty years before. Highlife and musicians or from a DJ (disc Afrobeat from West Africa. American blacks made sou! music and Motown. one in five records World music bought in the US was rap. Rap changed pop in the nineties Rap was not new in the as much as punk did in the nineties: it started in New York seventies. lt was By the nineties. music was the most important kind of new international big business. ln the eighties. ln the sixties. were now playing and selling Rap is different because records all over the world.

This is perhaps why the death of Kurt Cobain of N irvana was so important to young people at this time. 13 and the danger of AIDS. a feelíng which comes from the danger in the streets. Sounds of the nineties Listen to N irvana's Nevermind. 's Automatic for the People. R. Many kinds of pop Grunge The feeling of danger is not just in rap. from Seattle in the United States.M. Kurt Cobain. These were the things he sang about and which he seemed to understand before he killed himself. and to talk about these feelings. There is a dark feeling to other kinds of music of the nineties.E. wanted to go back to the music of rock and roll. Soul to Soul's Club Classics Volume 2. died 1994 . Ice Cube's The Predator. Grunge music.

computers are very vinyl. M any of the best -selling sounds of the nineties are not made by pop groups. but by DJs (disc jockeys) and samplers working with all the sounds from forty years of pop. the CD (compact disc) DJ Killerm an Jaro: t he music of the nineties . ln the sixties.. ln the sixties. T he record itself was made of Today. The sound was changing too . records were important. ln the fifties. and more expensive.14 8 The changing sound of pop songs on it. the covers had pictures and photos on them. ln the early eighties. And samplers can became more important. records like Elvis's musicians st arted to use a H eartbreak H otel were singles: machine called a synthesizer. But as the technology The a/bum covers were in teresting. not just · for pop. Sequencers can make still made of vinyl. So the sixties was a golden time. too changed. Because albums were bigger. An take any· sound or any part of any album usually had ten to fifteen other record and make it into part of a new sound or a new song. it got longer. made many different sounds. but for pop pictures. but the album the sounds of other musical or LP (long playing record) instruments. ln the fifties making a recor d was simple.. a they had just one song on the A kind of electronic piano which side (and another on the B side).

Forty Years of Pop . 15 '------ pop. for thirty years the new interest in the early years of most popular live band in the US.-. CDs guitarist of rock.. Jerry Garcia: guitarist with the Because of the CD..-... Eric Clapton and Jerry Garcia .. and now record are Jimi Hendrix: the great companies do not make LPs. so the young people of today can buy and listen to the pop from any time. this time as CDs.... Eric Clapton: give a very clean sound and the the great guitarist of the blues.. The old records of the sixties are now in the shops again.-.r players since started to become more important pop was bom. The guitar Pop music is made in many different ways but the musical instrument of pop is still the From the single to the LP to the CD electric guitar.. sound stays good for longer. Three of the best than the LP... Jimi Hendrix. There have been many great guita. there is also a Grateful Dead.

live concert. You feel very happy. The people call for more everybody . The noise is very loud. But then the need air.three with guitars and one behind the drums. They are tired. the place is dark then a loud voice says: 'lt's time. The music gets louder and louder..' 'Let's go home. you feel The place is full of people.~ 16 9 Listening to pop You're standing in the dark.' 'They were really great. Many smaller concerts now are not so very Suddenly the lights are on and the place is full of sound. You see your friends. Some people in the crowd are jumping up and down. Now You've been waiting a long time. And mu sic stops. People start to leave.' This is the pop concert: one of the best ways to get the real feeling of pop music is going to a And the band b egins to play . again. But it's exciting. lt's hot._. 'They were good tonight. And the band begins to play. There are four people on the stage . You can't see anything. Coloured lights move fast round the stage ~ave: music you can dance to . everyone is dancing. You outside yourself.' 'They were great. and across the crowd.they're here!' but the band has gone..

.. Two the most important people in pop. it is very fast . For many young than f40 million to help the poor people today.. samplers and the important pop concerts were: machines they work with to make • The Woodstock Festival in new sounds. Live Aid changed the music is rave music. of the biggest and the most But today.. of young people go to dance all • The Live Aid concert of night to different kinds of non- 1985. so is the way we listen Great pop happenings: Live Aid 1985 and Woodstock 7969 . which happened at the stop house music like techno and sarne time in London and jungle.. DJs.180 television by millions of people all beats a minute . can dance to. For most of the time.... This music is made by Philadelphia.. the best kind of of Africa. and was watched on computer.and usually has over the world. Raves.. are 300.. are justas New York State in 1969... a important. They gave more no words..000 people and the best like big parties where thousands American bands of the time. But just as the sound of pop is changing... thirty years ago.Forty Years of Pop . music you pop.. which began in three-day concert with more than England in the early nineties. music which way many older people feel about makes you feel happy.. There have also singers and musicians have been been some very big concerts. 17 ~-- different to the ones of twenty or to pop.

you can choose your own Dylan....... c. ~~.... o...::~... . all can decide who will be a star. the grandfathers Latin America.. pop is for everyone. more than of pop .. Bob ever. MTV (Music Television) they can sell.~~ . as well as young listen to it. These · twenty-four hours a day on your companies are very rich.. but not always the goes to more than 250 million bands whose music is good.. pop is everywhere.... pop did not have pop the sarne everywhere. from your Walkman.18 1O Pop today .. -:. kind of music from many are now the first old people to different kinds. They homes in 60 countries. at three records in the world come the airport. make pop music: and old people Today pop is big business... from help the bands whose records the TV..'ks OpUon• Dlr9c:lo Holp Nohu o: DHlt : Wbot•• th• SI 1 ~d-éJ. They radio.. Two in every in the street.the Rolling Stones.. Today. Peter Gabriel: now he's on computer Read about your favourite band on the Internet 4l rue Ull Ulew &o •ootm.~ ~~~ _J .and tomorrow Today. Eric Clapton. in the big shops... But MTV has not made ]ailhouse Rock.=. When watching pop videos of ali kinds Elvis made Heartbreak Hotel and of music...... .. Elton John . You can get pop from just five companies. It is records every year.. ....:n .. MTV a past and pop was for the young. Asia is not the sarne as MTV in Forty years later..:-~:::~-=:. People spend 35 billion dollars on Today.

you can see him play and pictures on the walls. words of 550 of Bob Dylan's not just the music.-. Or pay for a new record. These are some of the new happier or sadder... But many things of different musical instruments.-. but the songs. stay the sarne.-.-... The technoartist listen to the music and you can works at the side of the music D]. use the sounds things in pop...on your computer.. and get the pick up a guitar and make some. you can from computers. change it: make it faster or slower. put on a record or go to a concert You can read the latest news and listen to some of the great about some bands. 19 ~---· Techno: The Orb Enjoy some of the great sounds of pop Today you can get pop from music through the Internet into your computer. You can buy a your computer..Forty Years of Pop . CD-ROM which gives you the And next time you go dancing. Reading about pop Today you can get pop through is fine. could come On pop CD-ROMs. time with the music. . ask for and sounds of pop for yourself. moving in hear him sing . why-'don't you your computer on the Internet.. but now.

2 Bob Dylan changed to an electric guitar in 1963. 2 The Beatles were from London. 1 Where does Highlife come from? 2 What is the most important music of the nineties? 3 Which American city did Nirvana come from? . 3 Brian Wilson died of drugs in 1969.r st hit? 3 Where did he sing in the seventies? The Sixties (1): The USA Are these sentences true (T) or fa lse (F)? 1 Brian Wilson wrote songs for The Beach Boys. The Sixties (2): The UK Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)? 1 The Beatles' first record was in 1962. 1 Who was the biggest superstar of the eighties? 2 What was the name of his new dance? 3 How old was he when he was first a star? The Nineties Find answers to these questions. 1 When was Elvis bom? 2 What was the name of his fi. 3 The Beatles had eighteen number one hits between 1963 and 1969. 1 What kind of music did Pink Floyd play? 2 What kind of music did Led Zeppelin play? 3 What kind of music did The Sex Pistols pl ay? The Eighties How much can you remember? Check your answers.20 Exerci ses A Checking your understanding The Fifties How much can you remember? Check your answers. The Seventies Find answers to these questions.

4 Next time you go dancing. and now record companies do not make LPs. 2 Write a story about a boy or girl who becomes a famous pop star... 2 People spend .. not just the music . 2 Because albums were bigger.. 4 Many sounds of the nineties are not made by pop groups at ali . 21 ~--- B Working with language 1 Put together the beginnings and endings of these sentences.-.. . 3 Two in every three records in the world . Check your answers on pages 14 and 15........ ....-. 1 ln the sixties.. 3 The CD started to become more important than the LP .. but by DJs and samplers working with all the sounds from the last forty years of pop.. 1 MTV (Music Television) goes to . but the album or LP became more important.. D Project work Write a short history of a singer or a band that you like a lot. 6 . the covers had pictures on them . C Activities 1 Write a short report on why you like (or don't like) pop music. and so the sixties was a golden time for pop pictures. records were still made of vinyl . 2 Complete these sentences....Forty Years of Pop ........ 7 ... ... Check your answers on pages 18 and 19.. 8 . 5 .....

instrument something you use to or your body to when you listen. We also say hear when you listen to music that people who a~e full of life ugly not beautiful have lots of energy wore past tense of 'to wear' .22 Glossary AIDS a killer illness which people fun having funis having a good get through sex or blood time band a pop group hit a record which a lot of people beat the sound in a piece of buy music which you move your feet.is what you 1 cars and lights work. you like it a lot and whiçh you need to think about you think about it a lot more carefully.. chart a list of the best-selling not music made just for a record records of the week psychedelic psychedelic music concert when a singer or a group tries to make people see colours make music in front of a lot of and hear sounds in the same way people that psychedelic drugs do company a business which sells record a thin. make musical sounds: the guitar you can count three or four main is an instrument beats in most pieces of music live live music is made ata concert bought past tense of 'to buy' or on TV with people watching. Serious things are not just for fun drugs drugs are dangerous things which people eat or smoke or put single a record with only one into their bodies song on each side energy we need energy to make sound the sound. round piece of something to make money plastic with music recorded on it crazy if you are crazy about serious something important something.