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CHAPTER 7

P7.1. Determine the net area for the following tension members:

(a) PL x8 with holes for -in.-dia. bolts, as shown in Fig. 7.6.1a.

(b) W12x120 with STD drilled holes for f -in.-dia. bolts, as shown in Fig. 7.6.1b.

(c) PL x8 with holes for -in.-dia. bolts with a gage, g = 2 in., pitch, p = 3 in., and a staggered

pitch, s = 1 in., as shown in Fig. 7.6.2a.

(d) L4x3 x with holes for -in.-dia. bolts with pitch, p = 2 in., and a staggered pitch, s = 1

in., as shown in Fig. 7.6.3a.

(e) C8x18.75 with holes for -in.-dia. bolts with pitch, p = 2 in., staggered pitch, s = 1 in., gage,

g a = 1 in., and gage, g b = 2 in., as shown in Fig. 7.6.4a.

Solution

P7.1.a

See Fig. 7.6.1a of the text book.

Member: PL 8; Diameter of bolts, d = in.

Assume standard punched holes. So, width of bolt holes, d e = + c = f in.

Number of holes, n = 3

Gross area, A g = 8 = 4.00 in.2

From Eq. 7.6.3, net area, A n = 4.00 - 3 f = 2.69 in.2 (Ans.)

P7.1.b

See Fig 7.6.1b of the text book.

Member: W12x120

From LRFDM table 1-1: A = 35.3 in.2; tf = 1.11 in.; tw = 0.710 in.

Number of holes in the flanges = 2 + 2 = 4

Number of holes in the web = 3

Diameter of bolts, d = f in.

Standard drilled holes. So, width of bolt holes, d e = f + 1/16 = 15/16 in.

Gross area, Ag = 35.3 in.2

From Eq. 7.6.3, net area, An = 35.3 - 4 (15/16) 1.11 - 3 (15/16) 0.710 = 29.1 in.2 (Ans.)

P7.1.c

See Fig. 7.6.2a of the text book.

Member: PL 8; Diameter of bolts, d = in.

Assume standard punched holes. So, width of bolt holes, d e = + c = f in.

Staggered pitch, s = 1 in.; Gage, g = 2 in.

Net areas for the two possible failure paths are calculated as follows, using Eqs. 7.6.3 and 7.6.4:

path a-b-c-d: A n1 = 4.00 - 1 f = 3.56 in.2

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-2

Net area, A n = min [ A n1, A n2] = min [3.56; 2.89] = 2.89 in.2 (Ans.)

P7.1.d

See Fig. 7.6.3a of the text book.

Member: L43

From LRFDM Table 1-7: A = 3.50 in.2; t = in.

Diameter of bolts, d = in. Staggered pitch, s = 1 in.

Assume standard punched holes. So, width of bolt holes, d e = + c = f in.

From Table 6.2.1: g1(4 in.) = 2 in.; g 1(3.5 in.) = 2 in.

From Fig. 7.6.3b, g ab = g a + g b - t = 2 + 2 - = 4.00 in.

Net areas for the two possible failure paths are calculated as follows, using Eqs. 7.6.3 and 7.6.4:

path a-b-c: A n1 = 3.50 - 1 f = 3.06 in.2

Net area, A n = min [ A n1, A n2] = min [3.06; 2.67] = 2.67 in.2 (Ans.)

P7.1.e

See Fig. 7.6.4a of the text book.

Member: C8x18.75

From LRFDM table 1-1: A = 5.51 in.2; tf = 0.390 in.; t w = 0.487 in.; g = 1 in.

Gages: ga = 1 in. in the flange; g b = 2 in. in the web.

To determine the net area, two failure paths are identified:

path 1: See Fig. 7.6.4b.

From Eq. 7.6.8,

g ab = g a + g b - (tf + tw) = 1.50 + 2.50 - 0.5 (0.390 + 0.487) = 3.56 in.

t = (tf + tw) = 0.5 (0.390 + 0.487) = 0.439 in.

path 2 :

Net area, A n = min [ A n1, A n2] = min [4.66; 4.07] = 4.07 in.2 (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-3

7.2. Determine the reduction coefficient, U, using Eq. 7.7.2 for the following tension members:

(a) A L4x4x connected to a gusset by two bolts with a pitch, p = 3 in. (Fig. 7.7.4b).

(b) A W12x65 connected by two lines of bolts in each flange to gussets using a pitch, p = 3 in. (Fig.

7.7.4c). There are three bolts in each line.

(c) A W12x35 connected by two lines of bolts in each flange to gussets using a pitch, p = 3 in. (Fig.

7.7.4e). There are three bolts in each line.

(d) A WT7x45 connected by two lines of bolts in the flange to a gusset using a pitch, p = 3 in. (Fig.

7.7.4d). There are three bolts in each line.

(e) A PL x6 connected to a gusset by two 9 -in.-long longitudinal welds, as shown in Fig. 7.7.5a.

(f) A L6x4x with its long leg connected to a gusset by a 6 -in.-long transverse weld only (Fig.

7.7.5b).

(g) A L6x4x with its long leg connected to a gusset by a transverse weld and two longitudinal welds,

having L w1 = 8 in. and L w2 = 4 in. (Fig. 7.7.5c).

Solution

P7.2.a

See Fig. 7.7.4b of the text book.

Member L4x4x. From Table 1-7 of the LRFDM,

Pitch, p = 3 in.; number of bolts per line = 2

Length of connection, L con = 3.00 in.

Connection eccentricity,

From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

(Ans.)

P7.2.b

See Fig. 7.7.4c of the text book.

Member: W12x65 with flanges connected to gussets.

There are three bolts in each line. Pitch, p = 3 in.

So, length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.

From Fig. 7.7.2c of the text book,

connection eccentricity,

From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

(Ans.)

P7.2.c

See Fig. 7.7.4e of the text book.

Member: W12x35 with flanges connected to gussets.

There are three bolts in each line. Pitch, p = 3 in.

So, length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-4

connection eccentricity,

From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

(Ans.)

P7.2.d

See Fig. 7.7.4d of the text book.

Member: WT7x45 with its flange connected to a gusset.

There are three bolts in each line. Pitch, p = 3 in.

So, length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.

Connection eccentricity,

From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

(Ans.)

P7.2.e

See Fig 7.7.5a of the text book.

Member: PL x6 6 width of plate, W pl = 6.00 in.

Connection by two longitudinal welds only.

Length of longitudinal weld, L lw = 9 in.

L lw /W pl = 1.50 > 1.0 O.K.

Also, from Eq. 7.7.3, reduction coefficient U = 0.87 (Ans.)

P7.2. f

See Fig. 7.7.5b of the text book.

Member: L6x4x with only its long connected to gusset.

Connection provided by a transverse weld only.

So, from Eq. 7.7.4, A n = A ce = 6.00 = 3.00 in.2; U = 1.00 (Ans.)

P7.2. g

See Fig. 7.7.5c of the text book.

Member: L6x4x with only its long connected to gusset.

From Table 1-7 of the LRFDM,

Connection provided by a transverse weld and two unequal length longitudinal welds.

L lw 1 = 8 in.; L lw 2 = 4 in.

Length of connection, L con = max (8.00; 4.00) = 8.00 in.

Connection eccentricity,

From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-5

P7.3. A 14x in. A242 steel plate is used as a tension member. The end connection to the gusset plate is by six

f -in.-dia. bolts, arranged with staggered pitches of 2 in. and 1 in., and gage distances of 2 in. as shown

in Fig. P7.3. Determine the design tensile strength of the member. Neglect block shear failure.

Solution

From LRFDM Table 2-2, -in.-thick A242 steel plates are available in Grade 50 only, for which

Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi;

Gross area, A g = 14.0 = 7.00 in.2

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 7.00 = 315 kips

Diameter of bolts, d = f in. Assuming standard punched holes, d e = f + c = 1.0 in.

T d2 = N Fu U A n where U = 1.0 for a plate.

Net areas for several failure paths are calculated as follows:

path a-b-c: A n1 = 7.00 - 1 1.0 = 6.50 in.2

path d-e-f-g: = 7.00 - 2 1.0 = 6.00 in.2 6 A n2 = 6.00 6/5 = 7.20 in.2

path h-i-e-b-f-k-l:

The design strength of the member therefore equals 269kips, and is controlled by the limit state of

tension rupture. (Ans.)

Comment:

If we assume A490-X type bolts, then, from Table 6.7.1, the design shear strength of a A490-X type

bolt in single shear is, B dv = 33.8 kips

C dv = 33.8 6 = 203 kips 7 Controls

Also, the design bearing strength for interior and end bolts can be calculated using Tables 6.8.1 and 2

as follows:

C db = [3(53.8) + 3(91.3)] (70 ksi/58 ksi) = 263 kips

T d = min [315.0, 269, 203 ] = 203 kips

The design strength of the member therefore equals 203 kips, and is controlled by the limit state of

bolt shear.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-6

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-7

P7.4. The web of a MC13x35 steel tension member is connected to a gusset plate by four rows of -in.-dia. bolts

using a gage of 3 in. and a pitch of 3 in. as shown in Fig. P7.4. Assume A588 steel and determine the

design tensile strength of the member. Neglect block shear failure.

Solution

From LRFDM Table 2-1, for A588 steel, Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 10.3 = 464 kips

Assuming standard punched holes, d e = + c = f in.

Net area:

path a-b-c-d: A n1 = 10.3 - 2 f0.447 = 9.52 in.2

path e-f-g-h-j-k: = 10.3 - 4 f 0.447 = 8.74 in.2

6 An2 = 8.74 14/12 = 10.2 in.2

path a-b-g-h-c-d: A n3 = 10.3 - 4 f 0.447 + 2 0.447

Connection eccentricity,

From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.4.6 and 7.7.1),

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75700.8919.41 = 440 kips

T d = min [T d1, T d2] = min [464, 440] = 440 kips

Design tensile strength of the member is T d = 440 kips, and is controlled by the limit state of

fracture in net section. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-8

P7.5. A L4x4x of A572 Grade 50 steel is used as a tension member. What is the design tensile strength of the

member:

(a) If only a transverse weld is used to connect the member to the gusset, as shown in Fig.

P7.5?

(b) If, in addition, two 6-in.-long longitudinal welds are provided?

Solution

From LRFDM Table 1-7, for a L44:

A = 3.75 in.2;

Limit state of yielding in the gross section gives (Eq 7.4.5):

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90503.75 = 169 kips

Since the tension load is transmitted only by the transverse weld

Area of the directly connected elements, A ce = 4 = 2.00 in.2

Also, U = 1.0

From Eq. 7.7.4, A e = U A ce = 2.00 in.2

Limit state of yielding in the gross section gives (Eq. 7.4.6):

T d2 = N Fu A e = 0.75652.00 = 97.5 kips

T d = min [T d1, T d2] = min [169, 97.5] = 97.5 kips

The design strength of the member equals 97.5 kips, and is controlled by the limit state of fracture

on the effective net area of the section. (Ans0)

Length of longitudinal weld, L lw = 6.00 in.

Length of connection, L con = L lw = 6.00 in.

Connection eccentricity,

From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.6 and 7.7.1),

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 65 0.803 3.75 = 146 kips

T d = min [T d1, T d2] = min [169, 146] = 146 kips

Design tensile strength of the member is T d = 146 kips, and is controlled by the limit state of

fracture in net section. (Ans.)

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-9

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-10

P7.6. The web of a C12x25 steel tension member is connected to a gusset by three rows of f -in.-dia. A490-X

bolts using a gage of 3 in. and a staggered pitch of 1 in. as shown in Fig. P7.6. Assume A588 steel and

determine the design tensile strength of the member. Neglect block shear rupture.

Solution

From LRFDM Table 2-1, for A588 Gr 50 steel: F y = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi

From LRFDM Table 1-5, for a C1225: A = 7.34 in.2; tw = 0.387 in.; = 0.674 in.

Diameter of bolts, d = f in.

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 7.34 = 330 kips

Connection eccentricity,

Reduction coefficient,

To determine the net area, 3 possible failure paths are identified. We have, for:

path a-b-c : A n1 = 7.34 - 1 1.00 0.387 = 6.95 in.2

path d-e-f-g : = 7.34 - 2 1.0 0.387 = 6.57 in.2 6 A n2 = 6.57 = 7.40 in.2

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.4.6 and 7.7.1),

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 70 0.9 6.32 = 299 kips

Bolts:

Nine f -in.-dia. A490-X type bolts; single shear; bearing on 0.387-in.-thick web.

There are six interior bolts with pitch, p = 3 in., two end bolts with L e = 3.5 in. and two end bolts

with L e = 2 in.

From Table 6.7.1, B dv = 33.8 kips 6 C dv = 9 33.8 = 304 kips

Using the values given in Tables 6.8.1 and 6.8.2 for Fu = 65 ksi, the design bearing strength of the

connectors is obtained as

C db = [6102 + 1102 + 289.6] (70 ksi /65 ksi) (0.387) = 372 kips

Strength of connectors, T d4 = min [304, 372] = 304 kips

The design tensile strength of the member is 299 kips and is controlled by the limit state of fracture

in the net section. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-11

P7.7. A C12x25 channel shape is used as a tension member. At each end, the web of the channel is connected by

six -in.-dia. bolts ( in two rows, using a pitch of 4 in. and a gage of 6 in.) to a thick gusset plate. In

addition there are two holes in each flange (located on the normal gage line) to connect bracing members in

the perpendicular plane. The holes in the flanges are staggered 2 in. with respect to the holes in the web, as

shown in Fig. P7.7. Determine the design strength of the member. What is the maximum recommended

length of the member as per LRFDS?

Solution

A36 steel: Fy = 36 ksi; Fu = 58 ksi

Bolts: d = in.; d e = + c = f in.

C12 25: A = 7.34 in.2; r x = 4.43 in.; r y = 0.779 in.

tf = 0.501 in.; tw = 0.387 in.;

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 36 7.34 = 238 kips

Connection eccentricity,

Reduction coefficient,

path 1-1: See Fig. 7.6.4b.

From Eq. 7.6.8,

g ab = g a + g b - (tf + tw) = 1.75 + 3.0 - 0.5 (0.501 + 0.387)

= 4.31 in.

t = (tf + tw) = 0.5 (0.501 + 0.387) = 0.444

path 2-2:

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.4.6 and 7.7.1),

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75580.95.99 = 235 kips

From Eq. 7.4.4, T d = min [T d1, T d2] = min[238; 235] = 235 kips

The design strength of the member is 235 kips, and corresponds to the limit state of fracture in the

net section. (Ans.)

L # 300 rmin = 3000.779 = 234 in. = 19.5 ft

The maximum recommended length of the member = 19.5 ft (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-12

P7.8. Determine the design tensile strength of a pair of 64 in. angles with their long legs connected to a e -

in. gusset plate (Fig. P7.8). Use A36 steel and f in.-dia. bolts. The bolts are arranged on standard gages.

The tensile force T is transmitted to the gusset plate by the six bolts on lines A and B. Assume open holes in

the outstanding legs (for connection to braces in the plane perpendicular to the plane of the paper).

Solution

Member: 2L64 LLBB

From LRFDM Table 1-7 for a L 64 : A L = 4.72 in.2; t = in.;

Diameter of bolts, d = f in. Staggered pitch, s = 2 in.

Material: A36 steel

Limit state of yielding in the gross section gives (Eq 7.4.5):

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 36 9.44 = 306 kips

Assume standard punched holes. So, width of bolt holes, d e = f + c = 1.00 in.

From Table 6.2.1: g2(6 in.) = 2 in.; g 3(6 in.) = 2 in.

Using Eqs. 7.6.3 and 7.6.4, net areas for the two possible failure paths are as follows,:

path a-b-c: A n1 = 9.44 - 1 1.00 2 = 8.44 in.2

Net area, A n = min [ A n1, A n2] = min [8.44; 6.84] = 6.84 in.2

As the member force is transmitted by bolts in the long leg only, reduction factor U < 1.0.

For the connection with the long leg of the angle bolted to the gusset, connection eccentricity,

From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.4.6 and 7.7.1),

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75580.9006.84 = 268 kips

The bolts connecting the angles to the gusset are in double shear. From Table 6.7.1, the design

shear strength of a in.-dia. A325X bolt in double shear is obtained as 54.1 kips. Design strength of

the connectors corresponding to the limit state of bolt shear is,

C dv = N B dv = 6 54.1 = 325 kips

From Table 6.8.1, the design bearing strength of a f -in.-dia. interior bolt (STD holes, p = 4 in., t =

1 in., Fu = 58 ksi), is read as 91.3 kips. Similarly, from Table 6.8.2, the design bearing strength of a

f -in.-dia. end bolt (STD holes, L e = 2 in., t = 1 in., Fu = 58 ksi), is read as 79.9 kips. So, the

design strength of the connectors corresponding to the limit sstate of bearing on e -in.-thick

gusset plate is obtained as:

C db = [591.3 + 179.9] (e) = 335 kips

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-13

The design tensile strength of the member is 268 kips and is controlled by the limit state of fracture

in the net section. (Ans.)

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displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-14

P7.9. The end connection for a W14x82 tension member has two lines of f -in.-dia. bolts in each flange (Fig.

P7.9). There are 3 bolts in each line arranged with a pitch, p = 4 in.; end distance, L e = 2 in.; and side

distance, L s = 2 in. Determine the block shear rupture strength.

Solution

Connection is to the flanges of a W1482: t f = 0.855 in. from LRFDM Table 1-1.

A 992 steel: Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 65 ksi

Diameter of bolts, d = f in.

Pitch, p = 3 in.; end distance, L e = 2 in.; side distance, L s = 2 in.

Assume standard punched hoes 6 d e = f + c = 1.0 in.

There are four rectangular failure blocks (two in each flange). Each block is 2 -in.-wide (= L s), and

10 -in.-long (= 2p + L e).

A gt = 4 2.00 0.855 = 6.84 in.2

A nt = 6.84 - 4 1.0 0.855 = 5.13 in.2

A gv = 4 10.0 0.855 = 34.2 in.2

A nv = 34.2 - 4 2 1.0 0.855 = 25.7 in.2

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.750.66525.7 = 752 kips 7 Controls

Tension yield component, N Fy A gt = 0.75506.84 = 257 kips;

Shear yield component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.750.65034.2 = 770 kips

T bs = N (0.6Fu)A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt]

= 752 + min [257; 250] = 1002 kips

The block shear rupture strength is 1002 kips and is controlled by fracture on both the shear and

tension faces of the four rectangular blocks. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-15

P7.10. Determine the block shear rupture strength of the 2L4x3x3/8 LLBB tension member shown in Fig. P7.10.

The angles are connected to a gusset by three f -in.-dia. bolts, using a pitch, p = 3 in; end distance, L e= 1

in.; and side distance, L s = 1 in. Assume A 572 Grade 60 steel.

Solution

2L43 d: t = d in.

A572 Grade 60 steel : Fy = 60 ksi; Fu = 75 ksi

Bolt diameter, d = f in.

Pitch, p = 3 in.; end distance, L e = 1 in.; side distance, L s = 1 in.

Assume standard punched holes. 6 d e = f + c = 1.0 in.

There are two rectangular failure blocks (one in each angle). Each block is 1 -in.-wide (= L s), and

7 -in.-long (= 2p + L e).

A gt = 21.50 d = 1.13 in.2

A nt = 1.13 - 2 1.0 d = 0.750 in.2

A gv = 27.50 d = 5.63 in.2

A nv = 5.63 - 2 2 1.0 d = 3.75 in.2

Tension rupture component, N FuA nt = 0.75 75 0.750 = 42.2 kips;

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u)A nv = 0.75 0.6 75 3.75 = 127 kips 7 controls

Tension yield component, N FyA gt = 0.75 60 1.13 = 50.9 kips;

Shear yield component, N (0.6F y)A gv = 0.75 0.6 60 5.63 = 152 kips

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt]

= 127 + min [50.9; 42.2] = 169 kips

The block shear rupture strength is 169 kips and is controlled by fracture on both the shear and

tension faces of the two rectangular blocks. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-16

P7.11. A x6 in. plate is welded to a d --in.-thick gusset plate of A36 steel by in. fillet welds using E70

electrodes. Two 6 -in.-long longitudinal welds are provided in addition to a 6 -in.-long transverse weld.

Determine the design tensile strength of the member. Include block shear strength of the gusset plate.

Solution

Member: PL 6 6 A g = 6 = 3.00 in.2

Gusset plate: d -in.-thick

A36 steel: Fy = 36 ksi; Fu = 58 ksi

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 36 3.00 = 97.2 kips

As the end connection is by welds using both transverse and longitudinal welds,

A n = A g and U = 1.0.

Limit state of rupture in the net section gives (Eq 7.4.6):

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 58 1.0 3.00 = 131 kips

Block shear failure consists of a single, rectangular block of the gusset plate. The block is 6-in.-

wide, 6 -in.-long and d -in.-thick. We have:

A gt = 6.0 d = 2.25 in.2 = A nt

A gv = 6.5 d 2 = 4.88 in.2 = A nv

Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 58 2.25 = 97.9 kips;

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 58 4.88 = 127 kips 7 Controls

Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 36 2.25 = 60.8 kips;

Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 4.88 = 79.1 kips

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt]

= 127 + min [60.8; 97.9] = 188 kips

Strength of weld

SMAW process using E70 electrodes. Weld size, w = in.

From Table 6.19.1, design shear strength of unit length weld, W d = 5.57 kli

N R lw = W d L lw = 5.57 6.0 2 = 66.8 kips

N R tw = W d (1.0 + 0.5 sin 1.52) L tw = 5.57 (1.5) 6.0 = 50.1 kips

T d4 = N R lw + N R tw = 66.8 + 50.1 = 117 kips

= min [97.2, 131, 188, 117] = 97.2 kips

The design strength of the member is 97.2 kips and is controlled by the limit state of yielding in the

gross section. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-17

P7.12. A MC 6x18 channel tension member of A242 corrosion resistant steel is welded to a d -in.-thick gusset

plate of A36 steel using a 6-in.-long transverse weld and two 8-in.-long longitudinal welds as shown in Fig.

P7.12. Assume E70 fillet welds of in leg size. Determine the design strength of the member and the gusset

plate. Include block shear rupture strength of the member.

Solution

MC 618: A = 5.29 in.2; tw = 0.379 in. = d in.;

d = 6.0 in.; tf = 0.475 in.

A242 steel member: Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi

A36 steel gusset: Fy = 36 ksi; Fu = 58 ksi

Fillet welds: SMAW process using E70 electrodes. FEXX = 70 ksi; weld size, w = in.

Length of longitudinal welds, L lw = 8 in.

Length of transverse weld, L tw = 6 in.

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 5.29 = 238 kips

Length of connection, L con = L lw = 8.00 in.

Connection eccentricity,

From Eq. 7.7.5, reduction coefficient,

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.4.6 and 7.7.1),

T d2 = N Fu A e = 0.75 70 0.860 5.29 = 239 kips

Block shear failure of the member consists of the web section (rectangular element d t w) at the

front-end of the weld failing in tension and two flange sections (rectangular sections L lw tf) failing

in shear at the web-flange junction of the C-shape, leaving a rectangular block of the web (L lw d)

welded to the gusset.

We have:

A gt = 0.379 6.00 = 2.27 in.2 = A nt

A gv = 0.475 8.00 2 = 7.60 in.2 = A nv

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 70 7.60 = 239 kips 7 controls

Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 50 2.27 = 85.1 kips

Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 50 7.60 = 171 kips

T bs C = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N F u A nt]

= 239 + min [85.1; 119] = 324 kips

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-18

Block shear failure of the gusset consists of a single, rectangular block of the gusset plate. The

block is 6-in.-wide,8 -in.-long, and d -in.-thick.

We have:

A gt = A nt = d 6.00 = 2.25 in.2

A gv = A nv = d 2 (8 + ) = 6.38 in.2

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 58 6.38 = 167 kips 7 Controls

Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 36 2.25 = 60.8 kips

Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 6.38 = 103 kips

T bs GP = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt]

= 167 + min [60.8; 97.9] = 228 kips

Strength of weld

From Table 6.19.1, design shear strength of a unit length -in. fillet welds using E70 electrodes is,

W d = 5.57 kli.

Strength of longitudinal welds, N R lw = W d L tw = 5.57 8.00 2 = 89.1 kips

Strength of transverse weld, N R tw = W d (1.0 + 0.5 sin 1.52) L tw

= 5.57 1.50 6.00 = 50.1 kips

Design strength of the welds, T d4 = N R lw + N R tw = 89.1 + 50.1= 139 kips

= min [238, 239, 324, 228, 139] = 139 kips

The design strength of the member is 139 kips, and is controlled by the limit state of weld shear

strength. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-19

P7.13. A 8x in. plate tension member is connected to a d -in.-thick gusset plate by five A325-N bolts of f in.

diameter (Fig. P7.13). Assume A36 steel for the member and the gusset. Determine the tensile strength of

the member. Include block shear rupture strength of the member and the gusset.

Solution

Plate 8 in. 6 A g = 8 = 4.00 in.2

Bolts: Type: A325-N

Diameter, d = f in. 6 d e = 1 in. assuming standard punched holes

Pitch, p = in.; gage, g = 2 in.

End distance, L e = 1 main plate; = 2 in. gusset plate

T d1 = N F y Ag = 0.90 36 4.00 = 130 kips

Two possible failure paths are identified. For,

path a-b-c-d: A n1 = 4.00 - 2 1.0 = 3.00 in.2 controls

Consider a rectangular block having two 4 -in.-long horizontal surfaces in shear, and one 5-in.-

long vertical surface in tension.

A gt = 5.0 0.5 = 2.50 in.2

A nt = 2.50 - 2 1.0 0.5 = 2.00 in.2

A gv = 2 4.25 0.5 = 4.25 in.2

A nv = 4.25 - 2 1 1.0 0.5 = 2.75 in.2

Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75582.00 = 87.0 kips 7 Controls

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.750.6582.75 = 71.8 kips

Tension yield component, N Fy A gt = 0.75362.5 = 67.5 kips;

Shear yield component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.750.6364.25 = 68.9 kips

T bs M = N Fu A nt + min [N (0.6Fy) A gv; N (0.6Fu) A nv]

= 87.0 + min [68.9; 71.8] = 156 kips

Block shear failure of the gusset consists of a single, rectangular block having two 5-in.-long

horizontal surfaces, and one 5-in.-long vertical surface.

A gt = 5.0 d = 1.88 in.2; A nt = 1.88 - 2 1.0 d = 1.13 in.2

2

A gv = 25.0 d = 3.75 in. ; A nv = 3.75 - 2 1.51.0 d = 2.63 in.2

Tension rupture component, N F u Ant = 0.75 581.13 = 49.2 kips

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) Anv = 0.75 0.6 58 2.63 = 68.6 kips 7 controls

Tension yielding component, N F y Agt = 0.75 36 1.88 = 50.8 kips

Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y)A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 3.75 = 60.8 kips

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-20

T bs GP = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt]

= 68.6 + min [50.8; 49.2] = 118 kips

Strength of bolts

From Table 6.7.1, for a f -in.-dia. A325-N type bolt in single shear, B dv = 21.6 kips

Shear strength of connectors, C dv = 5 21.6 = 108 kips 7 controls

Using the bearing strength values given in Tables 6.8.1 and 6.8.2 for f -in.-dia. bolts bearing on F u

= 58 ksi steel plates, we obtain for:

Bolts bearing on in. main plate, C db M = [3 40.8 + 2 91.3] = 153 kips

Bolts bearing on d in. gusset plate, C db GP = [2 79.9 + 3 91.3] d = 163 kips

Design strength of connectors, C d = 108 kips

= min [130, 131, 156, 118, 108] = 108 kips

The design strength of the member is 108 kips and itis controlled by the limit state of bolt shear.

(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-21

P7.14. a) Determine the design tensile strength of a C15x40 truss member of A572 Grade 42 steel shown in

Fig.P7.14. The end connection to the gusset is by ten f -in.-dia. A490-X type bolts. They are

arranged in three rows with a gage of 3 in., pitch of 2 in., and an end distance of 1 in. Include

block shear rupture strength.

b) Redesign the end-connection to increase the design strength of the member to the extent possible, if there

are no architectural restrictions.

Solution

A572 Gr 42 steel: Fy = 42 ksi, Fu = 60 ksi

C15 40: A = 11.8 in.2; t w = 0.520 in.; t f = 0.650 in.;

To calculate the net area, two possible failure paths are identified. We have, for

path a-b-c-d: A n1 = 11.8 - 2 1.0 0.52 = 10.8 in.2

Connection eccentricity,

A gt = 9.0 0.52 = 4.68 in.2

A nv = 4.16 - 2 (1 + ) 0.52 = 2.60 in.2

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 60 2.60 = 70.2 kips

Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 42 4.68 = 147 kips

Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 42 4.16 = 78.6 kips

T bs = NF uA nt+ min [N(0.6F y)A gv; N(0.6F u)A nv] = 165 + min [78.6; 70.2] = 235 kips

Strength of connectors

L e = 1.5 in.; p = 3 in.

From Table 6.7.1, the design shear strength of a f -in.-dia. A490-X type bolt in single shear is, B dv

= 33.8 kips

C dv = 33.8 10 = 338 kips 7 controls

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-22

Also, the design bearing strength for interior and end bolts bearing on F u= 60 ksi steel plates can be

determined using Tables 6.8.1 and 6.8.2 as follows:

C db = [4 (53.8) + 6 (91.3)] (60 ksi/58 ksi) 0.520 = 410 kips

Design strength of the connectors is C d = 338 kips

T d = min [T d1, T d2, T d3, T d4] = min [446, 391, 235, 338] = 235 kips

Design strength of the member, as given, is 235 kips.

Design strength of connectors (T d4) is limited by the shear strength of bolts. By adding four more

bolts, in a vertical row, the revised design strength of connectors is,

C d = C dv = 33.8 14 = 473 kips

To increase T d2 , increase the bolt pitch to 4 in. Using the revised values for A n (= 10.8 in.2) and U

(= 0.90), we obtain:

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 60 0.90 10.8 = 437 kips

A gt = 9.0 0.52 = 4.68 in.2

A nv = 12.5 - 2 (2 + ) 1.0 0.52 = 10.5 in.2

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 60 10.5 = 284 kips 7 Controls

Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 42 4.68 = 147 kips

Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 42 10.4 = 197 kips

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv+ min [N (Fy) A gt; N Fu A nt] = 284 + min [147; 205] = 431 kips

T d = min [T d1 , T d2 , T d3 , T d4] = min [446, 437, 431, 473] = 431 kips

Provide fourteen f -in.-dia. A490-X bolts, with a pitch of 4 in., end distance of 4 in. and a gage of

3-in. in 4 rows (3 + 4 + 4 + 3), increasing the design tensile strength of the member to 431 kips.

(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-23

P7.15. The axial tensile forces in the vertical member of a pedestrian truss bridge, from the code specified service

loads, have been calculated as: 40 kips from dead load, 50 kips live load and 30 kips from wind. Select a 1 -

in.-thick plate of A36 steel of suitable width. Assume a single line of bolts of in. diameter.

Solution

Service loads: D = 40 kips; L = 50 kips; W = 30 kips

Factored load,

T u = max{ 1.4D; 1.2D + 1.6L; 1.2D + 1.6W + 0.5L}

= max {56.0; 128; 121} = 128 kips

Member: 1 -in.-thick plate

a. Preliminary selection

Limit state of yield in the gross section requires that,

U = 1.0 for plate member with bolted end connection. Single line of bolts. So,

Ag $ 3.95 in.2

Select a 4 1 in. plate of A36 steel. (Ans.)

b. Checks

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 36 4.0 1.0 = 130 > 128 kips

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 58 1.0 (4.0 - 1 f1.0) = 136 kips > 128 kips

The selection is O.K.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-24

P7.16. The web member of a roof truss is subjected to tensile forces of 40 kips and 60 kips under service dead load

and live load, respectively. Select the lightest WT5, if the end connection to gusset is by two lines of -in.-

dia. bolts in the flange. Assume that there will be more than three bolts in each line. Neglect block shear

failure.

Solution

Service loads: D = 40 kips; L = 60 kips

Factored load,

T u = max [1.4D; 1.2D + 1.6L] = max[1.440; 1.240 + 1.660]

= max[84.0; 144] = 144 kips

WT shape: A992 steel 6 Fy = 50 ksi; Fu = 65 ksi

a. Preliminary selection

Limit state of yield in the gross section requires that:

Connection is to the flange of a WT. Assume tf . 0.5 in.

It is given that there will be more than 3 bolts in each line of bolts. Assume U = 0.85.

7 controls

A g $ 4.35 in.2

(A g = 4.85 in.2; tf = 0.435 in.; b f = 4.87 in.; d = 7.96 in.).

b. Checks

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 4.85 = 218 kips > 136 kips O.K.

As

= 169 kips > 136 kips O.K.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-25

P7.17. The factored tensile load on a truss bottom chord is 480 kips. Select the lightest W10 with its flanges

connected to gusset plates at each end, with two lines of -in.-dia. bolts in each flange. The bolts are

A490-N type. Neglect block shear failure.

Solution

Factored load, T u = 480 kips

A992 steel: Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 65 ksi

a. Preliminary selection

Limit state of yield in the gross section requires that:

Entering LRFDM Table 1-1 with A req = 10.7 in.2, we observe that the W10s that provide a gross

area slightly greater than 10.7 in.2, have b f . 8 in., and d . 10 in. resulting in b f /d . 0.80 > b.

Also, tf . e in. Assume there will be more than 3 bolts in each line, so U = 0.90.

7 controls

Ag $ 13.1 in.2

So, tentatively select a W1045 (A g = 13.3 in.2; tf = 0.620 in.; b f = 8.02 in.; d = 10.1 in.).

b. Checks

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 13.3 = 599 kips > 480 kips O.K.

From Table 6.7.1, the design shear strength of a -in.-dia. A490-N type bolt in single shear is B dv

= 19.9 kips. So, the number of bolts required,

U = 0.90 as assumed.

T d2 = N Fu U A n

= 0.75 65 0.90 (13.3 - 4 f 0.620) = 488 kips > 480 kips O.K.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-26

P7.18. A W16 section is used as a tension member to carry a tensile load of 500 kips. The end connection is by f-

in.-dia. A490-X bolts, in two rows, in each flange, using standard punched holes. The gusset plates are e-

in.-thick. Find the lightest W16 section and determine the number of bolts required. What is the maximum

allowable length of such a member.

Solution

Factored load, T u = 500 kips

W 16 shape: A992 steel 6 F y = 50 ksi; F u = 65 ksi

a. Preliminary selection

Limit state of yield in the gross section requires that:

Assume U = 0.85 as there will be more than 3 bolts in each line of bolts and the W16s are beam

shapes. Assume tf . e in. With two rows of bolts in each flange, there are four bolt holes to be

removed from the gross area.

7 controls

A g $ 14.6 in.2

So, tentatively select a W1650

(A g = 14.7 in.2; tf = 0.63 in.; b f = 7.07 in.; d = 16.3 in.; r x = 6.68 in.; r y= 1.59 in.).

From Table 6.7.1, for a f -in.-dia. A490-X type bolt in single shear, B dv = 33.8 kips controls

For bolt bearing on member, B dbo = N (2.4Fu) d t = 0.75 2.4 65 f 0.63 = 64.5 kips

For bolt bearing on gusset, B dbo = 0.75 2.4 58 f e = 57.1 kips

. Use 16 bolts; i.e., 4 bolts in each line

T d1 = N F y A g = 0.90 50 14.7 = 662 kips > 500 kips O.K.

U = 0.85

T d2 = N FuU A n

= 0.75 65 0.85 (14.7 - 4 1.0 0.63) = 505 kips > 500 kips O.K.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-27

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-28

P7.19. A 16 ft long tension member is subjected to a factored axial load of 100 kips. Select a suitable, single, equal-

leg angle of 5 in. leg size and an even number of -in.-dia. bolts of A325-N type. The bolts are to be

arranged in two lines, without stagger, with a pitch of 3 in., and an end distance of 1 in. Use standard

gages.

Solution

Factored load, T u = 100 kips

Member: Single equal-leg angle of 5-in. leg size; length, L = 16 ft

Material: Assume A36 steel

Bolts: -in.-dia. A325-N type

a. Preliminary selection

Try L55 d ( A = 3.65 in.2; t = d in.; r z = 0.986 in.; from LRFDM Table 1-7).

Provide bolts in two lines, using workable gages g 2 (= 2 in.) and g3(= 1 in.) given in Table 6.7.1.

This results in a side distance, L s = 1 in.

Provide a pitch, p = 3 in. and an end distance, L e = 1 in.

From Table 6.7.1, for A325-N type bolt in single shear, B dv = 15.9 kips

Number of bolts required,

Consider 8 bolts, 4 bolts in each line without stagger. Using Tables 6.8.1 and 2, show that limit

state of bearing doesnt control the bolt strength.

b. Checks

T d1 = Nt1 Fy A g = 0.90 36 3.65 = 118 kips > 100 kips

Net area, An = 3.65 - 2 f d = 2.99 in.2

Length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.

Connection eccentricity,

There will be one rectangular failure block.

Length of block = 3 3.0 + 1 = 10.5 in.; width of block = 1 +1 in. = 3.00 in.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-29

A gv = 10.5 d = 3.94 in.2; A nv = 3.94 - 3 f d = 2.79 in.2

Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 58 0.633 = 27.5 kips

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 58 2.79 = 72.8 kips 7 controls

Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 36 1.13 = 30.5 kips

Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 3.94 = 63.8 kips

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt] = 72.8 + min [30.5; 27.5] = 100 kips O.K.

O.K.

Select a L55 d of A36 steel. Provide 8 bolts, four in each row along workable gage lines.

(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-30

P7.20. Design the tension diagonal of an all welded Warren truss for a pedestrian bridge, in which the chords are

made from WT7x19 sections. The factored load in the diagonal member is 125 kips and its length is 15 ft.

Use 2Ls of A36 steel LLBB, with their 4-in.-long legs welded to the stem of the WT. The weld consists of a

transverse weld and two longitudinal welds.

Solution

Factored load, T u = 125 kips

A36 steel 6 Fy = 36 ksi; F u = 58 ksi

Member: Double angles with their 4 -in.-long legs welded to the stem of a tee.

Limit state of yield in the gross section requires that:

Assume U = 0.85

Limit state of fracture in net area requires that:

Provide two L43 d LLBB. From LRFDM Table 1-7, for a L43 d : A = 2.49 in.2; t = d

in.; So, A g = 4.98 in.2 > 3.86 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

Note:

As no information on the inclination of the diagonal and the type of weld is given, the connection

cannot be designed.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-31

P7.21. Design a single-angle tension member 13 ft long and its connection at each end to a d in. gusset plate. The

tension is 24 kips dead load and 52 kips live load. The angle cannot extend more than 15 in. on the gusset.

Use LRFD specification, A36 steel, f in. dia. bolts, slip critical connection. Include block shear rupture

strength.

Solution

Service loads: D = 24 kips; L = 52 kips

Factored load,

T u = max [1.4D; 1.2D + 1.6L] = max[1.424; 1.224 + 1.652]

= max[33.6; 112] = 112 kips

Material: A36 steel

Bolts: f-in.-dia. 6 d e = 1 in. assuming standard punched holes

Connection: Slip-critical. Assume A325-SC type bolts.

Restriction: Angle cannot extend more than 15 in. on the gusset.

a. Preliminary selection

From Table 6.7.1, for A325-SC type bolts in single shear, design resistance to shear at service load

using factored loads is, B dsf = 14.5 kips

Number of bolts required, say 8

As the length of the connection is restricted, provide the bolts in two rows. This requires angles

with connected leg lengths $ 5 in. For higher efficiency, restrict the selection to unequal leg

angles, with the long leg connected to the gusset.

Try L74 d ( A = 4.00 in.2; t = d in.; r z = 0.873 in.; from LRFDM Table 1-7).

Provide bolts 8 bolts, 4 bolts in each line without stagger, using workable gages g 2 (= 2 in.) and

g 3(= 3 in.) given in Table 6.7.1. This results in a side distance, L s = 1 in. Provide a pitch, p = 3

in. and an end distance, L e = 2 in. Overlap of the angle over the gusset equals 14 in. ( 3 3.0 + 2

2.0 ).

b. Checks

T d1 = Nt1 Fy A g = 0.90 36 4.00 = 130 kips > 112 kips O.K.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-32

Length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.

Connection eccentricity,

There will be one rectangular failure block.

Length of block = 3 3.0 + 2 = 11.0 in.; width of block = 2 + 1 in. = 4.00 in.

A gt = 4.00 d = 1.50 in.2; A nt = 1.50 - 1 1.00 d = 0.938 in.2

2

A gv = 11.0 d = 4.12 in. ; A nv = 4.12 - 3 1.00 d = 2.81 in.2

Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 58 0.938 = 40.8 kips

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 58 2.81 = 72.3 kips 7 controls

Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 36 1.50 = 40.5 kips

Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 4.12 = 66.7 kips

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt] = 72.3 + min [40.5; 40.8] = 113 kips O.K.

O.K.

Strength of connectors

Shear resistance of connectors, C dv = N B d sf = 8 14.5 = 116 kips

There are six interior bolts with pitch, p = 3 in., and two end bolts with L e = 2 in.

Using the values given in Tables 6.8.1 and 6.8.2 for Fu = 58 ksi plate material and f-in.-dia. bolts,

the design bearing strength of the connectors is obtained as

C db = [691.3 + 279.9] d = 265 kips

Strength of connectors, C d = min [116, 265] = 116 kips > 112 kips O.K.

Select a L74 d of A36 steel. Provide 8 bolts, four in each row without stagger, along

workable gage lines of the long leg. Use a pitch, p = 3 in. and an end distance, L e = 2 in.

(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-33

P7.22. A tension member is composed of two C12x30 channels placed 12 in. back-to-back and tied together as

shown in Fig. 7.2.2c (ii). The member is connected at ends to -in.-thick gusset plates, by twenty four f

-in.-dia. A325-N bolts provided in three rows in the webs. If A572 Grade 42 steel is used, find the design

strength as per LRFDS. Assume a gage of 3 in., a pitch of 3 in., and an end distance of 2 in. If the force in

the member from dead load on the structure is 200 kips, what live load and wind load forces can be applied

on the member as per ASCES? What is the maximum recommended length of such a member as per

LRFDS?

Solution

a. Section properties

A572 Gr 42 steel: Fy= 42 ksi; F u = 60 ksi

For the C12x30, from LRFDM Table 1-5:

A C = 8.81 in.2, d C = 12.0 in., twC = 0.510 in.,

b fC = 3.17 in., tfC = 0.501 in.,

r xC = 4.29 in. , r yC = 0.762 in. = r min C

= 0.674 in., IyC = 5.12 in.4

Also from LRFDM Table 1-5, the workable gage, g, for the flange of a C1225 is 1 in.

For the built-up section:

A = 2 8.81 = 17.6 in.2

Iy = = 2 [ 5.12 + 8.81 (6.0 - 0.674)2] = 510 in.4

ry =

rx = r xC = 4.29 in.

r min = r x = 4.29 in.

Gross area of the section, A g = A = 17.6 in.2

Tie plates connect the flanges of the two channels at the ends, and at intervals along the length of

the member. Assume, conservatively, that the holes in the flanges connecting the end tie plate to

the member, and the holes in the webs connecting the member to the gussets lie in the same cross

section.

Net area, A n = 17.6 - 231.00.510 - 2210.501 = 12.5 in.2

From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

Use U = 0.90

Design strength corresponding to the limit state of

tension yielding, T d1 = 0.9 42 17.6 = 665 kips

tension fracture, T d2 = 0.75 60 0.900 12.5 = 506 kips

Gross area in tension, A gt = 2 6.0 0.510 = 6.12 in.2

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-34

Gross area in shear, A gv = 2 2 11.0 0.510 = 22.4 in.2

Net area in shear, A nv = 22.4 - 2 2 (3 1.0 0.510) = 15.3 in.2

N Fu A nt = 0.7560 4.08 = 184 kips

N Fuv A nv = 0.750.660 15.3 = 413 kips 7 controls

N Fy A gt = 0.75426.12 = 193 kips

N Fyv A gv = 0.750.642 22.4 = 423 kips

So, the design strength of the member corresponding to block shear failure is,

T d3 = N Fuv A nv + min [ N Fy A gt, N Fu A nt ]

= 413 + min [193; 184 ] = 597 kips

d. Bolt strength

From Table 6.7.1, design strength of a single f -in.-dia. A325-N bolt in single shear is B dv = 21.6

kips

Design strength of bolts, T d4 = N B d = 21221.6 = 518 kips

e. Member strength

Design strength of member, T d = min [T d1, T d2, T d3, T d4]

= min [665, 506, 597, 518] = 506 kips (Ans.)

Dead load on the member, D = 200 kips

If L is the live load, and W is the wind load on the structure, we have from load combination LC-2:

1.2D + 1.6L # 506 kips 6 L # 166 kips (Ans.)

Also, from load combination LC-4,

1.2D + 0.5L + 1.6 W # 506 6 139 kips (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-35

P7.23. A tension member in a covered pedestrian bridge is subjected to a dead load of 50 kips, live load of 70 kips,

and snow load of 38 kips. Select two angles with long legs back-to-back and separated by d in. for end

connections to gusset plates. Assume a single line of holes for -in.-dia. A325-X bolts. Assume A242

Grade 50 steel. The member is 20 ft long. Determine the spacing of spacer plates, if necessary.

Solution

Member: Two angles with long legs back-to-back.

Material: A242 Grade 50 steel. 6 Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi

Service loads: D = 50 kips; L = 70 kips; S = 38 kips

Load combinations:

1.4D = 70 kips

1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S = 191 kips controls

1.2D + 1.6S + 0.5L = 156 kips

Factored load, T u = 191 kips

From Table 6.7.1, for -in.-dia. A325-X type bolts in double shear, B dv = 39.8 kips

Number of bolts required, Say 5

b. Select a section

A g1 $ 191/(0.90 50) = 4.24 in.2

A g2 $ (191/NFuU ) + estimated deduction for bolt holes

Assume U = 0.85, and t . 0.4 in.

A g2 $ 191/(0.75 70 0.85) + 2 f 0.4 = 4.98 in.2

Tentatively select 2L 43 d.

[From LRFDM Table1-7 for single angles: A L = 2.49 in.2; r xL = 1.26 in.; r zL = 0.636 in.

From LRFDM Table 1-14 for double angles: r y = 1.30 in. corresponding to s = d in. ]

Gross area, A g = 4.98 in.2

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 4.98 = 224 kips > 191 kips O.K.

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 70 0.85 (4.98 - 2 f 0.375) = 193 kips > 191 kips O.K.

O.K.

d. Spacer plates

For the single angle L43 d , r min = r zL = 0.636 in.

Spacer plate spacing, S sp # 300 r min = 3000.636 = 191 in. = 15.9 ft

Provide three spacer plates; one at each end of the member, and the third at mid-length of the

member, so that

S sp = 10 ft < 15.9 ft O.K.

So, select 2L 43 d of 242 Grade 50 steel, with long legs back to back, connected to d -in.-thick

gusset plates by five -in.-dia. A325-X bolts, and provided with a spacer plate at mid length.

(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-36

P7.24. Select a pair of American Standard channels for a tension member subjected to a dead load of 68 kips and a

live load of 140 kips. The channels are placed back-to-back and connected to a in. gusset plate by f -in.-

dia. A490-N bolts [see Fig. 7.2.2c (i)]. Assume A588 Grade 50 steel for the member and the gusset. The

member is 20 ft long. The bolts are arranged in two lines parallel to the length of the member.

Solution

Member: two channels placed back to back.

Steel: A588 Gr 50 6 Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi

Service loads: D = 68 kips; L = 140 kips

Factored load, T u = max [1.4D; 1.2D + 1.6L ] = [95.2; 306] = 306 kips

a. Number of bolts

From Table 6.7.1, for a f -in.-dia. A490-N bolt in double shear, B dv = 54.1 kips.

N $ T u / B dv = 306/54.1 = 5.66 (say six bolts, 3 in each line)

b. Select a section

A g1 $ 306/(0.90 50) = 6.80 in.2

Assume U = 0.85, and tw . 0.40 in.

A g2 $ 6 4.23 in.2 per channel.

Select 2C915

[A C = 4.41 in.2; twC = 0.285 in.; IxC = 51 in.4; IyC = 1.91 in.4; ryC = 0.659 in.,

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 8.82 = 397 kips > 306 kips O.K.

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 70 0.85 (8.82 - 4 1.0 0.285) = 343 kips > 306 kips O.K.

For the built-up section:

Ix = 2 51.0 = 102 in.4; Iy = 2 [ 1.91 + 4.41 (0.25 + 0.586)2] = 9.98 in.4

O.K.

So, select 2C 915 of A588 Grade 50 steel with webs connected to a -in.-thick gusset plate in

between. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-37

P7.25. A steel truss is used to transfer loads from the upper floor columns of an office building across an arcade at

street level. The lower chord of the truss is made of two angles, with their vertical legs 8 in. back-to-back,

connected to gussets as shown in Fig. P7.2.2a (ii). In addition, the two angles are connected by tie plates.

The factored load to be carried by the member is 240 kips and the member length is 18 ft. Use A36 steel,

-in.-dia. A325-N bolts. Select suitable angles. Show the end connection detail, including tie plates.

Consider block shear failure.

Solution

Factored load, T u = 240 kips

a. Preliminary selection

From Table 6.7.1, for a -in.-dia. A325-N type bolt in single shear, B dv = 15.9 kips

Number of bolts required, N $ 240/15.9 = 15.1, say 16

Assume 2 lines of bolts in each angle, and 4 bolts in each line.

b. Checks

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 36 8.96 = 290 kips > 240 kips

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 58 0.85 (8.96 - 4 0.5 f) = 267 kips > 240 kips O.K.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-38

P7.26. A pinned member is to consist of four equal leg angles arranged as shown in Fig. 7.2.2b(i). The factored

tensile load is 324 kips. Two e in. bolts will be used in each angle. The member length is 40 ft. For

architectural reasons the cross-sectional dimensions should not exceed 12 in. 12 in. Include the design of

tie plates.

Solution

Factored load, T u = 324 kips

Member: Four equal-leg angles to form a box shape; length, L = 40 ft

Width of the box limited to 12 in.

Material: Assume A36 steel

Bolts: 5/8 -in.-dia.

a. Preliminary selection

( = 2.75 in.2/angle).

Try L44 d

From LRFDM Table 1-7: A L = 2.86 in.2; tL = d in.; r zL = 0.779 in.;

Provide bolts in one line, using workable gage g1 (= 2 in.) given in Table 6.7.1.

This results in a side distance, L s = 1 in.

From Table 6.7.1, for 5/8-in.-dia. A325-X type bolt in single shear, B dv = 13.8 kips

Number of bolts required, say 24. Provide six bolts in each line.

Using Tables 6.8.1 and 2, show that limit state of bearing doesnt control the bolt strength.

b. Checks

For the built-up section:

A g = 4 2.86 = 11.4 in.2

Ix = 4 [ 4.32 + 2.86 (6.0 - 1.13)2 ] = 287 in.4

rx = 5.02 in.

Net area, An = 11.4 - 4 2 3/4 d = 9.15 in.2

Length of connection, L con = 5 3.0 = 15.0 in.

Connection eccentricity,

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-39

There will be four rectangular failure blocks.

Length of each block = 5 3.0 + 2.0 = 17.0 in.; width of each block = 1 in. = 1.50 in.

A gt = 1.50 d 4 = 2.25 in.2; A nt = 2.25 - 3/4 d 4 = 1.69 in.2

2

A gv = 17.0 d 4 = 25.5 in. ; A nv = 25.5 - 5 3/4 d 4 = 19.3 in.2

Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 58 1.69 = 73.5 kips

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 58 19.3 = 504 kips 7 controls

Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 36 2.25 = 60.8 kips

Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 25.5 = 413 kips

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt] = 504 + min [60.8; 73.5] = 565 kips O.K.

O.K.

Select four L44 d of A36 steel. Provide twenty-four 5/8-in.-dia. A325-X bolts, six in each

row along workable gage lines to connect the vertical legs to gussets. Use a pitch, p = 3 in. and an

end distance, L e = 2 in.

(Ans.)

d. Design of tie plates

Distance between bolt lines, G = 12.0 - 2 2 = 7.00 in.

Length of tie plate, L tp $ b 7.00 = 4.67 in. (say, 5 in.)

Tie plates are 105 in.

Spacing of the plates, S tp # 300 r zL = 3000.779 = 19.5 ft

Provide 4 sets of tie plates, one at each end of the member and the other two at a and b of the

length. Note that at the ends, there will be two (horizontal) tie plates only. At the intermediate

locations there will b four. Two vertical and two horizontal.

S tp = O.K.

So, select two C12x25 of A572 Grade 50 steel with their webs back to back. Provide four tie

plates 127 in. of A36 steel. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-40

P7.27. Two channels with their webs 6 in. back to back as shown in Fig. 7.2.2c (iii), are used as a tension member

to carry a factored load of 480 kips. The member is 40 ft long. At the ends, the flanges are connected by

tie plates, while the webs are connected to gusset plates. Using A572 Grade 50 steel, LRFD Specification,

and -in.-dia. bolts, select the channels. Design the tie plates.

Solution

Member: Two channels back to back separated by 6 in.

Member length, L = 40 ft

Factored load, T u = 480 kips

a. Preliminary selection

A g1 $ 480/ (0.9050) = 10.7 in.2

Note that the webs are connected to gusset plates at the ends; while the two sets of flanges are

interconnected by tie plates at intervals. Only the gussets transmit load from the member to the

rest of the structure (U < 1.0).

Assume, conservatively, that holes in the flange (connecting it to tie plate) line up with the holes in

the web (connecting it to gusset plate). Assume N R > 3 6 U = 0.85.

Let tw . 0.5 in. and t f . 0.5 in.

6 7.15 in.2 per channel.

(A = 7.34 in.2; tw = 0.387 in.; tf = 0.501 in.; b f = 3.05 in.;

Ixx = 144 in.4; Iyy = 4.45 in.4; r y = 0.779 in.)

b. Strength checks

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.9 50 2 7.34 = 661 kips > 480 kips O.K.

T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 70 0.85 2 [7.34 - 2 f 0.387 - 2 f 0.501]

= 516 kips > 480 kips O.K.

c. Slenderness check

Ix = 2144.0 = 288 in.4

Iy = 2 [4.45 + 7.34(3.0 + 0.674)2 ] = 207 in.4

; 6

When using C12 25 channel with b f . 3 in., the workable gage distance on the flange is 1 in.

Distance between bolt lines, G = 6.0 + 2 1.75 = 9.5 in.

Length of tie plate, L tp $ b 9.5 = 6.33 in. (say, 7 in.)

Thickness of tie plate, (say, in.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-41

Spacing of the plates, S tp # 300 ryC = 3000.779 = 19.5 ft

Provide 4 sets of tie plates, one at each end of the member and the other two at a and b of the

length.

S tp = O.K.

So, select two C12x25 of A572 Grade 50 steel with their webs back to back. Provide four tie

plates 127 in. of A36 steel. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-42

P7.28. A floor beam hanger is subjected to tensile forces of 30 kips dead load and 48 kips live load. Select a

suitable round steel threaded rod. Assume A36 steel (Note: Use impact factor from ASCES 7-98 Section

4.7.2).

Solution

Member: Threaded rod

Material: A36 steel

Service loads: D = 30 kips; L = 48 kips

For hangers supporting floor beams, the impact factor is 33% from ASCES Section 4.7.2.

Factored load, T u = 1.2D + 1.6(L 1.33) = 1.230 + 1.6481.33 = 138 kips

From Eq. 7.12.8, the cross-sectional area of the threaded rod is,

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-43

P7.29. Roof trusses of an industrial building, with a span of 80 ft and a rise of 20 ft are spaced on 27 ft centers and

have purlins spaced at 6 ft intervals (see Fig. 3.4.2). To support the purlins sag rods are provided at a points

between the trusses. The estimated weight of the roof covering and of the purlins is 7 psf and 3 psf of the

roof surface respectively. Uses 35 psf of ground snow load. Design sag rods using A36 steel and LRFDS.

(Assume: exposure factor, C e = 1.0; thermal factor, C t = 1.0; and importance factor I = 1.0, in ASCES Eq.

7-1.)

Solution

Span of roof truss, L = 80 ft

Rise, h = 20 ft

Spacing of trusses, S T = 27 ft

Spacing of sag rods, S S = 27/3 = 9 ft

a. Loads

Tributary area of the roof surface per line of sag rods,

Dead load, D = 403 10 1000 = 4.03 kips

Horizontal projection of the roof area, A H = 40 9 = 360 ft2

Ground snow load, p g = 35 psf

Exposure factor, C e = 1.0

Thermal factor, C t = 1.0

Importance factor, I = 1.0

From Eq. 7.1 of the ASCES, the flat roof snow load is obtained as,

p f = 0.7 C e C t I p g = 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 35 = 24.5 psf

From Fig. 7-2 of the ASCES, the roof slope factor C s is 1.0 for warm roofs with roof slope 2 =

26.6 o.

From Eq. 7.2 of the ASCES, the sloped roof snow load is p s = C s p f = 24.5 psf

Snow load, D = 400 24.5 1000 = 9.80 kips

As there are only dead loads and snow loads, combination LC-3 controls.

Factored vertical load on the roof, V = 1.2D + 1.6S = 1.24.03 + 1.69.80 = 20.5 kips

The top sag rod parallel to the roof carries only that component of the vertical load, V, parallel to

the roof. Thus, tension in the top sag rod:

T S = V sin 2 = 20.5 sin 26.6 o = 9.18 kips

Required area of the threaded rod for the sag rod (Eq. 7.12.10):

From Table 1-21 of the LRFDM, select a 5/8 in. diameter threaded rod having a cross-sectioanraela ,

0.307 in.2 > 0.282 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be

displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited

distribution to teachers and educators permitted by M cGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you

are using it without permission.

Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-44

The horizontal tie rod between ridge purlins has to carry a tensile force, T T :

From Table 1-21 of the LRFDM, select a 3/4 in. diameter threaded rod of A36 steel having a cross-

sectional area, 0.442 in.2 > 0.316 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be

displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited

distribution to teachers and educators permitted by M cGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you

are using it without permission.

Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-45

P7.30. Steel trusses with a span of 100 ft and a pitch of 1:5 are spaced at 30 ft on centers to support the roof of an

industrial building. The roof covering is light weight cement boards on S-shape purlins, 6 ft on centers. The

dead load of the roofing, purlins and the attachments may be assumed to be 13 psf. For the snow load

recommended by ASCES 7-98 for Green Bay, Wisconsin, design sag rods at the a points between trusses.

Use LRFDS. (Assume: exposure factor, C e = 1.0; thermal factor, C t = 1.0; and importance factor I = 1.0,

in ASCES Eq. 7-1.)

Solution

Span of roof truss, L = 100 ft

Pitch of the roof: 1 in 5

Inclination of the roof, 2 = tan -1 (1/5) = 11.3 o

Spacing of trusses, S T = 30 ft

Spacing of sag rods, S S = 30/3 = 10 ft

a. Loads

Tributary area of the roof surface per line of sag rods,

Dead load, D = 510 13 1000 = 6.63 kips

Horizontal projection of the roof area, A H = 50 10 = 500 ft2

Ground snow load, p g = 40 psf

Exposure factor, C e = 1.0

Thermal factor, C t = 1.0

Importance factor, I = 1.0

From Eq. 7.1 of the ASCES, the flat roof snow load is obtained as,

p f = 0.7 C e C t I p g = 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 40 = 28.0 psf

From Fig. 7-2 of the ASCES, the roof slope factor C s is 1.0 for warm roofs with roof slope 2 =

11.3 o.

From Eq. 7.2 of the ASCES, the sloped roof snow load is p s = C s p f = 28.0 psf

Snow load, D = 500 28.0 1000 = 14.0 kips

As there are only dead loads and snow loads, combination LC-3 controls.

Factored vertical load on the roof, V = 1.2D + 1.6S = 1.26.63 + 1.614.0 = 30.4 kips

The top sag rod parallel to the roof carries only that component of the vertical load, V, parallel to

the roof. Thus, tension in the top sag rod:

T S = V sin 2 = 30.4 sin 11.3 o = 5.96 kips

Required area of the threaded rod for the sag rod (Eq. 7.12.10):

From Table 1-21 of the LRFDM, select a in. diameter threaded rod having a cross-sectional area,

0.196 in.2 > 0.183 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be

displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited

distribution to teachers and educators permitted by M cGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you

are using it without permission.

Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-46

The horizontal tie rod between ridge purlins has to carry a tensile force, T T :

From Table 1-21 of the LRFDM, select a in. diameter threaded rod of A36 steel having a cross-

sectional area, 0.196 in.2 > 0.186 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be

displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited

distribution to teachers and educators permitted by M cGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you

are using it without permission.

Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-47

P7.31. The height to eaves of an industrial building is 32 ft. The columns are spaced 24 ft on centers. The side wall

is covered with light weight cement boards weighing 5 psf. Aluminum and glass windows, weighing 8 psf,

occupy 50% of the wall area. Girts are C59 spaced 5 ft on centers. Design sag rods located at the

points between columns (see Fig. 3.4.3). Use A36 steel and LRFDS.

P7.32. A three hinged parabolic tied-arch has a span of 60 ft and a rise of 20 ft. It carries a uniform horizontally

distributed vertical load of 3 klf. Determine the diameter of an A36 steel tie rod and select suitable clevises

and turn buckle. The load given is a factored load.

Solution

Structure: Three hinged parabolic tied arch.

Span, L = 60 ft

Rise, h = 20 ft

Factored uniformly distributed vertical load, q u = 3 klf over the entire span of 60 ft

Tension in the tie, T u = (q u L 2) (8 h) = (3.00 60.0 2) (8 20.0) = 67.5 kips

From Table 1-21 of the LRFDM, select a 1 in. diameter threaded rod of A36 steel having a cross-

sectional area, 2.41 in.2 > 2.07 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL. 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this Manual may be

displayed, reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the publisher, or used beyond the limited

distribution to teachers and educators permitted by M cGraw-Hill for their individual course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you

are using it without permission.

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