Public Archaeology Programs Standardization Committee




Prefield Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of the Project Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permits and Permission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AdvanceNotice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Records Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fieldwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Survey Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cultural Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recording Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postfield Activities

3 3

4 4

5 6 6


18 19 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 22 22 23

The Survey Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Administrative Summary (Abstract) and Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proposed Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Project Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FieldMethods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Survey Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SummaryandRecommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attachments, Data Compendia,andAppendixes ........................... General Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Appendix 1: Glossary of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Appendix 2: Summaries of Legislation Affecting Cultural Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Appendix 3: Survey Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Appendix 4: Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

1 . Example of an inappropriate field map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 . A better and more complete tield map of the site shown in Figure 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 . A well-mapped historic site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4. General UTM information in USGS topographic quadrangle legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ........................ 5. Section of USGS quadrangle showing locational markings 14 6 . Templates for measuring UTM coordinates and quartering sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

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This manual is providedas a basic guide to survey techniques, procedures, and report preparation. Surveys are the first phase of archaeological fieldwork and are designed to locate and properly documentarchaeological sites and other cultural resources within a project area. Archaeological surveys can be oriented toward cultural resource management (CRM) or can be conducted for research purposes. All cultural properties encountered during survey should be recorded on appropriate forms, including sites, historic buildings, and irrigation canals, as well as whatever else the client or research design requires, A CRM survey is initiated by a client, who defines the project area and the types of landaltering activities that will occur. When a survey is conducted for research purposes the project area should be defined in the research design. During both CRM and research-oriented surveys, the archaeologist must operate within a legal framework dictated by a mix of local, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Summaries of some of the pertinent regulations are included in Appendix 2. CRM project an archaeologist agrees to provide information needed by the client to fulfill the requirements of historic preservation laws, This includes completing fieldwork and reporting in a timely manner, and providing information needed by the client. Done properly, the product should be clear and concise. The objective of CRM work is document to cultural resources as fully and accurately as possible, identify their importance, and determine how the resources relate to the proposed undertaking while at the same time providing documentation that meets the requirements of the various review agencies. Hence, itisimportant to pay close attention to every detail to minimize impacts to cultural properties and prevent costly delays and unnecessary expenses for the client. Researchoriented surveys must balance their data requirements with those of land managing agencies. While this type of survey is rarely aimed at gathering resource management data, that information is needed and often required by land managers. Similarly, while research oriented surveys do notusually operate under the same time constraints as CRM surveys do, report requirements are generally the same. A full report of survey activities and results is usually required within a certain amount of time after completionof fieldwork, whether the survey w s CRM-oriented a or not.

No matter what type of survey is being conducted, an archaeologist must work within the guidelines of pertinent historic preservation regulations. Aspects that might be regulated include types of data recorded, collection policies, and deadlines for reporting results. In accepting a

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Several steps must be completed before fieldwork can begin. Various land managing agencies have requirements for prior notification, survey techniques, and reporting. The archaeologist should know whatthese requirements are before beginning a survey. It is also necessary to know whether or not sites were previously recorded in the project area, Failure to follow proper procedures can cause problems with federal, state, and tribal officials, and at worst can result in permit forfeiture. Each survey project, no matter how large or small, should follow the same steps in preparing for fieldwork, Definition of the Proiect Area The project area is the zone that will be examined by a survey. In CRM work it is the area in which construction or other land-altering activities will occur and is defined bythe client. In research surveys the project area is defined by the interests of the archaeologist or the requirements of the research design. When conducting a CRM survey, additional land is sometimes examined around the perimeter of a project area to determine whethercultural resources occur just beyond project boundaries. This area shouldlabeled be and referred to separately. Jointly, the project and area any additional survey areas can be referred to as the inventory or survey area. Be specific in defzning these zones. Carelessly worded descriptions could be taken as permission toconduct land-altering activities outside the project area. The client should provide engineering plans or USGS topographic quadrangles showing the project area. Project supervisors should acquire the latest editions available and the appropriate USGS topographic quadrangles. Project boundaries should be clearly defined and provided. Land ownership must be determined before beginning a survey, and permission to conduct an archaeological survey should alwaysbe obtained from landowners or land managing agencies before fieldwork begins. Permits and Permission

Land ownership and regulatory authority determine the kind of permission that is required before a survey can begin. Two types of permission are required for survey projects-written or verbal authorization to conduct the survey from the landowner or managing authority; and valid permits from all federal, state, local, or tribal regulatory agencies that are directly involved with the project. It is always best to get written permission to work on a parcel of land, if possible, to prevent future legal problems. Land ownership is normally straightforward. Archaeologists conducting research-oriented surveys are responsible for determining land ownership and obtaining permission toconduct their fieldwork. In CRM surveys, the client should provide an accurate list of all private owners and landmanaging agencies, Permission toconduct surveys on private land is usually, but not always, obtained by the client. Supervisors should check to make sure this has been done. If not, it will be necessary to contact the owner(s) for permission to be on their land. If part or all of any survey area is managedby federal, state, or tribal agencies, theymustalsobe contacted. Simply obtaining a permit to work on these lands is seldom enough; land managers want to know when and where you will be working on their land. Many federal, state, and tribal landmanaging agencies have permitting systems and procedures in place. Archaeologists conducting or supervising surveys should obtain a copy of all pertinent permits andreadthem thoroughly, paying strict attention to time frames for preliminary and final reporting. n e project supervisor should make sure
Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 3

marked on engineering plans or USGS topographic
quadrangles for both CRM and research surveys, and land ownership information must always be

his or her name is on the permit and carefully note expiration date, general and special stipulations, and other guidance information. If your name is not on a permit, you cannot supervise work
conducted under that permit. Itisimportantto note that not allpermits are alike, even if the same agency is involved. For instance, many Bureau of Land Management districts have different requirements. Make sure you possess andhave examined all applicable permits. If your name does not appear on a permit or you are unsure whether you have the right permit for a certain area, ask your supervisor or contact the land managing agency. In some instancesagency officials will waive requirements or otherwise allow deviations from the stipulations. Such deviations mustbe worked out and approved in advance (preferably in writing) through consultation with the appropriate official. Unless otherwise arranged, supervisors should ensure permit that all requirements are strictly observed, because failure to do so can result in serious delay or forfeiture of the permit. When working on tribal lands, written permission from the tribal government is needed in additionto a Bureau of IndianAffairs permit.

Records Checks

most agency report All survey permits and guidelines require information on sites that have been previously recorded in or near a project area. f This means that the National Register o Historic Places (NRHP), the State Register o Cultural f Properties (SRCP), and the New Mexico Cultural Resource Information System (NMCRIS) must be consulted before a survey begins. NRHP and SRCP records are on file at the Historic Preservation Division (HPD) in Santa Fe. NMCRIS files are stored at the Archeological Records Management Section (ARMS), a division of HPD housed atthe Laboratory of Anthropology in Santa Fe. Both offices can be contacted in person or bytelephone. In addition, ARMShas developed an online computer access system that will record allow checks to be completed by modem. Some land managing agencies also stipulate a records check at agency or resourcearea offkes; consult your permit(s) to determine whether this is necessary. When working on NavajoNation land, the Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department must be contacted during the prefield check.
The breadth of the prefield check varies among land managing agencies. Some require a listing of only those sites within the project area, while others want lists of all previously recorded sites within a certain distance of the project area. A good rule of thumbis to include all previously recorded sites within a mile of the project area. These locations can be obtained from ARMS, and on field maps to itis a good ideatoplotthem of prevent the accidental assignment new numbers. When it does not add to costs or cause time delays, ARMS requests that previously recorded sites near a project area be revisited to provide an update of their records (be sure you have permissiontoenter these properties). This will allow documentation of changing site conditions such as damage by vandals or erosion, as well as the presence of features or diagnostic artifacts that were notnoted or fully described during initial recording. Previously recorded sites within project areas should always be revisited and their records updated.

Not@cation o the Bureau o Indian Aflairs will f f not suflce; tribal governments must be notsed as well. Also, when workingon Navajo Nation lands, it is necessary to determine what specific types of
landbe will surveyed. This information is available in Crownpoint or Window Rock at the Bureau of Indian Affairs Real Property Management, Navajo Nation Land Administration Department. Advance Notice Some federal, state, and tribal agencies require advance contact before fieldwork can begin. Consult yourpermits and area office regulations to determine whether this is necessary. The Navajo Nation requires advance notification to determine whether a previously identified traditional cultural property such as a shrine, sacred area, or other project boundaries. The use-area is within appropriate agency should be contacted for details of this procedure.
Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 4

FIELDWORK Specific field techniques andground coverage in research-oriented surveys are generally determined by the archaeologist and should be discussed and justified in the research design. CRM surveys require archaeologists to examine all of the ground surface within a project area (100 percent coverage) unless otherwise stipulated. Most agencies require a pedestrian survey and with few exceptions disallow survey from vehicles. The intent is that all sites and other cultural resources that may be protected under law be found, plotted on maps, and recorded on appropriate forms. Permits should be consulted for guidelines concerning permissible survey techniques. In some cases, agencies have special requirements concerning the field recording of sites and other cultural resources that may include how cultural resources are defined, how they are marked, artifact collection policies, and treatment of previously recorded sites. Again, permits should be consulted for all surveys to determine whether there are special requirements. If permit stipulations seem unclear, contact the land managing agency for clarification. If you are conducting a CRM survey and engineering plans are not provided, or the project area is not clearly marked on the ground, do not guess its locution. Contact the client, their local representative, for your supervisor or supplementary information. Survev Techniques The preferred survey technique is the linear transect. If a survey is conducted by one archaeologist, transects may need to be walked in a zigzag fashion to visually examine as much of the ground surface as possible. Depending on the width of the area being surveyed, several linear transects mayneed to be walked. If a survey is conducted by more than one archaeologist the interval between individuals should be adjusted to the terrain and surface visibility. An intervalof
15 m is recommended as an acceptable maximum spacing between individuals. This is the maximum allowed land by managing many agencies. However, there are exceptions. Check yourpermit to determine whetherany restrictions apply. If trees, brush, or heavy grass cover are present, the interval should be shortened. Special attention should be given to open spaces within areas of heavy vegetation, backdirt piles at the entrances to rodent dens, and drainages.

Additional areas are sometimes examined around the perimeter of a project area, particularly inCRM work. These zones may be required by land managing agencies and rarely included on are engineering plans. However, they must be discussed and described when applying for permits. Additional survey areas should be described and their acreage calculated separately from the project area to make it clearthat they are not part of the proposed undertaking. If land ownership changes at the edge of a project area, you must have permission from the landowner or land managing agencyto work in that area. Unless specifically stipulated in a permit or contract there is no standard widthfor additional survey areas. A rule ofthumbis 15 rn (50 f) to either side of t linear rights-of-way (roads, pipelines); 30 m (100 ft) to either side of powerline rights-of-way, borrow pits, and mining features or waste piles; and 0.8 km ( O S miles) at the ends of linear projects. Since CRM firms often have internal policies governing the survey of additional areas, your supervisor should be consultedabout this before the survey begins. If there are no specific requirements for the survey of additionalareas (for example, when private land is involved), be sure to obtain the client’s permission to conduct this extended coverage. Simply because a site is outside project boundaries doesn’t mean should notbe recorded. it A site that is directly adjacent to but outside project boundaries shouldbe recorded, if possible. Those that are a good distance beyond project limits may or may need not to be recorded,

Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 5

depending on the type ofland altering activity planned, time and budgetary limitations, and land ownership, Use your best judgment in these types of cases. At times a CRM contractor will be requested by the client to identify alternate routes or minor relocations to avoid any archaeological sites that might be found. This is most common in well pad and pipeline surveys. This can be done as long as the client has requested it and the landowner or land managing agency does not object; however, itis still necessarytorecord the sites that are identified at the original location. Make sure your recommendations are coordinated with the client and are consistent with their operating procedures and standards. While surveys are generally restricted to an examination of surface cultural remains,limited testing may be permissible in some instances. However, it should be remembered that limited is the operative word. Some permitsallowlimited subsurface trowel or auger tests toexamineand at a site. better define the extent of remains Formal site testing requires diferent permits and is rarely allowed during survey. Check your permits to determine whetherlimited subsurface probes are allowed. Be sure to discuss any subsurface investigations in the survey report. Cultural P r o D m Many land managing agencies, area and district offices within those agencies, and review authorities have specific guidelines concerning what constitutes cultural remainsandhowthey should be recorded. Most recognize two types of cultural properties--sites and isolated occurrences (IOs), but definitions vary according to agency. Consult the appropriate guidelines for these requirements. Cultural resource definitions may also be specified in the research design of a nonCRM project. If no specific criteria are furnished by a regulatory agency or you are surveying on private land, be sure to have a goodworking definition ofwhat constitutes a site or isolated occurrence before you begin fieldwork. Be

consistent in applying those definitions. Note whether you have used agency defined criteria or your own definitions for cultural resources in the survey report. In either case, the definitions should be presented.

The creation of archaeological sites is a continual process as humans occupy and abandon parts of the landscape, Because sites and 10s are constantly forming, federal, state, and local regulations usually specify how old a cultural resource should be before it is recorded. Sites older than a specific age are recorded, while those that are younger require less formal treatment. Consult the appropriate guidelines for these requirements. For example, the Navajo Nation uses a slightly different approach thanthat outlined here, requiring a formal recording of any site found, regardless of age (unless it is still in use). If you are not sure whether a cultural resource is old enoughto be documented, go ahead andrecord it anyway (unless it is still being lived in). Bear in mind that this is an evolving process, and more and more properties are requiring treatment. Always check to see what kinds ofproperties need to be recorded,
Recording. Procedures The Laboratory of Anthropology (LA) Site Record Form is the standard for recording archaeological sites in New Mexico. While ARMS does not require this form for each site, many state and land federal managing agencies do. For instance, the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division alwaysrequires the LA Site Record Form or an equivalent. The categories-included in the of site record represent the minimzim amount for making information considered necessary management decisions about a site. Other forms may be used,buttheyshould contain the same categories as the LA Site Record Form in addition to other information desired by the archaeologist conducting the survey. Whether you are recording a site for the first time or examining a previously recorded site, always remember that this information may be used by someone who will not be able to visit the site. Record everything you

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 6

think is important. As noted above, the LA Site Record Form requests the minimumamount of information necessary for making management decisions. You do not have to limit yourself to these categories. General recording procedures are discussed below. Again, check always your permits and consult your supervisor concerning specific procedures required by a land managing agency or CRM firm. For example, the Bureau of Land Management has additional information requirements, and many USDA Forest Service districts require use of their own site survey forms. The LA SiteRecord Form and other forms that might be required are shown in Appendix 3. It should be noted that a LA Site Record Form may not be required for allcultural properties found during a survey. For example, a structure that is still in use may be documentedusing a Historic Building Inventory Form or narrative description without being recorded as an archaeological site or assigned a Laboratory of Anthropology (LA) number. While it is important to identify all cultural properties within a project area, theymaynotallneedto receive the same degree of documentation. Again, this may vary according to regulatory agency, so be sure to check your permit requirements to determine whether and how to document structures that are currently in use.

Step 2: Where Is It Located and How Big Is It?

The location of a site andhowmuchlandit covers are critical to management decisions. While mistakes happen, it is important to be as accurate as possible. The locations of all cultural resources recorded during survey should be plotted on USGS topographic quadrangles or engineering plans. If possible, it is desirable to locate cultural resources on both. Topographic quadrangle locations are necessary for site registration withARMS, and both the topographic quadrangle and engineering plans (if available) are required for consultations with HPD in CRM surveys. Discuss in general terms how the site was located; for example,it was triangulated, a global positioning system (GPS) was used, or the location was estimated. If a GPS was used, note how its location was plotted on the topographic quadrangle. Was the GPS location transferred to the map, or was it plotted by local topography? Remember, both GPSs and topographic quadrangles can be wrong, so it might be best to use both methods, if possible.
It is often useful to note the relationship of a site to physical or cultural features that will probably remain unchanged for a long time, for example, roads, highway mileage markers, wells, transmission line structures, distinct trees or hills, cliffs, and rock formations. When possible, these should be included on site maps. If you are tying a site in to a distant feature, include distance and bearing to the feature and its description on both the LA Site Record Form and the site map. An accurate definition of site boundaries is very important, particularly to the client and land managing CRM agency in surveys. Simply knowing where a site is located is not enough; an accurate idea of the amount of land the site covers and its relationship to project boundaries are also critical to the review process. Thus, knowhow large a site is before you start recording it. Carefully walk over the surrounding area, looking for related features or a continuation of the artifact scatter. When engineering plans are available, locate site boundaries and features on them. Always describe how you defined site boundaries on the LA Site Record Form. Boundaries can be estimated if a site extends into a parcel where you
Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 7

Step 1: What Have I Found?
When artifacts or a cultural feature are located by a member of the survey team, STOP! Carefully walk over the surrounding area to define the extent of the manifestation,payingspecialattentionto potential features and diagnostic artifacts, Determine whether the manifestation fits the definition of a site or an IO; if so, fill out the appropriate form. Ifyou have any doubts about its nature or age and it otherwise meets the definition o a sire, record it! Discuss your doubts on the LA f Site Record Form, but do not simply ignore the manifestation. Previously recorded sites mustbe reexamined in light of the current project, noting any modifications of the original description and how the site relates to the boundaries of the current project.

do not have permission to work, but note this on the LA Site Record Form.

Step 3: What D m the Site Contain?
Examine the surface of the site for structures, features, diagnostic artifacts, and artifact clusters. Mark their locations with pinflags, flagging tape, or whatever else you have available. Eachof these categories should be shown on the site mapand described in the LA Site Record Form. When diagnostic artifacts are present but cannot be identified by a survey team member, draw or photograph Even them. when diagnostics are identified in the field it is usually good to drawor photograph them. Ifyou are uncertainwhether something is a structure or feature, record and fully describe it; don’t ignore it.
Step 4: Map It
A mapmustbe drawn for each site that is recorded. It is not necessary to draw a sketch map of IOs, but their locations must still be plotted on engineering plans or a topographic quadrangle. Site maps should accurately depict what was seen in the field. They should show the locations of all structures, features, diagnostic artifacts, and artifact clusters observed at the site, as well as the e site boundary. A north arrow, a k y to any symbols used, and a scale must be included. Note whethermagnetic ortrue northwasused as a reference. The mapshould also be labeledwith site number, project name or number, mapper’s name, and the date it was drawn. Structures and features should be drawn to scale. The method used to measure distances (taped, paced, etc.) should be noted on the map, the LA Site Record Form, or both. If the site is located near the edge of the project area, show that boundary on the site map or indicate distance and direction to the nearest boundary. Also include project features suchascenter line, survey markers, etc, Show drainages, hills, rock outcrops, cliffs, or other natural topographic features that fallwithin site nearby. The same boundaries or are located applies to modern cultural features such as roads, signs, buildings, bridges, section markers, etc. If

the topographic or modern cultural features have names or numbers, use them on the map. These features can be very helpful in relocating a site. An inappropriate field map is illustrated in Figure 1, while Figures 2 and 3 are welldrawn field maps. Remember,different agencies have different requirements for what should appear on a field map, so remembertocheck before beginning a survey.
Step 5: Record It
The descriptive part of the LA Site Record Formshould be completelyfilled out while the surveycrewis still at the site. However, some kinds of information, such as locational data and distance to nearest drainage, are more easily and accuratelyderived in the laboratory andcan be recorded later, While the LA Site Record Form is the standard for New Mexico, some land managing agencies require use oftheir own forms. Again, always check the requirements of the land managing agency before beginning _fieldwork.In addition to the LA Site Record Form, HPD requires that a Historic Building Inventory Form be completed for each standing structure on historic sites or within project limits. Manuals for these forms are availablefromARMS(LA Site Record Form) and HPD (Historic Building Inventory and Form) should be consulted. Depending on agency guidelines, it may be necessary to record 10s on standard forms as well. Be sure you know whetherthis is necessary before beginning a survey. A site form must be filled out for every site visited. At a minimum, the first two pagesof the LA Site Record Form should be completedtoupdate information for previously recorded sites. Because step-by-stepprocedures for completing the LA Site Record Form are presented elsewhere, they will not be discussed in detail here, Instead, a few high points of the recording process will be reviewed.Rarelyisit possible to create a form that is both general and comprehensive. Thus, it cannot be stressed enough that if you note something important that is not asked for on the recording form, discuss it anyway.

Archaeological Survey Procedurnl Manual 8


Figure I . Example o an inappropriatefield map. f

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 9

Figure 2. A better and more complete Jeld map of the site shown in Figure 1.

Archaeological SurveyProceduralManual




Figure 3. A well-mapped historic site.

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Site Number. If you assign a fieldnumberto a site, include thatnumberonallpaperworkthat pertains to the site (maps, artifact inventory forms, photo data sheets, etc.). Thoughan LA number will be assigned after fieldwork is finished (this is discussed later), any Jeld numbers used must be recorded on the LA SiteRecord Form. This is especially necessary if a markercontaining the field number was left at the site during fieldwork. If a site was recorded in the past, always use the previously assigned number. Avoid assigning multiple LA numbers to sites. Site Marker. It is often desirable to mark a site in the field. A recommended methodto is use a capped rehar. Wooden stakes can also be used but are less permanent. Be sure to affix the field number to any markers at left a site. Some agencies may have regulations or policies concerning whethermarkers may beleftatsites and the methods that can be used to mark them, Check permits your to determine whether any special stipulations apply. Also he sure to obtain landowner permission to leave markers at sites on private property. When markers are left at sites, plot their locations on site plans. Locational Information. Twotypesoflocational information are usually universal required: transverse mercator (UTM) coordinates and a location description. As long as anaccurate site location has been plotted in the field it is usually easier to obtain this information back at the office. While UTM coordinates are available for most of New Mexico, location descriptions are not. Many land grants were never platted, as public and f private lands were. l your survey area has not been platted. do not project location descriptions unless it is required by the land managingagency. The UTMlocationalsystem divides the earth into a grid of 1 s q km cells originating at the intersection of the equatorand a point 500 km west of the central meridian. There are 60 northsouth zones, each 6 degrees wide, but only Zones 12 and 13 occur in New Mexico.Locations are referenced by zone and distance east and north of the origin point. Zones are listed in the lower left corner of USGS topographic quadrangles, and eastings andnorthings are marked as blueticks
Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 12

along quadrangle edges (Figs. 4 and 5).

To assign a UTM location to a site or IO, draw lines connecting easting and northing ticks, dividing the area of interest into a grid of 1 sq km cells. Measurements must originate at the southwest corner of a cell. The easting is measured from the nearest vertical line west of the site, and the northing from the nearest horizontal linesouth of the site. The blue ticks along the outside edge of the quadrangle are in 100,OOO m increments; thus, a northing of *12 translates to 4,012,000 m north of the equator. The location of a site situated 100 m north and 100 m east of the intersection of the &12 northing and 445 easting lines in Zone 13 would be: Zone 13, E445100 N4012100. Templates are availablemeasuring for exact locations (Fig. 6).
UTM coordinates should describe the geographical center of all sites. If the site is larger than 10 acres, locate a minimum of four additional points aroundits periphery, listthosepointsby their location, and plot them on the site map. Note which UTM datum was used (NAD83 or NAD27). The datum number is in the lower left-hand corner 1983; those prepared of quadrangles prepared after before 1983 are unlabeledbutuse the NAD27 datum (see Fig. 4). Only provisional quadrangles are currently labeled,andthe NAD27 datumis still in use. While the switch to the NAD83 datum is still in the future, itisnecessary to list this information. Location descriptionson are based the township-and-section system, which divides most of the western United States into blocks of land, or townships, that are 6 miles on a side. The origin point for this system in New Mexico is east of San Acacia in the Rio Grande Valley, and the state is divided into quarters by north-south (New Mexico PrincipalMeridian)andeast-west (New Mexico Base lines Line) running through point. that Location descriptions are referenced by township and range, where township is the number of blocks a locale isnorthorsouth of the origin point, and range is the number of blocks a locale is east or west of the origin point. Townships and ranges are listed in red lettering along the outside edges of topographic quadrangles (see Fig. 5).

Mapped, edited, and published by the Geological Survey
Control by USGS and USC&GS

Topography from aerial photographs by photogrammetric methods Aerialphotographstaken 1955. held check 1957

Fblyconic projection. 1927 Nwth American Datum based on New Mexico coordinate system, 10,000-foot grid

west zone

1000-meterUniversal Transverse Mercator grid ticks, zone 13. 'shown in blue

Dashed land lines indicate approximate locations Unchecked elevations are shown in brown

+. .

- -<

NAD 2 7







There may be private inholdings within tho boundaries of the National 01 State reservations shown onthis map

To place on the predictedNwth American Datum mow the projection lines 1 meter south and 54 meterr east as shown by dashed mr ticks e

Map photoinspected 1978 No major culturear drainage changes observed

VERtlcAL DATUM NATIONAL GEODEllC VERTlUL DATUM'OF 1929 HORIZONTAL DATUM ...l..r_..._..I.....___._lfl. 1927 NORTH AMERICAN D A T -To place on the predicted North Amerlcan Datum of 1983. the projection lines as shown by dashed corner ticks

(4 meters south and 4d metem east) There may be private Inholdings within the boundaries qf any Federal and State Reservations shown this map on


I J M ~7 ~ 2


Produced field check.


manuscript drawings. Information shown as o date o f f

Figure 4. Gene& UTM informution in USGS topogmphic quadmngle legend. The upper Legend i s from a current q d r a n g l e , and the lower legend is from a provisional quadrangie,

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UTM Eosting ticks (blue)
Range designotion

Figure 5. Section of

USGS quadmngle showing locntional markings.

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual I 4

Each township block is further divided into 36 1 sq mi sections. Sections are numbered between 1 and 36, and are labeled in red lettering near their center on topographic quadrangles. For locational accuracy, sections are divided into 10 acre squares by repeated quarterings (sectionisdividedinto quarter sections, quarter sections into quarter quarter sections, and so on). Templates that divide sections to this level are available, easy to use, and accurate (Fig. 6 ) , There is no standard method for quartering irregularly shaped sections; if one is encountered, simply note how you subdivided it. Site Descrintion. Providing an accurate description of a site is a critical aspect of the recording process. Unless a site is excavated Or revisited, this may be the only time it is described. Discuss what you saw at the site in detail, and he sure to address the criteria usadto assign any typeand function designations. For example, if a site is typed as a lithic artifact scatter of unknown date, note that the assemblagecontains only chipped and ground stone artifacts and lacks diagnostics.
If a structure, feature, artifact cluster, or diagnostic artifact is important enough to be plotted on the site map, it is important enough to be discussed in the LA Site Record Form. Fully describe all structures and cultural features, (both and including their dimensions vertical horizontal). If information on construction technique and materials is available it should also be furnished. Provide an estimate of the number of individual structures present and how many rooms are included Note evidence in each. any of vandalism or other types of damage. The criteria used to define artifact clusters should be also physically discussed; for example, were they separated from other clusters, or did they differ in material content?

horizontaldimensions (e.g., 1 0 0 by 55 m) and extent (e.g., 5,500 square meters). Discuss how site boundariesweredefined and whetherthey seemed accurate. For example, if an artifact scatter seems to disappear into a sand dune, note that the site boundary might not be accurate and that the scatter may under extend the dune. Sometimes archaeologists are restricted to the project area and are unable to examine land outside thatzone. Be sure to discuss any such restrictions on the LA Site Record Form and note thatdimensional your information and site description are incomplete. It is essentialnote to the relation of site boundaries to project boundaries in CRM surveys. While this information is not required by ARMS, is it needed by both client the and the land managing agency. Detail is necessary, so specify how much of the site is within project boundaries and list the structures and features that are included. Ifproject boundaries are near or cross the site, show them on the site map. ArtifactAssemblage. It isnotenoughto simply discuss the diagnostic artifacts found at a site; the entire assemblage should be described. A detailed inventory and analysis of all cultural materials is not required (unless specified by client or agency), but a basic description of assemblage content and of artifacts size is necessary. the List types observedandhowmany are present. Discuss the method used to arrive at the count. For example: an estimated 2004- pieces of debitage and 100" sherds; or, all visible artifacts were pinflagged and and two biface included 30 flakes,fourcores, fragments. Note lithic raw material and types pottery present types at the site, if known. Describe the lithic materials or pottery types you don'trecognize,but don'tguess! If you don't know what they are, say so and provide accurate descriptions. Slone. Asnect. and Exposure. Provide information What of on slope, aspect, and exposure. kind slope is the site located on, and in which direction does it trend? For example: the site is located on a gentle(lessthan 5 degrees)northeast-trending slope. Aspect refers to the directional orientation of the site and can he given in two forms: compass
Archaeological Survey ProceduralManual 15

Artifacts used to provide a date for the site should be individually described, particularly if they are shown on the site map. Diagnostic in the field artifacts thatcouldnotbeidentified and or should alsobe fully described sketched photographed. Site Size. Limits, and Pro-iect Relation to Boundaries. Provide information on site size, both

Archaeological Survey ProceduralManual


direction or compass bearing (e.g+,northeast or 45 degrees). Sites in flat areas or on hilltops have an aspect of 360 degrees. Site exposure and shelter should also be described. For example: the site is exposedto the east, with a lowmesa providing some shelter to the west. Site Interpretation. Interpret the site. This is your only chance to discuss its function, date, relation to other sites in the area, how different components are related, what the distribution of artifacts means, if there is danger from erosion or vandalism, etc. If you assigned a function to the to that site, discuss the evidence that led you conclusion. Remember, in many cases this is the only time the site will be visited, so provide any information that seems relevant. The information potential of the site should also be discussed. Note the integrity of materials and whether or not structures or features havebeen vandalized or eroded. Do not assign an importance to the site that cannot be clearlysupported by available information. Sites containing structural remains, intact features, or deep midden deposits have obvious information potential. The research potential of an artifact scatter lacking visible structures and features is difficult if not impossible toassess from surface indications alone. In the former case, assessments of research potential can clearly be supported, while theycannot in the latter. If you are unsure about the research a site, say so. If necessary, its potential of potential can be investigated at a later date using other research methods,

Collections, Collections and the decision whether or not to make them are very important to the site recording process. Most permits are very explicit as to whether collections are allowed, the procedures that must be followed if they are, and how the artifacts must be curated. Be thoroughly

familiar with permit st@ulationsapplicable to your project before you enter theJeld. In general, most
land managing agenciesdo not allow collections to be made. On private land, artifacts should only be collected withthe landowner’s written permission. Artifacts should not be collected if the

archaeologist does not have a curutorial agreement with a repository.
PhotomPhs. At least one and preferably two or more black-and-white photographs (normally 35 mm) should takeneach be of site found or relocated. Some land managing agencies may also require color slides and photos of site details like features and structures. These photos are a valuable part of the site records and are required for all survey projects by mostlandmanaging agencies. taking In photographs, care must be taken to ensure that definitive aspects of the site are shown, such as the mounds of ruined pueblos, pithouse andkiva depressions, refuse areas, and close-ups of surface artifacts. It will take considerable forethought and a lot of practice to learn what angles are the best for bringing out the features of interest. Good photographs also include unique aspects of the surrowding landscape (such asmountainpeaks, buildings, highway bridges, etc.) that will be useful in helping to relocate the site, Needlessto say, a numeric and descriptive catalog of shots must accompany your photos. A scale and menu board should also be used, if possible.

Archaeological Survey ProceduralManual


Each newly recorded site must be assigned an LA number. LA numbers are obtained from ARMS personnel after a survey has been completed. 10s and modern sites are not assigned LA numbersexcept under certaincircumstances (and in consultation with ARMS). Documented portions of linear sites (railroad grades, trails, acequias, etc.) can he assigned a single number. LA numbers also can be assigned to areas containing high artifact densities that are defined during distributional surveys, or to negotiated site definitions developed in cooperation with the land managing agency

Forest Service land, check with the district office to determine whether this is required. These forms are shown in Appendix 3.

All collected materials and site records must he submitted for curation at the end of a project.
Generally, this willnot occur until the report is finished accepted and by the land managing agency. While the archaeologist usually is responsible for submitting collect& materials for curation, the responsibility for submitting site records varies with the land managing agency, If uncertain where the responsibility lies, check with your supervisor or the land managing agency. Rememberthatmostlandmanagingagencies have explicit information requirements. Before beginning the survey report, check the regulations
and guidelines spec@ed in your permit to determine what information must be included.

An LA Project Record Form must be completed when a survey is fznished. This form provides a
summary of the project and indicates whether or not any sites were located. In addition, most USDA Forest Service districts require completion of their own forms, which must be submitted with the survey report. If your survey crossed USDA

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 18

The survey report must include, at a minimum, the following sections: Administrative Summary, Introduction, Proposed Actions, Project Area, Field Methods, Environment, Survey Results, SummaryandRecommendations, site maps,and project area maps. The terms used to label these sections are not important, but the various categories are. Each section of a survey report is described below. While reports for federal agencies will generally include the same sections, there may be differences in the requirements of various agencies. Check your permit requirements to make sure you have included all o the required f information and followed the proper reportformat. Information on checks of previously recorded sites should be included in the introduction, the culture history, or as a separate section. Site forms (including newly recorded and documentation on previously recorded sites) must be included with copies of the survey report sent to review agencies. Authors of CRM reports should remember that they are preparing an account of the survey for their client aswell as for offcial review. Show some sensitivity andavoid words andlanguage that make the client look bad or suggest they are going to in work violation of the law. For example, do not suggest that their activities will have damage or destroy a site--youbeen contracted to prevent that from happening. Remember, the most extensive impact to sites within construction zones comes from the archaeological investigations carried out before construction can begin. You object would to having careful your excavation described as destruction of a site, and such terms reflect equally badly on your client. Administrative Summary (Abstract) and Introduction The Administrative Summary (Abstract) should provide a brief synopsis of the project. Topics that must be covered include the name of the firm that conducted the survey, date of the survey, name and mailing address of the client (if applicable), client project number (if any), general location of the project area (including county), amount of land examined, who owns the land, results of the survey, and a summary of recommendations(if applicable). This section should stand alone, so do not refer the reader to other parts of the report for specific information. If it is important enough to be referred to, then it should be discussed. The same information should be covered in the Introduction, but in greater detail. The Introduction should also contain a list of project personnel and a discussion of all cultural properties within project limits, includingnewly and previously recorded sites. Brietly summarize survey results and any recommendations you may have concerning cultural the properties encountered. The numberand expiration date o f all applicable permits mustbeincluded in both sections. Only reference permits that are relevant to the project being reported, and not do cite federal, state, or local laws that do not apply. Proposed Actions The actions proposed for the project area must be fully described for CRM surveys. What does the clientplantodo? Discuss the extent of the project, the size of the project area, size of any additional survey outside the project area, and the type ofconstruction that will occur. Distinguish between the project areu and the survey area, especially if additional acreage was inspected around project boundaries. Be specific! Use these or similar terms to describe the various parts of the area that examined. was Do not forget to mentionanyaccess routes that were inspected. This sets the stage for discussion of the cultural resources found during survey and your recommendations.Both the client and HPD will want to approach a site that will not be directly affected by land-altering activities differently from the way they will one that is. For example, a site located within project boundaries but outside the

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 19

construction zone may be avoided and a temporary fence built to protect it from disturbance, while a site within the construction zone will have to be examinedin more detail. In order to make these decisions, HPD needs detailed information about the project. Project Area The project area mustbe fully described by UTM coordinates andlocation description. Any additional survey areas that were examined should also be includedand clearly labeled as such on project maps. Separately describe the dimensions of the project area and any additionalsurvey areas, andcalculate the acreage containedin both. For linear surveys atleasttwopoints--thebeginning and end of the project (BOP and E0P)--must be described by their UTM coordinates, More points are helpful on long linear surveys, particularly if they change direction several times. Location descriptions are also needed for eachparcelof land traversed by a linear survey; list each % or 1/4 5/4 1/4 section that was crossed. The UTM coordinates of at least four points (the corners) are needed for quadrant surveys. Thus, a survey of several thousand acres would be described by at least four points, and more if the parcel was irregularly shaped or discontinuous parcels were examined. Again, if additional acreage was examined around the edge of the project area, list the UTM coordinates of eachzone separately. You should also provide information on land ownership, If there was more than one landowner, provide location descriptions for each owner's parcel. This section can be combined with Proposed Actions. A USGS topographic quadrangle (or copy thereofi showing the survey

etc.), and how person-days note many were required to complete the survey. Discuss the types of records prepared for each cultural resource. Did you fill out a Laboratory of Anthropology Site Record Form, or was a different recording format used? If the latter, it is helpful to include a copy of your form. Provide information on the typesof data recorded at sites and 10s. If a field analysis was completed, detail sampling any techniques used, the attributes that were analyzed, and generalanalysistechniques(was pottery temper examinedwith a 10 powerhand lens, did you clean artifacts, were any photographed?). How were sites examined and mapped? Were or paced? Were all visible dimensions taped run transects artifacts pinflagged, or did you across the scatter to determine assemblagesize? Note where survey records (including site forms and photographs, field journals, and maps) are curated. Environment
A general discussion of the local environment HPD assess helps managing land agencies and survey results. A detailed reconstruction isnot expected. Rather, they need to know the general topography of the project area and the types of soils and vegetativecommunities that are found there. Where a few artifacts on the surface of a deepalluvialsoil may suggest the presence of subsurface deposits, the same materials onthe surface of a shallow soil on top of a mesa would not, A few dozen artifacts in an area covered by heavyvegetationmight bejustthe tip of the iceberg, while that many artifacts on a hardpan probably representsthe extent ofcultural materials present. Scale the environmental discussion to the scope of the survey project and the number of sites found. If you examined a well pad and found no cultural resources, a paragraph or two should be sufficient. Conversely, if youexamined several thousand acres encompassing diverse topographic zones vegetative and communities found and numerous sites, a very detailed discussion may be necessary.


area and all cultural resources within project limits must be submitted with the report.
Field Methods Field methods be must explicitly described. Discuss crew size, spacing between transects, survey conditions (ground visibility, weather,
Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 20

Culture History
A detailed discussion of regional culture history is not a mandatory section and not may be necessary in all survey reports, though it is required by some agencies. This sectionshould also be scaled to the amountofwork done, A quarter-mile pipeline survey that located no sites does not justify a thirty page culture history; a few paragraphs will be sufficient. On the other hand, a 5,000 acre survey which recorded 200 sites may require a detailed culture history to place the resources in perspective. Ask your supervisor if you’re not sure how much detail to include.

considered important to understanding or managing the site. When large numbers of sites have been recorded and revisited it may be preferable to present site information in a different format, such as tables. However, this should only be done in consultation with the appropriate land managing agency. From HPD’s point of view, two critical pieces of data in CRM survey reports are site integrity and information potential. Note any damage tothe site, both cultural and natural. Was it badly eroded or damaged by mechanical equipment? Was there any evidence of unauthorized digging, or did it seem intact? It is usually obvious that a site contains subsurface cultural deposits when structures or features are present. However, it is impossible for someone who has never seen a site to assess its potential when they are lacking. So give them some clues. Note whether saw you buried deposits in a gully wall or the site did not seem badlydeflated. Even if it’s just a gut feeling, you must discuss the site’s potential for containing intact subsu~acedeposits. If there is nogood basis for determining whether or not subsurface deposits are present, say so and indicate that further investigation is necessary. Also remember that subsurface deposits neednot be present to make a site important, For example, a Paleoindian site will almost always be considered important, whether it is surficial or not. However, a surface scatter containing a few lithic artifacts may have little research potential.Be specflc about the site’s research potential. Make sure you can clearly support your assessment. It is not enough to simply say you think a site has research potential; discuss how and why you came to that conclusion. InCRM surveys itis also very important to note the locationof a site in relation to project boundaries. it Is entirely within project boundaries, outside them, or partially within? Be specific. Note which structures or features are inside or outside the project area. If project boundaries cross a site be sure they are marked on the site map and discussed in the site description. Site mapsshould be clear and complete, andas readable as possible, such that legible monochrome photocopiescan be made.Mechanicallylabeled maps are strongly encouraged.
Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 21

Survey Results
All cultural resources identified within project limits during a survey must be described in this section. Descriptions must be as specific as possible, and each cultural resource should be treated as though this is the only time it will be recorded, Descriptions of previously recorded sites that were revisited should be equivalent to those of newly recorded sites. 10s need locations (UTM and location descriptions) and a description. Data that must be provided for sites includes LA number(andfieldnumber if a markerwas left behind), location (UTM and location description), elevation (in meters and feet), land ownership, site description and dimensions, and a site map, Remember that cultural resources are not subject to provisions of the Freedom of Information Act, and their locations cannot be released to the general public. Ifyour report will be releasedinto

general circulation it is wise to place site location information and maps in an appendix that can be removed from copies that arenotsubmitted to review agencies or other archaeologists, Also
remember that most of the people who read your report will nothaveaccess to the Site Record Form, so provide as complete a description as possible. You should include dimensions, date, cultural affinity, descriptions of structures and features (including dimensions), a discussion of the artifact assemblage (including total or estimated numberof artifacts), andany other information

Summarv and Recommendation8 The final section of a survey report contains a briefsummaryof the project, its findings, and recommendations. The latter are especially important in CRM reports. Recommendations must

rather than on assigning these words. Similarly,

we cannot give clients permission to proceed with construction and must be careful to avoid wordsor phrasing that might be construed as authorizing it.
Project approval is issued by federal, state, local, and tribal authorities only after the review process has been completed. Attachments. Data Compendia. and Appendixes Attachments, data compendia,. qnd appendixes contain sensitive information, and these sections will be removedfrom copies distributed to the public. This can include site location information, traditional cultural property data, and other sensitive or classified information, Check with the land managing agency to determine what types of sensitive information may be required and whom they need to be released to. A data compendium should also be included, containing copies of project and site forms, site photos (if required), and other pertinent information. General Observations The wording and subject matter of survey reports must reflect a number of legal as well as archaeological concerns, particularly in CRM work. Survey reports are readby a numberof authorities, notallofwhom are archaeologists. Thus, the reports should be written in a straightforward style using as little archaeological jargon or slang as possible. It is important to communicate information inreports to everyone in a professional and positive way. Aside from the IegaMocational requirements, the purpose of the report is to describe cultural resources. Do not give the artifacts and sites short shift. This may be the only time they will ever be visited, so you must provide as much information as possible within the constraints of time and budget. Describe the site and its features to the best of your ability. No site is "typical," each site is unique. If you take the time to describe it, this will be apparent to the reviewer. This philosophy

be site spec@c, and all cultural properties within project limits (both new and previously recorded) should be treated equally. Simply suggesting that
all sites within a right-of-way be testedisnot enough; list them! When a site does not fall completely withinproject limits specify howmuch of it is within project area and which structures the or features fall within project boundaries. Both the

client and the land managing agency want know to exactly how much work will need to be done in the you are,the better. future. The more specific
Include a table or narrative discussion of site evaluations and qualify those evaluations. For example, if a site extends a short way into the right-of-way but you don't think any further investigations are warranted in that area, discuss your rationale for that opinion. Also, coordinate your recommendations withthe client so they will reflect the actual treatment planned the cultural for resources found during a survey. Do not recommend project changes or management options without consulting the client. Be aware that certain words and phrases should be avoided in CRM reports unless were you specifically hired to provide those sorts of management information. Know the legal implications of these words if you use them. For example, "significant," "significance," "mitigate," "mitigation," "no effect," "no adverse effect," and "adverse effect" have legal connotations that can cause problems in the review process if they are used incorrectly. Discussion of the project's effects on cultural resources should only be prepared by the agency completing the consultations that are required by historic preservation laws and not by the archaeologist conducting the survey unless they were specifically requested to do so by the client. Archaeologists can make observations and recommendations, but they do not actually determine the significance of cultural resources. Concentrate on describing whatwithin is the project area and on theimportance of the materials
Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 22

appliesequallyto 1 0 s . If itisworth recording, then spend a few extra minutes writing a complete description. It is also critical to produce clear, accurate maps of sites that were recorded or revisited during survey. Site maps are important for two reasons. First, they visually represent what you saw at the site when it was recorded. As such, they supplement and expand the narrative description. Second, they show the modern setting of the site and can be used to help relocate it. So be sure to place modern features on the map in addition to those related to occupation of the site, particularly if they can be used to help find it again at some time in the future. Make sure that everything placed on a map is clearly labeled! Archaeologists occasionally treat survey as a poor relation because the information recovered is minimal compared when to testing and data recovery, This is unfortunate, since survey is one

of the most important things we do as archaeologists. Accurately locating and describing sites is the first step in archaeological any endeavor. Interpreting surface remains and descriptively disseminating that informationis a learned talent, the importance of which cannot be overestimated. Too often survey reports contain site descriptions that are briefto the point of inadequacy. For example, a lithic artifact scatter may be described as measuring about 8 by 4 meters, containing a light scatter of obsidian and basalt flakes. This tells us very little. The dimensions are unspecific. What constitutes a "light" scatter, and are the artifacts really all flakes? Concentrations of artifacts should be discussed; counts or estimates of pottery, debitage, and tools should be given; other possible surface features discussed; material types described; etc. A few additional sentences will give the reviewer a much clearer idea of what the site actually looks like.

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 23

additional survey area

Land examinedaround the perimeter of a project area to determine whether cultural resources occur beyond project boundaries. Sometimes referred to as a buffer zone,
Archeological Records Management Section, a branch of the Historic Preservation Division. In CRM work, the person, company, or agency for whom a survey is completed. Cultural resource management; also sometimes referred to as contract archaeology. Areas containingculturally produced artifacts, features, or structures that can be categorized as sites, isolated occurrences, or historical structures. Definitions for these categories will vary between agencies. The final step in the treatment of cultural resources in the field. Data recovery is the excavation of sites that have been determined byHPD in consultation with other interested parties to be important or have the potential to yield important information and cannot be avoided by landaltering activities. Historic Preservation Division; makes decisions concerning the significance of cultural resources and whether a more intensive study should be completed, and coordinates meeting the requirements of historic preservation legislation. The entire area examined by a survey, including the project area and any additional survey area. Also referred to as survey area. The LA number is a unique designation assigned to each site registered with ARMS, Federal, state, tribal, or local entities that own, control, or hold land in trust for the public. Description of a location using the township and section system of land division. New Mexico Cultural Resource Information Section. The statewide cultural resource data base administered by ARMS.


cultural properties

data recovery


inventory area
LA number

land managing agency location description

project area

National Register o Historic Places. f
The zone that will be examined by a survey; the right-of-way or construction area in CRM work.

Archaeological Survey Proceduml Manual 25


State Register o Cultural Properties. f
The first phase of archaeological fieldwork, inwhich sites and other cultural resources are located and documented.Also known as inventory. Testing can range from limited useof a trowel or soil auger to assess the subsurface remains, to more formal potentialof an areatocontain importance of cultural programs to assess the extent, nature, and resources. Topographic maps produced at scales of 1:24,OOO,1:25,OOO, 1:62,500, and 1:1oO,OOO by the U.S. Geological Survey. Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system; divides the earth into a series of 1 krn square cells, each numbered separately by its distance from the origin point of the grid system,


USGS topographic quadrangle
UTM coordinates

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 26

APPENDIX 2: LEGISLATION AFFECTING CULTURAL RESOURCES There are three basic levels of and laws regulations affecting cultural resource surveys: federal, state, and local. Federal regulations affect all projects conducted on lands administered by a federal agency, in which federal funds are used, or that have any other federalinvolvement. Thus, work done on BLM or USDA Forest Service land is covered by federal regulations, as are surveys on private landwhen a road is to be built or reconstructed Highway with Federal Administration funds. Most state regulations pertain only to projects conducted on state-owned land or to state agencies sponsoring state-funded undertakings regardless of land ownership. An exceptionto this is the NewMexicoUnmarked Burial Statute, which applies to both state and private lands. Finally, local statutes have been enacted in areas to protect cultural resources. Included in this category are such regulations as the Navajo Nation Cultural Resources Protection Act, which applies to lands controlled and owned by the Navajo Nation addition (in to federal regulations). Federal Legislation
66 U.S.C. 461 et seq.). This law declares it a 6;

national policy to identifl and preserve for public use historic sites, buildings, objects, and antiquities of national significance for the inspiration and benefit of the people.

Native American Protection Graves and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) (P.L. 101-601). This act provides for the protection of Native American graves, human remains, funerary objects, sacred objects, and cultural patrimony. The act discusses ownership, excavation of remains, emergency discoveries, museum responsibilities, and repatriation. National Historic Preservation Act of (P.L. 1966 89-665; 80 Stat. 915; 16 U.S.C. 470), as amended (P.L. 94-422;90 Stat. 1313 and P.L. 94458; 90 Stat. 1939). This act expands the national policy toward cultural resources to include those of state as national significance. These andlocalaswell resources should be preserved as a living part of our community life and developed to give a sense of orientation to the American people. It also establishes the National Register o Historic f Council on Historic Places, the Advisory Preservation, state historic preservation oEcers, and a matching grants-in-aid program for the National Trust. Section 106 directs all federal agencies to take into account the effects of their actions on properties includedin or eligible for Register o Historic f inclusion in the National Places and affords opportunities for the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation to comment on the proposed actions and their effects. The procedures for completing these requirements and for assessing effect are included in 36 CFR 800. The procedures for determining if properties are important and, as a result, require consideration under the act are included in 36 CFR 60 (this establishes the National Registero Historic Places f andincludes the criteria usedto determine if a property is important).
It is important to realize that this act applies to federal lands and undertakings that utilize federal funds. Agencies as such the Department of
Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 27

Antiquities Act of 1906 (P.L. 59-209; 34 Stat. 225; 16 U.S.C. 432, 433). This is the basic legislation for the preservation and protection of antiquities on all federal land. It provides penalties for those who excavate or appropriate the values without secretarial permit; provides for the establishment by presidential proclamation of nationalmonuments from the publiclands;and provides for permits for investigation of cultural and scientific resources to be issuedto public, scientific, and educational institutions. Uniform Rules and Regulations (43 CFR Part 3 and DM Part 310.7.6). These rules were issued by the secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, and War (now Defense) to carry out the provisions of the Antiquities Act. Historic Sites Act of 1935 (P.L. 74-292;
Stat. 49

Transportation, whose actions may involve no federally ownedlandsat all, must still comply. The act been has amended to provide for the withholding from disclosure to the public any information relating to the locationof sites or objects listed on the National Register o Historic f Places if the disclosure of specific information would create a risk of destruction or harm to such sites or objects.

Section 4(f). This is a procedure included in the of 1966. It Department of Transportation Act requires the agencies in the Department of Transportation toconsiderprudentand feasible alternatives to transportation undertakings that have significant impacts on certain historic properties (or other defined properties), It does not apply in situations where historic properties that are important only for their information potential have been identified. National Environmental Policyof 1969 (P.L. 91190; 83 Stat. 852; 42 U.S.C. 4321). This law establishes a national policy for the protection and enhancement of the environment. Part of the function of the federal government in protecting the environment is to "preserve important historic, cultural, and natural aspects of our national heritage.

quality of scientific, . . . historical, . . . [and] environmental . . . resourcesandarchaeological values," and that, where appropriate, will preserve andprotectcertainpubliclandsin their natural condition. The act authorizes the disposition, exchange,andacquisitionof land; requires the inventory of public land; provides for long-range, comprehensive resource planning; authorizes the secretary of the interior to make rules and regulations pertaining to the public lands; and provides for the enforcement of public land laws and regulations.

Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and as amended 1988 (ARPA): This law defines archaeological and resources establishes procedures for conducting investigations. Italso sets penalties for unauthorized collection, removal, or defacement.Felonychargesmaybeimposed when damage exceeds a value of $500. Onshore Oil and G s Order No. 1 (OOGO#1) a (43 CFR Part 3160). This order revises Notice to Lessees and Operators of Federal and Indian a Onshore Oiland G s Leases No. 6 (NTL-6). It also changes reflects resulting from the consolidation of all onshore mineral leasing and operational functions in the Bureau of Land Management.
43 CFR Part 7. This provides conditionsand procedures for permits to be issued for archaeological work under ARPA.

Executive Order 11593 ("Protection and Enhancementof the Cultural Environment," 36 C.F.R. 8921, May 13, 1971). This order directs all federal agencies inventory to their cultural f resources; to submit to the National Register o Historic Places all qualified sites meeting the criteria; to protect all nominated sites; and, in consultation withthe Advisory Councilon Historic Preservation 16 (U.S.C. 470i), to institute procedures to assure that federal and plans programs contribute to the preservation and enhancement nonfederally of owned sites, structures, and objects of historical, architectural, or archaeological significance. Federal Land PolicyandManagementAct of 1976 (P.L. 94-579; 90 Stat. 2743; 43 U.S.C. 1701). This act directs the Bureau of Land Management manage to lands on the basis of multiple use and in a manner that will "protect the
Archaeological Survey Pmceduml Manual 28

Curation of Federally Owned and Administered CFR Part 79). Archaeological Collections (36 This law establishes standards and guidelines for the curationofmaterialremainsandassociated records recovered in association with federal projects and programs. It ensures that those collections are stored in facilities with adequate long-term curatorial capabilities.
State and Local Legislation

Navajo NationCultural Resources Protection Act (Tribal Council Resolution CMY-19-88). The agency responsible for protection, preservation,

and management planning for the Navajo Nation’s cultural resources is the Navajo Nation’s Historic Preservation Department within the Division of Resources. This act establishes a permitting system: Class A, casual visitation of cultural properties; Class B, cultural resource inventory activities not involving collection or disturbance; and Class C, cultural resource investigations involving collection, excavation, and ethnographic research.

New Mexico Prehistoric and Historic Sites Preservation Act. This law is modeled after the Department of Transportation Act of 1966 4(Q. However, it applies only to projects that utilize state money and that affect properties already listed on the State Register o Cultural Properties f or the National Register o Historic Places. It is f notrelated to any federal historic preservation laws. New Mexico Unmarked Burial Statute, This law protects human remains in unmarked burials on state or private land. Like the federal act, it applies to the organization that finds them and not to the sponsoring agency or the undertaking. The statute includes a process to be followedwhen human remains are encountered includes and permit and penalty provisions.
Note: Parts of this appendix are excerpted and revised from the Farmington ELM Procedures for Compliance.

New Mexico Cultural Properties Act, This is the state law that protects cultural properties. It requires that a permit be obtain4 to excavate a cultural resource and requires state agenciesto consider, in consultation with the Historic Preservation Division, the effectproposed of undertakings on registered cultural properties,

Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 29


Archaeological Survey Procedural Manual 31




Number: Site Name(s): Site Other








(call ARMS for sile registratian)

0 Site Update?

(complete at lemt pp. 1-2; see Usetr Guide)


Assigning *Agency


“Current Site Owner(s):

aovernmem entitles: enter agency name& udminislrative unit; Private owners: emer w n e r name(?,) 8. address (if known); Land grants: enter grant name.



NMCRIS Activity No.:
Site Field Number:





(assigned during

sire registration)

Site Marker?

no (specify yes


Recorder(s): Agency: Site Accessibility (choose one): Recording Date:
(e& 12-APR-1994)












flooded 0accessible 0buried (sterile overburden) 0 26 50 YO 0 51 - 75% Surface Visibility (% visible; choose one): 0 0 % 0 1 - 25
O O /


100 oi0

76 99 YO

Remarks: e o r d i n g Activities: sketch mapping

[3 shovel or trowel tests; probes
test excavation (forNR Eligibility, determination effect) of

0 instrument mapping (e.g., plane table mapping)
surface collection (controlled uncontrolled) or analysis c in-field artifact ] Description of Analysis or Excavation Activities:

0 excavation (data recovery)
(specify): activity other

Photographic Documentation:

Surface Collection

(choose one):

surface no collections uncontrolled surface collections

controlled collections surface (sample:


0controlled surface collection (complete:1000/0)
other collection method (describe below)

1 collections of specific items only 7
Surface Collection Methods:

s o d s Inventory:

0site location map 0sketch map@) 0instrumentmap(s)

0excavation, collection, analysis
0photos, and records slides, assoc. 0otherrecords(specify):


field journals, notes

0 NM Historic Inventory Building form

Repository for Original Site Recorda: Repository for Collected Artifacts:


(choose one):

*National Register Eligibility *Applicable Criteria:

assoc. persons important w/

0 not eligible

0 not sure
distinctive architectural information (d) potential style, etc. (c)

0assoc. important w/ (a) events

Basis for Recommendation:

**Assessment of Project Impact:
~~ ~~~~ ~~~

"Treatment Recommendations:
'recordets OPINION only --this is NOT an officlal dsterminalionof NR sliglbillty

"* pehormlng agency: consult wnh sponsorlng agency beforecompleting these data l t m s


I day

SHPO Determination (choose one):
HPD staff: Date:

[7 not eligible
1 I month

0not determined


0a. 0b.


0 d.

HPD Log NO.:



Register Status: State RegisterNo.: Remarks:

listed on National Register

0 listed on State Register

[7 formal determination of eligibility

LA Number:







Field Number:

e r c e Graphics:


[7 USGS 7.5' topographic maps

rectified photos aerial Scale:

0other topographic Scale: maps 0GPS Unit 0other source (describe): graphics
UTM Coordinates (center of site): Zone:

0unrectified Scale: photos aerial





, O l








1 0 ,

Nearest Named Drainage (name, dist., & dir.):

Nearest NumberedRoad (name, dist., & dir.):

In highway R-O-W?
Directions to Site:


Town (if in city limits):
USGS Quadrangle Name and Date:


USGS Code:






1 -

Unplatted Meridian




Protracted 114 Sections











ma%. length

Dimensions: Site Site Area:

meters Basis for Dimensions (choose one):
max. width

0estimated 0measured

sq m Basis for Area (choose one):


0 measured





I feet

Site Boundaries Complete?

(choose one):


no (explain):

Basis for SiteBoundaries:

distribution of archeologicalfeatures & artifacts property lines

0 modernfeatures

or grounddisturbance

0topographic features
r] other process (describe):

DepositionalErosional Environment:

0other criteria (specify): 0alluvial aeolian 0colluvial

0residual 0 not applicable

(on bedrock)

Stratigraphy & Depth of Arch. Deposits (choose one): subsurfacepresent deposits Estimated Depth Deposits: of

0unknownhot determined
[7 stratified deposits subsurface present

0 no subsurface present deposits

a i s for Depth Determinations:
road or arroyo cuts

0 estimated
rodent burrows

shovel or trowel tests other observations (Specify):

0core/auger tests



LA Number:








Number: Field


Observations on Subsurface Archeological Deposits:

. . ...

Nearest Water Source (choose one): km Site: from (specify): lakelplaya Distance source other intermittent


[I perennial I stream/river

intermittent stream/arroyo

0 perenniallake


Local Vegetation (list observed plantsin decreasing order of dominance): Overstory:

". . .

Vegetation Community (choosetwo): one or



r] grassland


0desert scrubland

0marshland 0othercommunity(specify):
Topographic Location:

0flood plain/valtey

arroyolwash badlands canyon rim

0low rise 0mesa/butte

rockshelter saddle talus stope

0foothill/mountain front
hill slope
hill top


0open canyon floor 0playa

0base of cliff
base of slope talus other location (describe): Observations on Site Setting:


0constricted canyon

0lava (malpais) flow


(all components): Prehistoric Ceramics wholeceramic vessel

Assemblage Content Lithics

0 diagnostic ceramics

0 otherhistoricceramics
Other Artifacts and Materials

0 lithicdebitage
0 chipped-stonetools
r] diagnosticprojectilepoints

0 diagnosticceramics
otherprehistoricceramics Historic Artifacts diagnosticglassartifacts other glass artifacts diagnostic metal artifacts artifacts 0 other metal whole ceramic vessel

0 bonetools
0 faunalremains

0 non-locallithicmaterials 0 stone tool manufacturingitems
(cores, hammerstones, etc.) ground-stone tools


macrobotanical remains architectural stone burned adobe firecracked rocklburned caliche


0 otheritems(specify):

Number: LA







Number: Field
‘please provlde rough counts (t/-10 items) If estimaed frequency is less than 100 hems.


lithic artifacts (choose one):
(incl. debirage)

w m b l a g e Size (all components): estimated frequency


1,000s ~10,000

*counts (if c: 100)

prehist. ceramics (choose one): historic (choose artifacts one): total assemblage size (choose one): Dating Potential:

0 0

0 0 0 0






0 a 0 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 0 archeomagnetisrn 0

obsidian hydration

r] relativetechniques (e.g., typeseriation)
Assemblage Remarks:




(attach continuation sheets for component #3 and greaier)

Total Number of Defined Components: Component #1 (earliest) Cultural Affiliation (choose one):

(‘See NMCRIS Guidelines for valid pencds, defauk occupation dates, and phasdmplex names)

0 Paleoindian
Plains Village



r] Mixed Anasazi - Mogollon


0Casas Grandes 0Hohokam Hispanic 0Anglo/Euro-American

0Plains Navajo Nomad
0other affiliation (identify):

0 Ute

n Pueblo

unknown affil.

0not applicable basedonassociatedchronometricdataorhistoricrecords 0based on associated diagnostic artifact or feature types 0based on analytically derived assemblage dataor archeological experience
Period: (if any): Earliest


(leave blank to use defauil omupatm dates)

Period Latest Dating Status:



0 dendrochronology



obsidian hydration

relativedatingmethods(e.g.,typeseriation) Basis for CuRuralTTemporal Affiliations:


SitelComponent Type one): (choose

Simple Feature@)

0Artifact Scatter

Artifact Scatter

w/ Features

0 Single Residence

0 MultipleResidence Residential Complex/Community 0 RanchinglAgriculturaI 0 Transportation/Communication

r] Industrial

c Other Type (specify type and explain in Remarks): ]

*Ass=. PhaselComplex Name(s):


LA Number:







Number: Field

(.See NMCRIS Guldellnes for valid periods,default occupation dates, and p h a s d m p l e x names)


Component #2

Cultural Affiliation (choose one): Casas Glandes Hohokam

0 Paleoindian
Plains Village

[7 Plains Nomad


Mixed Anasazi - Mogollon

r] Mogollon


0 Navajo 0Apache


0 Pueblo

0Hispanic 0AnglolEuro-American 0unknown affil. 0other affiliation (identify): Basis for TemporalAffiliations(chooseone): 0 not applicable based on associatedchronometric data or historicrecords
based on associated diagnostic artifactor feature types "Begin *Period of Occupation: Earliest Period:

based on analytically derived assemblagedata or archeological experience Date


(leave bknk to u88 default occupation dRte9)

Latest Period (if any): Dating Status:

0 dendrochronology archeomagnetism 0 relativedatingmethods(e.g.,typeseriation) 0 othermethods(specify):


0 obsidian hydration

Basis for Cultural~emporal Affiliations:


SitelComponent one): Type (choose

0Simple Feature(s)
Multiple Residence

ArtifactArtifactw/ Scatter Features Scatter

0Single Residence
U Military

0 Residential ComplexlCommunity

0 Industrial

U Ranching/AgriculturaI L!Transportation/Communication
in Remarks):





"Assoc. PhaselComplex Name(s):
. . "

*Reliable Component. No.
Type Feature
ID? Feature Nos. Observed

ID, Notes

* mtnr " ? " foruncertainLdentifications


see sactK)n 9 (Cuhural-Temporal Affiliations) for Component Nmbera; enterzeroforunknowncomponent






5 Squarem 10 the Ccntimeter

0 recycled/acld-free paper






NMCRIS Project No.:



Project Parent







(AFMS Prolea Nos. are Pssylned durlng me reglsratmnor prcfiela r m r d s ChcCXS: See NMCRlS USLfJ Guldel

Sponsoring Agency: Project
Project Dates:





I year







I month



Project Type

(choose one):

cultural resource management reglonal

ortopical overview

0research project

I yew



0othertype (specify):
Project Description (optional):

Proposed Action:

[7 materials pit/stockpile


a transmission line
exchange land seismic line

2 military target Site
project other

water system action (specify):

research project drill hole mining

0 railroad 0 road/highway 0buried pipeline/cable

0 0fence line management land 0trail

a buildinglfacility


Other Permitting Agencies :


NMCRIS A c t i v i t y No.:
Performing Agency : A c t i v i t y ID: Activity Dates: A c t i v i t y Type:





(s “

miry Ne$. are asslgnrd dunng 911s reglsaanonor preAsld rewrds c h e c k : sa* NMCRlS U S R ~ S Quldd

A c t i v i t y Name:








0research design preparation




r] cult. res. overview/lit. review(C1ass 1)

0archeologicaltesting 0other activity (specify):
Activity Description (optional):

Y 0archeological excavation E monitonng/damage assmt. 0archeologicalsurvey (Class 2 or 3) 0ethnographic study 0collections and non-field studies

I day




- 1


Performed: Studies & Analyses lahic technology lithic tool typology ceramic technology

a faunalanalyses
human osteology obsidian hydrationdating radiocabon dating isolated other analysis (specify):

c tree-ring ! dating
E pollen, phytolith analysis


a historic artifact analyses
0historic records studies

arctieomagnetic macrobotanical dating

0site distribution
artifact distribution

a soils, stratigraphy, geomorphology
0geology, lithic material sourcing

- 3.

0ceramic typology 0ethnography/oralhistory

Surveyed: AreaTotal Survey Intensity (chooseone):

acres Total Activity Area (if <1000/ocoverage): intensive(BLMC1ass 3; 100%) totalsurvey units reconnaissance (BLMClass 2; 4 O O Y o ) units


Survey Configuration:

0block survey

0linear survey units

0other survey units (specify):
Survey Scope (choose one):

[7 non-selective (allcomponents recorded)

3 selective/thematic (selected componentsrecorded)

Survey Coverage (choose one): Interval: Standard Survey

17 systematic pedestriancoverage (e.g., systematic transects)
Standard Crew Size:

0other coverage method

- 3 . S U R V E Y ACTIVITIES (cont.)
Source Graphics:

NMCRIS A c t i v i t y No.:,





0copies in report

0USGS 7.5' topographic maps 0other topographic Scale: maps

0copies attached to repon or form 0rectified aerial photos Scale:
0unrectifiedaerial Scale: photos

a GPS Unit

other source (describe) total sites visited Total isolated occurrences recorded:

Results: sites discovered and registered:
sites discovered and NOTregistered: previously recorded sites revisited:



Non-selectiveIO recording? Surveyed: Acres State:

'Land Ownership:



Governrncnr entiues: enteragencynme & adrnmISiratIvt unrr; Pnvate wnt1t and L & M Grana: mmDme rn!n OnePmatE'grOUP.

CountieslStates Surveyed:

USGS Quadrangles included insurvey (Quad name/Date):


USGS code:





Previously Registered Sites (LAnos.):

New Sites (Mnos.):

Investigated Sites (LAnos.):




Document Type (chooseone):

volume report series in

0article in magazine
(7 paper presented
at meeting

0report, monograph, or


0 title in edited collection
other document type (specify): Year Issued:
Additional Authors:
R r a nm a t

0article in journal
0no date
[Idraft? Main Author: I
iasf name,

drst name

mlddlc tnlual

mldole rnmal



..other author3 *..

Title # I :



Tit le# 2 (addtl. citation data): Prepared By:
Preparing Agency Report No.:
Published By (publisher, city, state):

Report Recipient: Other Agency Report Nos.:

Page 1 of 1

Fax to (505) 476-1320

E-mail to rerrister[a),

NMCRIS Activity Number: Name:


Today’s Date: 3-May-2002 Phone:

Sponsoring Agency: Performing Agency: Report Recipient: Total acres surveyed: Tribal acres surveyed: overview Total sites visited: Type of Investigation:

0research design

0excavationddata recovery 0monitorinddamage assessment 0 other activities (specify):
Activity ID: Site Information:

0test excavations survey/inventory 0collectionshon-field studies
ethnographic study


assigned by ARMVNMCRIS-LEAVE BLANK unless a site revisit (sitehas been previouslyassigned LA #) --enter “Structural” “Non-structural” or --“Structural” sites have “features,” as defined NMCRIS. by --“Non-structural” sites do not have features. --enter .‘Prehistoric”, “Historic”, “Prehist/Historic”, o r “Unknown” --single component sites are either “Prehistoric”, “Historic”, or “Unknown.” --multicomponent sites are “Prehistoric”, “Historic”, or, “Prehist/Historic”, but NOT“Unknown.” (Le., ignore “Unknown” components in multicomponent sites)


Use the NMCRISActivitv and Site Repistration Extension Sheet to Reoister Activities with more than10







(Ref: FSM 23,61.7)



Site Nucnkr


hironmentrl rnd Site Oeseriptive Information

f i #2) . ad



: ;


(Reference: FSM 2361)



, .








3 ROUTING: Copies to . 0 District . 0 SHPO YEAR 0 RO 0 2360' 0 so: 0 Other:

. .
, .


A mT SOF CLEARANCE: 0 NONE (No potentially eligible sites in project area) MN O I 0 AVOID sites specified below 0 MONITOR sites specHied below ' 0 REWRT new sites to Fomt ArchdoQkt - 0 OTHEWAWmONALCOMMENTS


0 mt p . 2
8. ADOiTiONAL FIELDWORK REQLIIRU): 0 WAUIATE sites specified b W 0 Other: e





0 No E f f d 0 No Adverse 0 A ~ V W S R NIA 0 Benefichi ~

F TRANSMlllAl TO SHPO: Consultation on: .
Cl Effect 0 Eligibility 0 Info Only G. SHPO CONCURRENCE 0 YES 0 YES. par comment b l w I NO . e o 3 Comments: (0 .Additional Comments attached)







a NO



. .. .


.. .






2 . PROJECT LOCATION (Surveys only): 3

u u


T . T . T .

R. R, R.



. ,





I 1

I l r







Name of Institution























(By ProfessionalCRM Specialist,

Request SHPO Concurrence)



MONTORED, ENHANCED, ETC.: (Projects other than survey, evaluation)


S: O )








(By USFS Professional CRM Specialist)
1. No Effect


2. No Adverse Effect 3 Adverse Effect . 4 Not Applicable . 5. Beneficial Effect 37. REMARKS/CONTINUATIONfrom page 1:

3 .COST(CO0E): 5



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