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# Steel Structures by S.

## Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-1

CHAPTER 7

P7.1. Determine the net area for the following tension members:
(a) PL x8 with holes for -in.-dia. bolts, as shown in Fig. 7.6.1a.
(b) W12x120 with STD drilled holes for f -in.-dia. bolts, as shown in Fig. 7.6.1b.
(c) PL x8 with holes for -in.-dia. bolts with a gage, g = 2 in., pitch, p = 3 in., and a staggered
pitch, s = 1 in., as shown in Fig. 7.6.2a.
(d) L4x3 x with holes for -in.-dia. bolts with pitch, p = 2 in., and a staggered pitch, s = 1
in., as shown in Fig. 7.6.3a.
(e) C8x18.75 with holes for -in.-dia. bolts with pitch, p = 2 in., staggered pitch, s = 1 in., gage,
g a = 1 in., and gage, g b = 2 in., as shown in Fig. 7.6.4a.

Solution

P7.1.a
See Fig. 7.6.1a of the text book.
Member: PL 8; Diameter of bolts, d = in.
Assume standard punched holes. So, width of bolt holes, d e = + c = f in.
Number of holes, n = 3
Gross area, A g = 8 = 4.00 in.2
From Eq. 7.6.3, net area, A n = 4.00 - 3 f = 2.69 in.2 (Ans.)

P7.1.b
See Fig 7.6.1b of the text book.
Member: W12x120
From LRFDM table 1-1: A = 35.3 in.2; tf = 1.11 in.; tw = 0.710 in.
Number of holes in the flanges = 2 + 2 = 4
Number of holes in the web = 3
Diameter of bolts, d = f in.
Standard drilled holes. So, width of bolt holes, d e = f + 1/16 = 15/16 in.
Gross area, Ag = 35.3 in.2
From Eq. 7.6.3, net area, An = 35.3 - 4 (15/16) 1.11 - 3 (15/16) 0.710 = 29.1 in.2 (Ans.)

P7.1.c
See Fig. 7.6.2a of the text book.
Member: PL 8; Diameter of bolts, d = in.
Assume standard punched holes. So, width of bolt holes, d e = + c = f in.
Staggered pitch, s = 1 in.; Gage, g = 2 in.
Net areas for the two possible failure paths are calculated as follows, using Eqs. 7.6.3 and 7.6.4:
path a-b-c-d: A n1 = 4.00 - 1 f = 3.56 in.2

## path a-b-d-e: A n2 = 4.00 - 3 f + 2 = 2.89 in.2

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-2

Net area, A n = min [ A n1, A n2] = min [3.56; 2.89] = 2.89 in.2 (Ans.)

P7.1.d
See Fig. 7.6.3a of the text book.
Member: L43
From LRFDM Table 1-7: A = 3.50 in.2; t = in.
Diameter of bolts, d = in. Staggered pitch, s = 1 in.
Assume standard punched holes. So, width of bolt holes, d e = + c = f in.
From Table 6.2.1: g1(4 in.) = 2 in.; g 1(3.5 in.) = 2 in.
From Fig. 7.6.3b, g ab = g a + g b - t = 2 + 2 - = 4.00 in.
Net areas for the two possible failure paths are calculated as follows, using Eqs. 7.6.3 and 7.6.4:
path a-b-c: A n1 = 3.50 - 1 f = 3.06 in.2

## path a-b-d-e: A n2 = 3.50 - 2 f + = 2.67 in.2

Net area, A n = min [ A n1, A n2] = min [3.06; 2.67] = 2.67 in.2 (Ans.)

P7.1.e
See Fig. 7.6.4a of the text book.
Member: C8x18.75
From LRFDM table 1-1: A = 5.51 in.2; tf = 0.390 in.; t w = 0.487 in.; g = 1 in.
Gages: ga = 1 in. in the flange; g b = 2 in. in the web.
To determine the net area, two failure paths are identified:
path 1: See Fig. 7.6.4b.
From Eq. 7.6.8,
g ab = g a + g b - (tf + tw) = 1.50 + 2.50 - 0.5 (0.390 + 0.487) = 3.56 in.
t = (tf + tw) = 0.5 (0.390 + 0.487) = 0.439 in.

## = 4.07 in.2 controls

path 2 :
Net area, A n = min [ A n1, A n2] = min [4.66; 4.07] = 4.07 in.2 (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-3

7.2. Determine the reduction coefficient, U, using Eq. 7.7.2 for the following tension members:
(a) A L4x4x connected to a gusset by two bolts with a pitch, p = 3 in. (Fig. 7.7.4b).
(b) A W12x65 connected by two lines of bolts in each flange to gussets using a pitch, p = 3 in. (Fig.
7.7.4c). There are three bolts in each line.
(c) A W12x35 connected by two lines of bolts in each flange to gussets using a pitch, p = 3 in. (Fig.
7.7.4e). There are three bolts in each line.
(d) A WT7x45 connected by two lines of bolts in the flange to a gusset using a pitch, p = 3 in. (Fig.
7.7.4d). There are three bolts in each line.
(e) A PL x6 connected to a gusset by two 9 -in.-long longitudinal welds, as shown in Fig. 7.7.5a.
(f) A L6x4x with its long leg connected to a gusset by a 6 -in.-long transverse weld only (Fig.
7.7.5b).
(g) A L6x4x with its long leg connected to a gusset by a transverse weld and two longitudinal welds,
having L w1 = 8 in. and L w2 = 4 in. (Fig. 7.7.5c).

Solution

P7.2.a
See Fig. 7.7.4b of the text book.
Member L4x4x. From Table 1-7 of the LRFDM,
Pitch, p = 3 in.; number of bolts per line = 2
Length of connection, L con = 3.00 in.
Connection eccentricity,
From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

(Ans.)

P7.2.b
See Fig. 7.7.4c of the text book.
Member: W12x65 with flanges connected to gussets.
There are three bolts in each line. Pitch, p = 3 in.
So, length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.
From Fig. 7.7.2c of the text book,
connection eccentricity,
From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

(Ans.)

P7.2.c
See Fig. 7.7.4e of the text book.
Member: W12x35 with flanges connected to gussets.
There are three bolts in each line. Pitch, p = 3 in.
So, length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-4

## From Fig. 7.7.2c of the text book,

connection eccentricity,
From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

(Ans.)

P7.2.d
See Fig. 7.7.4d of the text book.
Member: WT7x45 with its flange connected to a gusset.
There are three bolts in each line. Pitch, p = 3 in.
So, length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.
Connection eccentricity,
From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

(Ans.)

P7.2.e
See Fig 7.7.5a of the text book.
Member: PL x6 6 width of plate, W pl = 6.00 in.
Connection by two longitudinal welds only.
Length of longitudinal weld, L lw = 9 in.
L lw /W pl = 1.50 > 1.0 O.K.
Also, from Eq. 7.7.3, reduction coefficient U = 0.87 (Ans.)

P7.2. f
See Fig. 7.7.5b of the text book.
Member: L6x4x with only its long connected to gusset.
Connection provided by a transverse weld only.
So, from Eq. 7.7.4, A n = A ce = 6.00 = 3.00 in.2; U = 1.00 (Ans.)

P7.2. g
See Fig. 7.7.5c of the text book.
Member: L6x4x with only its long connected to gusset.
From Table 1-7 of the LRFDM,
Connection provided by a transverse weld and two unequal length longitudinal welds.
L lw 1 = 8 in.; L lw 2 = 4 in.
Length of connection, L con = max (8.00; 4.00) = 8.00 in.
Connection eccentricity,
From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-5

P7.3. A 14x in. A242 steel plate is used as a tension member. The end connection to the gusset plate is by six
f -in.-dia. bolts, arranged with staggered pitches of 2 in. and 1 in., and gage distances of 2 in. as shown
in Fig. P7.3. Determine the design tensile strength of the member. Neglect block shear failure.

## See Figure P7.3 of the text book.

Solution

From LRFDM Table 2-2, -in.-thick A242 steel plates are available in Grade 50 only, for which
Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi;
Gross area, A g = 14.0 = 7.00 in.2
T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 7.00 = 315 kips
Diameter of bolts, d = f in. Assuming standard punched holes, d e = f + c = 1.0 in.
T d2 = N Fu U A n where U = 1.0 for a plate.
Net areas for several failure paths are calculated as follows:
path a-b-c: A n1 = 7.00 - 1 1.0 = 6.50 in.2
path d-e-f-g: = 7.00 - 2 1.0 = 6.00 in.2 6 A n2 = 6.00 6/5 = 7.20 in.2

## 6 A n5 = 5.40 6/5 = 6.48 in.2

path h-i-e-b-f-k-l:

## T d = min [315.0, 269] = 269 kips

The design strength of the member therefore equals 269kips, and is controlled by the limit state of
tension rupture. (Ans.)

Comment:
If we assume A490-X type bolts, then, from Table 6.7.1, the design shear strength of a A490-X type
bolt in single shear is, B dv = 33.8 kips
C dv = 33.8 6 = 203 kips 7 Controls
Also, the design bearing strength for interior and end bolts can be calculated using Tables 6.8.1 and 2
as follows:
C db = [3(53.8) + 3(91.3)] (70 ksi/58 ksi) = 263 kips
T d = min [315.0, 269, 203 ] = 203 kips
The design strength of the member therefore equals 203 kips, and is controlled by the limit state of
bolt shear.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-6

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-7

P7.4. The web of a MC13x35 steel tension member is connected to a gusset plate by four rows of -in.-dia. bolts
using a gage of 3 in. and a pitch of 3 in. as shown in Fig. P7.4. Assume A588 steel and determine the
design tensile strength of the member. Neglect block shear failure.

Solution

## MC1335: A = 10.3 in.2; tw = 0.447 in.;

From LRFDM Table 2-1, for A588 steel, Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi

## Limit state of yielding in gross section gives (Eq. 7.4.5),

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 10.3 = 464 kips

## Bolt diameter, d = in.

Assuming standard punched holes, d e = + c = f in.
Net area:
path a-b-c-d: A n1 = 10.3 - 2 f0.447 = 9.52 in.2
path e-f-g-h-j-k: = 10.3 - 4 f 0.447 = 8.74 in.2
6 An2 = 8.74 14/12 = 10.2 in.2
path a-b-g-h-c-d: A n3 = 10.3 - 4 f 0.447 + 2 0.447

## Length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.

Connection eccentricity,
From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.4.6 and 7.7.1),
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75700.8919.41 = 440 kips

## From Eq. 7.4.4,

T d = min [T d1, T d2] = min [464, 440] = 440 kips

Design tensile strength of the member is T d = 440 kips, and is controlled by the limit state of
fracture in net section. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-8

P7.5. A L4x4x of A572 Grade 50 steel is used as a tension member. What is the design tensile strength of the
member:
(a) If only a transverse weld is used to connect the member to the gusset, as shown in Fig.
P7.5?
(b) If, in addition, two 6-in.-long longitudinal welds are provided?

Solution

## A572 Gr 50 steel: Fy = 50 ksi, Fu = 65 ksi

From LRFDM Table 1-7, for a L44:
A = 3.75 in.2;
Limit state of yielding in the gross section gives (Eq 7.4.5):
T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90503.75 = 169 kips

## a. Transverse weld only

Since the tension load is transmitted only by the transverse weld
Area of the directly connected elements, A ce = 4 = 2.00 in.2
Also, U = 1.0
From Eq. 7.7.4, A e = U A ce = 2.00 in.2
Limit state of yielding in the gross section gives (Eq. 7.4.6):
T d2 = N Fu A e = 0.75652.00 = 97.5 kips

## From Eq. 7.4.4,

T d = min [T d1, T d2] = min [169, 97.5] = 97.5 kips

The design strength of the member equals 97.5 kips, and is controlled by the limit state of fracture
on the effective net area of the section. (Ans0)

## b. Transverse weld and longitudinal welds

Length of longitudinal weld, L lw = 6.00 in.
Length of connection, L con = L lw = 6.00 in.
Connection eccentricity,
From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.6 and 7.7.1),
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 65 0.803 3.75 = 146 kips

## From Eq. 7.4.4,

T d = min [T d1, T d2] = min [169, 146] = 146 kips

Design tensile strength of the member is T d = 146 kips, and is controlled by the limit state of
fracture in net section. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-9

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-10

P7.6. The web of a C12x25 steel tension member is connected to a gusset by three rows of f -in.-dia. A490-X
bolts using a gage of 3 in. and a staggered pitch of 1 in. as shown in Fig. P7.6. Assume A588 steel and
determine the design tensile strength of the member. Neglect block shear rupture.

## See Figure P7.6 of the text book.

Solution
From LRFDM Table 2-1, for A588 Gr 50 steel: F y = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi
From LRFDM Table 1-5, for a C1225: A = 7.34 in.2; tw = 0.387 in.; = 0.674 in.
Diameter of bolts, d = f in.

## Limit state of yielding in the gross section gives (Eq 7.4.5):

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 7.34 = 330 kips

## Length of connection, L con = 5 1.5 = 7.50 in.

Connection eccentricity,
Reduction coefficient,

## Assume STD punched holes. d e = f + c = 1 in.

To determine the net area, 3 possible failure paths are identified. We have, for:
path a-b-c : A n1 = 7.34 - 1 1.00 0.387 = 6.95 in.2
path d-e-f-g : = 7.34 - 2 1.0 0.387 = 6.57 in.2 6 A n2 = 6.57 = 7.40 in.2

## = 6.32 in.2 controls

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.4.6 and 7.7.1),
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 70 0.9 6.32 = 299 kips

Bolts:
Nine f -in.-dia. A490-X type bolts; single shear; bearing on 0.387-in.-thick web.
There are six interior bolts with pitch, p = 3 in., two end bolts with L e = 3.5 in. and two end bolts
with L e = 2 in.
From Table 6.7.1, B dv = 33.8 kips 6 C dv = 9 33.8 = 304 kips
Using the values given in Tables 6.8.1 and 6.8.2 for Fu = 65 ksi, the design bearing strength of the
connectors is obtained as
C db = [6102 + 1102 + 289.6] (70 ksi /65 ksi) (0.387) = 372 kips
Strength of connectors, T d4 = min [304, 372] = 304 kips

## From Eq. 7.4.3, T d = min [330, 299, 304] = 299 kips

The design tensile strength of the member is 299 kips and is controlled by the limit state of fracture
in the net section. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-11

P7.7. A C12x25 channel shape is used as a tension member. At each end, the web of the channel is connected by
six -in.-dia. bolts ( in two rows, using a pitch of 4 in. and a gage of 6 in.) to a thick gusset plate. In
addition there are two holes in each flange (located on the normal gage line) to connect bracing members in
the perpendicular plane. The holes in the flanges are staggered 2 in. with respect to the holes in the web, as
shown in Fig. P7.7. Determine the design strength of the member. What is the maximum recommended
length of the member as per LRFDS?

## See Figure P7.7 of the text book.

Solution
A36 steel: Fy = 36 ksi; Fu = 58 ksi
Bolts: d = in.; d e = + c = f in.
C12 25: A = 7.34 in.2; r x = 4.43 in.; r y = 0.779 in.
tf = 0.501 in.; tw = 0.387 in.;

## Limit state of yielding in the gross section gives (Eq 7.4.5):

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 36 7.34 = 238 kips

## Length of connection, L con = 4 2.0 = 8.00 in.

Connection eccentricity,
Reduction coefficient,

## To determine the net area, two failure paths are identified :

path 1-1: See Fig. 7.6.4b.
From Eq. 7.6.8,
g ab = g a + g b - (tf + tw) = 1.75 + 3.0 - 0.5 (0.501 + 0.387)
= 4.31 in.
t = (tf + tw) = 0.5 (0.501 + 0.387) = 0.444

## = 5.99 in.2 controls

path 2-2:

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.4.6 and 7.7.1),
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75580.95.99 = 235 kips

From Eq. 7.4.4, T d = min [T d1, T d2] = min[238; 235] = 235 kips
The design strength of the member is 235 kips, and corresponds to the limit state of fracture in the
net section. (Ans.)

## From Eq. 7.9.1, length of the member,

L # 300 rmin = 3000.779 = 234 in. = 19.5 ft
The maximum recommended length of the member = 19.5 ft (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-12

P7.8. Determine the design tensile strength of a pair of 64 in. angles with their long legs connected to a e -
in. gusset plate (Fig. P7.8). Use A36 steel and f in.-dia. bolts. The bolts are arranged on standard gages.
The tensile force T is transmitted to the gusset plate by the six bolts on lines A and B. Assume open holes in
the outstanding legs (for connection to braces in the plane perpendicular to the plane of the paper).

## See Fig. P7.8 of the text book.

Solution
Member: 2L64 LLBB
From LRFDM Table 1-7 for a L 64 : A L = 4.72 in.2; t = in.;
Diameter of bolts, d = f in. Staggered pitch, s = 2 in.
Material: A36 steel

## Gross area, Ag = 2 4.72 = 9.44 in.2

Limit state of yielding in the gross section gives (Eq 7.4.5):
T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 36 9.44 = 306 kips

Assume standard punched holes. So, width of bolt holes, d e = f + c = 1.00 in.
From Table 6.2.1: g2(6 in.) = 2 in.; g 3(6 in.) = 2 in.
Using Eqs. 7.6.3 and 7.6.4, net areas for the two possible failure paths are as follows,:
path a-b-c: A n1 = 9.44 - 1 1.00 2 = 8.44 in.2

## path a-b-d-e-f: A n2 = 9.44 - 3 1.00 2 + 2 = 6.84 in.2

Net area, A n = min [ A n1, A n2] = min [8.44; 6.84] = 6.84 in.2
As the member force is transmitted by bolts in the long leg only, reduction factor U < 1.0.
For the connection with the long leg of the angle bolted to the gusset, connection eccentricity,

## Length of connection, L con = 5 2.0 = 10.0 in.

From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.4.6 and 7.7.1),
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75580.9006.84 = 268 kips

The bolts connecting the angles to the gusset are in double shear. From Table 6.7.1, the design
shear strength of a in.-dia. A325X bolt in double shear is obtained as 54.1 kips. Design strength of
the connectors corresponding to the limit state of bolt shear is,
C dv = N B dv = 6 54.1 = 325 kips

From Table 6.8.1, the design bearing strength of a f -in.-dia. interior bolt (STD holes, p = 4 in., t =
1 in., Fu = 58 ksi), is read as 91.3 kips. Similarly, from Table 6.8.2, the design bearing strength of a
f -in.-dia. end bolt (STD holes, L e = 2 in., t = 1 in., Fu = 58 ksi), is read as 79.9 kips. So, the
design strength of the connectors corresponding to the limit sstate of bearing on e -in.-thick
gusset plate is obtained as:
C db = [591.3 + 179.9] (e) = 335 kips

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-13

## From Eq. 7.4.3, T d = min [306, 268, 325] = 268 kips

The design tensile strength of the member is 268 kips and is controlled by the limit state of fracture
in the net section. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-14

P7.9. The end connection for a W14x82 tension member has two lines of f -in.-dia. bolts in each flange (Fig.
P7.9). There are 3 bolts in each line arranged with a pitch, p = 4 in.; end distance, L e = 2 in.; and side
distance, L s = 2 in. Determine the block shear rupture strength.

## See Figure P7.9 of the text book.

Solution
Connection is to the flanges of a W1482: t f = 0.855 in. from LRFDM Table 1-1.
A 992 steel: Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 65 ksi
Diameter of bolts, d = f in.
Pitch, p = 3 in.; end distance, L e = 2 in.; side distance, L s = 2 in.
Assume standard punched hoes 6 d e = f + c = 1.0 in.

There are four rectangular failure blocks (two in each flange). Each block is 2 -in.-wide (= L s), and
10 -in.-long (= 2p + L e).
A gt = 4 2.00 0.855 = 6.84 in.2
A nt = 6.84 - 4 1.0 0.855 = 5.13 in.2
A gv = 4 10.0 0.855 = 34.2 in.2
A nv = 34.2 - 4 2 1.0 0.855 = 25.7 in.2

## Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75655.13 = 250 kips

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.750.66525.7 = 752 kips 7 Controls
Tension yield component, N Fy A gt = 0.75506.84 = 257 kips;
Shear yield component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.750.65034.2 = 770 kips

## N (0.6Fu) A nv > N Fu A nt, from Eq. 7.8.2,

T bs = N (0.6Fu)A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt]
= 752 + min [257; 250] = 1002 kips

The block shear rupture strength is 1002 kips and is controlled by fracture on both the shear and
tension faces of the four rectangular blocks. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-15

P7.10. Determine the block shear rupture strength of the 2L4x3x3/8 LLBB tension member shown in Fig. P7.10.
The angles are connected to a gusset by three f -in.-dia. bolts, using a pitch, p = 3 in; end distance, L e= 1
in.; and side distance, L s = 1 in. Assume A 572 Grade 60 steel.

## See Figure P7.10 of the text book.

Solution
2L43 d: t = d in.
A572 Grade 60 steel : Fy = 60 ksi; Fu = 75 ksi
Bolt diameter, d = f in.
Pitch, p = 3 in.; end distance, L e = 1 in.; side distance, L s = 1 in.
Assume standard punched holes. 6 d e = f + c = 1.0 in.

There are two rectangular failure blocks (one in each angle). Each block is 1 -in.-wide (= L s), and
7 -in.-long (= 2p + L e).
A gt = 21.50 d = 1.13 in.2
A nt = 1.13 - 2 1.0 d = 0.750 in.2
A gv = 27.50 d = 5.63 in.2
A nv = 5.63 - 2 2 1.0 d = 3.75 in.2
Tension rupture component, N FuA nt = 0.75 75 0.750 = 42.2 kips;
Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u)A nv = 0.75 0.6 75 3.75 = 127 kips 7 controls
Tension yield component, N FyA gt = 0.75 60 1.13 = 50.9 kips;
Shear yield component, N (0.6F y)A gv = 0.75 0.6 60 5.63 = 152 kips

## N (0.6Fu) A nv > N Fu A nt, from Eq. 7.8.2,

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt]
= 127 + min [50.9; 42.2] = 169 kips

The block shear rupture strength is 169 kips and is controlled by fracture on both the shear and
tension faces of the two rectangular blocks. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-16

P7.11. A x6 in. plate is welded to a d --in.-thick gusset plate of A36 steel by in. fillet welds using E70
electrodes. Two 6 -in.-long longitudinal welds are provided in addition to a 6 -in.-long transverse weld.
Determine the design tensile strength of the member. Include block shear strength of the gusset plate.

## See Figure P7.11 of the text book.

Solution
Member: PL 6 6 A g = 6 = 3.00 in.2
Gusset plate: d -in.-thick
A36 steel: Fy = 36 ksi; Fu = 58 ksi

## Limit state of yielding in the gross section gives (Eq 7.4.5):

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 36 3.00 = 97.2 kips

As the end connection is by welds using both transverse and longitudinal welds,
A n = A g and U = 1.0.
Limit state of rupture in the net section gives (Eq 7.4.6):
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 58 1.0 3.00 = 131 kips

## Block shear rupture of the gusset plate

Block shear failure consists of a single, rectangular block of the gusset plate. The block is 6-in.-
wide, 6 -in.-long and d -in.-thick. We have:
A gt = 6.0 d = 2.25 in.2 = A nt
A gv = 6.5 d 2 = 4.88 in.2 = A nv
Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 58 2.25 = 97.9 kips;
Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 58 4.88 = 127 kips 7 Controls
Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 36 2.25 = 60.8 kips;
Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 4.88 = 79.1 kips

## N (0.6Fu) A nv > N Fu A nt, from Eq. 7.8.2,

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt]
= 127 + min [60.8; 97.9] = 188 kips

Strength of weld
SMAW process using E70 electrodes. Weld size, w = in.
From Table 6.19.1, design shear strength of unit length weld, W d = 5.57 kli
N R lw = W d L lw = 5.57 6.0 2 = 66.8 kips
N R tw = W d (1.0 + 0.5 sin 1.52) L tw = 5.57 (1.5) 6.0 = 50.1 kips
T d4 = N R lw + N R tw = 66.8 + 50.1 = 117 kips

## From Eq. 4.7.3, T d = min [T d1, T d2, T d3, T d4]

= min [97.2, 131, 188, 117] = 97.2 kips

The design strength of the member is 97.2 kips and is controlled by the limit state of yielding in the
gross section. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-17

P7.12. A MC 6x18 channel tension member of A242 corrosion resistant steel is welded to a d -in.-thick gusset
plate of A36 steel using a 6-in.-long transverse weld and two 8-in.-long longitudinal welds as shown in Fig.
P7.12. Assume E70 fillet welds of in leg size. Determine the design strength of the member and the gusset
plate. Include block shear rupture strength of the member.

## See Figure P7.12 of the text book.

Solution
MC 618: A = 5.29 in.2; tw = 0.379 in. = d in.;
d = 6.0 in.; tf = 0.475 in.
A242 steel member: Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi
A36 steel gusset: Fy = 36 ksi; Fu = 58 ksi
Fillet welds: SMAW process using E70 electrodes. FEXX = 70 ksi; weld size, w = in.
Length of longitudinal welds, L lw = 8 in.
Length of transverse weld, L tw = 6 in.

## Limit state of yielding in gross section gives (Eq. 7.4.5),

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 5.29 = 238 kips

## Net area, A n = A g = 5.29 in.2

Length of connection, L con = L lw = 8.00 in.
Connection eccentricity,
From Eq. 7.7.5, reduction coefficient,

Limit state of fracture in net section gives (Eqs. 7.4.6 and 7.7.1),
T d2 = N Fu A e = 0.75 70 0.860 5.29 = 239 kips

## Block shear strength of the member

Block shear failure of the member consists of the web section (rectangular element d t w) at the
front-end of the weld failing in tension and two flange sections (rectangular sections L lw tf) failing
in shear at the web-flange junction of the C-shape, leaving a rectangular block of the web (L lw d)
welded to the gusset.
We have:
A gt = 0.379 6.00 = 2.27 in.2 = A nt
A gv = 0.475 8.00 2 = 7.60 in.2 = A nv

## Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 70 2.27 = 119 kips

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 70 7.60 = 239 kips 7 controls
Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 50 2.27 = 85.1 kips
Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 50 7.60 = 171 kips

## N (0.6Fu) A nv > N Fu A nt, from Eq. 7.8.2,

T bs C = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N F u A nt]
= 239 + min [85.1; 119] = 324 kips

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-18

## Block shear strength of gusset plate

Block shear failure of the gusset consists of a single, rectangular block of the gusset plate. The
block is 6-in.-wide,8 -in.-long, and d -in.-thick.
We have:
A gt = A nt = d 6.00 = 2.25 in.2
A gv = A nv = d 2 (8 + ) = 6.38 in.2

## Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 58 2.25 = 97.9 kips

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 58 6.38 = 167 kips 7 Controls
Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 36 2.25 = 60.8 kips
Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 6.38 = 103 kips

## N (0.6Fu) A nv > N Fu A nt, from Eq. 7.8.2,

T bs GP = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt]
= 167 + min [60.8; 97.9] = 228 kips

Strength of weld
From Table 6.19.1, design shear strength of a unit length -in. fillet welds using E70 electrodes is,
W d = 5.57 kli.
Strength of longitudinal welds, N R lw = W d L tw = 5.57 8.00 2 = 89.1 kips
Strength of transverse weld, N R tw = W d (1.0 + 0.5 sin 1.52) L tw
= 5.57 1.50 6.00 = 50.1 kips
Design strength of the welds, T d4 = N R lw + N R tw = 89.1 + 50.1= 139 kips

## T d = min [T d1, T d2, T bs C, T bs GP, T d4]

= min [238, 239, 324, 228, 139] = 139 kips

The design strength of the member is 139 kips, and is controlled by the limit state of weld shear
strength. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-19

P7.13. A 8x in. plate tension member is connected to a d -in.-thick gusset plate by five A325-N bolts of f in.
diameter (Fig. P7.13). Assume A36 steel for the member and the gusset. Determine the tensile strength of
the member. Include block shear rupture strength of the member and the gusset.

## See Figure P7.13 of the text book.

Solution
Plate 8 in. 6 A g = 8 = 4.00 in.2
Bolts: Type: A325-N
Diameter, d = f in. 6 d e = 1 in. assuming standard punched holes
Pitch, p = in.; gage, g = 2 in.
End distance, L e = 1 main plate; = 2 in. gusset plate

## Limit state of yielding in the gross section gives,

T d1 = N F y Ag = 0.90 36 4.00 = 130 kips
Two possible failure paths are identified. For,
path a-b-c-d: A n1 = 4.00 - 2 1.0 = 3.00 in.2 controls

## Block shear strength of the member

Consider a rectangular block having two 4 -in.-long horizontal surfaces in shear, and one 5-in.-
long vertical surface in tension.
A gt = 5.0 0.5 = 2.50 in.2
A nt = 2.50 - 2 1.0 0.5 = 2.00 in.2
A gv = 2 4.25 0.5 = 4.25 in.2
A nv = 4.25 - 2 1 1.0 0.5 = 2.75 in.2
Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75582.00 = 87.0 kips 7 Controls
Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.750.6582.75 = 71.8 kips
Tension yield component, N Fy A gt = 0.75362.5 = 67.5 kips;
Shear yield component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.750.6364.25 = 68.9 kips

## N Fu A nt > N (0.6Fu) A nv, from Eq. 7.8.1,

T bs M = N Fu A nt + min [N (0.6Fy) A gv; N (0.6Fu) A nv]
= 87.0 + min [68.9; 71.8] = 156 kips

## Block shear strength of the gusset plate

Block shear failure of the gusset consists of a single, rectangular block having two 5-in.-long
horizontal surfaces, and one 5-in.-long vertical surface.
A gt = 5.0 d = 1.88 in.2; A nt = 1.88 - 2 1.0 d = 1.13 in.2
2
A gv = 25.0 d = 3.75 in. ; A nv = 3.75 - 2 1.51.0 d = 2.63 in.2
Tension rupture component, N F u Ant = 0.75 581.13 = 49.2 kips
Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) Anv = 0.75 0.6 58 2.63 = 68.6 kips 7 controls
Tension yielding component, N F y Agt = 0.75 36 1.88 = 50.8 kips
Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y)A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 3.75 = 60.8 kips

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-20

## N (0.6Fu) A nv > N Fu A nt, from Eq. 7.8.2,

T bs GP = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt]
= 68.6 + min [50.8; 49.2] = 118 kips

Strength of bolts
From Table 6.7.1, for a f -in.-dia. A325-N type bolt in single shear, B dv = 21.6 kips
Shear strength of connectors, C dv = 5 21.6 = 108 kips 7 controls
Using the bearing strength values given in Tables 6.8.1 and 6.8.2 for f -in.-dia. bolts bearing on F u
= 58 ksi steel plates, we obtain for:
Bolts bearing on in. main plate, C db M = [3 40.8 + 2 91.3] = 153 kips
Bolts bearing on d in. gusset plate, C db GP = [2 79.9 + 3 91.3] d = 163 kips
Design strength of connectors, C d = 108 kips

## From Eq. 7.4.3, T d = min [T d1, T d2, T bs M, T bs GP, T d4]

= min [130, 131, 156, 118, 108] = 108 kips

The design strength of the member is 108 kips and itis controlled by the limit state of bolt shear.
(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-21

P7.14. a) Determine the design tensile strength of a C15x40 truss member of A572 Grade 42 steel shown in
Fig.P7.14. The end connection to the gusset is by ten f -in.-dia. A490-X type bolts. They are
arranged in three rows with a gage of 3 in., pitch of 2 in., and an end distance of 1 in. Include
block shear rupture strength.
b) Redesign the end-connection to increase the design strength of the member to the extent possible, if there
are no architectural restrictions.

## See Fig. P7.14 of the text book.

Solution
A572 Gr 42 steel: Fy = 42 ksi, Fu = 60 ksi
C15 40: A = 11.8 in.2; t w = 0.520 in.; t f = 0.650 in.;

## T d1 = N F y A g = 0.90 42 11.8 = 446 kips

To calculate the net area, two possible failure paths are identified. We have, for
path a-b-c-d: A n1 = 11.8 - 2 1.0 0.52 = 10.8 in.2

## Length of connection, L con = 2 2.5 = 5.0 in.

Connection eccentricity,

## Block shear strength

A gt = 9.0 0.52 = 4.68 in.2

## A gv = 2(1.5 + 2.5) 0.52 = 4.16 in.2

A nv = 4.16 - 2 (1 + ) 0.52 = 2.60 in.2

## Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 60 3.66 = 165 kips 7 Controls

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 60 2.60 = 70.2 kips
Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 42 4.68 = 147 kips
Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 42 4.16 = 78.6 kips

## N F u Ant > N (0.6F u) Anv, from Eq. 7.8.1,

T bs = NF uA nt+ min [N(0.6F y)A gv; N(0.6F u)A nv] = 165 + min [78.6; 70.2] = 235 kips

Strength of connectors
L e = 1.5 in.; p = 3 in.
From Table 6.7.1, the design shear strength of a f -in.-dia. A490-X type bolt in single shear is, B dv
= 33.8 kips
C dv = 33.8 10 = 338 kips 7 controls

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-22

Also, the design bearing strength for interior and end bolts bearing on F u= 60 ksi steel plates can be
determined using Tables 6.8.1 and 6.8.2 as follows:
C db = [4 (53.8) + 6 (91.3)] (60 ksi/58 ksi) 0.520 = 410 kips
Design strength of the connectors is C d = 338 kips

T d = min [T d1, T d2, T d3, T d4] = min [446, 391, 235, 338] = 235 kips
Design strength of the member, as given, is 235 kips.

## Redesign of the member

Design strength of connectors (T d4) is limited by the shear strength of bolts. By adding four more
bolts, in a vertical row, the revised design strength of connectors is,
C d = C dv = 33.8 14 = 473 kips

To increase T d2 , increase the bolt pitch to 4 in. Using the revised values for A n (= 10.8 in.2) and U
(= 0.90), we obtain:
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 60 0.90 10.8 = 437 kips

## Block shear strength

A gt = 9.0 0.52 = 4.68 in.2

## A gv = 2(12.0) 0.52 = 12.5 in.2

A nv = 12.5 - 2 (2 + ) 1.0 0.52 = 10.5 in.2

## Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 60 4.55 = 205 kips

Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 60 10.5 = 284 kips 7 Controls
Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 42 4.68 = 147 kips
Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 42 10.4 = 197 kips

## N (0.6Fu) A nv > N Fu A nt, from Eq. 7.8.2,

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv+ min [N (Fy) A gt; N Fu A nt] = 284 + min [147; 205] = 431 kips

## Thus, the design strength of the member can be increased to

T d = min [T d1 , T d2 , T d3 , T d4] = min [446, 437, 431, 473] = 431 kips

Provide fourteen f -in.-dia. A490-X bolts, with a pitch of 4 in., end distance of 4 in. and a gage of
3-in. in 4 rows (3 + 4 + 4 + 3), increasing the design tensile strength of the member to 431 kips.
(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-23

P7.15. The axial tensile forces in the vertical member of a pedestrian truss bridge, from the code specified service
loads, have been calculated as: 40 kips from dead load, 50 kips live load and 30 kips from wind. Select a 1 -
in.-thick plate of A36 steel of suitable width. Assume a single line of bolts of in. diameter.

Solution
Service loads: D = 40 kips; L = 50 kips; W = 30 kips
T u = max{ 1.4D; 1.2D + 1.6L; 1.2D + 1.6W + 0.5L}
= max {56.0; 128; 121} = 128 kips
Member: 1 -in.-thick plate

a. Preliminary selection
Limit state of yield in the gross section requires that,

## Diameter of bolt, d = in. Assume standard punched holes. 6 d e = f in.

U = 1.0 for plate member with bolted end connection. Single line of bolts. So,

Ag \$ 3.95 in.2
Select a 4 1 in. plate of A36 steel. (Ans.)

b. Checks
T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 36 4.0 1.0 = 130 > 128 kips
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 58 1.0 (4.0 - 1 f1.0) = 136 kips > 128 kips
The selection is O.K.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-24

P7.16. The web member of a roof truss is subjected to tensile forces of 40 kips and 60 kips under service dead load
and live load, respectively. Select the lightest WT5, if the end connection to gusset is by two lines of -in.-
dia. bolts in the flange. Assume that there will be more than three bolts in each line. Neglect block shear
failure.

Solution
Service loads: D = 40 kips; L = 60 kips
T u = max [1.4D; 1.2D + 1.6L] = max[1.440; 1.240 + 1.660]
= max[84.0; 144] = 144 kips
WT shape: A992 steel 6 Fy = 50 ksi; Fu = 65 ksi

a. Preliminary selection
Limit state of yield in the gross section requires that:

## Diameter of bolts, d = in. Assume standard punched holes. 6 d e = f in.

Connection is to the flange of a WT. Assume tf . 0.5 in.
It is given that there will be more than 3 bolts in each line of bolts. Assume U = 0.85.
7 controls

A g \$ 4.35 in.2

## So, tentatively select a WT516.5

(A g = 4.85 in.2; tf = 0.435 in.; b f = 4.87 in.; d = 7.96 in.).

b. Checks
T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 4.85 = 218 kips > 136 kips O.K.

As

## T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 65 0.85 (4.85 - 2 f 0.435)

= 169 kips > 136 kips O.K.

## So, select a WT 516.5 of A992 steel. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-25

P7.17. The factored tensile load on a truss bottom chord is 480 kips. Select the lightest W10 with its flanges
connected to gusset plates at each end, with two lines of -in.-dia. bolts in each flange. The bolts are
A490-N type. Neglect block shear failure.

Solution
Factored load, T u = 480 kips
A992 steel: Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 65 ksi

a. Preliminary selection
Limit state of yield in the gross section requires that:

## Diameter of bolts, d = in. Assume standard punched holes. 6 d e = f in.

Entering LRFDM Table 1-1 with A req = 10.7 in.2, we observe that the W10s that provide a gross
area slightly greater than 10.7 in.2, have b f . 8 in., and d . 10 in. resulting in b f /d . 0.80 > b.
Also, tf . e in. Assume there will be more than 3 bolts in each line, so U = 0.90.
7 controls

Ag \$ 13.1 in.2
So, tentatively select a W1045 (A g = 13.3 in.2; tf = 0.620 in.; b f = 8.02 in.; d = 10.1 in.).

b. Checks
T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 13.3 = 599 kips > 480 kips O.K.

From Table 6.7.1, the design shear strength of a -in.-dia. A490-N type bolt in single shear is B dv
= 19.9 kips. So, the number of bolts required,

## More than 6 bolts are needed in each line ( > 3).

U = 0.90 as assumed.

T d2 = N Fu U A n
= 0.75 65 0.90 (13.3 - 4 f 0.620) = 488 kips > 480 kips O.K.

## Select a W1045 of A992 steel. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-26

P7.18. A W16 section is used as a tension member to carry a tensile load of 500 kips. The end connection is by f-
in.-dia. A490-X bolts, in two rows, in each flange, using standard punched holes. The gusset plates are e-
in.-thick. Find the lightest W16 section and determine the number of bolts required. What is the maximum
allowable length of such a member.

Solution
Factored load, T u = 500 kips
W 16 shape: A992 steel 6 F y = 50 ksi; F u = 65 ksi

a. Preliminary selection
Limit state of yield in the gross section requires that:

## Diameter of bolts, d = f in. Assume standard punched holes. 6 d e = 1.0 in.

Assume U = 0.85 as there will be more than 3 bolts in each line of bolts and the W16s are beam
shapes. Assume tf . e in. With two rows of bolts in each flange, there are four bolt holes to be
removed from the gross area.

7 controls

A g \$ 14.6 in.2
So, tentatively select a W1650
(A g = 14.7 in.2; tf = 0.63 in.; b f = 7.07 in.; d = 16.3 in.; r x = 6.68 in.; r y= 1.59 in.).

## b. Number of bolts required

From Table 6.7.1, for a f -in.-dia. A490-X type bolt in single shear, B dv = 33.8 kips controls
For bolt bearing on member, B dbo = N (2.4Fu) d t = 0.75 2.4 65 f 0.63 = 64.5 kips
For bolt bearing on gusset, B dbo = 0.75 2.4 58 f e = 57.1 kips
. Use 16 bolts; i.e., 4 bolts in each line

## c. Check section selected

T d1 = N F y A g = 0.90 50 14.7 = 662 kips > 500 kips O.K.

U = 0.85

T d2 = N FuU A n
= 0.75 65 0.85 (14.7 - 4 1.0 0.63) = 505 kips > 500 kips O.K.

## d. Maximum length of member

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-27

## Length of the member should be no more than 39 feet 9 inches. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-28

P7.19. A 16 ft long tension member is subjected to a factored axial load of 100 kips. Select a suitable, single, equal-
leg angle of 5 in. leg size and an even number of -in.-dia. bolts of A325-N type. The bolts are to be
arranged in two lines, without stagger, with a pitch of 3 in., and an end distance of 1 in. Use standard
gages.

Solution
Factored load, T u = 100 kips
Member: Single equal-leg angle of 5-in. leg size; length, L = 16 ft
Material: Assume A36 steel
Bolts: -in.-dia. A325-N type

a. Preliminary selection

## Assume U = 0.85 and let t = d in.

Try L55 d ( A = 3.65 in.2; t = d in.; r z = 0.986 in.; from LRFDM Table 1-7).
Provide bolts in two lines, using workable gages g 2 (= 2 in.) and g3(= 1 in.) given in Table 6.7.1.
This results in a side distance, L s = 1 in.
Provide a pitch, p = 3 in. and an end distance, L e = 1 in.
From Table 6.7.1, for A325-N type bolt in single shear, B dv = 15.9 kips
Number of bolts required,

Consider 8 bolts, 4 bolts in each line without stagger. Using Tables 6.8.1 and 2, show that limit
state of bearing doesnt control the bolt strength.

b. Checks
T d1 = Nt1 Fy A g = 0.90 36 3.65 = 118 kips > 100 kips
Net area, An = 3.65 - 2 f d = 2.99 in.2
Length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.
Connection eccentricity,

## Block shear strength

There will be one rectangular failure block.
Length of block = 3 3.0 + 1 = 10.5 in.; width of block = 1 +1 in. = 3.00 in.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-29

## A gt = 3.00 d = 1.13 in.2; A nt = 1.13 - 1 f d = 0.633 in.2

A gv = 10.5 d = 3.94 in.2; A nv = 3.94 - 3 f d = 2.79 in.2
Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 58 0.633 = 27.5 kips
Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 58 2.79 = 72.8 kips 7 controls
Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 36 1.13 = 30.5 kips
Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 3.94 = 63.8 kips

## N (0.6Fu) A nv > N Fu A nt, from Eq. 7.8.2,

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt] = 72.8 + min [30.5; 27.5] = 100 kips O.K.

O.K.

Select a L55 d of A36 steel. Provide 8 bolts, four in each row along workable gage lines.
(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-30

P7.20. Design the tension diagonal of an all welded Warren truss for a pedestrian bridge, in which the chords are
made from WT7x19 sections. The factored load in the diagonal member is 125 kips and its length is 15 ft.
Use 2Ls of A36 steel LLBB, with their 4-in.-long legs welded to the stem of the WT. The weld consists of a
transverse weld and two longitudinal welds.

Solution
Factored load, T u = 125 kips
A36 steel 6 Fy = 36 ksi; F u = 58 ksi
Member: Double angles with their 4 -in.-long legs welded to the stem of a tee.
Limit state of yield in the gross section requires that:

Assume U = 0.85
Limit state of fracture in net area requires that:

## A g \$ 3.86 in.2 Or, \$ 1.93 in.2 /angle

Provide two L43 d LLBB. From LRFDM Table 1-7, for a L43 d : A = 2.49 in.2; t = d
in.; So, A g = 4.98 in.2 > 3.86 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

Note:
As no information on the inclination of the diagonal and the type of weld is given, the connection
cannot be designed.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-31

P7.21. Design a single-angle tension member 13 ft long and its connection at each end to a d in. gusset plate. The
tension is 24 kips dead load and 52 kips live load. The angle cannot extend more than 15 in. on the gusset.
Use LRFD specification, A36 steel, f in. dia. bolts, slip critical connection. Include block shear rupture
strength.

Solution
Service loads: D = 24 kips; L = 52 kips
T u = max [1.4D; 1.2D + 1.6L] = max[1.424; 1.224 + 1.652]
= max[33.6; 112] = 112 kips

## Member: Single angle. Length, L = 13 ft

Material: A36 steel
Bolts: f-in.-dia. 6 d e = 1 in. assuming standard punched holes
Connection: Slip-critical. Assume A325-SC type bolts.
Restriction: Angle cannot extend more than 15 in. on the gusset.

a. Preliminary selection

## Assume U = 0.85 and let t = d in.

From Table 6.7.1, for A325-SC type bolts in single shear, design resistance to shear at service load
using factored loads is, B dsf = 14.5 kips
Number of bolts required, say 8

As the length of the connection is restricted, provide the bolts in two rows. This requires angles
with connected leg lengths \$ 5 in. For higher efficiency, restrict the selection to unequal leg
angles, with the long leg connected to the gusset.

Try L74 d ( A = 4.00 in.2; t = d in.; r z = 0.873 in.; from LRFDM Table 1-7).

Provide bolts 8 bolts, 4 bolts in each line without stagger, using workable gages g 2 (= 2 in.) and
g 3(= 3 in.) given in Table 6.7.1. This results in a side distance, L s = 1 in. Provide a pitch, p = 3
in. and an end distance, L e = 2 in. Overlap of the angle over the gusset equals 14 in. ( 3 3.0 + 2
2.0 ).

b. Checks
T d1 = Nt1 Fy A g = 0.90 36 4.00 = 130 kips > 112 kips O.K.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-32

## Net area, An = 4.00 - 2 1.00 d = 3.25 in.2

Length of connection, L con = 3 3.0 = 9.00 in.
Connection eccentricity,

## Block shear strength

There will be one rectangular failure block.
Length of block = 3 3.0 + 2 = 11.0 in.; width of block = 2 + 1 in. = 4.00 in.
A gt = 4.00 d = 1.50 in.2; A nt = 1.50 - 1 1.00 d = 0.938 in.2
2
A gv = 11.0 d = 4.12 in. ; A nv = 4.12 - 3 1.00 d = 2.81 in.2
Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 58 0.938 = 40.8 kips
Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 58 2.81 = 72.3 kips 7 controls
Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 36 1.50 = 40.5 kips
Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 4.12 = 66.7 kips

## N (0.6Fu) A nv > N Fu A nt, from Eq. 7.8.2,

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt] = 72.3 + min [40.5; 40.8] = 113 kips O.K.

O.K.

Strength of connectors
Shear resistance of connectors, C dv = N B d sf = 8 14.5 = 116 kips
There are six interior bolts with pitch, p = 3 in., and two end bolts with L e = 2 in.
Using the values given in Tables 6.8.1 and 6.8.2 for Fu = 58 ksi plate material and f-in.-dia. bolts,
the design bearing strength of the connectors is obtained as
C db = [691.3 + 279.9] d = 265 kips
Strength of connectors, C d = min [116, 265] = 116 kips > 112 kips O.K.

Select a L74 d of A36 steel. Provide 8 bolts, four in each row without stagger, along
workable gage lines of the long leg. Use a pitch, p = 3 in. and an end distance, L e = 2 in.
(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-33

P7.22. A tension member is composed of two C12x30 channels placed 12 in. back-to-back and tied together as
shown in Fig. 7.2.2c (ii). The member is connected at ends to -in.-thick gusset plates, by twenty four f
-in.-dia. A325-N bolts provided in three rows in the webs. If A572 Grade 42 steel is used, find the design
strength as per LRFDS. Assume a gage of 3 in., a pitch of 3 in., and an end distance of 2 in. If the force in
the member from dead load on the structure is 200 kips, what live load and wind load forces can be applied
on the member as per ASCES? What is the maximum recommended length of such a member as per
LRFDS?

## See Figs. 7.2.2c (ii) and 7.11.1b of the text book.

Solution
a. Section properties
A572 Gr 42 steel: Fy= 42 ksi; F u = 60 ksi
For the C12x30, from LRFDM Table 1-5:
A C = 8.81 in.2, d C = 12.0 in., twC = 0.510 in.,
b fC = 3.17 in., tfC = 0.501 in.,
r xC = 4.29 in. , r yC = 0.762 in. = r min C
= 0.674 in., IyC = 5.12 in.4
Also from LRFDM Table 1-5, the workable gage, g, for the flange of a C1225 is 1 in.
For the built-up section:
A = 2 8.81 = 17.6 in.2
Iy = = 2 [ 5.12 + 8.81 (6.0 - 0.674)2] = 510 in.4

ry =

rx = r xC = 4.29 in.
r min = r x = 4.29 in.

## b. Yield and fracture strengths

Gross area of the section, A g = A = 17.6 in.2
Tie plates connect the flanges of the two channels at the ends, and at intervals along the length of
the member. Assume, conservatively, that the holes in the flanges connecting the end tie plate to
the member, and the holes in the webs connecting the member to the gussets lie in the same cross
section.
Net area, A n = 17.6 - 231.00.510 - 2210.501 = 12.5 in.2
From Eq. 7.7.2, reduction coefficient,

Use U = 0.90
Design strength corresponding to the limit state of
tension yielding, T d1 = 0.9 42 17.6 = 665 kips
tension fracture, T d2 = 0.75 60 0.900 12.5 = 506 kips

## c. Block shear rupture strength

Gross area in tension, A gt = 2 6.0 0.510 = 6.12 in.2

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-34

## Net area in tension, A nt = 6.12 - 2 (2 1.00.510) = 4.08 in.2

Gross area in shear, A gv = 2 2 11.0 0.510 = 22.4 in.2
Net area in shear, A nv = 22.4 - 2 2 (3 1.0 0.510) = 15.3 in.2
N Fu A nt = 0.7560 4.08 = 184 kips
N Fuv A nv = 0.750.660 15.3 = 413 kips 7 controls
N Fy A gt = 0.75426.12 = 193 kips
N Fyv A gv = 0.750.642 22.4 = 423 kips
So, the design strength of the member corresponding to block shear failure is,
T d3 = N Fuv A nv + min [ N Fy A gt, N Fu A nt ]
= 413 + min [193; 184 ] = 597 kips

d. Bolt strength
From Table 6.7.1, design strength of a single f -in.-dia. A325-N bolt in single shear is B dv = 21.6
kips
Design strength of bolts, T d4 = N B d = 21221.6 = 518 kips

e. Member strength
Design strength of member, T d = min [T d1, T d2, T d3, T d4]
= min [665, 506, 597, 518] = 506 kips (Ans.)
Dead load on the member, D = 200 kips
If L is the live load, and W is the wind load on the structure, we have from load combination LC-2:
1.2D + 1.6L # 506 kips 6 L # 166 kips (Ans.)
Also, from load combination LC-4,
1.2D + 0.5L + 1.6 W # 506 6 139 kips (Ans.)

## Maximum recommended length of the member,

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-35

P7.23. A tension member in a covered pedestrian bridge is subjected to a dead load of 50 kips, live load of 70 kips,
and snow load of 38 kips. Select two angles with long legs back-to-back and separated by d in. for end
connections to gusset plates. Assume a single line of holes for -in.-dia. A325-X bolts. Assume A242
Grade 50 steel. The member is 20 ft long. Determine the spacing of spacer plates, if necessary.

Solution
Member: Two angles with long legs back-to-back.
Material: A242 Grade 50 steel. 6 Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi
Service loads: D = 50 kips; L = 70 kips; S = 38 kips
1.4D = 70 kips
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S = 191 kips controls
1.2D + 1.6S + 0.5L = 156 kips
Factored load, T u = 191 kips

## a. Number of bolts needed

From Table 6.7.1, for -in.-dia. A325-X type bolts in double shear, B dv = 39.8 kips
Number of bolts required, Say 5

b. Select a section
A g1 \$ 191/(0.90 50) = 4.24 in.2
A g2 \$ (191/NFuU ) + estimated deduction for bolt holes
Assume U = 0.85, and t . 0.4 in.
A g2 \$ 191/(0.75 70 0.85) + 2 f 0.4 = 4.98 in.2
Tentatively select 2L 43 d.
[From LRFDM Table1-7 for single angles: A L = 2.49 in.2; r xL = 1.26 in.; r zL = 0.636 in.
From LRFDM Table 1-14 for double angles: r y = 1.30 in. corresponding to s = d in. ]

## c. Check the section selected

Gross area, A g = 4.98 in.2
T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 4.98 = 224 kips > 191 kips O.K.
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 70 0.85 (4.98 - 2 f 0.375) = 193 kips > 191 kips O.K.
O.K.

d. Spacer plates
For the single angle L43 d , r min = r zL = 0.636 in.
Spacer plate spacing, S sp # 300 r min = 3000.636 = 191 in. = 15.9 ft
Provide three spacer plates; one at each end of the member, and the third at mid-length of the
member, so that
S sp = 10 ft < 15.9 ft O.K.

So, select 2L 43 d of 242 Grade 50 steel, with long legs back to back, connected to d -in.-thick
gusset plates by five -in.-dia. A325-X bolts, and provided with a spacer plate at mid length.
(Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-36

P7.24. Select a pair of American Standard channels for a tension member subjected to a dead load of 68 kips and a
live load of 140 kips. The channels are placed back-to-back and connected to a in. gusset plate by f -in.-
dia. A490-N bolts [see Fig. 7.2.2c (i)]. Assume A588 Grade 50 steel for the member and the gusset. The
member is 20 ft long. The bolts are arranged in two lines parallel to the length of the member.

## See Fig. 7.2.2c (i) of the text book.

Solution
Member: two channels placed back to back.
Steel: A588 Gr 50 6 Fy = 50 ksi; F u = 70 ksi
Service loads: D = 68 kips; L = 140 kips
Factored load, T u = max [1.4D; 1.2D + 1.6L ] = [95.2; 306] = 306 kips

a. Number of bolts
From Table 6.7.1, for a f -in.-dia. A490-N bolt in double shear, B dv = 54.1 kips.
N \$ T u / B dv = 306/54.1 = 5.66 (say six bolts, 3 in each line)

b. Select a section
A g1 \$ 306/(0.90 50) = 6.80 in.2
Assume U = 0.85, and tw . 0.40 in.
A g2 \$ 6 4.23 in.2 per channel.

Select 2C915
[A C = 4.41 in.2; twC = 0.285 in.; IxC = 51 in.4; IyC = 1.91 in.4; ryC = 0.659 in.,

## c. Check the selected section

T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 50 8.82 = 397 kips > 306 kips O.K.
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 70 0.85 (8.82 - 4 1.0 0.285) = 343 kips > 306 kips O.K.
For the built-up section:
Ix = 2 51.0 = 102 in.4; Iy = 2 [ 1.91 + 4.41 (0.25 + 0.586)2] = 9.98 in.4

O.K.

So, select 2C 915 of A588 Grade 50 steel with webs connected to a -in.-thick gusset plate in
between. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-37

P7.25. A steel truss is used to transfer loads from the upper floor columns of an office building across an arcade at
street level. The lower chord of the truss is made of two angles, with their vertical legs 8 in. back-to-back,
connected to gussets as shown in Fig. P7.2.2a (ii). In addition, the two angles are connected by tie plates.
The factored load to be carried by the member is 240 kips and the member length is 18 ft. Use A36 steel,
-in.-dia. A325-N bolts. Select suitable angles. Show the end connection detail, including tie plates.
Consider block shear failure.

## See Figure 7.2.2a (ii) of the text book.

Solution
Factored load, T u = 240 kips

a. Preliminary selection

From Table 6.7.1, for a -in.-dia. A325-N type bolt in single shear, B dv = 15.9 kips
Number of bolts required, N \$ 240/15.9 = 15.1, say 16
Assume 2 lines of bolts in each angle, and 4 bolts in each line.

## Tentatively select 2L63 with A = 8.96 in.2

b. Checks
T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.90 36 8.96 = 290 kips > 240 kips
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 58 0.85 (8.96 - 4 0.5 f) = 267 kips > 240 kips O.K.

## So, select 2L63 . (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-38

P7.26. A pinned member is to consist of four equal leg angles arranged as shown in Fig. 7.2.2b(i). The factored
tensile load is 324 kips. Two e in. bolts will be used in each angle. The member length is 40 ft. For
architectural reasons the cross-sectional dimensions should not exceed 12 in. 12 in. Include the design of
tie plates.

## See Fig. 7.2.2b (i) of the text book.

Solution
Factored load, T u = 324 kips
Member: Four equal-leg angles to form a box shape; length, L = 40 ft
Width of the box limited to 12 in.
Material: Assume A36 steel
Bolts: 5/8 -in.-dia.

a. Preliminary selection

## Assume U = 0.85 and let t = d in.

( = 2.75 in.2/angle).

Try L44 d
From LRFDM Table 1-7: A L = 2.86 in.2; tL = d in.; r zL = 0.779 in.;
Provide bolts in one line, using workable gage g1 (= 2 in.) given in Table 6.7.1.
This results in a side distance, L s = 1 in.
From Table 6.7.1, for 5/8-in.-dia. A325-X type bolt in single shear, B dv = 13.8 kips
Number of bolts required, say 24. Provide six bolts in each line.

## Provide a pitch, p = 3 in. and an end distance, L e = 2 in.

Using Tables 6.8.1 and 2, show that limit state of bearing doesnt control the bolt strength.

b. Checks
For the built-up section:
A g = 4 2.86 = 11.4 in.2
Ix = 4 [ 4.32 + 2.86 (6.0 - 1.13)2 ] = 287 in.4
rx = 5.02 in.

## T d1 = Nt1 Fy A g = 0.90 36 11.4 = 369 kips > 324 kips

Net area, An = 11.4 - 4 2 3/4 d = 9.15 in.2
Length of connection, L con = 5 3.0 = 15.0 in.
Connection eccentricity,

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-39

## Block shear strength

There will be four rectangular failure blocks.
Length of each block = 5 3.0 + 2.0 = 17.0 in.; width of each block = 1 in. = 1.50 in.
A gt = 1.50 d 4 = 2.25 in.2; A nt = 2.25 - 3/4 d 4 = 1.69 in.2
2
A gv = 17.0 d 4 = 25.5 in. ; A nv = 25.5 - 5 3/4 d 4 = 19.3 in.2
Tension rupture component, N Fu A nt = 0.75 58 1.69 = 73.5 kips
Shear rupture component, N (0.6F u) A nv = 0.75 0.6 58 19.3 = 504 kips 7 controls
Tension yielding component, N Fy A gt = 0.75 36 2.25 = 60.8 kips
Shear yielding component, N (0.6F y) A gv = 0.75 0.6 36 25.5 = 413 kips

## N (0.6Fu) A nv > N Fu A nt, from Eq. 7.8.2,

T bs = N (0.6Fu) A nv + min [N Fy A gt; N Fu A nt] = 504 + min [60.8; 73.5] = 565 kips O.K.

O.K.

Select four L44 d of A36 steel. Provide twenty-four 5/8-in.-dia. A325-X bolts, six in each
row along workable gage lines to connect the vertical legs to gussets. Use a pitch, p = 3 in. and an
end distance, L e = 2 in.
(Ans.)
d. Design of tie plates
Distance between bolt lines, G = 12.0 - 2 2 = 7.00 in.
Length of tie plate, L tp \$ b 7.00 = 4.67 in. (say, 5 in.)

## Width of plate, W tp = G + 2 L eh = 7.00 + 21 = 10 in.

Tie plates are 105 in.
Spacing of the plates, S tp # 300 r zL = 3000.779 = 19.5 ft

Provide 4 sets of tie plates, one at each end of the member and the other two at a and b of the
length. Note that at the ends, there will be two (horizontal) tie plates only. At the intermediate
locations there will b four. Two vertical and two horizontal.
S tp = O.K.

So, select two C12x25 of A572 Grade 50 steel with their webs back to back. Provide four tie
plates 127 in. of A36 steel. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-40

P7.27. Two channels with their webs 6 in. back to back as shown in Fig. 7.2.2c (iii), are used as a tension member
to carry a factored load of 480 kips. The member is 40 ft long. At the ends, the flanges are connected by
tie plates, while the webs are connected to gusset plates. Using A572 Grade 50 steel, LRFD Specification,
and -in.-dia. bolts, select the channels. Design the tie plates.

## See Figure 7.2.2c (iii) of the text book.

Solution
Member: Two channels back to back separated by 6 in.
Member length, L = 40 ft
Factored load, T u = 480 kips

a. Preliminary selection
A g1 \$ 480/ (0.9050) = 10.7 in.2
Note that the webs are connected to gusset plates at the ends; while the two sets of flanges are
interconnected by tie plates at intervals. Only the gussets transmit load from the member to the
rest of the structure (U < 1.0).
Assume, conservatively, that holes in the flange (connecting it to tie plate) line up with the holes in
the web (connecting it to gusset plate). Assume N R > 3 6 U = 0.85.
Let tw . 0.5 in. and t f . 0.5 in.
6 7.15 in.2 per channel.

## Tentatively select C1225 shapes

(A = 7.34 in.2; tw = 0.387 in.; tf = 0.501 in.; b f = 3.05 in.;
Ixx = 144 in.4; Iyy = 4.45 in.4; r y = 0.779 in.)

b. Strength checks
T d1 = N Fy A g = 0.9 50 2 7.34 = 661 kips > 480 kips O.K.
T d2 = N Fu U A n = 0.75 70 0.85 2 [7.34 - 2 f 0.387 - 2 f 0.501]
= 516 kips > 480 kips O.K.

c. Slenderness check
Ix = 2144.0 = 288 in.4
Iy = 2 [4.45 + 7.34(3.0 + 0.674)2 ] = 207 in.4

; 6

## d. Design of tie plates

When using C12 25 channel with b f . 3 in., the workable gage distance on the flange is 1 in.
Distance between bolt lines, G = 6.0 + 2 1.75 = 9.5 in.
Length of tie plate, L tp \$ b 9.5 = 6.33 in. (say, 7 in.)
Thickness of tie plate, (say, in.)

## Width of plate, W tp = G + 2 L eh = 9.5 + 21 = 12 in.

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-41

## Tie plates are 127 in.

Spacing of the plates, S tp # 300 ryC = 3000.779 = 19.5 ft
Provide 4 sets of tie plates, one at each end of the member and the other two at a and b of the
length.
S tp = O.K.

So, select two C12x25 of A572 Grade 50 steel with their webs back to back. Provide four tie
plates 127 in. of A36 steel. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-42

P7.28. A floor beam hanger is subjected to tensile forces of 30 kips dead load and 48 kips live load. Select a
suitable round steel threaded rod. Assume A36 steel (Note: Use impact factor from ASCES 7-98 Section
4.7.2).

Solution
Material: A36 steel
Service loads: D = 30 kips; L = 48 kips
For hangers supporting floor beams, the impact factor is 33% from ASCES Section 4.7.2.
Factored load, T u = 1.2D + 1.6(L 1.33) = 1.230 + 1.6481.33 = 138 kips

From Eq. 7.12.8, the cross-sectional area of the threaded rod is,

## Use 2 -in.-dia. A 36 steel rod. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-43

P7.29. Roof trusses of an industrial building, with a span of 80 ft and a rise of 20 ft are spaced on 27 ft centers and
have purlins spaced at 6 ft intervals (see Fig. 3.4.2). To support the purlins sag rods are provided at a points
between the trusses. The estimated weight of the roof covering and of the purlins is 7 psf and 3 psf of the
roof surface respectively. Uses 35 psf of ground snow load. Design sag rods using A36 steel and LRFDS.
(Assume: exposure factor, C e = 1.0; thermal factor, C t = 1.0; and importance factor I = 1.0, in ASCES Eq.
7-1.)

Solution
Span of roof truss, L = 80 ft
Rise, h = 20 ft

## Inclination of the roof, 2 = tan -1 = 26.6 o

Spacing of trusses, S T = 27 ft
Spacing of sag rods, S S = 27/3 = 9 ft

Tributary area of the roof surface per line of sag rods,

## Weight of roofing and purlins = 10 psf

Dead load, D = 403 10 1000 = 4.03 kips
Horizontal projection of the roof area, A H = 40 9 = 360 ft2
Ground snow load, p g = 35 psf
Exposure factor, C e = 1.0
Thermal factor, C t = 1.0
Importance factor, I = 1.0
From Eq. 7.1 of the ASCES, the flat roof snow load is obtained as,
p f = 0.7 C e C t I p g = 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 35 = 24.5 psf
From Fig. 7-2 of the ASCES, the roof slope factor C s is 1.0 for warm roofs with roof slope 2 =
26.6 o.
From Eq. 7.2 of the ASCES, the sloped roof snow load is p s = C s p f = 24.5 psf
Snow load, D = 400 24.5 1000 = 9.80 kips
As there are only dead loads and snow loads, combination LC-3 controls.
Factored vertical load on the roof, V = 1.2D + 1.6S = 1.24.03 + 1.69.80 = 20.5 kips

## b. Top sag rod

The top sag rod parallel to the roof carries only that component of the vertical load, V, parallel to
the roof. Thus, tension in the top sag rod:
T S = V sin 2 = 20.5 sin 26.6 o = 9.18 kips
Required area of the threaded rod for the sag rod (Eq. 7.12.10):

From Table 1-21 of the LRFDM, select a 5/8 in. diameter threaded rod having a cross-sectioanraela ,
0.307 in.2 > 0.282 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-44

## c. Horizontal tie rod

The horizontal tie rod between ridge purlins has to carry a tensile force, T T :

## Required area of the horizontal tie rod :

From Table 1-21 of the LRFDM, select a 3/4 in. diameter threaded rod of A36 steel having a cross-
sectional area, 0.442 in.2 > 0.316 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-45

P7.30. Steel trusses with a span of 100 ft and a pitch of 1:5 are spaced at 30 ft on centers to support the roof of an
industrial building. The roof covering is light weight cement boards on S-shape purlins, 6 ft on centers. The
dead load of the roofing, purlins and the attachments may be assumed to be 13 psf. For the snow load
recommended by ASCES 7-98 for Green Bay, Wisconsin, design sag rods at the a points between trusses.
Use LRFDS. (Assume: exposure factor, C e = 1.0; thermal factor, C t = 1.0; and importance factor I = 1.0,
in ASCES Eq. 7-1.)

Solution
Span of roof truss, L = 100 ft
Pitch of the roof: 1 in 5
Inclination of the roof, 2 = tan -1 (1/5) = 11.3 o
Spacing of trusses, S T = 30 ft
Spacing of sag rods, S S = 30/3 = 10 ft

Tributary area of the roof surface per line of sag rods,

## Weight of roofing and purlins = 13 psf

Dead load, D = 510 13 1000 = 6.63 kips
Horizontal projection of the roof area, A H = 50 10 = 500 ft2
Ground snow load, p g = 40 psf
Exposure factor, C e = 1.0
Thermal factor, C t = 1.0
Importance factor, I = 1.0
From Eq. 7.1 of the ASCES, the flat roof snow load is obtained as,
p f = 0.7 C e C t I p g = 0.7 1.0 1.0 1.0 40 = 28.0 psf
From Fig. 7-2 of the ASCES, the roof slope factor C s is 1.0 for warm roofs with roof slope 2 =
11.3 o.
From Eq. 7.2 of the ASCES, the sloped roof snow load is p s = C s p f = 28.0 psf
Snow load, D = 500 28.0 1000 = 14.0 kips
As there are only dead loads and snow loads, combination LC-3 controls.
Factored vertical load on the roof, V = 1.2D + 1.6S = 1.26.63 + 1.614.0 = 30.4 kips

## b. Top sag rod

The top sag rod parallel to the roof carries only that component of the vertical load, V, parallel to
the roof. Thus, tension in the top sag rod:
T S = V sin 2 = 30.4 sin 11.3 o = 5.96 kips
Required area of the threaded rod for the sag rod (Eq. 7.12.10):

From Table 1-21 of the LRFDM, select a in. diameter threaded rod having a cross-sectional area,
0.196 in.2 > 0.183 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-46

## c. Horizontal tie rod

The horizontal tie rod between ridge purlins has to carry a tensile force, T T :

## Required area of the horizontal tie rod :

From Table 1-21 of the LRFDM, select a in. diameter threaded rod of A36 steel having a cross-
sectional area, 0.196 in.2 > 0.186 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

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Steel Structures by S. Vinnakota Chapter 7 page 7-47

P7.31. The height to eaves of an industrial building is 32 ft. The columns are spaced 24 ft on centers. The side wall
is covered with light weight cement boards weighing 5 psf. Aluminum and glass windows, weighing 8 psf,
occupy 50% of the wall area. Girts are C59 spaced 5 ft on centers. Design sag rods located at the
points between columns (see Fig. 3.4.3). Use A36 steel and LRFDS.

P7.32. A three hinged parabolic tied-arch has a span of 60 ft and a rise of 20 ft. It carries a uniform horizontally
distributed vertical load of 3 klf. Determine the diameter of an A36 steel tie rod and select suitable clevises
and turn buckle. The load given is a factored load.

Solution
Structure: Three hinged parabolic tied arch.
Span, L = 60 ft
Rise, h = 20 ft
Factored uniformly distributed vertical load, q u = 3 klf over the entire span of 60 ft
Tension in the tie, T u = (q u L 2) (8 h) = (3.00 60.0 2) (8 20.0) = 67.5 kips

## Required area of the tie rod :

From Table 1-21 of the LRFDM, select a 1 in. diameter threaded rod of A36 steel having a cross-
sectional area, 2.41 in.2 > 2.07 in.2 O.K. (Ans.)

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