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# CHAPTER 13 VECTOR-VALUED FUNCTIONS

## 1. x t  1 and y t#  1 y (x  1)#  1 x#  2x; v dr

dt i  2tj a dv
dt 2j v i  2j and a 2j
at t 1

#
2. x t#  1 and y 2t  1 x y # 1  " x "
4 (y  1)#  1; v dr
dt 2ti  2j a dv
dt 2i
"
v i  2j and a 2i at t #

3. x et and y 2
9 e2t y 2
9 x# ; v dr
dt et i  49 e2t j a et i  89 e2t j v 3i  4j and a 3i  8j at t ln 3

## 4. x cos 2t and y 3 sin 2t x#  "9 y# 1; v dr

dt (2 sin 2t)i  (6 cos 2t)j a dv
dt
(4 cos 2t)i  (12 sin 2t)j v 6j and a 4i at t 0

5. v dr
dt (cos t)i  (sin t)j and a dv
dt (sin t)i  (cos t)j
2 2
for t 14 , v 14 # i # j and
2 2
a 14  # i # j ; for t 1# , v 1# j and
a 1# i

## 6. v ddtr 2 sin #t i  2 cos #t j and a ddtv

 cos #t i   sin #t j for t 1, v(1) 2i and
31
a(1) j ; for t # , v 3#1 2 i  2 j and
2 2
a 3#1 # i # j

7. v dr
dt (1  cos t)i  (sin t)j and a dv
dt
(sin t)i  (cos t)j for t 1, v(1) 2i and a(1) j ;
for t 3#1 , v 3#1 i  j and a 3#1 i

8. v dr
dt i  2tj and a dv
dt 2j for t 1,
v(1) i  2j and a(1) 2j ; for t 0, v(0) i and
a(0) 2j ; for t 1, v(1) i  2j and a(1) 2j

826 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space
d# r
9. r (t  1)i  at#  1b j  2tk v dr
dt i  2tj  2k a dt# 2j ; Speed: kv(1)k 1#  (2(1))#  2# 3;
i  2(1)j  2k "
Direction: v(1)
kv(1)k 3 3 i  32 j  32 k v(1) 3 3" i  32 j  32 k

t# t\$ d# r
10. r (1  t)i  2 j 3 k v dr
dt i 2t
2 j  t# k a dt# 2
2 j  2tk ; Speed: kv(1)k

2(1)
# i j  (1# )k
" "
1#  2(1) # #
2  (1 ) 2; Direction:
v(1)
kv(1)k 2
# # i 2 j  "# k v(1)

2 "# i  "
2 j  #" k

d# r
11. r (2 cos t)i  (3 sin t)j  4tk v dr
dt (2 sin t)i  (3 cos t)j  4k a dt# (2 cos t)i  (3 sin t)j ;
1 # 1 # v 1#
Speed: v 1# 2 sin #  3 cos 2  4# 25; Direction: v 1
#

 #
2
5
sin 1# i  #
3
5
cos 1# j  4
#5
k  "5 i  2
5 k v 1# 25  "5 i  2
5 k

d# r
12. r (sec t)i  (tan t)j  43 tk v dr
dt (sec t tan t)i  asec# tb j  43 k a dt#
# # #
asec t tan# t  sec\$ tb i  a2 sec# t tan tb j ; Speed: v 16 sec 1
6 tan 16  sec# 16  43 2;
v 16 sec 1 tan 1 i  sec# 1 j  4
k "
Direction: v 1 6 6
#
6 3
3 i  23 j  23 k v 16 2 3" i  32 j  32 k
6

t# d# r
13. r (2 ln (t  1))i  t# j  2 k v dr
dt t 2 1 i  2tj  tk a dt# (t 21)# i  2j  k ;
2
i  2(1)j  (1)k
"  1 6
#
Speed: kv(1)k 1 2 1  (2(1))#  1# 6; Direction: v(1)
kv(1)k

"
6 i 2
6 j 1
6 k v(1) 6 "6 i  2
6 j "
6 k

d# r
14. r aet b i  (2 cos 3t)j  (2 sin 3t)k v dr
dt aet b i  (6 sin 3t)j  (6 cos 3t)k a dt#

aet b i  (18 cos 3t)j  (18 sin 3t)k ; Speed: kv(0)k ae! b#  [6 sin 3(0)]#  [6 cos 3(0)]# 37;
ae! b i  6 sin 3(0)j  6 cos 3(0)k
Direction: v(0)
kv(0)k 37  "37 i  6
37 k v(0) 37  "37 i  6
37 k

#
15. v 3i  3 j  2tk and a 2k v(0) 3i  3 j and a(0) 2k kv(0)k 3#  3  0# 12 and
1
ka(0)k 2# 2; v(0) a(0) 0 cos ) 0 ) #

2 2 2 2 2 # 2 #
16. v # i #  32t j and a 32j v(0) # i # j and a(0) 32j kv(0)k #  #
2 162 2 31
1 and ka(0)k (32)# 32; v(0) a(0) # (32) 162 cos ) 1(32)  # ) 4

"# #
17. v t# 2t 1 i  t#  #
1 j  tat  1b
1
k and a  2t  2
at#  1b#
i  at# 2t 1b# j  "
k v(0) j and
at#  1b\$#
1
a(0) 2i  k kv(0)k 1 and ka(0)k 2#  1# 5; v(0) a(0) 0 cos ) 0 ) 2

18. v 2
3 (1  t)"# i  23 (1  t)"# j  3" k and a "
3 (1  t)"# i  3" (1  t)"# j v(0) 2
3 i  32 j  3" k and
" # # # # # 2
a(0) 3 i  3" j kv(0)k 23   23  3" 1 and ka(0)k 3"  3" 3 ; v(0) a(0) 2
9  2
9
1
0 cos ) 0 ) #

Section 13.1 Vector Functions 827

19. v (1  cos t)i  (sin t)j and a (sin t)i  (cos t)j v a (sin t)(1  cos t)  (sin t)(cos t) sin t. Thus,
v a 0 sin t 0 t 0, 1, or 21

20. v (cos t)i  j  (sin t)k and a ( sin t)i  (cos t)k v a  sin t cos t  sin t cos t 0 for all t 0

## 21. '01 ct\$ i  7j  (t  1)kd dt t4 " i  [7t] "! j  t2  t " k 4" i  7j  3# k

% #

! !

22. '12 (6  6t)i  3t j  t4 k dt c6t  3t# d #" i  2t\$# #" j  c4t" d #" k 3i  42  2 j  2k
#

23. '11%% c(sin t)i  (1  cos t)j  asec# tb kd dt c cos td 1%1% i  ct  sin td 1%1% j  ctan td 1%1% k
2
1  #2 j  2k

24. '013 c(sec t tan t)i  (tan t)j  (2 sin t cos t) kd dt '013 [(sec t tan t)i  (tan t)j  (sin 2t)k] dt
1\$ 1\$ 1\$
csec td ! i  c ln (cos t)d ! j   "# cos 2t ! k i  (ln 2)j  34 k

## 25. '14 "t i  5 " t j  #"t k dt %

cln td %" i  c ln (5  t)d %" j   #" ln t " k (ln 4)i  (ln 4)j  (ln 2)k

"
26. '01 2 i
3
1  t#
"
k dt c2 sin" td ! i  3 tan" t k 1i  13
k
1  t# ! 4

## 27. r ' (ti  tj  tk) dt  t# i 

#
t# t#
# j # k  C ; r(0) 0i  0j  0k  C i  2j  3k C i  2j  3k
# # #
r  t#  1 i   t#  2 j   t#  3 k

## 28. r ' c(180t)i  a180t  16t# b jd dt 90t# i  90t#  16 \$ # #

3 t j  C ; r(0) 90(0) i  90(0) 
 16
3 (0)\$ j  C
100j C 100j r 90t# i  90t#  16 \$
3 t  100 j

## 29. r '  3# (t  1)"# i  et j  t " 1 k dt (t  1)\$# i  et j  ln (t  1)k  C ;

r(0) (0  1)\$# i  e! j  ln (0  1)k  C k C i  j  k
r (t  1)\$#  1 i  a1  et b j  [1  ln (t  1)]k

## 30. r ' cat\$  4tb i  tj  2t# kd dt t4  2t# i  2(0)\$

%
t# 2t\$ %
0#
2 j 3 k  C ; r(0) 04  2(0)# i  2 j 3 kC
% #
2t\$
i  j C i  j r t4  2t#  1 i  t#  1 j  3 k

31. ' (32k) dt 32tk  C" ; ddtr (0) 8i  8j 32(0)k  C" 8i  8j C" 8i  8j
dr
dt
dr 8i  8j  32tk ; r ' (8i  8j  32tk) dt 8ti  8tj  16t# k  C# ; r(0) 100k
dt
8(0)i  8(0)j  16(0)# k  C# 100k C# 100k r 8ti  8tj  a100  16t# b k

32. dr
dt ' (i  j  k) dt (ti  tj  tk)  C" ; dr
dt (0) 0 (0i  0j  0k)  C" 0 C" 0
#
t# t#
dr
dt (ti  tj  tk) ; r ' (ti  tj  tk) dt  t# i  # j # k  C# ; r(0) 10i  10j  10k
#
0# 0#
 0# i  # j # k  C# 10i  10j  10k C# 10i  10j  10k

828 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space
# # #
r  t#  10 i   t#  10 j   t#  10 k

33. r(t) (sin t)i  at#  cos tb j  et k v(t) (cos t)i  (2t  sin t)j  et k ; t! 0 v(t0 ) i  k and
r(t0 ) P! (0 1 1) x 0  t t, y 1, and z 1  t are parametric equations of the tangent line

34. r(t) (2 sin t)i  a2 cos tb j  5tk v(t) (2 cos t)i  (2 sin t)j  5k ; t! 41 v(t0 ) 2i  5k and
r(t0 ) P! (0 2 201) x 0  2t 2t, y 2, and z 201  5t are parametric equations of the tangent line

35. r(t) (a sin t)i  aa cos tb j  btk v(t) (a cos t)i  (a sin t)j  bk ; t! 21 v(t0 ) ai  bk and
r(t0 ) P! (0 a 2b1) x 0  at at, y a, and z 21b  bt are parametric equations of the tangent line

1
36. r(t) (cos t)i  asin tb j  (sin 2t)k v(t) ( sin t)i  (cos t)j  (2 cos 2t)k ; t! # v(t0 ) i  2k and
r(t0 ) P! (0 1 0) x 0  t t, y 1, and z 0  2t 2t are parametric equations of the tangent line

37. (a) v(t) (sin t)i  (cos t)j a(t) (cos t)i  (sin t)j ;
(i) kv(t)k (sin t)#  (cos t)# 1 constant speed;
(ii) v a (sin t)(cos t)  (cos t)(sin t) 0 yes, orthogonal;
(iii) counterclockwise movement;
(iv) yes, r(0) i  0j
(b) v(t) (2 sin 2t)i  (2 cos 2t)j a(t) (4 cos 2t)i  (4 sin 2t)j;
(i) kv(t)k 4 sin# 2t  4 cos# 2t 2 constant speed;
(ii) v a 8 sin 2t cos 2t  8 cos 2t sin 2t 0 yes, orthogonal;
(iii) counterclockwise movement;
(iv) yes, r(0) i  0j
(c) v(t)  sin t  1# i  cos t  1# j a(t)  cos t  1# i  sin t  1# j ;
(i) kv(t)k sin# t  1#  cos# t  1# 1 constant speed;
(ii) v a sin t  1# cos t  1#  cos t  1# sin t  1# 0 yes, orthogonal;
(iii) counterclockwise movement;
(iv) no, r(0) 0i  j instead of i  0j
(d) v(t) (sin t)i  (cos t)j a(t) (cos t)i  (sin t)j ;
(i) kv(t)k (sin t)#  ( cos t)# 1 constant speed;
(ii) v a (sin t)(cos t)  (cos t)(sin t) 0 yes, orthogonal;
(iii) clockwise movement;
(iv) yes, r(0) i  0j
(e) v(t) (2t sin t)i  (2t cos t)j a(t) (2 sin t  2t cos t)i  (2 cos t  2t sin t)j ;
(i) kv(t)k c a2t sin tb d#  (2t cos t)# 4t# asin# t  cos# tb 2ktk 2t, t 0
variable speed;
(ii) v a 4 at sin# t  t# sin t cos tb  4 at cos# t  t# cos t sin tb 4t 0 in general
not orthogonal in general;
(iii) counterclockwise movement;
(iv) yes, r(0) i  0j

## " " " " "

38. Let p 2i  2j  k denote the position vector of the point a2, 2, 1b and let, u 2 i 2 j and v 3 i 3 j 3 k.
Then r(t) p  (cos t)u  (sin t)v. Note that (2 2 1) is a point on the plane and n i  j  2k is normal to
the plane. Moreover, u and v are orthogonal unit vectors with u n v n 0 u and v are parallel to the
plane. Therefore, r(t) identifies a point that lies in the plane for each t. Also, for each t, (cos t)u  (sin t)v

Section 13.1 Vector Functions 829

## is a unit vector. Starting at the point 2  1

2 , 2 1
2 , 1 the vector ratb traces out a circle of radius 1 and
center (2 2 1) in the plane x  y  2z 2.

39. dv
dt a 3i  j  k v(t) 3ti  tj  tk  C" ; the particle travels in the direction of the vector
(4  1)i  (1  2)j  (4  3)k 3i  j  k (since it travels in a straight line), and at time t 0 it has speed
2 v(0) 2
9  1  1 (3i  j  k) C" dr
dt v(t) 3t  6
11 i  t  2
11 j  t  2
11 k

r(t) 3# t#  6
11 t i  "# t#  2
11 t j  "# t#  2
11 t k  C# ; r(0) i  2j  3k C#

r(t) 3# t#  6
11 t  1 i  "# t#  2
11 t  2 j  "# t#  2
11 t  3 k

"# t#  2
11 t (3i  j  k)  (i  2j  3k)

40. dv
dt a 2i  j  k v(t) 2ti  tj  tk  C" ; the particle travels in the direction of the vector
(3  1)i  (0  (1))j  (3  2)k 2i  j  k (since it travels in a straight line), and at time t 0 it has speed 2
v(0) 2
4  1  1 (2i  j  k) C" dr
dt v(t) 2t  4
6 i  t  2
6 j  t  2
6 k

r(t) t#  4
6 t i  "# t#  2
6 t j  "# t#  2
6 t k  C# ; r(0) i  j  2k C#

r(t) t#  4
6 t  1 i  "# t#  2
6 t  1 j  "# t#  2
6 t  2 k "# t#  2
6 t (2i  j  k)  (i  j  2k)

41. The velocity vector is tangent to the graph of y# 2x at the point (# #), has length 5, and a positive i
"
component. Now, y# 2x 2y dy
dx 2 dy
dx ## 2
# 2 # the tangent vector lies in the direction of the

## vector i  "# j the velocity vector is v 5

"
i  "# j 5 "
5 i  # j 2 5 i  5 j
1  4 
#

42. (a)

(b) v (1  cos t)i  (sin t)j and a (sin t)i  (cos t)j ; kvk# (1  cos t)#  sin# t 2  2 cos t kvk# is at a max
when cos t 1 t 1, 31, 51, etc., and at these values of t, kvk# 4 max kvk 4 2; kvk# is at a min
when cos t 1 t 0, 21, 41, etc., and at these values of t, kvk# 0 min kvk 0; kak# sin# t  cos# t 1
for every t max kak min kak 1 1

43. v (3 sin t)j  (2 cos t)k and a (3 cos t)j  (2 sin t)k ; kvk# 9 sin# t  4 cos# t dtd kvk#
18 sin t cos t  8 cos t sin t 10 sin t cos t; dtd kvk# 0 10 sin t cos t 0 sin t 0 or cos t 0
t 0, 1 or t 1 , 31 . When t 0, 1, kvk# 4 kvk 4 2; when t 1 , 31 , kvk 9 3.
# # # #
Therefore max kvk is 3 when t 1# , 3#1 , and min kvk 2 when t 0, 1. Next, kak# 9 cos# t  4 sin# t
dtd kak# 18 cos t sin t  8 sin t cos t 10 sin t cos t; dtd kak# 0 10 sin t cos t 0 sin t 0 or
cos t 0 t 0, 1 or t 1# , 31
# . When t 0, 1, kak# 9 kak 3; when t 1# , 31
# , kak# 4 kak 2.
Therefore, max kak 3 when t 0, 1, and min kak 2 when t 1# , 31
# .

830 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

44. (a) r(t) (r! cos ))i  (r! sin ))j , and the distance traveled along the circle in time t is vt (rate times time)
which equals the circular arc length r! ) ) vt
r! r(t) r! cos vt
r! i  r! sin vt
r! j
# #
(b) v(t) dr
dt v sin vt
r! i  v cos vt
r! j a(t) dv
dt  vr! cos vt
r! i   vr! sin vt
r! j
# #
 vr# r! cos vt
r! i  r! sin vt
r! j  vr# r(t)
! !
# #
(c) F ma  GmM
r#
r
r! m  vr# r  GmM
r\$
 mr#v v# GM
r!
! ! ! !

(d) T is the time for the satellite to complete one full orbit vT circumference of circle vT 21r!
2 1 r! 41# r#! 41# r\$! 41 #
(e) Substitute v T into v# GM
r! T# GM
r! T# GM T# is proportional to r!\$ since GM is a
constant

45. d
dt (v v) v dv
dt  dv
dt v 2v dv
dt 2 0 0 v v is a constant kvk v v is constant

46. (a) d
dt (u v w ) du
dt (v w )  u d
dt (v w ) du
dt (v w)  u ddtv w  v dw
dt
du
dt (v w )  u dv
dt wuv dw
dt
(b) Each of the determinants is equivalent to each expression in Eq. 7 in part (a) because of the formual in Section 12.4
expressing the triple scalar product as a determinant.

d# r d# r #
d# r d\$ r d\$ r
47. d
dt r ddtr dt# dr
dt ddtr dt#  r ddt#r dt#  r ddtr dt\$ r ddtr dt\$ , since A (A B) 0
and A (B B) 0 for any vectors A and B

## 48. u C ai  bj  ck with a, b, c real constants du

dt da
dt i db
dt j dc
dt k 0 i  0 j  0k 0

dt (cu) c df
dt ic dg
dt jc dh
dt k
c df
dt i dg
dt j dh
dt k c du
dt

## (b) f u f f(t)i  f g(t)j  f h(t)k d

dt (f u) ddtf f(t)  f df
dt i  ddtf g(t)  f dg
dt j  ddtf h(t)  f dh
dt k

df
dt [f(t)i  g(t)j  h(t)k]  f df
dt i 
dg
dt j dh
dt k df
dt uf du
dt

50. Let u f" (t)i  f# (t)j  f\$ (t)k and v g" (t)i  g# (t)j  g\$ (t)k. Then
u  v [f" (t)  g" (t)]i  [f# (t)  g# (t)]j  [f\$ (t)  g\$ (t)]k
dtd (u  v) [f"w (t)  gw" (t)]i  [f#w (t)  gw# (t)]j  [f\$w (t)  gw\$ (t)]k
[f"w (t)i  f#w (t)j  f\$w (t)k]  [gw" (t)i  gw# (t)j  gw\$ (t)k] du
dt  dv
dt ;
u  v [f" (t)  g" (t)]i  [f# (t)  g# (t)]j  [f\$ (t)  g\$ (t)]k
dtd (u  v) [f"w (t)  gw" (t)]i  [f#w (t)  gw# (t)]j  [f\$w (t)  gw\$ (t)]k
[f"w (t)i  f#w (t)j  f\$w (t)k]  [gw" (t)i  gw# (t)j  gw\$ (t)k] du
dt  dv
dt

51. Suppose r is continuous at t t! . Then lim r(t) r(t! ) lim [f(t)i  g(t)j  h(t)k]
t t! t t!
f(t! )i  g(t! )j  h(t! )k lim f(t) f(t! ), lim g(t) g(t! ), and lim h(t) h(t! ) f, g, and h are
t t! t t! t t!
continuous at t t! .

i j k
i j k

52. lim [r" (t) r# (t)] lim f" (t) f# (t)
lim f" (t)
f\$ (t) t t! lim f# (t) lim f\$ (t)
t t! t t!
t t! t t!
g" (t) g# (t) g\$ (t) lim g" (t) lim g# (t) lim g\$ (t)
tt ! t t! t t!
lim r" (t) lim r# (t) A B
t t! t t!

Section 13.1 Vector Functions 831

53. rw (t! ) exists f w (t! )i  gw (t! )j  hw (t! )k exists f w (t! ), gw (t! ), hw (t! ) all exist f, g, and h are continuous at
t t! r(t) is continuous at t t!

54. (a) 'ab kr(t) dt 'ab [kf(t)i  kg(t)j  kh(t)k] dt 'ab [kf(t)] dt i  'a [kg(t)] dt j  'a [kh(t)] dt k
b b

## k 'a f(t) dt i  'a g(t) dt j  'a h(t) dt k k 'a r(t) dt

b b b b

(b) 'ab [r" (t) r# (t)] dt 'ab acf" (t)i  g" (t)j  h" (t)kd cf# (t)i  g# (t)j  h# (t)kdb dt
'a acf" (t) f# (t)d i  [g" (t) g# (tb] j  [h" (t) h# (t)] k) dt
b

'a cf" (t) f# (t)d dt i  'a cg" (t) g# (t)d dt j  'a ch" (t) h# (t)d dt k
b b b

'a f" (t) dt i 'a f# (t) dt i  'a g" (t) dt j 'a g# (t) dt j  'a h" (t) dt k 'a h# (t) dt k
b b b b b b

## 'a r" (t) dt 'a r# (t) dt

b b

(c) Let C c" i  c# j  c\$ k. Then 'a C r(t) dt 'a cc" f(t)  c# g(t)  c\$ h(t)d dt
b b

c" 'ab f(t) dt  c# 'ab g(t) dt  c\$ 'ab h(t) dt = C 'ab r(t) dt;
'ab C r(t) dt 'ab cc# h(t)  c\$ g(t)d i  cc\$ f(t)  c" h(t)d j  cc" g(t)  c# f(t)d k dt
c# 'ab h(t) dt  c\$ 'ab g(t) dt i  c\$ 'ab f(t) dt  c" 'ab h(t) dt j  c" 'ab g(t) dt  c# 'ab f(t) dt k
C 'a r(t) dt
b

55. (a) Let u and r be continuous on [a b]. Then lim u(t)r(t) lim [u(t)f(t)i  u(t)g(t)j  u(t)h(t)k]
t t! t t!
u(t! )f(t! )i  u(t! )g(t! )j  u(t! )h(t! )k u(t! )r(t! ) ur is continuous for every t! in [a b].
(b) Let u and r be differentiable. Then dtd (ur) dtd [u(t)f(t)i  u(t)g(t)j  u(t)h(t)k]
du
dt f(t)  u(t) dt i  dt g(t)  u(t) dt j  dt h(t)  u(t) dt k
df du dg du dh

## [f(t)i  g(t)j  h(t)k] du

dt  u(t) dt i 
df dg
dt j dh
dt k r du
dt  u dt
dr

56. (a) If R" (t) and R# (t) have identical derivatives on I, then d R"
dt df"
dt i dg"
dt j dh"
dt k df#
dt i dg#
dt j dh#
dt k
d R#
dt df"
dt df#
dt , dg"
dt dg#
dt , dh"
dt dh#
dt f" (t) f# (t)  c" , g" (t) g# (t)  c# , h" (t) h# (t)  c\$
f" (t)i  g" (t)j  h" (t)k [f# (t)  c" ]i  [g# (t)  c# ]j  [h# (t)  c\$ ]k R" (t) R# (t)  C, where
C c" i  c# j  c\$ k.
(b) Let R(t) be an antiderivative of r(t) on I. Then Rw (t) r(t). If U(t) is an antiderivative of r(t) on I, then
Uw (t) r(t). Thus Uw (t) Rw (t) on I U(t) R(t)  C.

57. d
dt
'at r(7 ) d7 dtd 'at [f(7 )i  g(7 )j  h(7 )k] d7 dtd 'at f(7 ) d7 i  dtd 'at g(7 ) d7 j  dtd 'at h(7 ) d7 k
f(t)i  g(t)j  h(t)k r(t). Since dtd 'a r(7 ) d7 r(t), we have that 'a r(7 ) d7 is an antiderivative of
t t

r. If R is any antiderivative of r, then R(t) 'a r(7 ) d7  C by Exercise 56(b). Then R(a) 'a r(7 ) d7  C
t a

0  C C R(a) 'a r(7 ) d7 R(t)  C R(t)  R(a) 'a r(7 ) d7 R(b)  R(a).
t b

## 58-61. Example CAS commands:

Maple:
> with( plots );
r := t -> [sin(t)-t*cos(t),cos(t)+t*sin(t),t^2];

832 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

t0 := 3*Pi/2;
lo := 0;
hi := 6*Pi;
P1 := spacecurve( r(t), t=lo..hi, axes=boxed, thickness=3 ):
display( P1, title="#58(a) (Section 13.1)" );
Dr := unapply( diff(r(t),t), t ); # (b)
Dr(t0); # (c)
q1 := expand( r(t0) + Dr(t0)*(t-t0) );
T := unapply( q1, t );
P2 := spacecurve( T(t), t=lo..hi, axes=boxed, thickness=3, color=black ):
display( [P1,P2], title="#58(d) (Section 13.1)" );

## 62-63. Example CAS commands:

Maple:
a := 'a'; b := 'b';
r := (a,b,t) -> [cos(a*t),sin(a*t),b*t];
Dr := unapply( diff(r(a,b,t),t), (a,b,t) );
t0 := 3*Pi/2;
q1 := expand( r(a,b,t0) + Dr(a,b,t0)*(t-t0) );
T := unapply( q1, (a,b,t) );
lo := 0;
hi := 4*Pi;
P := NULL:
for a in [ 1, 2, 4, 6 ] do
P1 := spacecurve( r(a,1,t), t=lo..hi, thickness=3 ):
P2 := spacecurve( T(a,1,t), t=lo..hi, thickness=3, color=black ):
P := P, display( [P1,P2], axes=boxed, title=sprintf("#62 (Section 13.1)\n a=%a",a) );
end do:
display( [P], insequence=true );

## 58-63. Example CAS commands:

Mathematica: (assigned functions, parameters, and intervals will vary)
The x-y-z components for the curve are entered as a list of functions of t. The unit vectors i, j, k are not inserted.
If a graph is too small, highlight it and drag out a corner or side to make it larger.
Only the components of r[t] and values for t0, tmin, and tmax require alteration for each problem.
Clear[r, v, t, x, y, z]
r[t_]={ Sin[t]  t Cos[t], Cos[t]  t Sin[t], t2}
t0= 31 / 2; tmin= 0; tmax= 61;
ParametricPlot3D[Evaluate[r[t]], {t, tmin, tmax}, AxesLabel {x, y, z}];
v[t_]= r'[t]
tanline[t_]= v[t0] t  r[t0]
ParametricPlot3D[Evaluate[{r[t], tanline[t]}], {t, tmin, tmax}, AxesLabel {x, y, z}];
For 62 and 63, the curve can be defined as a function of t, a, and b. Leave a space between a and t and b and t.
Clear[r, v, t, x, y, z, a, b]
r[t_,a_,b_]:={Cos[a t], Sin[a t], b t}
t0= 31 / 2; tmin= 0; tmax= 41;
v[t_,a_,b_]= D[r[t, a, b], t]
tanline[t_,a_,b_]=v[t0, a, b] t  r[t0, a, b]
pa1=ParametricPlot3D[Evaluate[{r[t, 1, 1], tanline[t, 1, 1]}], {t,tmin, tmax}, AxesLabel {x, y, z}];

Section 13.2 Modeling Projectile Motion 833

## pa2=ParametricPlot3D[Evaluate[{r[t, 2, 1], tanline[t, 2, 1]}], {t,tmin, tmax}, AxesLabel {x, y, z}];

pa4=ParametricPlot3D[Evaluate[{r[t, 4, 1], tanline[t, 4, 1]}], {t,tmin, tmax}, AxesLabel {x, y, z}];
pa6=ParametricPlot3D[Evaluate[{r[t, 6, 1], tanline[t, 6, 1]}], {t,tmin, tmax}, AxesLabel {x, y, z}];
Show[GraphicsArray[{pa1, pa2, pa4, pa6}]]

## 1. x (v! cos !)t (21 km) 1000

1 km
m
(840 m/s)(cos 60)t t 21,000 m
(840 m/s)(cos 60) 50 seconds

v#! v#
2. R g sin 2! and maximum R occurs when ! 45 24.5 km 9.8 m/s
!
# (sin 90)

## 2v! sin ! (500 m/s)# v!#

3. (a) t g 2(500 m/s)(sin 45)
9.8 m/s# 72.2 seconds; R sin 2!
9.8 m/s# (sin 90) 25,510.2 m
g
(b) x (v! cos !)t 5000 m (500 m/s)(cos 45)t t (500 m/s)(cos
5000 m
45) 14.14 s; thus,
" "
y (v! sin !)t  # gt y (500 m/s)(sin 45)(14.14 s)  # a9.8 m/s# b (14.14 s)# 4020 m
#

!)# 45))#
(c) ymax (v! sin
2g ((5002 m/s)(sin
a9.8 m/s# b 6378 m

4. y y!  (v! sin !)t  "# gt# y 32 ft  (32 ft/sec)(sin 30)t  "# a32 ft/sec# b t# y 32  16t  16t# ;
the ball hits the ground when y 0 0 32  16t  16t# t 1 or t 2 t 2 sec since t  0; thus,
3
x (v! cos !) t x (32 ft/sec)(cos 30)t 32 # (2) 55.4 ft

5. x x!  (v! cos !)t 0  (44 cos 45)t 222t and y y!  (v! sin !)t  "# gt# 6.5  (44 sin 45)t  16t#
222 968  416
6.5  222t  16t# ; the shot lands when y 0 t 3# 2.135 sec since t  0; thus
x 222t 222 (2.135) 66.43 ft

6. x 0  (44 cos 40)t 33.706t and y 6.5  (44 sin 40)t  16t# 6.5  28.283t  16t# ; y 0
28.283  (28.283)#  416
t 3# 1.9735 sec since t  0; thus x (33.706)(1.9735) 66.52 ft the
difference in distances is about 66.52  66.43 0.09 ft or about 1 inch

v#! v# # # #
7. (a) R g sin 2! 10 m 9.8 m/s
!
# (sin 90) v! 98 m s v! 9.9 m/s;
(9.9 m/s)#
(b) 6m 9.8 m/s# (sin 2!) sin 2! 0.59999 2! 36.87 or 143.12 ! 18.4 or 71.6

8. v! 5 10' m/s and x 40 cm 0.4 m; thus x (v! cos !)t 0.4m a5 10' m/sb (cos 0)t
t 0.08 10' s 8 10) s; also, y y!  (v! sin !)t  "# gt#
#
y a5 10' m/sb (sin 0) a8 10) sb  "# a9.8 m/s# b a8 10) sb 3.136 10"% m or
3.136 10"# cm. Therefore, it drops 3.136 10"# cm.

v#! v# # # #
9. R g sin 2! 3(248.8) ft 32 ft/sec
!
# (sin 18) v! 77,292.84 ft /sec v! 278.02 ft/sec 190 mph

#
80 3 10
8010
10. v! 3 ft/sec and R 200 ft 200 32 (sin 2!) sin 2! 0.9 2! 64.2 ! 32.1; or

80 3 10 (sin 32.1)
#

2! 115.8 ! 57.9; If ! 32.1 , ymax 2(32) 31.4 ft. If ! 57.9 , ymax 79.7 ft  75 ft. In
order to reach the cushion, the angle of elevation will need to be about 32.1. At this angle, the circus performer will go

834 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

31.4 ft into the air at maximum height and will not strike the 75 ft high ceiling.

11. x (v! cos !)t 135 ft (90 ft/sec)(cos 30)t t 1.732 sec; y (v! sin !)t  "# gt#
y (90 ft/sec)(sin 30)(1.732 sec)  "# a32 ft/sec# b (1.732 sec)# y 29.94 ft the golf ball will clip
the leaves at the top

## 12. v! 116 ft/sec, ! 45, and x (v! cos !)t

369 (116 cos 45)t t 4.50 sec;
also y (v! sin !)t  "# gt#
y (116 sin 45)(4.50)  "# (32)(4.50)#
45.11 ft. It will take the ball 4.50 sec to travel
369 ft. At that time the ball will be 45.11 ft in
the air and will hit the green past the pin.

## 13. We do part b first.

" #
(b) x (v! cos !)t 315 ft (v! cos 20)t v! t cos 20 ; also y (v! sin !)t  # gt
315

" # # # #
34 ft t cos 20 (t sin 20)  # (32)t 34 315 tan 20  16t t 5.04 sec t 2.25 sec
315

(a) v! 315
(2.25)(cos 20) 149 ft/sec

## v#! v#! v#! v#!

14. R g sin 2! g (2 sin ! cos !) g [2 cos (90  !) sin (90  !)] g [sin 2(90  !)]

## v#! (400 m/s)#

15. R g sin 2! 16,000 m 9.8 m/s# sin 2! sin 2! 0.98 2! 78.5 or 2! 101.5 ! 39.3
or 50.7

(2v! )# 4v#! v#
16. (a) R g sin 2! g sin 2! 4 g! sin ! or 4 times the original range.
v#!
(b) Now, let the initial range be R g sin 2!. Then we want the factor p so that pv! will double the range
(pv! )# v#!
g sin 2! 2 g sin 2! p# 2 p 2 or about 141%. The same percentage will approximately
apv0 sin !b2 2av0 sin !b2
double the height: 2g 2g p# 2 p 2.

17. x x!  (v! cos !)t 0  (v! cos 40)t 0.766 v! t and y y!  (v! sin !)t  "# gt# 6.5  (v! sin 40)t  16t#
6.5  0.643 v! t  16t# ; now the shot went 73.833 ft 73.833 0.766 v! t t 96.383
v! sec; the shot lands
#
when y 0 0 6.5  (0.643)(96.383)  16 96.383
v! 0 68.474 
148,635
v#!
v! 148,635
68.474

## (v! sin !)# 3(v! sin !)# 3(v! sin !)#

18. ymax 2g 3
4 ymax 8g and y (v! sin !)t  "# gt# 8g (v! sin !)t  "# gt#
3(v! sin !)# (8gv! sin !)t  4g t 4g# t#  (8gv! sin !)t  3(v! sin !)# 0 2gt  3v! sin ! 0 or
# #

## 2gt  v! sin ! 0 t 3v!2gsin ! or t v! 2g

sin !
. Since the time it takes to reach ymax is tmax v! sin
g
!
,
v! sin !
then the time it takes the projectile to reach 3
4 of ymax is the shorter time t 2g or half the time it takes
to reach the maximum height.

19. dr
dt ' (gj) dt gtj  C" and dr
dt (0) (v! cos !)i  (v! sin !)j g(0)j  C" (v! cos !)i  (v! sin !)j
C" (v! cos !)i  (v! sin !)j ddtr (v! cos !)i  (v! sin !  gt)j ; r ' [(v! cos !)i  (v! sin !  gt)j] dt
(v! t cos !)i  v! t sin !  "# gt# j  C# and r(0) x! i  y! j [v! (0) cos !]i  v! (0) sin !  "# g(0)# j  C#
x! i  y! j C# x! i  y! j r (x!  v! t cos !)i  y!  v! t sin !  "# gt# j x x!  v! t cos ! and

Section 13.2 Modeling Projectile Motion 835

## y y!  v! t sin !  "# gt#

20. From Example 3(b) in the text, v! sin ! (68)(64) v! sin 56.5 65.97 v! 79 ft/sec

21. The horizontal distance from Rebollo to the center of the cauldron is 90 ft the horizontal distance to the
nearest rim is x 90  "# (12) 84 84 x!  (v! cos !)t 0  v!90g
sin ! t 84
(90)(32)
(68)(64) t
" #
t 1.92 sec. The vertical distance at this time is y y!  (v! sin !)t  gt #
6  (68)(64) (1.92)  16(1.92)# 73.7 ft the arrow clears the rim by 3.7 ft

22. The projectile rises straight up and then falls straight down, returning to the firing point.

23. Flight time 1 sec and the measure of the angle of elevation is about 64 (using a protractor) so that
2v! sin ! (17.80 sin 64)#
t g 1 2v! sin 64
32 v! 17.80 ft/sec. Then ymax 2(32) 4.00 ft and
v#! #
R g sin 2! R (17.80)
32 sin 128 7.80 ft the engine traveled about 7.80 ft in 1 sec the engine

24. When marble A is located R units downrange, we have x (v! cos !)t R (v! cos !)t t R
v! cos ! . At
#
that time the height of marble A is y y!  (v! sin !)t  "# gt# (v! sin !) v! cos
R "
!  # g v! cos !
R

#
y R tan !  "# g v# cos
R
# ! . The height of marble B at the same time t
R
v! cos ! seconds is
!
#
h R tan !  "# gt# R tan !  "# g v# cos
R
# ! . Since the heights are the same, the marbles collide regardless
!

## of the initial velocity v! .

25. (a) At the time t when the projectile hits the line OR we
have tan " yx ; x [v! cos (!  " )]t and
y [v! sin (!  " )]t  "# gt#  0 since R is
below level ground. Therefore let
kyk "# gt#  [v! sin (!  " )]t  0
 "# gt# (v! sin (!  " ))t  " gt  v sin (!  " )
so that tan " [v! cos (!  " )]t # v! cos! (!  ")
v! cos (!  " ) tan " "# gt  v! sin (!  " )
t 2v! sin (!  ")  2vg ! cos (!  ") tan " , which is the time
when the projectile hits the downhill slope. Therefore,
2v#!
x [v! cos (!  " )] 2v! sin (!  ")  2vg ! cos (!  ") tan " g ccos# (!  " ) tan "  sin (!  " ) cos (!  " )d . If x is
2v#!
maximized, then OR is maximized: dx
d! g [ sin 2(!  " ) tan "  cos 2(!  " )] 0
 sin 2(!  " ) tan "  cos 2(!  " ) 0 tan " cot 2(!  " ) 2(!  " ) 90  "
!  " "# (90  " ) ! "# (90  " ) "# of nAOR.
(b) At the time t when the projectile hits OR we have
tan " yx ; x [v! cos (!  " )]t and
y [v! sin (!  " )]t  "# gt#
cv! sin (!  " )d t  "# gt# v! sin (!  " )  "# gt
tan " [v! cos (!  " )]t v! cos (!  " )
v! cos (!  " ) tan " v! sin (!  " )  "# gt
t 2v! sin (!  ")  2vg ! cos (!  ") tan " , which is the time
when the projectile hits the uphill slope. Therefore,

836 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

2v#!
x [v! cos (!  " )] 2v! sin (!  ")  2vg ! cos (!  ") tan " g csin (!  " ) cos (!  " )  cos# (!  " ) tan " d . If x is
2v#!
maximized, then OR is maximized: ddx! g [cos 2(!  " )  sin 2(!  " ) tan " ] 0
cos 2(!  " )  sin 2(!  " ) tan " 0 cot 2(!  " )  tan " ! cot 2(!  " )  tan "
tan (" ) 2(!  " ) 90  (" ) 90  " ! "# (90  " ) "# of nAOR. Therefore v! would bisect
nAOR for maximum range uphill.

26. (a) ratb axatbbi  ayatbbj; where xatb a145 cos 23  14bt and yatb 2.5  a145 sin 23 bt  16t2 .
av0 sin !b2 a145sin 23 b2 v0 sin ! 145sin 23
(b) ymax 2g  2.5 64  2.5 52.655 feet, which is reached at t g 32 1.771 seconds.

(c) For the time, solve y 2.5  a145 sin 23 bt  16t 0 for t, using the quadratic formula
2

## 145 sin 23  a145 sin 23 b2  160

t 32 3.585 sec. Then the range at t 3.585 is about x a145 cos 23  14ba3.585b
428.311 feet.
(d) For the time, solve y 2.5  a145 sin 23 bt  16t2 20 for t, using the quadratic formula
145 sin 23  a145 sin 23 b2  1120
t 32 0.342 and 3.199 seconds. At those times the ball is about
xa0.342b a145 cos 23  14ba0.342b 40.860 feet from home plate and xa3.199b a145 cos 23  14ba3.199b

## 382.195 feet from home plate.

(e) Yes. According to part (d), the ball is still 20 feet above the ground when it is 382 feet from home plate.

## 27. (a) (Assuming that "x" is zero at the point of impact:)

ratb axatbbi  ayatbbj; where xatb a35 cos 27 bt and yatb 4  a35 sin 27 bt  16t2 .
av0 sin !b2 a35sin 27 b2 v0 sin ! 35sin 27
(b) ymax 2g 4 64  4 7.945 feet, which is reached at t g 32 0.497 seconds.

(c) For the time, solve y 4  a35 sin 27 bt  16t 0 for t, using the quadratic formula
2

## 35 sin 27  a35 sin 27 b2  256

t 32 1.201 sec. Then the range is about xa1.201b a35 cos 27 ba1.201b
37.453 feet.
(d) For the time, solve y 4  a35 sin 27 bt  16t2 7 for t, using the quadratic formula
35 sin 27  a35 sin 27 b2  192
t 32 0.254 and 0.740 seconds. At those times the ball is about
xa0.254b a35 cos 27 ba0.254b 7.921 feet and xa0.740b a35 cos 27 ba0.740b 23.077 feet the impact point,

or about 37.453  7.921 29.532 feet and 37.453  23.077 14.376 feet from the landing spot.
(e) Yes. It changes things because the ball won't clear the net (ymax 7.945).

## (v! sin !)# v#! v#! sin ! cos !

28. The maximum height is y #g and this occurs for x #g sin 2! g . These equations describe
parametrically the points on a curve in the xy-plane associated with the maximum heights on the parabolic trajectories in
v%! sin# ! cos# ! v%! sin# ! a1  sin# !b
terms of the parameter (launch angle) !. Eliminating the parameter !, we have x# g# g#
v%! sin# ! v%! sin% ! v#! 2v#! v# v%! v%!
g#  g# g (2y)  (2y)# x#  4y#  g y 0 x#  4 y#  2g! y  16g# 4g#
#
v#! v!%
x#  4 y  4g 4g# , where x 0.

29. d2 r
dt2  k ddtr gj Patb k and Qatb gj ' Patb dt kt vatb e' Patb dt ekt dr
dt 1
vatb
' vatb Qatb dt
gekt ' ekt j dt gekt  ek j  C1  gk j  Cekt , where C gC1 ; apply the initial condition:
kt

dr
dt t0 av0 cos !bi  av0 sin !bj  gk j  C C av0 cos !bi  gk  v0 sin !j

dr
dt v0 ekt cos !i   gk  ekt gk  v0 sin !j, r ' c v0 ekt cos !i   gk  ekt gk  v0 sin !j ddt
eckt g
 k0 ekt cos !i   k   v0 sin !j  C2 ; apply the initial condition:
v gt
k k

Section 13.3 Arc Length and the Unit Tangent Vector T 837

v0 sin ! v0 sin !
ra0b 0  vk0 cos !i   kg2  k j  C2 C2 vk0 cos !i  kg2  k j
ratb vk0 1  ekt cos !i  vk0 1  ekt sin !  kg2 1  kt  ekt j

## 30. (a) ratb axatbbi  ayatbbj; where xatb 0.12

152
a1  e0.12t bacos 20 b and
yatb 3  0.12
152
a1  e0.12t basin 20 b  0.12
32
2 a1  0.12t  e
0.12t
b
(b) Solve graphically using a calculator or CAS: At t 1.484 seconds the ball reaches a maximum height of about 40.435
feet.
(c) Use a graphing calculator or CAS to find that y 0 when the ball has traveled for 3.126 seconds. The range is
152
1  e0.12a3.126b acos 20 b 372.311 feet.
(d) Use a graphing calculator or CAS to find that y 30 for t 0.689 and 2.305 seconds, at which times the ball is about
xa0.689b 94.454 feet and xa2.305b 287.621 feet from home plate.
(e) Yes, the batter has hit a home run since a graph of the trajectory shows that the ball is more than 14 feet above the
ground when it passes over the fence.

## 31. (a) ratb axatbbi  ayatbbj; where xatb 0.081

a1  e0.08t ba152 cos 20  17.6b and
yatb 3  0.08
152
a1  e0.08t basin 20 b  0.08
32
2 a1  0.08t  e
0.08t
b
(b) Solve graphically using a calculator or CAS: At t 1.527 seconds the ball reaches a maximum height of about 41.893
feet.
(c) Use a graphing calculator or CAS to find that y 0 when the ball has traveled for 3.181 seconds. The range is
1
1  e0.08a3.181b a152 cos 20  17.6b 351.734 feet.
(d) Use a graphing calculator or CAS to find that y 35 for t 0.877 and 2.190 seconds, at which times the ball is about
xa0.877b 106.028 feet and xa2.190b 251.530 feet from home plate.
(e) No; the range is less than 380 feet. To find the wind needed for a home run, first use the method of part (d) to find that
y 20 at t 0.376 and 2.716 seconds. Then define xawb 0.08 1
1  e0.08a2.716b a152 cos 20  wb, and solve
xawb 380 to find w 12.846 ft/sec.

## 13.3 ARC LENGTH AND THE UNIT TANGENT VECTOR T

1. r (2 cos t)i  (2 sin t)j  5tk v (2 sin t)i  (2 cos t)j  5k
#
kvk (2 sin t)#  (2 cos t)#  5 4 sin# t  4 cos# t  5 3; T v
kv k
1 1
k and Length '0 kvk dt '0 3 dt c3td 1! 31
5
 23 sin t i  23 cos t j  3

2. r (6 sin 2t)i  (6 cos 2t)j  5tk v (12 cos 2t)i  (12 sin 2t)j  5k
kvk (12 cos 2t)#  (12 sin 2t)#  5# 144 cos# 2t  144 sin# 2t  25 13; T v
kv k
1 1
12
13 cos 2t i  13 sin 2t j 
12 5
13 k and Length '0 kvk dt '0 13 dt c13td 1! 131

# " t
3. r ti  23 t\$# k v i  t"# k kvk 1#  at"# b 1  t ; T v
kv k 1  t i 1  t k
)
and Length '0 1  t dt  23 (1  t)\$# !
8
52
3

" "
4. r (2  t)i  (t  1)j  tk v i  j  k kvk 1#  (1)#  1# 3 ; T v
kv k 3 i 1
3 j 3 k
\$
and Length '0 3 dt 3t 33
3

838 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

## 5. r acos\$ tb j  asin\$ tb k v a3 cos# t sin tb j  a3 sin# t cos tb k kvk

a3 cos# t sin tb#  a3 sin# t cos tb# a9 cos# t sin# tb acos# t  sin# tb 3 kcos t sin tk ;
3 cos# t sin t 3 sin# t cos t 1
T v
kv k 3 kcos t sin tk j 3 kcos t sin tk k ( cos t)j  (sin t)k , if 0 t # , and
12 12 12
Length '0 3 kcos t sin tk dt '0 3 cos t sin t dt '0
1#
3
# sin 2t dt  34 cos 2t ! 3
#

6. r 6t\$ i  2t\$ j  3t\$ k v 18t# i  6t# j  9t# k kvk a18t# b#  a6t# b#  a9t# b# 441t% 21t# ;

## i  27 j  37 k and Length '1 21t# dt c7t\$ d " 49

2
"8t# 6t# 9t# #
T v
kv k 21t# i 21t# j 21t# k 6
7

22 \$#
7. r (t cos t)i  (t sin t)j  3 t k v (cos t  t sin t)i  (sin t  t cos t)j  2 t"# k
#
kvk (cos t  t sin t)#  (sin t  t cos t)#  2 t 1  t#  2t (t  1)# kt  1k t  1, if t 0;
1 1
and Length '0 (t  1) dt t2  t
2 t"# #
1#
T v
kv k cos tt  t1sin t i  sin ttt1cos t j  t1 k 2 1
!

8. r (t sin t  cos t)i  (t cos t  sin t)j v (sin t  t cos t  sin t)i  (cos t  t sin t  cos t)j
(t cos t)i  (t sin t)j kvk (t cos t)#  (t sin t)# t# ktk t if 2 t 2; T v kv k
#
j (cos t)i  (sin t)j and Length '2 t dt t2
2 #
t cos
t
t
i  t sin
t
t
1
#

9. Let P(t! ) denote the point. Then v (5 cos t)i  (5 sin t)j  12k and 261 '0 25 cos# t  25 sin# t  144 dt
t!

'0 13 dt 13t! t! 21, and the point is P(21) (5 sin 21 5 cos 21 241) (0 5 241)
t!

10. Let P(t! ) denote the point. Then v (12 cos t)i  (12 sin t)j  5k and
131 '0 144 cos# t  144 sin# t  25 dt '0 13 dt 13t! t! 1, and the point is
t! t!

## P(1) (12 sin (1) 12 cos (1) 51) (0 12 51)

11. r (4 cos t)i  (4 sin t)j  3tk v (4 sin t)i  (4 cos t)j  3k kvk (4 sin t)#  (4 cos t)#  3#
25 5 s(t) '0 5 d7 5t Length s 1#
t
51
#

12. r (cos t  t sin t)i  (sin t  t cos t)j v (sin t  sin t  t cos t)i  (cos t  cos t  t sin t)j
(t cos t)i  (t sin t)j kvk (t cos t)#  (t cos t)# t# t, since 1# t 1 s(t) '0 7 d7
t
t#
#
1# 1# # 31 #
Length s(1)  s 1# #  # 8

13. r aet cos tb i  aet sin tb j  et k v aet cos t  et sin tb i  aet sin t  et cos tb j  et k
kvk aet cos t  et sin tb#  aet sin t  et cos tb#  aet b# 3e2t 3 et s(t) '0 3 e7 d7
t

3 3
3 et  3 Length s(0)  s( ln 4) 0  3 e ln 4  3 4

t

## Length s(0)  s(1) 0  (7) 7

Section 13.3 Arc Length and the Unit Tangent Vector T 839

# #
15. r 2t i  2t j  a1  t# b k v 2i  2j  2tk kvk 2  2  (2t)# 4  4t#
"
21  t# Length '0 21  t# dt 2 2t 1  t# 
1
"
# ln t  1  t# 2  ln 1  2
!

16. Let the helix make one complete turn from t 0 to t 21.
Note that the radius of the cylinder is 1 the
circumference of the base is 21. When t 21, the point P is
(cos 21 sin 21 21) (1 0 21) the cylinder is 21 units
high. Cut the cylinder along PQ and flatten. The resulting
rectangle has a width equal to the circumference of the
cylinder 21 and a height equal to 21, the height of the
cylinder. Therefore, the rectangle is a square and the portion
of the helix from t 0 to t 21 is its diagonal.

17. (a) r (cos t)i  (sin t)j  ("  cos t)k, 0 t 21 x cos t, y sin t, z 1  cos t x#  y#
cos# t  sin# t 1, a right circular cylinder with the z-axis as the axis and radius 1. Therefore
P(cos t sin t 1  cos t) lies on the cylinder x#  y# 1; t 0 P(1 0 0) is on the curve; t 1# Q(! 1 1)

is on the curve; t 1 R(1 0 2) is on the curve. Then PQ i  j  k and PR 2i  2k
i j k
PQ PR 1 " " 2i  2k is a vector normal to the plane of P, Q, and R. Then the
2 0 2
plane containing P, Q, and R has an equation 2x  2z 2(1)  2(0) or x  z 1. Any point on the curve
will satisfy this equation since x  z cos t  (1  cos t) 1. Therefore, any point on the curve lies on the
intersection of the cylinder x#  y# 1 and the plane x  z 1 the curve is an ellipse.
(b) v ( sin t)i  (cos t)j  (sin t)k kvk sin# t  cos# t  sin# t 1  sin# t T kvvk
( sin t)i  (cos t)j  (sin t)k
1  sin# t T(0) j , T 1# ik
2 , T(1) j , T 3#1 ik
2

## (c) a ( cos t)i  (sin t)j  (cos t)k ; n i  k is

normal to the plane x  z 1 n a  cos t  cos t
0 a is orthogonal to n a is parallel to the
plane; a(0) i  k , a 1# j , a a1b i  k ,
a 31
#
j

21
(d) kvk 1  sin# t (See part (b) L '0 1  sin# t dt
(e) L 7.64 (by Mathematica)

18. (a) r (cos 4t)i  (sin 4t)j  4tk v (4 sin 4t)i  (4 cos 4t)j  4k kvk (4 sin 4t)#  (4 cos 4t)#  4#
12 1#
32 42 Length '0 42 dt 42 t 21 2
!
(b) r cos #t i  sin #t j  #t k v  "# sin #t i  "# cos #t j  "# k
41 %1
Length '0
# # # 2 2 2
kvk  "# sin #t  "# cos #t  "# 4"  "
4 # # dt 2 t 212
!
(c) r (cos t)i  (sin t)j  tk v ( sin t)i  (cos t)j  k kvk ( sin t)#  ( cos t)#  (1)# 1  1
!
2 Length 'c21 2 dt 2 t
0
21 2
#1

840 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

## 19. nPQB nQOB t and PQ arc (AQ) t since

PQ length of the unwound string length of arc (AQ);
thus x OB  BC OB  DP cos t  t sin t, and
y PC QB  QD sin t  t cos t

20. r acos t  t sin tbi  asin t  t cos tbj v asin t  t cos t  sin tbi  acos t  atasin tb  cos tbbj
at cos tbi  at sin tbj kvk at cos tb2  at sin tb2 t2 ktk t, t 0 T v
kv k t cos t
t i  t sin t
t j
cos t i  sin t j

## 1. r ti  ln (cos t)j v i  cos t j i  (tan t)j kvk

sin t 1#  ( tan t)# sec# t ksec tk sec t, since
1 1 "
 #  t  # T kvk sec t i  sec t j (cos t)i  (sin t)j ; ddtT ( sin t)i  (cos t)j
v tan t

ddtT
ddtT ( sin t)#  ( cos t)# 1 N ddtT ( sin t)i  (cos t)j ;
"
, 1
kv k ddtT sec t 1 cos t.

## 2. r ln (sec t)i  tj v secsec

t tan t
t i  j (tan t)i  j kvk ( tan t)#  1# sec# t ksec tk sec t,
1 1
since  #  t  # T kvk sec tt i  sec1 t j (sin t)i  (cos t)j ; ddtT (cos t)i  (sin t)j
v tan

ddtT
ddtT (cos t)#  ( sin t)# 1 N ddtT (cos t)i  (sin t)j ;
"
, 1
kv k ddtT sec t 1 cos t.

2t
3. r (2t  3)i  a5  t# b j v 2i  2tj kvk 2#  (2t)# 21  t# T kvvk 2 # i  j
2 1t 21  t#
# #

" # i  t # j ; ddtT t
i  "
j dT
t
  "
 1  t#   1  t# \$ 
\$ \$ dt \$
1 t 1 t 1  t# 1  t#

ddtT
a1 "t# b# "
1t# N ddtT t
1  t# i "
1  t# j;
" " "
, 1
kv k ddtT #1  t#
1  t# # a1  t# b3/2

4. r (cos t  t sin t)i  (sin t  t cos t)j v (t cos t)i  (t sin t)j kvk ( t cos t)#  (t sin t)# t# ktk
(t cos t)i(t sin t)j
t, since t  0 T v
kv k t (cos t)i  (sin t)j ; dT
dt ( sin t)i  (cos t)j
ddtT " "
ddtT ( sin t)#  (cos t)# 1 N ddtT ( sin t)i  (cos t)j ; , 1
kv k ddtT t 1 t

5. (a) ,axb 1
kvaxbk dTdtaxb . Now, v i  f w axbj kvaxbk 1  c f w axb d2 T v
kv k
12 12
 f ax b f a x b
1  c f w axb d2 i  f w axb1  c f w axb d2 f ax b
w ww ww

j. Thus dT
dt axb 2
32 i 2
32 j
1  c f a x b d
w
1  c f axb d
w

 f ax b f a x b 2 2
dTaxb w

f ax b
ww
cf ww
axb d2 1  c f axb d2
w
kf axbk
ww

dt 1  c f axb d2   3 2
ww
3 2
w 3 2
2
1  c f ax b d w w 2
1  c f ax b d 1  c f ax b d
w

Section 13.4 Curvature and the Unit Normal Vector N 841
kf axbk
ww
kf axbk
ww

Thus ,axb 1
k1  f axb2 k
a1  f axb2 b1 2 32
w
w 2
1  c f axb d
w

d# y k sec# xk sec# x
(b) y ln (cos x) dy
cos" x ( sin x)  tan x dx#  sec# x , ksec\$ xk
dx c1  ( tan x)# d\$#
"
sec x cos x, since  1#  x  1
#
(c) Note that f ww (x) 0 at an inflection point.

y

6. (a) r f(t)i  g(t)j xi  yj v xi  yj kvk x#  y# T v
kv k x
x #  y # i  x #  y # j

yay x  x yb xax y  y x b yay x  x yb 2 xax y  y xb 2 ay#  x# bay x  x yb2
dT
# # 3/2 i  # # 3/2 j dt
dT
3/2 
ax#  y# b 3/2 3
dt ax  y b ax  y b ax#  y# b ax#  y# b

ky x  x yk 1 k y x  x yk k y x  x yk
; , kvk dt # #
kx#  y# k
1 dT
# # # # 3/2 .
kx  y k
x y ax  y b

(b) r(t) ti  ln (sin t)j , 0  t  1 x t and y ln (sin t) x 1, x 0; y cos t
sin t cot t, y  csc# t
k csc# t  0k csc# t
, csc\$ t sin t
a1  cot# t)b\$#
" "
(c) r(t) tan (sinh t)i  ln (cosh t)j x tan" (sinh t) and y ln (cosh t) x 1 cosh sinh# t cosh t
t

#
\$ #
ksech t  sech t tanh tk
sech t, x  sech t tanh t; y cosh t tanh t, y sech t ,
sinh t
asech# t  tanh# tb ksech tk
sech t

7. (a) r(t) f(t)i  g(t)j v f w (t)i  gw (t)j is tangent to the curve at the point (f(t) g(t));
n v c gw (t)i  f w (t)jd cf w (t)i  gw (t)jd gw (t)f w (t)  f w (t)gw (t) 0; n v (n v) 0; thus,
n and n are both normal to the curve at the point
(b) r(t) ti  e2t j v i  2e2t j n 2e2t i  j points toward the concave side of the curve; N n
knk and
2e "
knk 4e4t  1 N
2t
1  4e4t i 1  4e4t j
t
(c) r(t) 4  t# i  tj v 4  t# i  j n i  t
4  t# j points toward the concave side of the curve;
t# "
N n
knk and knk 1  4  t# 2
4  t# N # 4  t# i  tj

8. (a) r(t) ti  "3 t\$ j v i  t# j n t# i  j points toward the concave side of the curve when t  0 and
"
n t# i  j points toward the concave side when t  0 N 1  t% at# i  jb for t  0 and
"
N 1  t% at# i  jb for t  0
" t# 2t\$
(b) From part (a), kvk 1  t% T   ddtT a4t1 t%4tb\$
dT 2t 6 2
1  t% i 1  t% j dt a1  t% b
\$# i
a1  t% b
\$# j

## 2ktk ddtT 1  t% 2t\$ t\$

1  t%
; N 2ktk a1  t% b\$# i  2t
\$# j
t

j; t 0 i 
ddtT a1  t% bktk1  t% ktk1  t%

N does not exist at t 0, where the curve has a point of inflection; ddtT t0 0 so the curvature , ddsT
ddtT ds
dt
0 at t 0 N ," ddsT is undefined. Since x t and y 3" t\$ y 3" x\$ , the curve is the
cubic power curve which is concave down for x t  0 and concave up for x t  0.

9. r (3 sin t)i  (3 cos t)j  4tk v (3 cos t)i  (3 sin t)j  4k kvk (3 cos t)#  (3 sin t)#  4#
25 5 T kvvk 35 cos t i  35 sin t j  45 k ddtT  35 sin t i  35 cos t j
# # ddtT
ddtT  35 sin t   35 cos t 3
5 N ddtT ( sin t)i  (cos t)j ; , 1
5 3
5 3
25

10. r (cos t  t sin t)i  (sin t  t cos t)j  3k v (t cos t)i  (t sin t)j kvk (t cos t)#  (t sin t)# t#
ktk t, if t  0 T v
kv k (cos t)i  (sin t)j , t  0 dT
dt ( sin t)i  (cos t)j
ddtT " "
ddtT ( sin t)#  (cos t)# 1 N ddtT ( sin t)i  (cos t)j ; , t 1 t

842 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

11. r aet cos tb i  aet sin tb j  2k v aet cos t  et sin tb i  aet sin t  et cos tb j
kvk aet cos t  et sin tb#  aet sin t  et cos tb# 2e2t et 2 ;
t  sin t  cos t
T v
kv k cos 2
i  sin t 2
j dT
dt  sint 2 cos t i  cos
t  sin t
2
j
# # ddtT
ddtT  sint 2 cos t  cos
t  sin t
2
1 N ddtT  cost 2 sin t i   sint 2 cos t j ;

, 1
ddtT 1
1 1
kv k et 2 et 2

12. r (6 sin 2t)i  (6 cos 2t)j  5tk v (12 cos 2t)i  (12 sin 2t)j  5k
kvk (12 cos 2t)#  (12 sin 2t)#  5# 169 13 T v kv k
12
13 cos 2t i  13 sin 2t j 
12 5
13 k dT
dt  24
13 sin 2t i  13 cos 2t j
24
#   24 #
ddtT
ddtT  24
13 sin 2t 13 cos 2t
24
13 N ddtT ( sin 2t)i  (cos 2t)j ;
, 1
kv k ddtT 1
13 24
13 24
169 .

\$ #
13. r t3 i  t# j , t  0 v t# i  tj kvk t%  t# tt#  1, since t  0 T v
kv k
# #
" t
t
i 1
j dT
1
i t
j ddtT 
t#  t t#  1 dt at#  1b\$# at#  1b\$# at#  1b\$# at#  1b\$#

## t # " ddtT "

at1#  1 b\$
t#  1 N 1
i t
j; , 1
ddtT 1
1
t#  1 .
ddtT t#  1 t#  1 kv k tt#  1 t at#  1b\$#

1
14. r acos\$ tb i  asin\$ tb j , 0  t  # v a3 cos# t sin tb i  a3 sin# t cos tb j
kvk a3 cos# t sin tb#  a3 sin# t cos tb# 9 cos% t sin# t  9 sin% t cos# t 3 cos t sin t, since 0  t  1
#
ddtT
T v
kv k ( cos t)i  (sin t)j dT
dt (sin t)i  (cos t)j ddtT sin# t  cos# t 1 N ddtT

## (sin t)i  (cos t)j; , 1

kv k ddtT 1
3 cos t sin t 1 1
3 cos t sin t .

## 15. r ti  a cosh at j , a  0 v i  sinh at j kvk 1  sinh# at cosh# at cosh t

a

T v
kv k sech at i  tanh at j dT
dt  "a sech t
a tanh at i  "a sech# at j
ddtT
ddtT a"# sech# at tanh# at  "
a# sech% at "
a sech at N ddtT  tanh at i  sech at j ;
" "
, 1
kv k ddtT 1
cosh t a sech at a sech# at .
a

16. r (cosh t)i  (sinh t)j  tk v (sinh t)i  (cosh t)j  k kvk sinh# t  ( cosh t)#  1 2 cosh t
T v
kv k "2 tanh t i  "
2 j  "2 sech t k dT
dt "2 sech# t i  "2 sech t tanh t k
ddtT
ddtT "# sech% t  "
# sech# t tanh# t "
2 sech t N ddtT (sech t)i  (tanh t)k ;
" "
, 1
kv k ddtT 1
2 cosh t 2 sech t # sech# t.

\$#
17. y ax# yw 2ax yww 2a; from Exercise 5(a), ,(x) k2ak
k2ak a1  4a# x# b
a1  4a# x# b\$#
&#
,w (x)  3# k2ak a1  4a# x# b a8a# xb ; thus, ,w (x) 0 x 0. Now, ,w (x)  0 for x  0 and ,w (x)  0 for
x  0 so that ,(x) has an absolute maximum at x 0 which is the vertex of the parabola. Since x 0 is the
only critical point for ,(x), the curvature has no minimum value.

Section 13.4 Curvature and the Unit Normal Vector N 843

18. r (a cos t)i  (b sin t)j v (a sin t)i  (b cos t)j a (a cos t)i  (b sin t)j v a

i j k

 a sin t b cos t 0 abk kv ak kabk ab, since a  b  0; , (t) kvkvk\$ak

 a cos t  b sin t 0
\$# &#
ab aa# sin# t  b# cos# tb ; ,w (t)  #3 (ab) aa# sin# t  b# cos# tb a2a# sin t cos t  2b# sin t cos tb
&#
 3# (ab) aa#  b# b (sin 2t) aa# sin# t  b# cos# tb ; thus, ,w (t) 0 sin 2t 0 t 0, 1 identifying
1 31
points on the major axis, or t #, # identifying points on the minor axis. Furthermore, ,w (t)  0 for
1 31 w 1 31
0t # and for 1  t  # ; , (t)  0 for #  t  1 and #  t  21. Therefore, the points associated
1
with t 0 and t 1 on the major axis give absolute maximum curvature and the points associated with t #
and t 31
# on the minor axis give absolute minimum curvature.

d, a #  b # d, d,
19. , a
a#  b# da aa #  b # b #
; da 0 a#  b# 0 a b a b since a, b 0. Now, da  0 if
d, "
a  b and da  0 if a  b , is at a maximum for a b and , (b) b
b#  b# 2b is the maximum value of , .

20. (a) From Example 5, the curvature of the helix r(t) (a cos t)i  (a sin t)j  btk, a, b 0 is , a# a b# ; also
kvk a#  b# . For the helix r(t) (3 cos t)i  (3 sin t)j  tk, 0 t 41, a 3 and b 1 , 3# 3 1# 3
10

## and kvk 10 K '0

41 %1
10 dt 121
3
10
3
10 t 10
!
(b) y x# x t and y t# , _  t  _ r(t) ti  t# j v i  2tj kvk 1  4t# ;
4t 16t2  4
T 1
1  4t# i  2t dT
1  4t# j; dt a1  4t# b3/2
i  2
a1  4t# b3/2
j; ddtT
a1  4t# b3
2
1  4t# . Thus
_ _
, 1
1  4t# 2
1  4t# 2
3. Then K 'c_ 2
\$ 1  4t# dt '_ 124t# dt
1  4t# 1  4t#

a
lim
_
'a0 2
14t# dt  lim '0b 1 24t # dt a
lim
_
ctan" 2td a  lim
!
ctan" 2td 0
b

b_ b_
1 1
a
lim
_
a tan" 2ab  lim a tan" 2bb #  # 1
b_

21. r ti  (sin t)j v i  (cos t)j kvk 1#  (cos t)# 1  cos# t v 1# 1  cos# 1# 1; T v
kv k
i  cos t j sin t sin 12
1  cos2 t dT
dt sin t cos t
a1  cos2 tb3/2
i  a1  cos2 tb3/2
j ddtT ksin tk
1  cos2 t ;
ddtT
t 12
1  cos2 12
1
1 1. Thus , 12 1
1 11
" #
3 1 1 and the center is 1# 0 x  1#  y# 1

2
22. r (2 ln t)i  t  "t j v 2t i  1  t"# j kvk t42  1  t12 t2  1
t2 T v
kv k 2t
t2  1 i  t2  1
t2  1 j;

## 2t2  1 2  1b2  16t2

dT
dt at2  1b2
i  at2
4t
 1 b2
j ddtT 4at at2  1b4
2
t2  1 . Thus , 1
kv k ddtT t2
t2  1 2
t2  1 2t2
at2  1b2
,a1b 2
22
" "
# 3 , 2. The circle of curvature is tangent to the curve at P(0 2) circle has same tangent as the curve
v(1) 2i is tangent to the circle the center lies on the y-axis. If t 1 (t  0), then (t  1)#  0
#
t#  2t  1  0 t#  1  2t t t 1  2 since t  0 t  "t  2  t  "t  2 y  2 on both
sides of (0 2) the curve is concave down center of circle of curvature is (0 4) x#  (y  4)# 4
is an equation of the circle of curvature

844 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

## 23. y x# f w (x) 2x and f ww (x) 2

k2 k
, 2
a1  (2x)# b\$# a1  4x# b\$#

x%
24. y 4 f w (x) x\$ and f ww (x) 3x#
k3x# k 3x#
, \$#
#
1  ax\$ b a1  x' b\$#

## 25. y sin x f w (x) cos x and f ww (x)  sin x

k sin xk ksin xk
,
a1  cos# xb\$# a1  cos# xb\$#

ke x k ex
, # \$#
1  e2x \$#
1  aex b

## 27-34. Example CAS commands:

Maple:
with( plots );
r := t -> [3*cos(t),5*sin(t)];
lo := 0;
hi := 2*Pi;
t0 := Pi/4;
P1 := plot( [r(t)[], t=lo..hi] ):
display( P1, scaling=constrained, title="#27(a) (Section 13.4)" );
CURVATURE := (x,y,t) ->simplify(abs(diff(x,t)*diff(y,t,t)-diff(y,t)*diff(x,t,t))/(diff(x,t)^2+diff(y,t)^2)^(3/2));
kappa := eval(CURVATURE(r(t)[],t),t=t0);
UnitNormal := (x,y,t) ->expand( [-diff(y,t),diff(x,t)]/sqrt(diff(x,t)^2+diff(y,t)^2) );
N := eval( UnitNormal(r(t)[],t), t=t0 );
C := expand( r(t0) + N/kappa );
OscCircle := (x-C[1])^2+(y-C[2])^2 = 1/kappa^2;
evalf( OscCircle );
P2 := implicitplot( (x-C[1])^2+(y-C[2])^2 = 1/kappa^2, x=-7..4, y=-4..6, color=blue ):

Section 13.5 Torsion and the Unit Binormal Vector B 845

## display( [P1,P2], scaling=constrained, title="#27(e) (Section 13.4)" );

Mathematica: (assigned functions and parameters may vary)
In Mathematica, the dot product can be applied either with a period "." or with the word, "Dot".
Similarly, the cross product can be applied either with a very small "x" (in the palette next to the arrow) or with the word,
"Cross". However, the Cross command assumes the vectors are in three dimensions
For the purposes of applying the cross product command, we will define the position vector r as a three dimensional vector
with zero for its z-component. For graphing, we will use only the first two components.
Clear[r, t, x, y]
r[t_]={3 Cos[t], 5 Sin[t] }
t0= 1 /4; tmin= 0; tmax= 21;
r2[t_]= {r[t][[1]], r[t][[2]]}
pp=ParametricPlot[r2[t], {t, tmin, tmax}];
mag[v_]=Sqrt[v.v]
vel[t_]= r'[t]
speed[t_]=mag[vel[t]]
acc[t_]= vel'[t]
curv[t_]= mag[Cross[vel[t],acc[t]]]/speed[t]3 //Simplify
unittan[t_]= vel[t]/speed[t]//Simplify
unitnorm[t_]= unittan'[t] / mag[unittan'[t]]
ctr= r[t0] + (1 / curv[t0]) unitnorm[t0] //Simplify
{a,b}= {ctr[[1]], ctr[[2]]}
To plot the osculating circle, load a graphics package and then plot it, and show it together with the original curve.
<<Graphics`ImplicitPlot`
pc=ImplicitPlot[(x  a)2 + (y  b)2 == 1/curv[t0]2 , {x, 8, 8},{y, 8, 8}]

## 13.5 TORSION AND THE UNIT BINORMAL VECTOR B

1. By Exercise 9 in Section 13.4, T 35 cos t i   35 sin t j  45 k and N ( sin t)i  (cos t)j so that B T N
i j k

3
5 cos t  35 sin t 45 45 cos t i  45 sin t j  35 k . Also v (3 cos t)i  (3 sin t)j  4k

 sin t  cos t 0

i j k

a (3 sin t)i  (3 cos t)j ddta (3 cos t)i  (3 sin t)j and v a 3 cos t 3 sin t 4

3 sin t 3 cos t 0
(12 cos t)i  (12 sin t)j  9k kv ak2 a12 cos tb#  a12 sin tb#  a9b# 225. Thus

3 cos t 3 sin t 4

3 sin t 3 sin t 0

3 cos t 3 sin t 0 4a9 sin# t9 cos# tb 36
7 225 225 225  25
4

2. By Exercise 10 in Section 13.4, T (cos t)i  (sin t)j and N ( sin t)i  (cos t)j ; thus B T N

i j k

cos t sin t 0 acos# t  sin# tb k k. Also v (t cos t)i  (t sin t)j

 sin t cos t 0
a atasin tb  cos tbi  at cos t  sin tbj at cos t  sin t  sin tbi  at sin t  cos t  cos tbj
da
dt

i j k

at cos t  2 sin tbi  a2 cos t  t sin tbj. Thus v a t cos t t sin t 0

at sin t  cos tb at cos t  sin tb 0
#
[(t cos t)(t cos t  sin t)  (t sin t)(t sin t  cos t)]k t# k kv ak2 at# b t4 . Thus

846 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

t cos t t sin t 0

cos t  t sin t sin t  t cos t 0

2 sin t  t cos t 2 cos t  t sin t 0
7 t4 0
t4 0

t  sin t  cos t
3. By Exercise 11 in Section 13.4, T cos 2
i  sin t 2
j and N  cost 2 sin t i   sint 2 cos t j ; Thus
i j k

cos t  sin t sin t  cos t
0 cos# t  2 cos t sin t  sin# t  sin# t  2 sin t cos t  cos# t k
B T N 2 2
2 2
 cos t  sin t  sin t  cos t 0
2 2
1  sin
2
a2tb
 1  sin
2
a2tb
k k . Also, v aet cos t  et sin tb i  aet sin t  et cos tb j
a c et asin t  cos tb  et acos t  sin tb d i  c et acos t  sin tb  et asin t  cos tb d j=a2et sin tb i  a2et cos tb j

i j k

ddta 2et acos t  sin tb i  2et asin t  cos tbj. Thus v a et acos t  sin tb et asin t  cos tb 0 2e2t k

2et sin t 2et cos t 0
t
e acos t  sin tb et asin t  cos tb 0

2et sin t 2et cos t 0

# 2et acos t  sin tb 2et asin t  cos tb 0
kv ak2 a2e2t b 4e4t . Thus 7 4e4t
0

## 4. By Exercise 12 in Section 13.4, T 12

13 cos 2t i  13 sin 2t j  13 k and N ( sin 2t)i  (cos 2t)j so
12 5

i j k
12 5
B T N 13 cos 2t  13 sin 2t
12 13 13 cos 2t i  13 sin 2t j  13 k . Also,
5 5 12

a sin 2tb a cos 2tb 0
v (12 cos 2t)i  (12 sin 2t)j  5k a (24 sin 2t)i  (24 cos 2t)j and ddta (48 cos 2t)i  (48 sin 2t)j

i j k

v a 12 cos 2t 12 sin 2t 5 (120 cos 2t)i  (120 sin 2t)j  288k kv ak2

24 sin 2t 24 cos 2t 0
(120 cos 2t)#  (120 sin 2t)#  (288)# 120# acos# 2t  sin# 2tb  288# 97344. Thus

12 cos 2t 12 sin 2t 5

24 sin 2t 24 cos 2t 0

48 cos 2t 48 sin 2t 0 5a2448b
7 97344 97344  169
10

5. By Exercise 13 in Section 13.4, T at# t1b1/2 i  at# 11b1/2 j and N t#1 1 i  t#t  1 j so that B T N
i j k #
t t 0
t
k. Also, v t i  tj a 2ti  j 2i so that 2t " 0 0 7 0

1
t#  1 t#  1 0 # d a
dt
" t 2 0 0
t#  1 t#  1 0

6. By Exercise 14 in Section 13.4, T ( cos t)i  (sin t)j and N (sin t)i  (cos t)j so that B T N

i j k

 cos t sin t 0 k . Also, v a3 cos# t sin tb i  a3 sin# t cos tb j

sin t cos t 0
a dtd a3 cos# t sin tb i  dtd a3 sin# t cos tb j ddta dtd dtd a3 cos# t sin tb i  dtd dtd a3 sin# t cos tb j

3 cos# t sin t 3 sin# t cos t 0
d
dt a3 cos# t sin tb d #
dt a3 sin t cos tb 0 0 7 0
d d a3 cos# t sin tb d d a3 sin# t cos tb 0
dt dt dt dt

7. By Exercise 15 in Section 13.4, T kvvk sech at i  tanh at j and N  tanh at i  sech at j so that B T N
i j k

sech t tanh at 0 k. Also, v i  sinh at j a "a cosh at j ddta a"# sinh at j so that
a

 tanh at sech at 0

Section 13.5 Torsion and the Unit Binormal Vector B 847

1 sinh at 0
"

0 t 0 0 7 0
a cosh a
0 " t 0
a# sinh a

8. By Exercise 16 in Section 13.4, T "2 tanh t i  "2 j  "2 sech t k and N (sech t)i  (tanh t)k so that

i j k
" " "
B T N 2 tanh t 2 2 sech t "2 tanh t i  "2 j  "2 sech t k. Also, v (sinh t)i  (cosh t)j  k
sech t 0  tanh t

i j k

a (cosh t)i  (sinh t)j dt (sinh t)i  (cosh t)j and v a sinh t  cosh t 1
da

cosh t  sinh t 0
(sinh t)i  (cosh t)j  acosh2 t  sinh2 tbk (sinh t)i  (cosh t)j  k kv ak# sinh# t  cosh# t  1. Thus

sinh t  cosh t 1

cosh t  sinh t 0

sinh t  cosh t 0 " "
7 sinh# t  cosh# t1 sinh# t  cosh# t  1 # cosh# t .

9. r (a cos t)i  (a sin t)j  btk v (a sin t)i  (a cos t)j  bk kvk (a sin t)#  (a cos t)#  b#
a#  b# aT d kvk 0; a (a cos t)i  (a sin t)j kak (a cos t)#  (a sin t)# a# kak
dt
#
aN kak  a#
T kak#  0# kak kak a (0)T  kak N kak N

## 10. r (1  3t)i  (t  2)j  3tk v 3i  j  3k kvk 3#  1#  (3)# 19 aT d

dt kvk 0; a 0
aN kak#  a#T 0 a (0)T  (0)N 0

" "#
11. r (t  1)i  2tj  t# k v i  2j  2tk kvk 1#  2#  (2t)# 5  4t# aT # a5  4t# b (8t)
"# #
4t a5  4t# b aT (1) 4
9 4
3 ; a 2k a(1) 2k ka(1)k 2 aN kak#  a#T 2#  43
2 5 2 5
20
9 3 a(1) 4
3 T 3 N

12. r (t cos t)i  (t sin t)j  t# k v (cos t  t sin t)i  (sin t  t cos t)j  2tk
"#
kvk (cos t  t sin t)#  (sin t  t cos t)#  (2t)# 5t#  1 aT " a5t#  1b (10t) #
5t
5t#  1 aT (0) 0; a (2 sin t  t cos t)i  (2 cos t  t sin t)j  2k a(0) 2j  2k ka(0)k
#
2#  2# 22 aN kak#  aT# 22  0# 22 a(0) (0)T  22N 22N

## 13. r t# i  t  "3 t\$ j  t  3" t\$ k v 2ti  a1  t# b j  a1  t# b k kvk (2t)#  a1  t# b#  a1  t# b#

2 at%  2t#  1b 2 a1  t# b aT 2t2 aT (0) 0; a 2i  2tj  2tk a(0) 2i ka(0)k 2
aN kak#  a#T 2#  0# 2 a(0) (0)T  2N 2N

14. r aet cos tb i  aet sin tb j  2et k v aet cos t  et sin tb i  aet sin t  et cos tb j  2et k
#
kvk aet cos t  et sin tb#  aet sin t  et cos tb#  2et 4e2t 2et aT 2et aT (0) 2;

a aet cos t  et sin t  et sin t  et cos tb i  aet sin t  et cos t  et cos t  et sin tb j  2et k
#
a2et sin tb i  a2et cos tb j  2et k a(0) 2j  2k ka(0)k 2#  2 6

848 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

#
aN kak#  a#T 6  2# 2 a(0) 2T  2N

15. r (cos t)i  (sin t)j  k v ( sin t)i  (cos t)j kvk ( sin t)#  (cos t)# 1 T v
kv k
2 2
( sin t)i  (cos t)j T 14  # ( cos t)i  (sin t)j ddtT ( cos t)#  ( sin t)#
i # j; dT
dt

i j k
ddtT 1 2 2
1 N ddtT ( cos t)i  (sin t)j N 4  # i  # j ; B T N  sin t cos t 0 k

 cos t  sin t 0
2 2 2 2
B 14 k , the normal to the osculating plane; r 14 # i # jk P # # 1 lies on the
2 2
osculating plane 0 x  #  0 y  #  (z  (1)) 0 z 1 is the osculating plane; T is normal
2 2 2 2 2 2
to the normal plane  # x  #  # y  #  0(z  (1)) 0  # x # y0
x  y 0 is the normal plane; N is normal to the rectifying plane
2 2 2 2 2 2
 # x  #   # y  #  0(z  (1)) 0  # x # y 1 x  y 2 is the
rectifying plane

16. r (cos t)i  (sin t)j  tk v ( sin t)i  (cos t)j  k kvk sin# t  cos# t  1 2 T v
kv k

##  "2 sin t i  "2 cos t j  "

2 k dT
dt  "2 cos t i   "2 sin t j ddtT
dT
"# cos# t  "# sin# t "2 N ddtT ( cos t)i  (sin t)j ; thus T(0) "2 j  "2 k and N(0) i
dt

i j k
" " " "
B(0) 0 2 2  2 j  2 k , the normal to the osculating plane; r(0) i P(1 0 0) lies on
1 0 0

" "
the osculating plane 0(x  1)  2 (y  0)  2 (z  0) 0 y  z 0 is the osculating plane; T is normal
" "
to the normal plane 0(x  1)  2 (y  0)  2 (z  0) 0 y  z 0 is the normal plane; N is normal to
the rectifying plane 1(x  1)  0(y  0)  0(z  0) 0 x 1 is the rectifying plane

17. Yes. If the car is moving along a curved path, then , 0 and aN , kvk# 0 a aT T  aN N 0 .

## 18. kvk constant aT d

dt kvk 0 a aN N is orthogonal to T the acceleration is normal to the path

19. a v a T aT 0 d
dt kvk 0 kvk is constant

## 20. a(t) aT T  aN N , where aT d

dt kvk d
dt (10) 0 and aN , kvk# 100, a 0T  100,N. Now, from
kf ww (x)k
Exercise 5(a) Section 13.4, we find for y f(x) x# that , \$# 2
2
; also,
1  af w (x)b# c1  (2x)# d\$# a1  4x# b\$#

r(t) ti  t# j is the position vector of the moving mass v i  2tj kvk 1  4t#
T 1 " 4t# (i  2tj). At (0 0): T(0) i, N(0) j and ,(0) 2 F ma m(100,)N 200m j ;
" " 2 2
At 2 2 : T 2 3 i  2 2j 3 i 3 j , N 2  2 3 2 i  3" j , and , 2 2
27 F ma
2 2 4002
m(100,)N 200
27 m 
3 i  "3 j  81 mi  200
81 mj

21. a aT T  aN N , where aT dtd kvk dtd (constant) 0 and aN , kvk# F ma m, kvk# N kFk m, kvk#
m kvk# ,, a constant multiple of the curvature , of the trajectory

Section 13.5 Torsion and the Unit Binormal Vector B 849

22. aN 0 , kvk# 0 , 0 (since the particle is moving, we cannot have zero speed) the curvature is zero
so the particle is moving along a straight line

## 23. From Example 1, kvk t and aN t so that aN , kvk# , aN

kv k #
t
t# "
t ,t0 3 "
, t

24. r (x!  At)i  (y!  Bt)j  (z!  Ct)k v Ai  Bj  Ck a 0 v a 0 , 0. Since the curve
is a plane curve, 7 0.

25. If a plane curve is sufficiently differentiable the torsion is zero as the following argument shows:
w w
r f(t)i  g(t)j v f w (t)i  gw (t)j a f w w (t)i  gw w (t)j da
dt f w w (t)i  gw w (t)j
w
f (t) gw (t) 0
ww
f (t) gww (t) 0
www
f (t) gwww (t) 0
7 kv a k #
0

a#  b# a#  b#
26. From Example 2, 7 b
a#  b# 7 w (b) aa #  b # b #
; 7 w (b) 0 a a #  b # b#
0 a#  b# 0 b a
w w
b a since a, b  0. Also b  a 7  0 and b  a 7  0 so 7max occurs when b a 7max a
a#  a#
"
2a

27. r(t) f(t)i  g(t)j  h(t)k v f w (t)i  gw (t)j  hw (t)k; v k 0 hw (t) 0 h(t) C
r(t) f(t)i  g(t)j  Ck and r(a) f(a)i  g(a)j  Ck 0 f(a) 0, g(a) 0 and C 0 h(t) 0.

## 28. From Example 2, v (a sin t)i  (a cos t)j  bk kvk a#  b# T v

kv k
" ddtT
c(a sin t)i  (a cos t)j  bkd ; ddtT a#" b# c(a cos t)i  (a sin t)jd N
a#  b# ddtT

i j k

(cos t)i  (sin t)j ; B T N  a#  b# a#  b# a#  b#
a sin t a cos t b

 cos t  sin t 0

"
b sin t
a#  b# i b cos t
a#  b# j a
a#  b # k dB
a#  b # c(b cos t)i  (b sin t)jd dB
N  a#b
dt dt  b#
" "
7  kv k
ddtB N  a#  b#  a#  b#
b
b
a#  b# , which is consistent with the result in
Example 2.

## 29-32. Example CAS commands:

Maple:
with( LinearAlgebra );
r := < t*cos(t) | t*sin(t) | t >;
t0 := sqrt(3);
rr := eval( r, t=t0 );
v := map( diff, r, t );
vv := eval( v, t=t0 );
a := map( diff, v, t );
aa := eval( a, t=t0 );
s := simplify(Norm( v, 2 )) assuming t::real;
ss := eval( s, t=t0 );
T := v/s;
TT := vv/ss ;
q1 := map( diff, simplify(T), t ):
NN := simplify(eval( q1/Norm(q1,2), t=t0 ));

850 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

BB := CrossProduct( TT, NN );
kappa := Norm(CrossProduct(vv,aa),2)/ss^3;
tau := simplify( Determinant(< vv, aa, eval(map(diff,a,t),t=t0) >)/Norm(CrossProduct(vv,aa),2)^3 );
a_t := eval( diff( s, t ), t=t0 );
a_n := evalf[4]( kappa*ss^2 );
Mathematica: (assigned functions and value for t0 will vary)
Clear[t, v, a, t]
mag[vector_]:=Sqrt[vector.vector]
Print["The position vector is ", r[t_]={t Cos[t], t Sin[t], t}]
Print["The velocity vector is ", v[t_]= r'[t]]
Print["The acceleration vector is ", a[t_]= v'[t]]
Print["The speed is ", speed[t_]= mag[v[t]]//Simplify]
Print["The unit tangent vector is ", utan[t_]= v[t]/speed[t] //Simplify]
Print["The curvature is ", curv[t_]= mag[Cross[v[t],a[t]]] / speed[t]3 //Simplify]
Print["The torsion is ", torsion[t_]= Det[{v[t], a[t], a'[t]}] / mag[Cross[v[t],a[t]]]2 //Simplify]
Print["The unit normal vector is ", unorm[t_]= utan'[t] / mag[utan'[t]] //Simplify]
Print["The unit binormal vector is ", ubinorm[t_]= Cross[utan[t],unorm[t]] //Simplify]
Print["The tangential component of the acceleration is ", at[t_]=a[t].utan[t] //Simplify]
Print["The normal component of the acceleration is ", an[t_]=a[t].unorm[t] //Simplify]
You can evaluate any of these functions at a specified value of t.
t0= Sqrt[3]
{utan[t0], unorm[t0], ubinorm[t0]}
N[{utan[t0], unorm[t0], ubinorm[t0]}]
{curv[t0], torsion[t0]}
N[{curv[t0], torsion[t0]}]
{at[t0], an[t0]}
N[{at[t0], an[t0]}]
To verify that the tangential and normal components of the acceleration agree with the formulas in the book:
at[t]== speed'[t] //Simplify
an[t]==curv [t] speed[t]2 //Simplify

## 13.6 PLANETARY MOTION AND SATELLITES

T# 41 # 41 # 41 #
1. a\$ GM T# GM a\$ T# a6.672610"" Nm# kg# b a5.97510#% kgb
(6,808,000 m)\$
3.125 10( sec# T 3125 10% sec# 55.90 10# sec 93.2 min

r! v#!
2. e 0.0167 and perihelion distance 149,577,000 km and e GM 1
(149,577,000,000 m)v#!
0.0167 a6.672610"" Nm# kg# b a1.9910\$! kgb  1 v#! 9.03 10) m# /sec#
v! 9.03 10) m# /sec# 3.00 10% m/sec

T# 41 # \$ GM #
3. 92.25 min 5535 sec and a\$ GM a 41# T
a6.672610 c"" # # #%
Nm kg b 5.97510 kg \$
a\$ 41 # (5535 sec)# 3.094 10#! m\$ a 3.094 10#! m\$
6.764 10' m 6764 km. Note that 6764 km "# a12,757 km  183 km  589 kmb.

4. T 1639 min 98,340 sec and mass of Mars 6.418 10#\$ kg a\$ GM 41# T
#
"" # # #\$ # \$
a6.672610 Nm kg b 4a6.418
1#
10 kgb (98,340 sec)
1.049 10## m\$ a 1.049 10## m\$
2.19 10( m 21,900 km

Section 13.6 Planetary Motion and Satellites 851

## 5. 2a diameter of Mars  perigee height  apogee height D  1499 km  35,800 km

2(21,900) km D  37,299 km D 6501 km

41 #
6. a 22,030 km 2.203 10( m and T# GM a\$
#
41
T# a6.672010"" Nm# kg# b a6.41810#\$ kgb (2.203 10( m)\$ 9.856 10* sec#
T 9.856 10) sec# 9.928 10% sec 1655 min

7. (a) Period of the satellite rotational period of the Earth period of the satellite 1436.1 min
GMT# a6.672610"" Nm# kg# b 5.97510#% kg (86,166 sec)#
86,166 sec; a\$ a\$ 41 # 41 #
\$

7.4980 10 m a 74.980 10 m 4.2168 10( m 42,168 km
## \$ #" \$

(b) The radius of the Earth is approximately 6379 km the height of the orbit is 42,168  6379 35,789 km
(c) Symcom 3, GOES 4, and Intelsat 5

GMT#
8. T 1477.4 min 88,644 sec a\$ 41 #
a6.672610c"" Nm# kg# b a6.41810#\$ kgb (88,644 sec)# \$
41 # 8.524 10#" m\$ a 8.524 10#" m\$
(
2.043 10 m 20,430 km

GMT#
9. Period of the Moon 2.36055 10' sec a\$ 41 #
a6.672610c"" Nm# kg# b 5.97510#% kg (2.3605510' sec)# \$
41 # 5.627 10#& m\$ a 5.627 10#& m\$
)
3.832 10 m 383,200 km from the center of the Earth.

## "" Nm# kg# b a5.97510#% kgb

10. r GM
v# v# GM
r kvk GM
r
a6.672610 r 1.9967 10( r"# m/sec

T# 41 #
11. Solar System: a\$ a6.672610"" Nm# kg# b a1.9910\$! kgb 2.97 10"* sec# /m\$ ;
# #
41
Earth: T
a\$ a6.672610"" Nm# kg# b a5.97510#% kgb
9.902 10"% sec# /m\$ ;
T# 41 #
Moon: a\$ a6.672610"" Nm# kg# b a7.35410## kgb 8.045 10"# sec# /m\$ ;

r! v#! GM(e  1)
12. e GM  1 v#! r! v! GM(er!  1) ;

Circle: e 0 v! GM
r!

Ellipse: 0  e  1 GM
r!  v!  r!
2GM

Parabola: e 1 v! 2GM
r!

Hyperbola: e  1 v!  2GM
r!

13. r GM
v# v# GM
r v GM
r which is constant since G, M, and r (the radius of orbit) are constant

14. ?A "
# kr(t  ?t) r(t)k ?A
?t "
# r(t 
?t
?t)
r(t) "
# r(t  ?t) ?
 r(t)  r(t)
t r(t)

"
# r(t  ??t)t  r(t) r(t)  "
?t r(t) r(t) #" r(t  ??t)t  r(t) r(t) dA
lim "
r(t  ??t)t  r(t) r(t)
dt ?t 0 #
"
#
ddtr r(t) "
#
r(t) ddtr "# kr r k

852 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space
#
# # % # % r v#
15. T 2r!1va! 1  e# T# 4r1# va# a1  e# b 4r1# va# 1  GM
! !
 1 (from Equation 32)
! ! ! !

## # % r# v % r v# # % 2GMr! v#!  r#! v%! 41# a% a2GM  r! v#! b

4r1# va#  G!# M!#  2 GM
! !
4r1# va# G# M# r! G# M#
! ! ! !

# % 2GM  r v# # % " 2 # 4 1 # a\$ T# 41 #
a41 a b 2r! GM! ! GM
2
a41 a b 2a GM (from Equation 35) T GM a\$ GM

16. Let rAB (t) denote the vector from planet A to planet B at time t. Then rAB (t) rB (t)  rA (t)
[3 cos (1t)  2 cos (21t)]i  [3 sin (1t)  2 sin (21t)]j
c3 cos (1t)  2 acos# (1t)  sin# (1t)bd i  [3 sin (1t)  4 sin (1t) cos (1t)]j
c3 cos (1t)  4 cos# (1t)  2d i  [(3  4 cos (1t)) sin (1t)]j parametric equations for the path are
x(t) 2  [3  4 cos (1t)] cos (1t) and y(t) [3  4 cos (1t)] sin (1t)

at the right.

## 18. (i) Perihelion is the time t such that kr(t)k is a minimum.

(ii) Aphelion is the time t such that kr(t)k is a maximum.
(iii) Equinox is the time t such that r(t) w 0 .
(iv) Summer solstice is the time t such that the angle between r(t) and w is a maximum.
(v) Winter solstice is the time t such that the angle between r(t) and w is a minimum.

## 1. r(t) (4 cos t)i  2 sin t j x 4 cos t

x# y#
and y 2 sin t 16  # 1;
v (4 sin t)i  2 cos t j and

## a (4 cos t)i  2 sin t j ; r(0) 4 i , v(0) 2j ,

a(0) 4i ; r 14 22i  j , v 14 22i  j ,
a 1 22i  j ; kvk 16 sin# t  2 cos# t
4

aT d
dt kvk 14 sin t cos t
16 sin# t2 cos# t ; at t 0: aT 0, aN kak#  0 4, , aN
kv k #
4
2 2;
4 2 4 2
at t 14 : aT 7
8 1 7
3 , aN 9  49
9 3 ,, aN
kv k #
27

Chapter 13 Practice Exercises 853

x# y#
2. r(t) 3 sec t i  3 tan t j x 3 sec t and y 3 tan t 3  3 sec# t  tan# t 1;

## x#  y# 3; v 3 sec t tan t i  3 sec# t j

and
a 3 sec t tan# t  3 sec\$ t i  23 sec# t tan t j ;
r(0) 3i , v(0) 3j , a(0) 3i ;
kvk 3 sec# t tan# t  3 sec% t
6 sec# t tan\$ t  18 sec% t tan t
aT d
kvk ;
dt 23 sec# t tan# t  3 sec% t

at t 0: aT 0, aN kak#  0 3,
3 "
, aN
kv k #
3 3

## " \$# \$#

3. r 1  t# i t
1  t# j v  t a1  t# b i  a 1  t# b j
# #
kvk t a1  t# b\$#  a1  t# b\$# "
1  t# . We want to maximize kvk : d kv k
dt 2t
a1  t# b#
and
d kv k 2t 2t 2t
dt 0 a1  t# b#
0 t 0. For t  0, a1  t# b#
 0; for t  0, a1  t# b#
 0 kvk max occurs when
t 0 kvk max 1

4. r aet cos tb i  aet sin tb j v aet cos t  et sin tb i  aet sin t  et cos tb j
a aet cos t  et sin t  et sin t  et cos tb i  aet sin t  et cos t  et cos t  et sin tb j
a2et sin tb i  a2et cos tb j . Let ) be the angle between r and a . Then ) cos" krrkkaak

## 2e2t sin t cos t2e2t sin t cos t 1

cos"  cos" 2e02t cos" 0 for all t
aet cos tb# aet sin tb# a2et sin tb# a2et cos tb#  #

i j k

5. v 3i  4j and a 5i  15j v a 3 4 0 25k kv ak 25; kvk 3#  4# 5

5 "5 0
kv a k "
, kv k \$
25
5\$ 5

## kyww k \$# d, \$# &#

6. , \$# ex a1  e2x b ex a1  e2x b  ex  #3 a1  e2x b a2e2x b
1  ayw b# dx

## \$# &# &# &#

ex a1  e2x b  3e3x a1  e2x b ex a1  e2x b ca1  e2x b  3e2x d ex a1  e2x b a1  2e2x b ;
d, "
dx 0 a1  2e2x b 0 e2x # 2x  ln 2 x  "# ln 2  ln 2 y "2 ; therefore , is at a
"
maximum at the point  ln 2 2

7. r xi  yj v dx
dt i dy
dt j and v i y dx
dt y. Since the particle moves around the unit circle
x#  y# 1, 2x dx
dt  2y dy
dt 0 dy
dt  x dx
y dt dy
dt  yx (y) x. Since dx
dt y and dy
dt x, we have
v yi  xj at (1 0), v j and the motion is clockwise.

" # dx
8. 9y x\$ 9 dy # dx
dt 3x dt dt 3 x dt . If r xi  yj , where x and y are differentiable functions of
dy
t,
" # dx " #
then v dx dt i  dt j. Hence v i 4 dt 4 and v j dt 3 x dt 3 (3) (4) 12 at (3 3). Also,
dy dx dy

## #  3" x# ddt#x . Hence a i 2 ddt#x 2 and

# # # # #
a ddt#x i  ddt#y j and ddt#y 23 x dx
dt
#
a j ddt#y 23 (3)(4)#  "3 (3)# (2) 26 at the point (x y) (3 3).

854 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space
" dr
9. dr
dt orthogonal to r 0 dr
dt r # dt r  "# r dr
dt " d
# dt (r r) r r K, a constant. If r xi  yj , where
x and y are differentiable functions of t, then r r x  y x#  y# K, which is the equation of a circle
# #

## 10. (b) v (1  1 cos 1t)i  (1 sin 1t)j

a a1# sin 1tb i  a1# cos 1tb j ;
v(0) 0 and a(0) 1# j ;
v(1) 21i and a(1) 1# j ;
v(2) 0 and a(2) 1# j ;
v(3) 21i and a(3) 1# j

"
(c) Forward speed at the topmost point is kv(1)k kv(3)k 21 ft/sec; since the circle makes # revolution per
second, the center moves 1 ft parallel to the x-axis each second the forward speed of C is 1 ft/sec.

11. y y!  (v! sin !)t  "# gt# y 6.5  (44 ft/sec)(sin 45)(3 sec)  "# a32 ft/sec# b (3 sec)# 6.5  662  144
44.16 ft the shot put is on the ground. Now, y 0 6.5  222t  16t# 0 t 2.13 sec (the
positive root) x (44 ft/sec)(cos 45)(2.13 sec) 66.27 ft or about 66 ft, 3 in. from the stopboard

## (v! sin !)# [(80 ft/sec)(sin 45)]#

12. ymax y!  #g 7 ft  (2) a32 ft/sec# b 57 ft

## (v! sin !)t  "# gt# (v sin !)  " gt

13. x (v! cos !)t and y (v! sin !)t  "# gt# tan 9 x
y
(v! cos !)t ! v! cos ! #
2v! sin !  2v! cos ! tan 9
v! cos ! tan 9 v! sin !  "# gt t g , which is the time when the golf ball
hits the upward slope. At this time
x (v! cos !) 2v! sin !  2vg ! cos ! tan 9

## 2g av#! sin ! cos !  v#! cos# ! tan 9b . Now

v#! sin ! cos !  v#! cos# ! tan 9
OR x
cos 9 OR g2 cos 9
2v#! cos ! sin ! cos ! tan 9
g cos 9  cos 9
2v#! cos !
g sin ! cos cos
9  cos ! sin 9
#9
2v#! cos !
g cos# 9 [sin (!  9)]. The distance OR is maximized
2v#!
when x is maximized: dx
d! g (cos 2!  sin 2! tan 9) 0 (cos 2!  sin 2! tan 9) 0 cot 2!  tan 9 0
1 9 1
cot 2! tan (9) 2! # 9 ! #  4

## v#! ft) a32 ft/sec b #

14. R g sin 2! v! sinRg2! ; for 4325 yards: 4325 yards 12,975 ft v! (12,975(sin 90)
ft) a32 ft/sec b #
644 ft/sec; for 4752 yards: 4752 yards 14,256 ft v! (14,256(sin 90) 675 ft/sec

v#! v#
15. (a) R g sin 2! 109.5 ft 32 ft/sec
! # #
# (sin 90) v! 3504 ft /sec
#
v! 3504 ft# /sec#
59.19 ft/sec
(b) x (v! cos !)t and y 4  (v! sin !)t  "# gt# ; when the cork hits the ground, x 177.75 ft and y 0
" " 181.75
177.75 v! 2 t and 0 4  v! 2 t  16t# 16t# 4  177.75 t 4
(177.75)2 4(177.75)2
v! t 181.75 74.58 ft/sec

Chapter 13 Practice Exercises 855

16. (a) x v! (cos 40)t and y 6.5  v! (sin 40)t  "# gt# 6.5  v! (sin 40)t  16t# ; x 262 12
5
ft and y 0 ft
# #
262 12
5
v! (cos 40)t or v! 262.4167
(cos 40)t and 0 6.5  (cos 40)t (sin 40)t  16t t 14.1684
262.4167

## t 3.764 sec. Therefore, 262.4167 v! (cos 40)(3.764 sec) v! 262.4167

(cos 40)(3.764 sec) v! 91 ft/sec
# 2
(v! sin !) a(91)(sin 40)b
(b) ymax y!  2g 6.5  (2)(32) 60 ft

# #
17. x# av!# cos# !b t# and y  "# gt# av!# sin# !b t# x#  y  "# gt# v!# t#

x #  y #

x x y y # # # # # ax x  y yb#
18. s d
dt
x  y
# # x  y  s x  y  x #  y #
# # # # # # # #
ax  y b ax  y b  ax x  2x x y y  y y b x# y#  y# x#  2x x y y ax y  y x b#
# #
x y
# #
x y

x#  y#
# # \$#
kx y  y x k #
x y # ax  y b
x#  y#  s # # # # # # kx y  y xk ," 3
x y x y s

19. r(t) '0 cos "# 1)# d) i  '0 sin "# 1)# d) j v(t) cos 1#t i  sin 1#t
t t # #
j kvk 1;
i j k

1t# #
# #
a(t) 1t sin 1#t i  1t cos 1#t j v a cos # sin 1#t 0

1t sin 1t# 1t cos 1t# 0
# #
kv a k
1 tk , kv k \$
1t; kv(t)k ds
dt 1 s t  C; r(0) 0 s(0) 0 C 0 , 1s

1 d9 "
20. s a) ) s
a 9 s
a  # ds a , "a "
a since a  0

21. r (2 cos t)i  (2 sin t)j  t# k v (2 sin t)i  (2 cos t)j  2tk kvk (2 sin t)#  (2 cos t)#  (2t)#

21  t# Length '0 21  t# dt t1  t#  ln t  1  t#
14 1%
1 1# 1#
4
1  16  ln 14  1  16
!

22. r (3 cos t)i  (3 sin t)j  2t\$# k v (3 sin t)i  (3 cos t)j  3t"# k
kvk (3 sin t)#  (3 cos t)#  a3t"# b 9  9t 31  t Length '0 31  t dt 2(1  t)\$# !
# \$ 3

14

23. r 4
9 (1  t)\$# i  49 (1  t)\$# j  3" tk v 2
3 (1  t)"# i  32 (1  t)"# j  3" k
# # #
kvk  23 (1  t)"#   23 (1  t)"#  3" 1 T 2
3 (1  t)"# i  23 (1  t)"# j  3" k
2
T(0) 2
3 i  23 j  3" k ;
(1  t)"# i  dT
dt "
3
"
3 (1  t)"# j ddtT (0) 3" i  3" j ddtT (0) 3

i j k
"
N(0) " i  " j ; B(0) T(0) N(0)
2
3  23 " "
3  i  j  k;
4
2 2 " " 3 2 3 2 3 2
0
2 2

a "3 (1  t)"# i  3" (1  t)"# j a(0) 3" i  3" j and v(0) 32 i  32 j  3" k v(0) a(0)
i k
j
32
2 2 " " " 2 kv a k 2
3 3 3  9 i  9 j  4
9 k k v ak 3 , (0) kv k \$
1\$ 3 ;
" "
3 3 0
2 "
3  23
3
" "
0
3 3
 "
6
"
0 "3 18
2
a  "6 (1  t)\$# i  "6 (1  t)\$# j a(0)  6" i  6" j 7 (0) 6
kv a k #
2 #
"
6 ;
3

## t 0 49 49 0 is the point on the curve

856 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

24. r aet sin 2tb i  aet cos 2tb j  2et k v aet sin 2t  2et cos 2tb i  aet cos 2t  2et sin 2tb j  2et k
kvk aet sin 2t  2et cos 2tb#  aet cos 2t  2et sin 2tb#  a2et b# 3et T v
kv k
"3 sin 2t  2
3 cos 2t i  3" cos 2t  2
3 sin 2t j  23 k T(0) 2
3 i  3" j  32 k ;
dT
dt 23 cos 2t  4
3 sin 2t i   23 sin 2t  4
3 cos 2t j dT
dt (0) 2
3i  43 j ddtT (0) 23 5

i j k
23 i 43 j "
2 1 2
N(0) 5 i  5 j ; B(0) T(0) N(0) 3
2
3

3 i  j  k;
4 2 5
2 3 5 " 3 5 3 5 3 5
5  5 0
2

a a4et cos 2t  3et sin 2tb i  a3et cos 2t  4et sin 2tb j  2et k a(0) 4i  3j  2k and v(0) 2i  j  2k

i j k

v(0) a(0) 2 " 2 8i  4j  10k kv ak 64  16  100 65 and kv(0)k 3

4 3 2
6 5 2 5
,(0) ;3\$ 9

a a4e cos 2t  8e sin 2t  3et sin 2t  6et cos 2tb i  a3et cos 2t  6et sin 2t  4et sin 2t  8et cos 2tb j  2et k
t t

a2et cos 2t  11et sin 2tb i  a11 et cos 2t  2et sin 2tb j  2et k a(0) 2i  11j  2k

2 1 2

4 3 2

2 11 2 80
7 (0) kv a k #
180  94 ; t 0 (! " 2) is on the curve

## 25. r ti  "# e2t j v i  e2t j kvk 1  e4t T "

1  e4t i e2t
1  e4t j T (ln 2) "
17 i 4
17 j;
2 e 4t 2t
32 "
dT
dt 1  e4t \$#
i 2e
1  e4t \$#
j dT
dt (ln 2) 1717
i 8
1717
j N (ln 2)  417 i  17 j;
i j k

" 4
0 k ; a 2e2t j a(ln 2) 8j and v(ln 2) i  4j
B (ln 2) T(ln 2) N(ln 2) 17 17

 4 "
17 17 0

i j k

v(ln 2) a(ln 2) " 4 0 8k kv ak 8 and kv(ln 2)k 17 ,(ln 2) 17 8
; a 4e2t j
17
0 8 0

1 4 0

0 8 0

0 16

0
a(ln 2) 16j 7 (ln 2) kv a k #
0; t ln 2 (ln 2 2 0) is on the curve

26. r (3 cosh 2t)i  (3 sinh 2t)j  6tk v (6 sinh 2t)i  (6 cosh 2t)j  6k
kvk 36 sinh# 2t  36 cosh# 2t  36 62 cosh 2t T kvvk " tanh 2t i  "
2 j  " sech 2t k
2 2
" #
T(ln 2) 15
172
i 2 j 8
172
k; dT
dt 22 sech 2t i  22 sech 2t tanh 2t k dT
dt (ln 2)
# # #
22 17
8
i  22 17 17 k
8 15
k ddtT (ln 2) 289
128
2892
i
2   2892 17
128 240
2892
240 8 2

i j k
15 " 8 "
N(ln 2) 17 8
i  17
15
k ; B(ln 2) T(ln 2) N(ln 2) 172 2 172  1715 2 i  2 j  172 k ;
8
8 0  15
17 17
a (12 cosh 2t)i  (12 sinh 2t)j a(ln 2) 12 8 i  12 8 j # i  45
17 15 51
# j and
i j k

45 51
6
v(ln 2) 6 15
8 i  6 8 j  6k 4 i  4 j  6k v(ln 2) a(ln 2) 4
17 45 51
4

51
2
45
# 0
1532
135i  153j  72k kv ak 1532 and kv(ln 2)k 51
4
2 ,(ln 2) \$ 32
867 ;
51 2
4

Chapter 13 Practice Exercises 857
45 51
4 4 6
5" 45
2 0
2
45 51 0
a (24 sinh 2t)i  (24 cosh 2t)j a(ln 2) 45i  51j 7 (ln 2) kv a k #
32
867 ;
t ln 2 51
8 8 6 ln 2 is on the curve
45

27. r a2  3t  3t# b i  a4t  4t# b j  (6 cos t)k v (3  6t)i  (4  8t)j  (6 sin t)k
kvk (3  6t)#  (4  8t)#  (6 sin t)# 25  100t  100t#  36 sin# t
" "#
d kv k
dt a25  100t  100t#  36 sin# tb
# (100  200t  72 sin t cos t) aT (0) ddtkvk (0) 10;
a 6i  8j  (6 cos t)k kak 6#  8#  (6 cos t)# 100  36 cos# t ka(0)k 136
aN kak#  a#T 136  10# 36 6 a(0) 10T  6N

## 28. r (2  t)i  at  2t# b j  a1  t# b k v i  (1  4t)j  2tk kvk 1#  (1  4t)#  (2t)#

"#
2  8t  20t# ddtkvk "# a2  8t  20t# b (8  40t) aT ddtkvk (0) 22; a 4j  2k
#
kak 4#  2# 20 aN kak#  aT# 20  22 12 23 a(0) 22T  23N

29. r (sin t)i  2 cos t j  (sin t)k v (cos t)i  2 sin t j  (cos t)k
#
kvk (cos t)#  2 sin t  (cos t)# 2 T v
kv k "2 cos t i  (sin t)j  "2 cos t k ;
# #
dT
dt  "2 sin t i  (cos t)j  "2 sin t k ddtT  "2 sin t  ( cos t)#   "2 sin t 1
i j k

ddtT " "
" cos t  sin t "
cos t
N dT  2 sin t i  (cos t)j  2 sin t k ; B T N 2 2

dt
 " sin t  cos t  " sin t
2 2
i j k

"2 i  "2 k ; a ( sin t)i  2 cos t j  (sin t)k v a cos t 2 sin t cos t

 sin t 2 cos t  sin t

2 i  2 k kv ak 4 2 , kv\$ak 2 \$ " ; a ( cos t)i  2 sin t j  (cos t)k
kv k 2
2

cos t
2 sin t cos t
 sin t 2 cos t  sin t

2 sin t  cos t (cos t) 2  2 sin t (0)  (cos t) 2
 cos t
7 kv a k #
4 0

30. r i  (5 cos t)j  (3 sin t)k v (5 sin t)j  (3 cos t)k a (5 cos t)j  (3 sin t)k
v a 25 sin t cos t  9 sin t cos t 16 sin t cos t; v a 0 16 sin t cos t 0 sin t 0 or cos t 0
t 0, 1# or 1

" 1
31. r 2i  4 sin #t j  3  1t k 0 r (i  j) 2(1)  4 sin #t (1) 0 2  4 sin t
# sin t
# # t
# 6
1
t 3 (for the first time)

## 32. r(t) ti  t# j  t\$ k v i  2tj  3t# k kvk 1  4t#  9t% kv(1)k 14

T(1) "14 i  214 j  314 k , which is normal to the normal plane
"
14 (x  1)  2
14 (y  1)  3
14 (z  1) 0 or x  2y  3z 6 is an equation of the normal plane. Next we
calculate N(1) which is normal to the rectifying plane. Now, a 2j  6tk a(1) 2j  6k v(1) a(1)

858 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space

i j k
76 19 d# s
" 2 3 6i  6j  2k kv(1) a(1)k 76 ,(1) \$ ; ds
kv(t)k dt# t1

14 714 dt
0 2 6
" "# d# s #
# a1  4t#  9t% b a8t  36t\$ b 22
14 , so a dt# T  , ds N 2j  6k
t1
dt
19 # 14
22
14 i
2j3k
14
 714
14 N N 219
 11
7 i  7 j  7 k  7 (x  1)  7 (y  1)  7 (z  1)
8 9 11 8 9

## 0 or 11x  8y  9z 10 is an equation of the rectifying plane. Finally, B(1) T(1) N(1)

i j k
14
219 " 7" " 2 3 " (3i  3j  k) 3(x  1)  3(y  1)  (z  1) 0 or 3x  3y  z
14 19
11 8 9
1 is an equation of the osculating plane.

"
33. r et i  (sin t)j  ln (1  t)k v et i  (cos t)j  1  t k v(0) i  j  k ; r(0) i (1 0 0) is on the line
x 1  t, y t, and z t are parametric equations of the line

## 2 sin 14 i  2 cos 14 j  k i  j  k is a vector tangent to the helix when t 1

4 the tangent line

## is parallel to v 14 ; also r 14 2 cos 14 i  2 sin 14 j  1

4 k the point 1 1 14 is on the line
1
x 1  t, y 1  t, and z 4  t are parametric equations of the line

## 35. (a) ?SOT ?TOD DO

OT OT
SO y!
6380 6380
6380437
6380#
y! 6817 y! 5971 km;

6380 #
dy dy

6817
6380
#  y# dy

## 21 '5971 6380 dy 21 c6380yd ')"(

6817

&*("
16,395,469 km# 1.639 10( km# ;
16,395,469 km#
(c) percentage visible 41(6380 km)# 3.21%

1. (a) The velocity of the boat at (x y) relative to land is the sum of the velocity due to the rower and the
"
velocity of the river, or v  250 (y  50)#  10 i  20j . Now, dy dt 20 y 20t  c; y(0) 100
"
c 100 y 20t  100 v  250 (20t  50)#  10 i  20j  85 t#  8t i  20j
8 \$
r(t)  15 t  4t# i  20tj  C" ; r(0) 0i  100j 100j C" r(t)
8 \$
 15 t  4t# i  (100  20t) j
(b) The boat reaches the shore when y 0 0 20t  100 from part (a) t 5
r(5)  15 8
125  4 25 i  (100  20 5)j  200
3  100 i 3 i ; the distance downstream is
100

100
therefore 3 m

2. (a) Let ai  bj be the velocity of the boat. The velocity of the boat relative to an observer on the bank of the
3x(20  x)
river is v ai  b  100 j. The distance x of the boat as it crosses the river is related to time by
3at(20  at) 3a# t#  60at a# t\$ 30at#
x at v ai  b  100 j ai  b  100 j r(t) ati  bt  100  100 j  C;

a# t\$  30at#
r(0) 0i  0j C 0 r(t) ati  bt  100 j. The boat reaches the shore when x 20
(20) 30(20) a # 20 \$  30a 20 #
\$ #
20 at t 20
a and y 0 0 b 20
a 
20b
a  100a
a
100
a

## 2000b  8000  12,000

100a b 2; the speed of the boat is 20 kvk a  b a#  4 a# 16
# #

## a 4; thus, v 4i  2j is the velocity of the boat

a# t\$  30at# 16t\$ 120t#
(b) r(t) ati  bt  100 j 4ti  2t  100  100 j by part (a), where 0 t 5
\$ #
(c) x 4t and y 2t  100  100
16t 120t

4 \$ 6 # #
25 t  5 t  2t 25 t a2t  15t  25b
2

2

## the cubic displayed here

d)
3. (a) r()) (a cos ))i  (a sin ))j  b)k dr
dt [(a sin ))i  (a cos ))j  bk] dt ; kvk 2gz ddtr
)
a#  b# d)
dt d)
dt a#2gz
 b#  b#
a#2gb d)
dt )#1 a#41gbb# 2 a#1gbb#
d) ) d) "#
(b) dt a#2gb
 b# ) a#2gb
 b# dt 2) a#2gb
 b# t  C; t 0 ) 0 C 0

gbt# gb# t#
2)"# a#2gb
 b# t ) 2 aa #  b # b ; z b) z 2 aa #  b # b
d)
(c) v(t) dr
dt [(a sin ))i  (a cos ))j  bk] dt [(a sin ))i  (a cos ))j  bk] a# gbt
 b# , from part (b)

## v(t) (a sin ))

i  (a cos ))j  bk
a#  b#
agbt
#  b#
gbt
a#  b # T;
d# r # d# )
dt# [(a cos ))i  (a sin ))j] ddt)  [(a sin ))i  (a cos ))j  bk] dt#
#
a# gbt
 b# [(a cos ))i  (a sin ))j]  [(a sin ))i  (a cos ))j  bk] a#  b#
gb

#
(a sin ))
i  (a cos ))j  bk
a#  b#
a#gb b#  a a# gbt
 b# [( cos ))i  (sin ))j]
#
gb
a#  b# T  a a# gbt
 b# N (there is no component in the direction of B).

d)
4. (a) r()) (a) cos ))i  (a) sin ))j  b)k dr
dt [(a cos )  a) sin ))i  (a sin )  a) cos ))j  bk] dt ;
# "# ddt) d) 2gb)
kvk 2gz ddtr aa#  a# )#  b b dt a#  a# ) #  b#

t t t )
"# d) "# "#
dt du

## '0 a a  u# du a '0 c#  u# du, where c

) ) a#  b#
#  b#
a# ka k
)
c#
s a u# c#  u#  # ln u  c#  u# a
# )c#  )#  c# ln )  c#  )#  c# ln c
!

## (1  e)r! (1  e)r! (e sin )) (1  e)r! (e sin ))

5. r 1  e cos ) dr
d) (1  e cos ))# ; dr
d) 0 (1  e cos ))# 0 (1  e)r! (e sin )) 0
sin ) 0 ) 0 or 1. Note that dr
d)  0 when sin )  0 and dr
d)  0 when sin )  0. Since sin )  0 on
(1  e)r!
1  )  0 and sin )  0 on 0  )  1, r is a minimum when ) 0 and r(0) 1 e cos 0 r!

860 Chapter 13 Vector-Valued Functions and Motion in Space
" " "
6. (a) f(x) x  1  # sin x 0 f(0) 1 and f(2) 2  1  # sin 2 # since ksin 2k 1; since f is continuous
on [0 2], the Intermediate Value Theorem implies there is a root between 0 and 2
(b) Root 1.4987011335179

d) d)
7. (a) v dx
dt i dy
dt j and v dr
dt ur  r dt u) dt [(cos ))i  (sin ))j]  r dt [( sin ))i  (cos ))j]
dr vi dx
dt and
vi dr
dt cos )  r ddt) sin ) dx dr d) dy dr d)
dt dt cos )  r dt sin ); v j dt and v j dt sin )  r dt cos )
dy
dt dr
dt sin )  r ddt) cos )
(b) ur (cos ))i  (sin ))j v ur dx dt cos )  dt sin )
dy

d) d)
dr
dt cos )  r dt sin ) (cos ) )  dt sin )  r dt cos ) (sin ) ) by part (a),
dr
v ur dr
dt ; therefore, dr
dt dx
dt cos )  dy
dt sin );
u) (sin ))i  (cos ))j v u)  sin )  dy dt cos )
dx
dt
dt cos )  r dt sin ) ( sin ))  dt sin )  r dt cos ) (cos )) by part (a) v u) r ddt) ;
dr d) dr d)

therefore, r ddt)  dx
dt sin ) 
dy
dt cos )

d) d# r # d# )
8. r f()) dr
dt f w () ) dt dt# f ww ()) ddt)  f w ()) dt# ;v dr
dt ur  r d)
dt u)
"# "#
cos )  r sin ) ddt) i  sin ) dr
dr
dt
d)
dt  r cos ) dt j kvk
#
 r# ddt) af w b#  f # dr
dt
# ddt) ;
d)
kv ak kx y  y xk , where x r cos ) and y r sin ). Then dx dt (r sin )) dt  (cos )) dt
dr

## d# x d) #  (r sin )) ddt#)  (cos )) ddt#r ; dy

# #
d) dr d)
dt# (2 sin ))dt dt  (r cos )) dt dt (r cos )) dt  (sin )) dr
dt
d# y d) #  (r cos )) ddt#)  (sin )) ddt#r . Then kv ak
# #
dt# (2 cos )) ddt) dr
dt  (r sin )) dt
\$ #
d) d# r d) dr # \$
(after much algebra) r# ddt)  r ddt#) dr
dt  r dt dt#  2 dt dt ddt) f 2  f f ww  2af w b2
kv a k f 2  ff ww  2af w b2
, kv k \$#
af w b#  f #

d) d# r d# )
9. (a) Let r 2  t and ) 3t dr
dt 1 and dt 3 dt# dt# 0. The halfway point is (1 3) t 1;
# # #
v dr
dt ur  r ddt) u) v(1) ur  3u) ; a ddt#r  r ddt) ur  r ddt#)  2 dr
dt
d)
dt u) a(1) 9ur  6u)
(b) It takes the beetle 2 min to crawl to the origin the rod has revolved 6 radians
L '0 [f())]#  cf w ())d# d) '0 2  3)   "3 d) '0 4 
6 # # 6 6
4) )# "
3  9  9 d)

'0 37  129 )  ) d) '06 ()  6)#  1 d) "3 ()#6) ()  6)#  1  "# ln )  6  ()  6)#  1 '
6 # "
3 !
"
37  6 ln 37  6 6.5 in.

d# r
10. L(t) r(t) mv(t) dL
dt ddtr mv  r m dt# dL
dt (v mv)  (r ma) r ma ; F ma  krck\$ r

ma dL
dt r ma r  krck\$ r  krck\$ (r r) 0 L constant vector

i j k

11. (a) ur u) cos ) sin ) 0 k a right-handed frame of unit vectors

 sin ) cos ) 0
(b) ( sin ))i  (cos ))j u) and ddu)) ( cos ))i  (sin ))j ur
dur
d)

(c) From Eq. (7), v rur  r)u)  zk a v a r ur  r ur b  r )u)  r) u)  r) u)  z k
#
r  r) ur  r)  2r ) u)  z k

12. (a) x r cos ) dx cos ) dr  r sin ) d); y r sin ) dy sin ) dr  r cos ) d); thus
dx# cos# ) dr#  2r sin ) cos ) dr d)  r# sin# ) d)# and

dy# sin# ) dr#  2r sin ) cos ) dr d)  r# cos# ) d)# dx#  dy#  dz# dr#  r# d)#  dz#
(c) r e) dr e) d) (b)
L '0
ln 8
dr#  r# d)#  dz#

ln 8

'0 3e) d) 3 e)
ln 8 ln 8

83  3 73