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BEST PRACTICES IN SUSTAINABLE

BUILDING DESIGN

Shahin Vassigh
..
Ebru Ozer
Thomas Spiegelhalter

J.ROSs)
~HI NG
/ I

________________________________ A_c_k_no~w-le_d_gm_e_n_ts_a_nd_c_r~ed-it~s ___]

Copyright 2013 by J. Ross Publishing

ISBN: 978-1-60427-068-6

Printed and bound in the U.S.A. Printed on acid-free paper

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
AcKNowLEDGMENTs The authors thank all who have contributed
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data to the text, the production of the diagrams and the
Vassigh, Shahin: accompanying DVD. Special thanks should be given to
Best practices in sustainable building design I by Shahin Silvana Herrera, Fiorella Mavares, Julian Sandoval, Paolo
Vassigh, Ebru Arce and Joanna Ibarra who contributed their passion,
Vzer. and Thomas Spiegelhalter.
careful thought and great skills to produce this book.
pages em
Without their hard work, this publication would not exist.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-60427-068-6 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Sustainable We thank our chairs, John Stuart and Adam Drisin, for
buildings-Design and construction. I. Vzer, Ebru, 1976- 11. cultivating a collaborative working environment as well as
Spiegelhalter, for their continuous support of the project. We also thank
Thomas, 1959-111. Title. Dean Brian Schriner for his administrative support.
TH880.V37 2012
720' .4 7--dc23
2012017645 We also thank Kenneth MacKay and Annette LeCuyer at
Disclaimer University at Buffalo, the State University of New York for
The contents of this book were developed under a grant from their contributions at the initial stages of the project. We
the U.S. Department of Education. However, those contents thank Jason Chandler and Malik Benjamin for their input,
do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department advice, and involvement with the project.
of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the
federal government. cREDITs The contents of this book were developed under
All the drawings produced for this book were developed by the a grant from the U.S. Department of Education, Fund for
authors, research assistants and students. The information Improvement of Postsecondary Education Comprehensive
pr.esented in the book was researched and developed in good Program, and a Paul Cejas Faculty Initiative Endowment
fa1th. The authors and publisher have credited resources and grant from Florida International University.
references to the best of their abilities. The authors and publisher
do not warrant or guarantee the information in this book. This book Final drawings, layout and design were produced by the
is presented solely for educational purposes and is not intended following group of research assistants: Silvana Herrera,
as a definitive source for professional use and judgment. Fiorella Mavares, Paolo Arce, Julian Sandoval, Joanna
Ibarra, Veronica Scharf, Louis Bardi, Javier Cuevas, Basil
This publication contains information obtained from authentic Valderrama, Jordan Johnson, Cassandra Strauss, Tanaz
and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is used with Haghighi, Matin Jadidi, and Jasbir Singh Ubhi.
permission , and sources are indicated. Reasonable effort has
been made to publish reliable data and information , but the author
and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of
all matenals or for the consequences of their use.
All rights reserved . Neither this publication nor any part thereof
may be reproduced , stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in
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Phone: (954) 727-9333 Fax: (561 ) 892-0700
Web: www.jrosspub.com

iii
Author Biographies J

SHAHIN VASSIGH
Shahin Vassigh is a professor and co-director of the
Environmental and Structural Technology Lab in the Department
of Architecture at Florida International University. She teaches
courses in structures and building technologies. Ms. Vassigh
has built a nationally recognized body of research focused on
improving building technology and sustainable building design
education by developing alternative teaching pedagogies. She
is a recipient of two major federal grants for ''A Comprehensive
Approach to Teaching Structures" and "Building Literacy: The
Integration of Buildi ng Technology and Design in Architectural
Education." Both projects developed interactive learning
enwonments using state-of-the-art computing technology.
She is the author of Interactive Structures: Visualizing Structural
Behavior (2008) and a co-author of Building Systems Integration
for Enhanced Environmental Performance (2011). She has
a Master of Architecture, a Master in Urban Planning and a
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering from University at
Buffalo, the State University of New York.

EBRU OZER
Ebru Ozer is an assistant professor in the Department of
Landscape Architecture at Florida International University
and teaches courses in landscape architectural design ,
landscape technology and construction, and advanced digital
representation. As a professional with experience in both
landscape architecture and architecture, her research includes
developing a holistic approach to environmentally sustainable
design that integrates current architectural design theories with
landscape design theories. Her research has been supported
by grants from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the U.S.
Department of Education. She has a Master of Landscape
Architecture degree from Louisiana State University, a Bachelor
of Architecture degree from Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey, and
a Physics degree from Ege University, Turkey.

THOMAS SPIEGELHALTER

Thomas Spiegelhalter is Co-Director of the Environmental


and Structural Technology Lab (ESTL) in the Department of
Architecture at Florida International University. He teaches
Sustainability Graduate Studio and Environmental Systems.
Mr. Spiegelhalter has developed numerous solar, zero-fossil-
energy and low-energy buildings in Europe and the U.S.
Many of his completed projects have been published in
international anthologies of architecture such as Architectural
Record magazine (Design Vanguard Award 2003) and in the
monograph Adaptable Technologies - Le tecno/ogie adattabili
nelle architetture di Thomas Spiegelhalter. He has received 42
honors, prizes and awards for his design work in competitions
and applied research at national and international levels. Mr.
Spiegelhalter has a Master and a Bachelor degree in Design
and Architecture from the University of the Arts in Berlin and
a Bachelor degree in Architecture and Engineering from the
University of Applied Sciences in Bremen, Germany.

v
[ _____________________________________________c_o_nt_e _nt_s __ ~]
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND CREDITS iii
AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIES v
INTRODUCTION

lQYj
(~
1. BUILDING FORM
1.1 CONCEPTS
Plan Geometry
3
4
4
Building Orientation 4
Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio 4
Natural Lighting 5
Mass and SeNice Core 5
Natural Ventilation 5
1.2 PLAN SHAPES 6
Rectangular Plan 6
Square Plan 6
0-Pian 7
C-Pian 7
L-Pian 7
1.3 CLIMATIC CONTEXT 8
Hot and Humid 8
Hot and Arid 10
Temperate 12
Cold 14

[jlJ 2. BUILDING ENVELOPES


2.1 CONCEPTS
17
18
Environmental Impact 18
Material Thermal Properties 20
Enclosure Materials 24
Insulation Materials 30
Thermal Materials 34

2.2 WALL SYSTEMS 36


Cavity Wall 36
Glass Curtain Wall 41
Concrete Masonry Unit Wall 44
Concrete Wall 48
Metal Veneer Wall 52
Precast Concrete Wall 56
Stone Panel Wall 60

2.3 CLIMATE-RESPONSIVE FAQADES 64


Double-Skin Fagades 64
Shading Devices 68
Photovoltaic Fagades 69

[~J 3 STRUCTURE
3.1 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
-------- 71
72
Wood 72
Reinforced Concrete 73
Prestressed Concrete 73
Masonry Products 75
Steel 75
---
vii
~-------------------------------------------co_n_te_nt_s__~]
76 Wind Energy 158
3.2 HORIZONTAL SPANNING SYSTEMS
76 Geothermal Energy 159
One-Way Systems
76 Biomass, Hydropower and Hydrogen Energy 159
Two-Way Systems
77 Energy Storage Systems 160
Noncomposite Steel Frame (One-Way System)
r-;_---..
Composite Steel Frame (One-Way System) 78
Concrete Frame (One-Way System)
Pan Joist or Ribbed Slab (One-Way System)
79
80 ~J 6. LIGHTING 6.1 CONCEPTS
163
164
Hollow-Core Slabs (One-Way System) 82
Measuring Light 164
Flat Plates and Flat Slabs (Two-Way System) 83 Light Transmittance 168
Slabs with Beams (Two-Way System) 84
Lighting Design 170
Waffle Slabs (Two-Way System) 85
Bubble Decks (Two-Way System) 87 6.2 NATURAL LIGHTING 172
Solar Radiation 172
3.3 VERTICAL SPANNI NG ELEMENTS 88
Climatic Zones and Sunlighting 173
Columns 88
Glass 174
Load-Bearing Walls 89
Glass Types 175
Shear Walls 90
Design with Natural Lighting 176
91 Side Lighting 178
3.4 STRUCTURAL FRAMES
91 Light Shelves 180
Wood Frames 182
91 Top Lighting
Concrete Frames 183
92 Natural Light Filtering and Redirection
Steel Frames
6.3 ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING 185
93 Luminairs 185
Light Sources 186
4.1 CONCEPTS 94 Incandescent Light Sources 186
Climate 94 Discharge Sources 187
Degree Days 94 Solid-State Lighting Sources 189

J
Building Occupancy Codes 95 Lighting Control Systems 191

[~
Psychrometries/Thermal Comfort 96
Heat Forms 98 193
Heat Flow 99 7. LANDSCAPE
7.1 CONCEPTS 194
Carbon-Neutral Design 100
Plant Classification 194
4.2 PASSIVE SYSTEM S 106 Plant Processes 199
Natural Systems 106 Hydrology 203
Solar Heating 109 Climate 206
Passive Cooling 110
7.2 THERMAL EFFICIENCY 210
Phase-Change Materials 114
Solar Heat Moderation 210
4.3 ACTIVE SYSTEMS 116 Thermal Insulation 215
Space Conditioning 116 Wind Protection and Control 217
Distribution Medium 118 Prototypical Designs for Climatic Regions 220
Refrigeration Cycles 123
7.3 HYDROLOGICAL EFFICIENCY 224
Heat Pumps 125
Water Conservation 224
Chillers 130
Runoff Mitigation and Pollution Control 227
Evaporative Cooling 135
Wastewater Management 233
Mechanical Heating 137
District Heating and Cooling 140 236
141 7.4 CASE STUDIES
Ventilation 236
143 Council House 2
Heat Energy-Recovery Systems 239
145 California Academy of Sciences
Distribution and Terminal Systems 242
-- Sidwell Friends School
'
5. RENEWABLE ENERGY 153 247
BIBLIOGRAPHY
253
5.1 ENERGY SOURCES AND STORAGE 154 INDEX
' - __ J
Solar Energy 154
Photovoltaic Systems 156

ix
viii
[~ ___F_o_re_w_or_d _______________________________________________]
lntroductiL

Steffen Lehmann

There is no doubt that today we stand at a crossroads in This book and the accompanying software comprise require an in-depth knowledge of the subject and engage
architectural design and urban development, contemplating PROFEssoR srEFFEN LEHMANN PhD. AADip, is the Director of the an educational platform developed to advance climate- most topics at an introductory level.
how we want our cities to develop and grow in future. Best Zero Waste Research Centre for Sustainable Design and responsive and ecologically sustainable buildings. The
Practices in Sustainable Building Design is an important Behavior (sd+b Centre) and the Chair in Sustainable principal idea for developing this platform was to create
Design at the University of South Australia, Adelaide. The software component of the educational framework has
book that offers answers and solutions. It is for architects, a resource for both architecture students and educators
been developed as an immersive and integrated learning
designers, planners, engineers- for both students and He also holds the UNESCO Chair in Sustainable Urban that can serve a variety of learning styles and needs .
environment, delivering the content in an interactive format.
educators-and everyone who is passionate about or Development for Asia and the Pacific, has published Although this platform is primarily designed for architecture Harnessing the capabilities of advanced media, such as
interested in ways to improve our built environment. fou rteen books, is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Green students, it includes a wide range of information from a dynamic modeling , animation, interactive diagrams, and
Building, and is the Editor of the Earthscan Book Series on number of related fields and can be helpful for architects
hypertext, the software-generated environment helps
Architectural education is increasingly taking climate Sustainable Design (Routledge). His latest book, Designing and anyone with an interest in sustainable building design
to visualize and engage concepts and topics that may
responsive design principles into account and integrating for Zero Waste: Consumption, Technologies and the Built and development. be difficult to grasp in traditional learning formats. The
sustainable building design as a necessity for the future Environment, offers a new view of material efficiency,
interactive content aims to engage and compel users to
of the architectural profession, so that "best practice" will modular prefabrication, and construction without waste.
Both the software and book are organized into seven participate actively in the learning process. The inclusion of
trigger an emerging "next practice". The only choice we
content areas: building form, building envelopes, structure, the software component also responds to the proclivity of
have is to make our buildings greener, more energy and
climate control, renewable energy, lighting, and landscape. the new generation of students who are more accustomed
material efficient, and more sustainable by increasing their
Each content area is subdivided into learning modules that to accessing information in such environments. The
durability and lifecycle, making them plus-energy and
introduce building concepts, construction materials, and software content is organized under a graphical user
carbon neutral, without compromising either comfort or
architectural design integrity. operational systems, all explai ned with a specific focus on interface system that serves as a vehicle for learning on
energy-efficiency and carbon-neutral design. The content demand, linking to proper information quickly and easily.
has been developed to integrate information from various
Best Practices in Sustainable Building Design is clearly
building design disciplines into a comprehensive format.
structured into learning modules, allowing the reader to The content of the book is cross-referenced to the
quickly grasp the various concepts of passive and active accompanying software with graphic icons at important
strategies influenced by building form , envelopes, structural The printed book component utilizes a highly graphical reference points. The icons are used to inform the reader
systems, technical control systems, and other elements, approach to visually demonstrate the concepts described that there are interactive diagrams, charts, and animations
ensuring a very accessible, step-by-step learning process. in the text. These diagrams demonstrate critical processes explaining the subject in greater depth in the accompanying
1n building design and relate important details to holistic software.
I congratulate the three authors on their marvelous functions. The materials presented in the book do not
achievement, publishing this work as both a book and an
interactive interface (DVD). It is my hope that by studying
this relevant and timely material and by analyzing the
clear illustrations, diagrams, and charts, the reader will be
inspired to design buildings that will further change the
way you, dear reader, will approach your future work and
implement the wide-ranging knowledge contained within
these learning aids.

X
Building Form
Building form relates to the shape, volume, mass, scale, and
configuration of a build ing as wel l as the occupancy type and
the users activities. Although building form may often be deter-
mined based on a number of concerns outside energy efficiency
and sustainability, selecting the proper form is one of the most
important steps in sustainable design. Bui !ding form impacts the
amount of construction materials and energy requirements of the
building. A properly conceived building form will mitigate the
external climate in order to provide comfortable interior condi-
tions, thereby reducing cooling, heating, ventilation, and electri-
cal lighting requirements.

3
2
1. Bui lding Form Concepts

1.1 Con cepts Natural Lighting NATURAL LIGHTING


A building's environmental performance, in relation to its formal PLAN GEOMETRY
configuration, can be determined based on a number of factors,
including plan geometry, surface area-to-volume ratio , orientation,
CLIMATIC ZONE ASPECT ~TIO ... l Natural lighting can significantly decrease a building's energy
consumption by reducing the need for electric lighting. Narrow
floor plans can access adequate light for general illumination with
CLIMATIC ZONE ; BUILDING
ORIENTAT ION
-,---
MAIN GLAZING
LOCATION

access to natural light and natural ventilation, user activity, and


the location of the structural core and circulation spaces. In ad- Hot and Humid 1:1.3 J proper openings and solar orientation. Deeper floor plans may
require larger portions of the floor area to be artificially lit. Because
Hot and Arid
,_____ - - - I E-W axis 25' north of east North

dition, climate has a substantial influence on the performance of Hot and Arid 1:1.3 -1:~ _j admitting sunlight for natural lighting is often accompanied with
Hot and Humid
i E-W axis 5' north of east North

the building form. A properly selected form for a specific climate


may perform poorly in another climatic condition. The following
sections examine some of these important factors in the selection
Temperate
1:1_.6 -j' solar heat gain, selecting the proper orientation, glazing type,
w1ndow location, and using architectural devices (such as roof
Temperate
I
E-W axis 18' north of east North-South

of building form. Cool 1:1.1 overhangs and daylight-redirecting systems) can be considerably
effective in mitigating thermal gains. For a detailed discussion of l Cool
i
E-W axis facing south North-South

Source: Victor Olgyay and Aladar Olgyay, Design with Climate: Bioclimatic natural lighting use in buildings, refer to Section 6.2. Source: Ken Yeang, The Green Skyscraper: The Basis for Designing Sustainable
Approach to Architectural Regionalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, Intensive Buildings (New York: Prestel , 1999). P. 227-229
Plan Geometry 1963). P. 89
Fig. 1.1-4 Approximate Building Orientation for Utilizing Natural Lighting
A building's plan geometry can be studied based on its aspect Fig. 1. 1-1 Approximate Aspect Ratio for Ideal Thermal Performance
Based on Climatic Zones
Mass and Service Core
ratio , which is the proportion of the short side to the long side of The location of building elements, such as shear walls and ser-
the floor plan dimensions. A building with a square footprint has
VICe cores, play an important role in the building's energy perfor-
a 1:1 aspect ratio and a building twice as long as it is wide has
mance. In cold climates: placing the structural mass at the center
a 1:2 aspect ratio . The optimal building aspect ratio varies with
of the building vol ume will facilitate solar energy absorption from MASS AND SERVICE CORE
orientation, climatic conditions, latitude, longitude and altitude. In
the perimeter, thus minimizing the energy required for active heat-
general , elongated plans with aspect ratios 1:1.3 to 1 :1 .7, with BUILDING ORIENTATION ing. In warm climatic zones, the structural mass can be placed in I CLIM~TfC ZONE I CONFIGURATION
CORE CORE CIRCULAT ION l
the short sides facing an east-west direction, perform well in hot
climates. In cold climates, building plans that are almost square,
with aspect ratios close to 1:1.1, are considered to be optimal
1 CLIMATIC ZO~E I ---
BUILDING ORIENTATION I the east and west sides to block the most intense solar heat gain
and provide shading for the building. Hot and Arid I Double Core
'
ORIENTATION

East-West
ORIENTAT ION

North-South

i Double Core
l Hot and Humid E-W axis 5' north of east I
because they have minimal surfaces exposure to the cold. Hot and Humid East-West North-South

Hot and Arid E-W-axis 25' north of east Natural Ventilation Temperate
1
Single Sided Core North North

Building Orientation Temperate _j E-W axis 18' north of east Natural ventilation is a key element for sustainable design because
it can significantly reduce the energy requirements for mechani-
Cool I Central Core Center North
Building orientation is an important factor in a building's thermal
performance. The built form should be oriented in relation to the
I Cool ! E-W axis facing south cal ventilation and air conditioning. Natural ventilation is most ef-
I

Source: Ken Yeang, The Green Skyscraper: The Basis for Designing Sustainable
fective when the building is shaped and oriented to optimize the
influences of the surrounding environment, including the sun's Intensive Buildings (New York: Prestel, 1999). P. 207
Source: Ken Yeang, The Green Skyscraper: The Basis for Designing Sustainable impact of prevailing winds. Narrow floor plans facilitate air flow
path and prevailing winds. In general, to maximize passive so- Intensive Buildings (New York: Prestel. 1999). P. 210 and cross-ventilation through the building. Deep floor plans are Fig. 1.1-5 Approximate Mass and Service Core Location and Orientation
lar heat gain, the long axis of the built form should be oriented
Fig. 1. 1-2 Approximate Building Orientations for Ideal Thermal Performance
problematic because fresh air can become contaminated before
east-west so that the elongated sides of the building face north-
it is exhausted out of the building. An analysis of local wind di-
south. Windows placed in the north wall in hot climatic zones al-
rections and pressure differences at various times of the year is
low diffused light into the building and reduce heat gain. In cool
necessary to determine the best locations for fa~ade openings to
climates, openings should be placed in the south wall to maximize
catch and funnel cool breezes through the building. NATURAL VENTILATION
sun penetration into the building.
PREVAILING WINDS PREVAILING WI NDS I
Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio ~--~--
SURFACE TO VOLUME RATIO
--
CLIMATIC ZONE (over heated periods)
SUMMER
(over heated periods)
WINTER
A building's exposed surface area-to-volume ratio is a key ele- I BUILDING FORM SURFACE AREA VOLUME SAN
FT2 (m2 ) FT' (m' ) RAT IO
I Hot and A~id E,W (6.9 mph) E (5.2 mph)

~ctangle -~ ~ ~
ment for determining heat transmission through the skin. An
efficient building form has a low surface area-to-volume ratio, _ _ _ _ _ _.. __._____ 64
1-------- (1.8) 1.75
' Hot and Humid S,SE (8.1 mph) N (9.3 mph)
enclosing the maximum amount of space with the minimum skin
exposure. Therefore, in cold climates using a compact building I Square I 96 (8.9) 64 (1 .8) 1.5
SW (8.4 mph) S,SW (9.6 mph)
with a square floor plan is beneficial because the building will r--:-
C-Shape 128 (11 .9) 64 (1.8) 2 I
Temperate

have a minimum of exposed surface area to the cold while provid- Cool S,SE (9.9 mph) NW (10.5 mph)
---
~-I
!
ing maximum volume for occupancy. 0-Shape 150 (13.9) 64 (1.8)
Source: "NOAA Satellite and Information Service," National Oceanic and Atmo-
Tall buildings with multiple units also tend to be more compact spheric Administration. August 20, 2008. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/
L-Shape 122 (11.3) 64 (1.8) 1.9
than low-rise buildings. Buildings that have many fa~ade protru- online/ccd/avgwind.html.
sions have a larger surface area and are not considered compact. --- --
Fig. 1. 1-6 Approximate Building Orientation for Utilizing Natural Ventilation
The optimal surface area-to-volume ratio is often determined by Fig. 1. 1-3 Approximate Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio for Ideal Thermal
Performance of Various Geometries
utilizing simulation software.

5
4
[~@~~~~~#~~
~~~~~
-p~~1_.Bu_ildi_ngF_orm_________~ - Plan Shapes

Phoenix , AZ
Miami, FL
N
0-Pian
1.2 Plan Shapes N
A rectangular plan with a central courtyard provides a larger ex-
A building 's plan geometry affects the energy performance of a posed surface area that can lead to significant heat exchange
building and responds to particular climatic conditions in different through the building's skin. However, the courtyard configuration
ways. Plan shapes can influence the received amount of s?lar divides the plan into narrow sections, providing opportunities for
radiation , thermal transfer, natural light, and natural vent1lat1on, passive cooling and heating, natural ventilation and natural light-
thus affecting the overall indoor environments in buildings. The Ing.
following sections examine various plan shapes, configurations s s The east and west sides of the building receive the most intense
Seattle, WA
and orientations'in different climatic zones. Minneapolis, MN heat from the sun. Minimizing the plan dimensions on the east
N N
and west sides can reduce heat gain significantly in hot climatic
regions. In addition , placing the mass of the building's service
Rectangular Plan cores along the east and west sides will reduce heat gain and the
A building with a rectangular plan performs well in the hot climates E
building's temperature.
at lower latitudes. Because the east and west sides of the build-
The 0-plan shape is not an efficient configuration in cold climatic
ing receive the most intense heat from the sun, minimizing the
zones because the central open space provides a large exposed
plan dimensions in these !agades can reduce solar heat gain s
s surface area. Although the plan increases the potential for both
significantly. In addition, placing shear walls and service cores Fig. 1.2-4 0 -Pian Section on Phoenix, Arizona Climatic Zone
Fig. 1.2-1 Cities' Sun Path natural lighting and cross-ventilation during the summer months,
along the east and west sides will provide shaded zones, thus Summer Sun's Ecliptic it can have significant heat loss through the bui lding's skin during
reducing heat gain and the building 's temperature. Admitting dif- Winter Sun's Ecliptic
the winter season.
fused light from the north in a narrow floor plan can provide ample N N
natural light, reducing the need for artificial lighting. Perpendicular
orientation of window openings to the prevailing winds facilitates C-Pian
W~E
cross-ventilation.
A rectangular plan shape is not efficient in cold climatic zones be-
cause a high aspect ratio produces higher thermal losses during
SPRING 12 W@Epm The addition of two wings extending from a central rectangle in-
creases the exposed surface area to solar radiation. However, the
distinct advantage of this plan shape is the shallow depth of the
SPRING 12 pm
~ s
the winter months. However, a narrow rectangular floor plan, with ,'1 .........r.-"0:1: r ........ :-. -. . s floor plate throughout the plan, providing an increased opportu- ..'!
its longer sides aligned with the east and west axis, can gener- nity for efficient distribution of side lighting and cross-ventilation.
ate passive heat gain from the south and admit ample diffused
... .... ...
\_
...
In hot climatic zones, the C-plan provides a better chance for
natural light from the north. When the p revailing winds are per- ..( ~ !"'...
pendicular to the long side of the building, cross-ventilation can ........' : .... night cooling and cross-ventilation. Circulation spaces are best
located on the north side of the building where the sun does not
be an effec tive means for passive cool ing in the summer months. ; \. penetrate significantly into the interior space.
In temperate and cold climatic zones, the large surface area of the
Square Plan 6pm/1 C-plan produces higher thermal losses through the building skin
Compact geometric forms close to a cube shape have smaller during the winter months. However, this configuration provides an
surface area-to-volume ratios when compared to elongated opportun ity for passive cooling in the summer months. Buildings
shapes. Although less exposed surface area reduces heat ex- located in the northern hemisphere should have the largest sur- Fig. 1.2-5 C-Pian Section on Phoenix, Arizona Climatic Zone
change with the external environment, a square building provides Fig. 1.2-2 Square Section on Minneapolis, Minnesota Climatic Zone face area facing south to maximize passive heating during the
equal exposure to solar radiation in all directions. In large build- winter months.
ings with square footprints , access to natural light is limited to the N

TS~R9~, ~ , ~(ij)E
building periphery and areas located close to window openings,
leaving the internal portions of the floor area dependent on artifi-
L-Pian
cial lighting. Introducing daylight from skylights can eliminate this A rectangular plan can be expanded with the addition of one wing.
problem. In addition, natural ventilation in square buildings is only This floor plan configuration increases the surface area, providing
effective when the building's floor area is small and air can cross an inc reased opportunity for natural ventilation and natural light- T
the building easily. ing. The building side with the larger surface area should be ori-
ented facing north to reduce solar exposure and to minimize heat ...
In hot climates, it is always preferable to reduce solar radiation :....
gain in the hot climatic regions. The location of core and circula-
on the east and west sides of a square building. Placing shear
tion spaces within the building can mitigate heat gains through
walls and the service cores on the east and west sides can pro-
the building envelope.
vide shaded areas and reduce solar heat gain. A square building
configuration can be an efficient shape in the temperate and _cold In temperate and cold cl imates, the increased surface area of the
climatic zones. When the building volume uses small open1ngs, L-plan increases the surface area-to-volume ratio, thus reduc-
the form can preserve heat during the winter months and remain ing the floor plan efficiency in these climates. However, this plan
shape provides an opportunity for both natural lighting and natural
I :.2)
cool during the summer months. Placing shear w alls and the
building 's service core along the center or the north side of the ventilation. Fig. 1.2-6 L-Pian Section on Seattle, Washington Climatic Zone
building will allow passive heat gain from the periphery where the Fig. 1.2-3 Square Section on Minneapolis, Minnesota Climatic Zone
sun has some intensity during the winter months.
7
6
1. Building Form
-
1.3 Climatic Context
In order to examine the response of building form to climatic con-
ditions, the following describes the world climatic zones accord-
ing to the Koppen Classification System. This system is the most Buildings with elongated foot-
z
commonly used system and classifies the world 's climates into 5 prints perform well in the hot
five main zones of Hot and Humid, Hot and Arid, Temperate, Cold, (L
climates at lower latitudes.
and Polar based on the annual and monthly average tempera-
tures and precipitation. Each zone is further divid ed into subcli-
mates. The Polar zone and the subclimates are not discussed
here because architectural strategies for designing buildings in
Minimizing the plan dimensions
these climates wil l not be significantly different.
in the east and west can reduce
solar heat gain significantly.
Hot and Humid Plan geometries that form shal-
The hot and humid climates are classified into tropical and sub- low floor depths are ideal in this
tropical zones. Tropical conditions are found in lower latitudes climatic zone because they maxi-
between 15 north and 15 south of the equator, and subtropical mize cross-venti lation and pro-
cl imates are located between 15-23.5 north and 15-23.5" south vide ample access to natural light.
of the equator.
Hot and humid cl imates are mostly identified by the lack of sea-
sonal variation and intense solar radiation for most of the year.
These cl imates are dominated by monthly average temperatures
exceeding 64F (18C) and have high precipitation and humid- Placing the building 's service cqre
0
ity, producing climate conditions outside the comfort zone for the zw along the east and west sides will
<(a:
majority of the year. In this climate, the east and west sides of C/JO reduce heat gain by providing
a building receive low altitude sun rays that produce large heat :QO shaded zones, thus reducing the
2 temperature.
gains. This is a result of the incident sun striking the building's
surface with close to right angles on the east and west. To reduce
heat gain, it is best to minimize the building's dimensions on these
sides.
Using diffused light from the north side can reduce glare in addi-
tion to minimizing solar heat gain. Proper overhangs on southern A large surface area-to-volume
w
glazing will allow the admission of low-angle winter sunlight for 2 ratio can lead to significant heat
::J
daylighting and exclude excessive higher angle solar radiation in -' exchange through the building's
the warmer summer months. ~0 skin.
w<(
i=
Average wind speeds are generally low and less frequent in hot oa:
and humid climates, and the prevailing winds are from the south lE
a:
Admitting diffused light from the
and southeast during overheated periods. Because humidity lev- ::J north will provide natural lighting,
(/)
els are very high, evaporative cooling is not effective in this zone, reducing the energy requ ired for
and mass cooling is a preferred passive strategy. artificial lighting.

150 120 90 60 30 O 30 60 90 120 150


z
60 0 Window openings perpendicular

40- ~
t=
to the prevailing wind's direction,
as well as pressure differences
zw
20 between the inside and outside
>
<i_ facilitate cross-ventilation.
0 a:
::J
~
20- z

40

60 -
Fig. 1.3-1 World Map Depicting Hot and Humid Zone Fig. 1.3-2 Plan Shape Considerations for @o
Hot and Humid Climates
9
8
~~--~-~-~-~-~-~-
~--~1.B_uild_ing_Form_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~
Hot and Arid
Hot and arid climates are characterized with high temperatures,
lack of humidity, and great changes in the daily temperatures.
These climates are mostly located between 15-3r north and Buildings with elongated foot-
z
south of the equator. The areas located fu rther from the equator prints perform well in the hot cli-
have cooler climates and the areas closer to the equator have
5a.. mates at lower latitudes.
some periods with humidity. Hot and arid climates receive little
precipitation and .typically have daily temperatures that are higher
than night time temperatures.
Minimizing the plan dimensions
Similar to hot and humid climates, plan geometries that form in the east and west can reduce
shallow floor depths are ideal in this climatic zone because they solar heat gain significantly.
maximize cross-ventilation, allow for night cooling, and provide >-
a:
z
Q
ample access to natural light. A building orientation with the short tlio~ Plan geometries that form shal-
sides facing east and west is most effective in reducing exposure ~ZI
o <t: Z low floor depths are ideal in this
to intense solar radiation. w t,:!:l
(!) a: climatic zone because they maxi-
0
With predominantly clear blue skies and bright ground surfaces in mize cross-ventilation , allow for
the hot and arid climatic zones, it is best to admit diffused light or night cooling, and provide ample
reflected light from the ground or louver surfaces. Admitting light access to natural light.
from the north reduces solar heat gain as well as glare. Utilizing
proper overhangs on southern glazing will allow low-angle winter
sunlight for daylighting and reflect the intense high angle sunlight
in the warmer summer months. Whenever possible, it is best to Placing the building's service
avoid glazing, and to place shear walls or service cores on the 0 core along the east and west
hot east and west sides of the building. When placed in the pe- zw
<{a: sides will provide shaded zones,
riphery, the core spaces serve as thermal buffers reducing solar (f) 0 reducing heat gain and the build-
penetration into the interior of the building. Circulation spaces can :{{U ing's temperature.
~
also create buffer zones to protect the building from excessive
sun penetration.
Evaporative cool ing or mist cooling is an effective cooling strategy
in hot and arid climates. This process produces cooler tempera-
tures by moving dry air through moisture. Because there is often a
great difference between the daily and nightly temperatures, night Large surface-to-volume ratio can
UJ
cooling can remove much of the daily generated heat, leading to ~ lead to significant heat exchange
lower early morning interior temperatures. The prevailing winds in 3 through the building's skin.
hot and arid climates are from the east and west directions during ~0
i= Admitting diffused light or reflect-
the over-heated periods. UJ<{
ua:
ed light from the north will provide
i'a:E
natural lighting, reducing the en-
:::::>
(f) ergy required for artificial lighting.

150 120 90 60 30 O 30 60 90 120 150 Perpendicular orientation of win-


60 - z dow openings to the prevailing
0
winds as well as pressure differ-
40 =- ~i= ences between inside and out-
20 z side facilitate cross-ventilation.
UJ
>
O ;j_ Evaporative cooling and night
a: cooling are effective methods to
:::::>
20 lower air temperatures in hot and
~
z arid climates.
40 -
60 - -- --

Fig. 1.3-3 World Map Depicting Hot and Arid Zone Fig. 1.3-4 Plan Shape Considerations forfiiJA
Hot and Humid Climates~
11
10
-
~~
-~-~-~
-~-~-~
-;-~----1-
. Bu_ildin_gF_orm_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~ -
Temperate
Temperate climates do not have extreme temperatures or precipi-
Elongation of the form along the
tation and are characterized by warm and dry summers, leading
east and west axis is preferable
to cool and wet winters. They are generally located in latitudes
z because it provides a larger ex-
between 30-55 north and south of the equator. These climates
5 posed surface for passive heating
have an average temperature above 1ooc (50 F) in their warmest 0..
on the south side of the building
months (April to September in the northern hemisphere) and a
coldest month average between -3C (27F) and 18C (64F) . during the spring and winter.

The moderate temperatures, light winds and four distinctively The long surfaces of the building
marked seasons of temperate climates provide more flexibility in should be oriented toward the
the selection of the building form. The implementation of passive south to capture solar energy.
>- z
strategies, maximizing heat gain during winter months and mini- a: Q Admitting light from south-facing
mizing heat gain during the summer, can be ve_ry effective in these luo~ glass walls provides ample natu-
2ZI-
climates. Because the larger the surface area of a building has the O~Z
w !!! ral light in addition to providing
greatest potential for heat exchange with the exterior environment, 0 a: passive heating. However, direct
0
orienting the long surfaces of the building to the south will provide sunlight through the southern
direct passive heating in winter months. Placing windows on the fagade should be controlled to
south side can facilitate access to high levels of illumination and minimize glare.
reduce the energy required for artificial lighting.
Because the prevailing winds are from mostly from the west and
southwest, window openings are best located on the windward
fayades to facilitate cross-ventilation during summer months. Shear walls, service core, anq cir-
However, it is best to restrict incoming fresh air during the winter. 0 culation spaces are best located
zw
~a: on the north side of the building
The difference in temperature between the interior of the building
and the exterior environment allows a stack effect to draw in fresh
cno to reduce heat loss.
~0
air. Shear wal ls, service cores and circulation spaces are best lo- 2
cated on the north side of the building to reduce heat loss.

~ Large surface area-to-volume ra-


3 tios can lead to significant heat
~ loss through the building's skin.
0
i= Large surface areas should be
w<t:
o a: oriented toward the south to cap-
~ ture solar energy for passive heat-
175 ing during the winter.

150 120 90 60 30 O 30 60 90 120 150


Window openings on the wind-
60
z ward south and southwest sides,
0
40 ~ ~Na=: ~ and the leeward north and north-
east sides will facil itate cross-
i=
20 z
w ventilation.
>
....J
O ~ Pressure differences between in-
a: side and outside facilitate cross-
:J
20
t:z ventilation.
40

60.

Fig. 1.3-5 World Map Depicting Temperate Zone Fig. 1.3-6 Plan Shape Considerations for
0
Temperate Cl1mates

12 13
1. Building Form

Cold
Cool climate zones are located generally in higher latitudes, rang-
ing from 50-70 north and south of the equator in the interior Elongation of the form along the
regions of large land masses. They are characterized by cool- east and west axis is preferable
z
to-cold winter temperatures and short summers that range from ::i because it provides larger expo-
hot in the south to cool in the north. Cold climates receive less ()._
sure in the south side of the build-
sunlight and receive moderate precipitation in summer, with well- ing for passive heating.
defined summer and winter seasons.
The long surfaces of the building
In the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere with colder cli- should be oriented toward the
mates, it is best to minimize the surface exposed to the cold winter south to captu re solar energy.
winds and reduce heat loss. In these cl imates, buildings are best
oriented to receive maximum solar radiation. In general, aligning >- z
a: Q Admitting light from south-facing
the long axis of the built form along the east-west axis provides t:i:io!< exposed glass walls can provide
::;!ZI-
maximum solar exposure on the south fagade, maximizing pas- O<t:Z ample natural light and passive
sive heat gain. w 1:!::!
0 a: heating. However, direct sunlight
0
Direct sunlight can be an excellent source of lighting in cold cli- through the southern fagade
mates if efficiently distributed throughout the building. However, should be controlled in order to
direct sunlight through the southern fagade should be controlled minimize glare.
to minimize glare and visual discomfort.
Shear walls and service cores are
In these climates, service cores should be located at the center best located at the center of the
of the building to allow solar penetration from the perimeter for building to allow solar penetration
passive heating. The circulation spaces are best located on the from the perimeter for pa~sive
0
north side of the building to provide a thermal buffer that mitigates zw heating.
<{a:
exterior lower temperatures. UJO
~0 The circu lation spaces are best
Natural ventilation can be achieved using wind pressure or stack
:2 located on the north side of the
effects. Adequate air exchange through small openings is prefer-
building to provide a thermal buf-
able to maintain comfortable interior temperatures and avoid ex-
fer that mitigates exterior lower
cessive heat loss. The prevailing winds come from the northwest
during the winter months and from the south and southeast during temperatures.
the heated period. Cross-ventilation during the summer months
can be effective to reduce significantly the energy requi red for
mechanical cooling systems. w
:2 Large surface-to-volume ratios
:::J
_J can lead to significant heat ex-
~0 change through the building's
i=
w<t: skin. Large surface areas should
oa:
~
be oriented toward the south to
a: capture solar energy for passive
:::J
(f)
heating.

Natural ventilation can be


150 120 90 60 30 o 30 60 90 120 150
achieved using wind pressure or
z stack effects. Adequate air ex-
60' 0

4 0 ~
i=
change through small openings
is preferable to maintain comfort-
z able interior temperatures and
20 w
>
_J avoid excessive heat loss.
O <{
a:
:::J Window openings on the wind-
20 !<
z ward northwest sides and the lee-
ward southeast sides will facilitate
cross-ventilation.
60' --

Fig. 1.3-8 Plan Shape Considerations for ~


Fig. 1.3-7 World Map Depicting Cold Zone
Cold Climates V!;Y
15
14
Building Envelopes
The building envelope is the primary interface of a building with
theexterior surroundings. As a result, the bui Iding envelope plays
a critical role in the energy management and sustainability of the
built environment. The proper selection of walls, roof and floor
systems, construction materials and a rigorous, detailed de-
velopment of connections and structural joinery are important
components of energy saving strategies. In addition, thermal and
moisture control, sound and fire insulation, and natural lighting
strategies can significantly reduce dependence on mechanical
climate control systems. The fol lowing sections will introduce
concepts, principles, and strategies for the selection and evalu-
ation of building enclosures with respect to their environmental
performance.

16 17
2. Building Envelopes Concepts

2.1 Concepts There is a growing body of research using various methodolo- gree~house emissions throughout their life cycles because they
EMBODIED WATER Although the demand for water consumption
An informed process of selecting materials utilized in building en- gies to estimate the embodied water values for various materials. requ1re energy for the1r production and disposal. Building materi-
velopes can lead to significant improvements and reduce the en- has increased significantly over the last century, the infrastructure
Based on a study conducted by the Royal Institute of Australian als w1th h1gh embod1ed energy generate considerable amounts
vironmental impact of buildings. An investigation of a material in capacity to harvest adequate water to serve the Earth's growing
Architects, 2 there is a close relationship between embodied water of greenhouse gas emissions. Steel generates 26 percent more
terms of natural resource extraction and properties such as ther- population has not grown accordingly, and in many parts of the
and embodied energy. As a result, the study concludes that the greenhouse gases and concrete 31 percent mo re , than wood.3
mal resistance, thermal transmittance and insulation capabilities world, water scarcity is becoming a critical issue. In addition to
strategies used to reduce the embodied energy in buildings will Reducing a material's carbon footprint will minimize embodied
can be a useful vehicle for gauging various enclosure alternatives. the daily operation of build ings, water is used in the production of
be effective for reducing the embodied water. energy and mitigate its environmental impact.
The following sections describe some of the critical concepts re- building materials. The amount of water used to manufacture and
quired for understanding building enclosure materials, function, deliver materials to their final destination is called embodied water.
CARBON FOOTPRINT Carbon footprint refers to the amount of car-
performance and sustainability. bon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions associated
with an activity, a process, or a product. Building materials cause
Brick

~~~~~:::.
Environmental impact Recycled Steel
The use of materials for building construction .causes major im- 1/2' Gypsum (both
Metal sides)
Z Furring 1000
pacts on the environment, including significant water consump- Fiberglass Batt Insulation
tion and resource and energy usage as well as greenhouse gas Glass

)1------
Galvanized Steel Coppe r e
emissions. These materials consume energy and water in their
CMU Block
removal, manufacturing, transportation, maintenance and recy-

~ Plastic ~../
cling and produce hazardous emissions during these processes. Steel
Mortar
Approximate indicators of a material's environmental impact are
embodied energy, embodied water and carbon footprint. Design-
Aluminum :
Flashing (PVC) l : : : : : : : : :: : : -- 100 ............................ - - ...... ...... ----------------------------------:------------- ----
ing buildings with improved environmental performance should Stucco e A luminum
go beyond decreasing the operational energy and aim at reduc- Extruded Insulation (XPS)
Weatherproof Membrane ]
~==::::::::::~ ...
ing embodied energy, embodied water and carbon footprint dur- (polystyrene)
ing the life cycle of building materials. 0 3 4

5.
Embodied Energy
(BTU/Ib) Timber e ..
EMBODIED ENERGY Embodied energy is the amount of energy 10 --- ---- -- - -- - --------------------------------
used to extract, produce, and distribute a material to the location Fig. 2.1-1 Embodied Energy of Building Materials (BTUJib)
cr ~ > -~ ~~~~~
of use. In general, the embodied energy of building materials con- UJ

tributes about 15 to 20 percent to the energy used by a building EMBODIED ENERGY ~ i='z
0 ::::>
over a 50-year period.1 This percentage is expected to increase as UJ :::J
buildings become more energy efficient. The units for embodied MATERIAL EMBODIED EMBODIED
0
0
~ Clear float glass 4 mm -~/ Ill Concrete 30 MPa ...............
energy may be expressed as Megajoules (MJ) or Btu per unit of ENERGY ID

~ ~
ENERGY ::2
weight (kg or lb) or per unit area (square meter or square foot). BTU/Ib MJIKg UJ V inyl flooring 2mm /
1.0
305.89 . 0.71
-- ;;~~~~;~~~ -~~;;~--- --- -- -.:::.::./ - --- - - -- - ---- - ------ -- -- -- --------------- ---- -- -------
The embodied energy for an enclosure system can be arrived at CMU Block
603.16 . 1.40
by the summation of the embodied energy values of each indi- Mortar
vidual material used in the system or the assembly. Although the Stucco 947.82 . 2.20
use of different methodologies and data sets for calculating em- Brick 1,292.48 . 3.00
bodied energy can result in different measurements, these mea- 1/2' Gypsum Wallboard (both sides) 2,908.08 . 6.75
surements still provide an indication of resource depletion and 3,791 .28 . 8.80
Recycled Steel 0.1
energy utilization in the construction of a building . ------------------ ------.-.,--------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Glass 6,462.41 15.00

Steel 10,512.19 . 24.40


The strategies and recommendations below provide a framework
Metal Z Furring 10,512.19 24.40
for selecting materials and construction methods for the design of
Fiberglass Batt Insulation 12,063.16 . 28.00
building envelopes:
Galvanized Steel 16,802.26 39.00
Investigate the embodied energy values of materials prior to
Flashing (PVC) 33,259.87 . 77.20 0.01
construction to select materials with lower embodied energy.
Weatherproof Membrane (polystyrene) 37,309.64 . 86.60
When possible, to save water, use salvaged materials with high 38,171 .30 . 88.60 0.0 1 0 .1 1.0 10 100 1000
Extruded Insulation
recycled content to reduce embodied energy, construction waste 155.00 EMBODIED ENERGY
Aluminum 66,778.23 .
and air pollution. (GJ/UNIT)
Fig. 2.1-2 Embodied Energy of Building Materials (BTU/Ib) vs. (MJ/Kg)
When possible, use regional construction materials to decrease Fig. 2.1-3 Embodied Energy and Embodied Water Table
Source: Geoff Hammond and Craig Jones, "Inventory of Carbon and Energy (ICE),"
the transportation distances to reduce embodied energy.
Sustainable Energy Research Team (SERT), Department of Mechanical Engineer- Source: Graham Treloar: Michael McCormack, Laurence Palmowski and Roger Fay, "Embodied water of construction,
ing, University of Bath, UK, 2008. http://people.bath.ac.uk/cj21 9/ BEDP Enwonment Des1gn GUide Vol. GEN 58, pp. 1-8, Royal Australian Institute of Architects, Melbourne (2004-2005)

19
18
Concepts

..
Material Thermal Properties
Designing efficient building envelopes requi res an understanding THERMAL TRANSMIITANCE(U-VALUE} Thermal transmittance iS the rate THERMAL BRIDGING A thermal bridge is the part of the building
of the thermal performance of utilized materials. Reducing the en- of heat loss or heat transfer through a material and is expressed envelope where heat transfer occurs at a significantly higher rate
velope energy loss is critical, particularly where significant heating by the U-value. Thermal transmittance measures the capacity of a than the surrounding areas of the envelope. Thermal bridging and
or cooling is requ ired to provide thermal comfort. In general, ther- material with a certain thickness to transmit heat through conduc- a1r leakages happen when relatively highly thermal conductive
mal transmittance and thermal resistance are the two most impor- tion, convection and radiation. The units of U-value are Btu/hr.ft2. materials (such as steel and concrete) are used without airtight
tant properties for understanding the conductive performance of oF (Btu per hour per square foot per degree Fahrenheit) or W/ m2K insulation in transitional spaces, thus creating vulnerable loca-
building materials. (watts per square meter per kelvin). The U-value of a building as- tions for heat loss or heat transfer. These locations include the
sembly, such as a wall system, is calculated from the reciprocal penphery of windows and doors and connection areas between
of the combined thermal resistances of the materials in the wall the envelope components and structural elements. CONTINUOUS
THERMAL RESISTANCE (A-VALUE} Thermal resistance is the capacity LAYER OF
assembly (U=1 / R) .
of a material to resist heat transfer through conduction, convec- Thermal bridges are more critical in cold climates or in hot and INSULATION
tion, and radiation. It is a measure of insulation value and is largely humid climates when the indoor-outdoor temperature differences
a function of the number and size of cavity spaces in a material. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY Thermal conductivity is the ability Of a mate- are the greatest. Without adequate insulation, the cool air and
Thermal resistance is expressed as A-value which has units of rial to transmit heat. Conductivity is a result of direct molecular the warm air meet through thermal bridges on the surface of the
ft2. F.h/Btu (square feet-Fahrenheit hour per Btu), m2.K!W (square
0
interaction for transferring heat when there is a temperature differ- envelope, creating condensation and built-up moisture. Moisture
meter-kelvin per watt) , or m2 .CNV (square meter-Celsius per ence in the material. Thermal conductivity is expressed by k or f. decreases the envelope's A-value. creates water leakage and
watt). To show the thermal resistance of a material, the symbol R and is measured as Btu/ hroF. ft (Btu per hour per foot per degree deteriorates the building envelope. Thermal bridging is best ad-
is usually placed before the numerical value, as in R-20. The A- Fahrenheit) or W/m.K (watts per meter per kelvin). Thermal con- dressed during the design process for new buildings. For existing
value for building assemblies composed of various elements can ductivity and thermal transmittance are closely related. However, buildings with mandatory energy saving ordinances, various test-
be found by the summation of all individual element's A-values. thermal conductivity does not take into account heat transfer due ing methods can determine the exact location and to some extent
to radiation and convection, or the material thickness. the magnitude of thermal bridges. The U.S. ENERGY STAR Quali- INSULATION
fied Homes Thermal Bypass Inspection Checklist includes two BENEATH
r methods of infrared thermography (thermal imaging) and blower FLOOR
door test inspections.
0 - - - - - - - - EXTERNAL
INSULATION
METAL VENEER saow
R-0.61 ft'. ' F.h/Btu
GROUND
-- EXTRUDED INSULATION
I
!--- 0
R-21 .60 ft' ' F h/Btu
GYPSUM BOARD
R-0.52 ft'.'F.hi Btu
------ METAL VENEER
R-0.61 ft2."F.h!Btu
EXTRUDED ::J
--
+ R-22 .73 ft' .' F h/Btu
Fig. 2.17 Thermal Bridge Free Faqade with Continued Insulation @
INSULATION U= 1/ IRi
R-21 .60 ft2 .'F.h1Btu
GYPSUM BOARD U-0.044 Btulhrft' ' F
R-0.52 U-0.251 Wlm'K ~"~~~:h'!'!f/i.~----1-i~ THERMAL BRI_DGE
+R-22 73 ft2 ' F.hi Btu p EXTERIOR INFRARED SURVEY
.-'?i!if"'..:."''-'~'~':';'~<""'~--H~AIR
LEAKAGE
~ Outdoor surface temp. of metal fac;;ade
>113'F (45'C)

.II
0

... . . . . . . . . . .
...
.
....

............
.............
0
...

..................
..............
.............
...............
..............

.........,...

........
....... .
0 -~

RADIATION
Glazing temp. = 97.7'F (36.5'C)
Outdoor air temp. = 79'F (26.1' C )
Relative humidity = 78%
Wind speed= 15 mph (24.1 kmlh)

.................
:-:-:-: :-::::::.
-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-:-::::. ........
~~ ~ ...................
:-:::
:::::::::::::1
....................
................... ...
:.::.::....
..
::::
.. CONDUCTION

:II~~ ~ ~ ~II~~IIIt:: I~i


....i' ~
"---- CONVECTION HEAT TRANSFER
- -- - - - RADIATION :::::::~
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: INTERIOR INFRARED SURVEY
........................
................... ......
CONDUCTION
................
....... .....
....


. ;,;;;::.:.:::::'.jj.';;;;;;;;;
Indoor surface temp. of metal window
mullion > 76.6'F (24.8'C)
OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE
!
: : : : : : : : :t~&miifii
OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE 26.6' C/80' F Interior wall surface temp. = 74' F (23.3'C)
! 80' F/26.6' C Indoor air supply temp. = 68'F (20'C)
INSIDE TEMPERATURE . -::::::::::::::::::::::::::: INSIDE TEMPERATURE OUTDOOR AIR INDOOR AIR
}75' F/23.8'C TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE The window mullion has no thermal break
1 23.8' C/75' F
79'F (26.1'C) 68' F (20'C) to stop the heat transfer from exterior to
interior; therefore, a thermal bridge is
created.
HEAT TRANSFER
Fig. 2.1-4 Thermal Resistance (R-Value) @ Fig. 2.1-5 Thermal Transmittance (U-Value) @ Fig. 2.1-6 Thermal Bridge Detection through Infrared @)
20 Camera in Hot and Humid Climate ~
21
Concepts
2. Building Envelopes

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT & SHADING COEFFICIENT Glazed open- -..
ings on buildings can be a major source of heat gain by solar
radiation. Solar heat gain is a function of glazing material proper-
ties and is measured by the shading coefficient (SC) . SC is the
ratio between the solar heat gain for a particular type of glass and 1/8" (3.2 mm) THICK 1/4" (6.3 mm) THICK GLASS
that of a single clear float glass. SC is expressed as a number CLEAR FLOAT GLASS (SC) = 0.34
between 0.0 and 1.0. A lower SC indicates a lower heat gain value (SC) = 1.0 - - - - - ---+1

and a better capacity to block solar radiation . Clear glass has a H -f----- LOW E-COATING
.~....
SC of 1.0.
H-1 - - - BRONZE TINT
Shading coefficient is being replaced by the solar heat gain coef- \: : \ \ l -1--.-. - " ' - - - . ; . - - - - - 5
ficient (SHGC). The SHGC is a measure of how well glass blocks
heat from sunlight. The SHGC is the fraction of solar radiation that
is admitted through glass and is expressed as a number between
0.0 and 0.87. Typical values range from 0.25 to 0.80.

REFLECTION OF
..
. . R EFLECTION OF
SOLAR HEAT .... . .
.. . . - .. .
SOLAR HEAT
\
- .... . ..
.
SHGC =0.86
.. SHGC=0.29

SOLAR HEAT SOLAR HEAT


SOLAR HEAT GAIN
COEFFICIENT= 0 .29

VISUAL LIGHT
T RANSMITTED = 0 .53
ABSORPTION

CONDUCTION
THROUGH MULLIO N
;;all ... ... ABSOR PTION

INSULATION - -- - - - - ---f;'E\

DIRECT HEAT GAIN (RADIATION )


DIRECT HEAT GAIN (RADIATION)
1. 1/4" (6.3 mm) Thick Clear Window Glass SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC) = 0.29
SOLAR H EAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SH GC) = 0 .86
SH GC = SC x 0.86
2. 1/2" (12.6 mm) Air Gap =
SHGC SC x 0.86
3. Low Emissivily Coating Layer
4. Spectrally Selectic Tint Film
5. 1/4" (6.3 mm) Thick Clear Window Glass
Fig. 2.1-9 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient and Shading Coefficient
Fig. 2.1-8 Solar Heat Gain Coefficient

23
22
-
2. Building Envelopes Concepts

Enclosure Materials Masonry Products


Building enclosures serve a multitude of critical functions by pro- Masonry products are commonly used in building construction
PHYSICAL APPEARANCE NAME AND DESCRIPTION because of their modular nature. Traditionally, these products PHYSICAL APPEARANCE NAME AND DESCRIPTION
viding thermal comfort, natural lighting, air movement, humidity
and moisture control, views, sound insulation, pollution and fire have been used as a load-bearing element. However, due to
resistance. In addition, building enclosures can function as load- Plywood increased cost, most masonry products (with the exception of Stone
bearing walls or roof systems that provide lateral resistance to concrete masonry units) are cu rrently used as cladding materials
wind and seismic loads. Selecting enclosure materials that can Composed of thin sheets or p lies of only. Masonry building materials are easy to produce, transport Utilized in cladding materials only
wood veneers oriented at c ross because they require extremely
best integrate these functions is a substantial step to reducing and assemble. They require low maintenance and can be recy-
grain and bonded tog ethe r under labor-intensive processes and
resource and energy demand and the carbon footprint of build- heat and pressure. cled at the end of their use. e xpensive transportation.
ings throughout their life cycle. In addition, masonry products have good thermal properties: they
can store solar energy during the winter for passive heating and
Wood store cool energy in the summer to provide passive cooling. Ma-
O riented Strand Boa rd (OSB) sonry products can be classified into natural units which consist Clay Bricks
Due to the extensive availability and ease of fabrication, wood has of stones and man-made units, including clay bricks and concrete
been widely used as a building enclosure material. Although wood Composed of wood strands a ligned Utilized in cladding applications fo r
at 90 degrees a nd glued together masonry units. aesth etic purposes and ease of
is often considered renewable, unsustainable forest management wi th waterproof adh esives. fabrication. C lay bric ks have very
causes soil erosion and bio-diversity loss. However, when wood low embodied energy.
NATURAL UNIT: STONE Stone masonry is one of the oldest materi-
resources are managed and certified properly, the benefits of us-
ing wood in construction may exceed that of concrete and metals. als utilized in building construction. Stone products are currently
used as cladding materials only because their construction meth-
In order to ensure long-life service, a number of factors must be Concrete Mason ry Units
ods are not efficient when compared to other available structural
Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)
considered when using wood in buildings. Moisture control is one materials. Stone products require extremely labor-intensive pro- Utilized for both structural and
of the most critical concerns because a high level of moisture con- Manufactu red from thin peele d cesses that are harmful to the site of their extraction. They are cladding applications. When used
tent wil l lead to decay. Termite and fire control are also important layers of wood ve neer aligned with as to ad-bearing walls, the hollow
also expensive to transport and manipulate, thus having a high
the le ng th of the member and glued space within the units a re utilized
factors when designing with wood. Wood can be recycled and, embodied energy. For building enclosure applications, the most
with a stron adhesive. for placing stee l reinforcing bars
when designed properly, is a durab le construction material. Wood commonly used stones are granite, an igneous rock created from and are filled with concrete.
has a low embodied energy, is biodegradable and has a better deposits in molten state; limestone, a sedimentary rock trans-
thermal efficiency when compared to most metals. formed by the action of water; and marble, a metamorphic rock
which can be either sedimentary or igneous rock transformed by
Fig. 2.1-10 Wood Enclosure Materials Fig. 2.1-12 Masonry Enclosure Materials
ENGINEERED WOOD PRODUCTS Almost all enclosure applications re- heat and pressure.
quire engineered wood products. These are composite elements
manufactured with precise design specifications to produce MAN-MADE UNITS: CLAY BRICK AND CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS (CMUs) Man-
wood components with consistent properties, better efficiency, made masonry products are among the most commonly used
and improved performance. materials in building construction. They have low embodied en-
Engineered wood products utilize smaller trees that can grow ergy because they are fabricated under a controlled environment,
and be replaced faster. However, the manufacturing process con- reducing time and material use effectively. They are durable and
sumes more energy, and some of the adhesives used are toxic. can be recycled for other uses. Unused, broken units can be re-
In addition, recycling engineered wood is more difficult than sawn turned to the manufacturing process to produce new ones. Man-
lumber. Engineered wood products are used for stiffening and made units are formed and shaped by the action of sieam and
covering floors, walls, partitions and sheathings, and for backings pressure. They can be made of clay, shale, soft slate, calcium
for special veneers and coatings. silicate and concrete. Some manufacturers fabricate masonry
units for cladding applications made of sludge or petroleum-
Plywood contaminated soil, thus further reducing embodied energy and
Plywood is composed of thin sheets or plies of wood veneers ori-
water.
ented at cross-grain and bonded together under heat and pres-
sure. Clay Bricks
Fig. 2.1- 11 Example of Using Plywood as a Building Envelope;
"Plywood House" by Herzog & De M euron, Basel, Switzerland Clay bricks are generally util ized in cladding applications for
Oriented Strand Board (OSB) aesthetic purposes and ease of fabrication. Brick walls can be
OSB is composed of wood strands aligned at 90 degrees and constructed off-site in a metal frame system and assembled on Fig. 2. 1-13 Example of Using Brick as a Building Envelope;
glued together with waterproof adhesives. "Experimental House" by Alvar Aalto, Muuratsalo, Finland
the construction-site, where they are welded together into p lace.
Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)
Concrete Masonry Units (CMUs)
Laminated veneer lumber is manufactured from thin peeled layers CMUs are utilized for both structural and cladding applications.
of wood veneer that are aligned with the length of the member and When used as load bearing walls, the hollow space within the
glued with a strong adhesive. units are utilized for placing steel reinforcing bars and are fil led
with concrete. The hollow space in CMUs can also be used to
hold electrical or plumbing elements.

24 25
2. Building Envelopes Concepts
-

Metals
Reinforced Concrete Metals that are widely used as building enclosure materials
PHYSICAL APPEARANCE NAME AND DESCRIPTION PHYSICAL APPEARANCE NAME AND DESCRIPTION
Concrete is composed of cement, aggregate, water, and a num- include steel, stainless steel, copper, titanium, zinc, brass, and
ber of additives to control properties such as strength, workability, aluminum. Metals offer a long-lasting and lightweight alternative
curing time, etc. Cement production accounts for 7 percent of Steel-reinforced Concrete for cladding buildings. Most metals are highly recyclable without Steel
worldwide C02 annual emissions. These emissions can be re- any loss in property or performance, and on-site metal construc-
Architectural precast wall panels tion often leaves little waste. However, metals in general have High-strength and durable cladding
duced by replacing a portion of cement in the mix with waste by- used for building enclosures include material when treated against
products from po_wer plants, steel mills, and other manufacturing high embodied energy and embodied water, and do not provide corrosion.
steel reinforcement to increase the
facilities . In addition, using recycled concrete, recycled glass, tire concrete capacity in tension. adequate thermal insulation. In addition, because the production
scraps, and other materials as aggregate can reduce concrete's of metals requires significant input of raw materials and energy, it
embodied energy significantly. Concrete has many applications often results in output of hazardous emission, water pollution and
for building enclosures including architectural panels, bearing solid waste.
wal ls and shear walls. Stainless Steel
Fiber-reinforced Concrete
STEEL Steel is a high strength metal, but it is vulnerable to mois- Contains chromium which is a
Discrete fiber particles of glass, ture and corrodes easily. Steel must be covered with a protective corrosion-resistant element, making
STEEL-REINFORCED CONCRETE Because concrete is brittle and has a steel or plastic can be added to the
layer when exposed to the environment. Using COR-TEN steel or stainless steel an extremely durable
very low capacity to carry tension forces, almost all elements used concrete mix to increase its cladding material.
in building construction include reinforcing steel bars or wires. Ar- capacity in tension. weathering steel can provide an alternative to the application of
chitectural precast wall panels, commonly used for building en- rust-proofing material. This type of steel forms a stable outer layer
closu res, include steel reinforcement to increase the concrete's of brown/orange rust when exposed to air. This layer protects the
capacity in tension. However, when reinforced concrete is used steel from further rusting.
Aluminum
for structural purposes, a much larger percentage of steel rein-
Lightweight Concrete
forcement must be included. STAINLESS STEEL Stainless steel is an iron alloy that contains Long-lasting, corrosion-resistant,
Adding stable foam to the concrete chromium which is a corrosion-resistant element, making stain- lightweight and 100 percent
mix introduces small air bubbles, - recyclable material.
FIBER-REINFORCED CONCRETE In nonstructural applications Of COn- less steel an extremely durable cladding material. It can be 100
making concrete lighter.
crete, reinforcement to increase concrete's compressive capacity percent recycled with a high scrap value, eliminating much of the
can be added in the form of discrete fiber particles of glass, steel construction waste. However, stainless steel is an expensive con-
or plastic. The addition of these fibers creates a lightweight con- struction material with high embodied energy.
Fig. 2.1-14 Concrete Enclousure Materials
crete with improved moisture resistance , energy absorption and Zinc
fire resistance. ALUMINUM Aluminum is relatively useful because it is long last-
ing, corrosion resistant, lightweight and 100 percent recyclable. Long-lasting, corrosion-resistant
However, aluminum has a negative impact on the environment and mildew-resistant material,
LIGHTWEIGHT coNCRETE Lightweight concrete, also known as because its manufacturing processes (including extraction, recyclable and reduces heat gain.
foamed concrete or cellu lar concrete, is composed of lightweight refinement, smelting and modeling) require a large amount of
concrete with improved thermal efficiency. Adding stable foam to energy. Aluminum's embodied energy is 126 times higher than
the concrete mix introduces small air bubbles, making it lighter. that of wood.
This type of concrete can be used in nonstructural wall and floor
panels. Titanium
ZINC Zinc is a long-lasting, flexible material that can be used
Corrosion-resistant, lightweight,
for building enclosure applications. It generally contains a large easily worked into complex shapes,
percentage of recycled content and has little to no maintenance low coefficient of expansion.
requirements. Zinc's carbon footprint is lower than that of other
metals.

TITANIUM Titanium is a long-lasting, lightweight metal. It is mostly Fig. 2.1-16 Metal Enclosure Materials
used in automotive, motorcycle and sporting applications be-
cause of its light weight and its high strength and rigidity. Titanium
does not corrode and as a result does not release toxic materials
generated by corrosion. Titanium has a long life cycle and a large
percentage of recycled content. It has a smaller thermal expan-
sion and shrinkage than stainless steel.

Fig. 2. 1-15 Example of Using Reinforced Concrete as a Building Envelope; "Salk


Institute " by Louis Kahn, San Diego, California

26 27
2. Bui Iding Envelopes Concepts

Glass
Glass is composed of a mixture of sand, soda ash (hydroxide or PHOTovoLTAIC GLAss consists of two g lass layers embedded with
sodium carbonate) and added heat. When glass was first used in PHYSICAL APPEARANCE NAME AND DESCRIPTION PHYSICAL APPEARANCE NAME AND DESCRIPTION
solar cells that collect and convert solar energy into electricity. The
architecture and construction, it had many limitations, including energy generation is dependent on the enclosure orientation and Annealed Glass Insulated Glass
cost and labor-intensive fabrication processes. Today, architec- the amount of solar exposure.
tural glass has become a favored building material because it Annealed glass is produced by Insulated glass is composed of two
is relatively inexpensive and it offers versatility. When utilized for gradually cooling glass to decrease or three separate layers of glass with
cladding purposes, glass has a profound impact in the aesthetics SMART GLASS also known as E-glass or switchable glass is a its brittleness and likelihood of an air space in between. These
and energy efficiency of a building. Glass can be reflective, refrac- type of glass that can control the amount of light transmitted into cracking. However, annealed glass layers provide thermal insulation and
tive, transparent, translucent and opaque. It can control glare as it a space. It can also block UV rays by transforming its appearance can break into large, sharp pieces minimize heat transfer.
from a transparent surface to a translucent surface. causi ng serious injuries. 7
filters light and can provide sound and fire protection. Glass has
beerJ the focus of intensive research and development among Tempered or Safety G lass Sound Insulation or Acoustic Glass
scientists and engineers to enhance its two most efficient traits, ELECTROCHROMIC GLASS consists of glass treated with an electro-
the ability to transmit natural light and block excessive heat. chromic layer to control the amount of light passing through. It is Safety glass is tempered to increase Sound insulation glass consists of
strength and resistance to impact. multiple glass panes or laminated
an energy-saving device because it changes opacity and color
When e mpered glass breaks, it glass that reduce sound transmis-
ANNEALED GLAss is the most common type of window glass; how- when exposed to solar radiation to reduce heat gain. sion.
shatters into very small pieces that
ever it can break into large, sharp pieces causing serious injuries. are held together, making it less of
2 an injury hazard. 8
Composites
TEMPERED GLAss has increased strength and if it breaks, it will Laminated Glass Fire Protection Glass
A composite material refers to a single material that occurs natu-
usually shatter in small pieces.
rally or is engineered from two or more materials with significantly Fire protection glass consists of
Laminated glass is impact resistant
different properties. Composite materials range from translucent because it is composed of two or more multiple glass layers with wire mesh
LAMINATED GLAss is impact proof because it is composed of two concrete to colored photovoltaic units. Composites are often layers of temperate glass, in between. Utilizing this type of
layers of temperate glass sandwiched together with an invisible used when lighter weight is an important consideration. sandwiched together with an glass provides adequate time for
mesh of polyvinyl butyral. invisible mesh of resin. evacuation before damage by fire.
3 9
PLASTICS are highly functional engineered materials for archi-
SPANDREL GLASS is a portion of opaque glass used in exterior tectural applications. Innovative, technical developments are Spandrel Glass Photovoltaic Glass
curtain wall systems to hide the mechanical system between floor constantly improving thei r material properties, and plastics are
becoming increasingly prevalent in the construction industry. Spandrel glass is opaque glass often Photovoltaic glass consists of two
slabs.
used in exterior curtain walls to glass layers embedded with solar
Some common applications in building construction include
conceal the mechanical and structural cells that collect and convert solar
insulation, piping, and window framing and cladding. Plastic in-
FRITIED GLASs is used as a light-diffusing element in buildings. systems between floor slabs. energy into electricity.
sulation has high thermal efficiency and improves energy perfor-
It can be used as an energy-saving strategy to maximize daylight
mance. 4 10
penetration while reducing heat gain.
Fritted Glass Smart Glass

TINTED GLAss is a type of tempered glass that has been treated


Fritted glass is produced by printing Smart glass also known as E-Giass
with a film or coating to reduce the transmission of light and heat
an image, color or a pattern onto the utilizes a smart film to transition from
into a space. transparent to darkened or reflective
glass surface during the manufactur-
ing process. It can be utilized to surface, thus controlling the amount
control daylight and solar heat gain. of light transmitted into a space.
INSULATED GLASS is composed of two or three separate layers
5 11
of glass with air space in between. These layers provide good
thermal insulation to minimize heat gain or heat loss through the Tinted Glass Electrochrom ic Glass
building envelope. Insulated glass is required by law for cladding
applications in many countries. Tinted glass is tempered glass that Electrochromic glass consists of
has been treated with a film or glass treated w ith an electro-chromic
coating in order to reduce the layer to control th e amount of light
souND INSULATION glass consists of multiple glass panes that pre- transmission of light and heat. passing through. T his type of glass
vent sound waves from entering interior spaces. changes opacity to reduce heat gain.
6 12

FIRE PROTECTION GLASS consists of multiple glass layers with wire Fig. 2.1-17 Glass Enclosure Materials
mesh or special fireproofing foil in between. Utilizing this type of
glass provides adequate time for evacuation before damage by
fire.

28 29
------1

2. Building Envelopes Concepts

Insulation Materials
The insulation of a building envelope con sists of many layers higher air content. Air and some inert gases such as xenon, kryp- side. These panels can act as a structural system in lightweight
of materials that are critical in meeting thermal, acoustical, and ton and argon are good insulators and are often used as insula- construction where the building loads are relatively low, thus func- AIRTIGHT METAL
fi re-resistant requirements. Insulation materials can be either tion between glass panels. 4 tioning as both structure and insulation. SIP provide high A-values FOIL SKIN
organic (raw materials such as cork, mineral fiber, cotton, etc.) or and have significantly reduced levels of air infiltration. They are
inorganic (synthetic materials such as polyurethane rigid foam or commonly available in panels 4 feet (1.2 m) wide by 8-24 feet
RIGID INSULATION Rigid Insulation is a lightweight material used
polystyrene) . (2.4- 7.3 m) long, and a thickness range of 2-12 inches {3.5-5
to provide thermal insulation for the building envelope. It is com-
Thermal insulation is used to reduce the rate of heat transfer posed of extruded plastic foam (polystyrene or polyurethane) , or em).
through the building enclosure and protects against moisture- a fibrous material such as fiberglass, rock, and slag wool. Rigid
related damage. Thermal insulation plays a critical role in the insulation is most effective in reducing heat exchange by conduc- VACUUM INSULATION PANELS Vacuum insulation panels (VI Ps) pro-
energy efficiency of buildings because it mitigates energy ex- tion. There are three types of rigid insulation: polystyrene, bead vide higher thermal resistance than conventional insulation mate-
change between the interior of the building and the exterior envi- board and polyisocyanurate. rials by utilizing the insulating effect of a vacuum (convection can-
ronment. The thermal energy transfer through a material is depen- not occur in a vacuum). VIPs are generally composed of a porous
dent on its thermal conductivity. A material with less conductivity Fig. 2.1-20 Vacuum Insulated Panel Detail
STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANELS Structural insulated panels (SIP) are core material such as polystyrene which could be evacuated and
will have smaller energy exchange with the external environment, sealed with an airtight metal foil skin.
composed of rigid foam core insulation (polystyrene or polyure-
therefore creating a better insulation. In addition, materials with
thane) laminated by structurally oriented strand boards on either Although the thermal resistance of VIPs is five to ten times bet-
less density have a better insulation quality because they have
ter than conventional insulation of the same thickness,5 the long-
term performance of VIPs is based on adequate protection of the
skin against damage and puncture that could lead to loss of the
vacuum. VIPs have been used as refrigerator insulation for a long
time, but they are becoming increasingly utilized for building con-
struction, replacing conventional insulation materials.

SYNTHETIC INSULATION Building materials such as concrete or ma-


sonry can meet the requirements for building insulation depend-
ing on the climatic zone and thickness of the building envelope.
Load-bearing materials such as CMU can be permeated with air-
filled pores that satisfy sufficient load-carrying capacity, with the
- -1--11- +--- 3 air captured in the pores providing an insulation effect, increasing
the A-value. Building materials that are porous must be protected
against moisture to avoid the insulating factor being significantly
reduced.

-~~~-------- 10
1. Top Plates
~----------- 1 1
1. Fiberglass Insulation 2. Interior Wall Panels
2. Wood Framing 3. Sealant ..- - - -- - -12
3. Wood Sheathing 4. Panel Connectors
1. Interior Gypsum Board
4. Water Resistant Barrier 5. Rigid Foam
2. Airtight Metal Foil Skin
5. Rigid Insulation with Taped Joints 6. Spline Cuts in Foam
3. Foam Core (Expanded Polystyrene EPS Rigid Foam)
6. Metal Lath 7. Exterior Wall Panels
4. Airtight Metal Foil Skin
7. Mortar 8. Floor Sheating
5. Exterior Wall
8. Exterior Cladding 9. Floor Joists
10. Nailer Fig. 2.1-21 Vacuum Insulated Panels
11. Sill Treated Plate
12. Foundation

Fig. 2.1-18 Rigid Insulation Fig. 2.1-19 Structural Insulated Panels

30 31
2. Building Envelopes
-- Concepts

souND INSULATION Sound in sula tion is an important aspect of OTHER INSULATION MATERIALS Building construction USeS a Wide
PHYSICAL APPEARANCE NAME THERMAL PROPERTIES REMARKS
building perfo rma n ce. Sound in sula tion can be ach ieved by range of synthetic or natural and organic or inorganic insulation
using a wid e range o f materials that can be used for both sound mat erials manufactured from fossil fuel byproducts or sil ica and Thermal Conductivity (k)
and thermal insulation . Sound insulation is measured based on pla nt cellulose material. Almost all synthetic insulatio n products 0.022- 0.023 Btu/hr.ft.0 f
how well the buildin g e nvelope attenuates airborne sound. Sound provide good resist ance to water permeability. Natural insulation 0.038-0.040 W/m.K Mostly made of recycled newspaper
t ransmission class (STC) is widely used in the U nited States to materials contain continuous a ir gaps and require a special vapor Cellulose fibers Harmful dust inhalation
evaluate the in sulation ' s effectiveness. The high er the STC num- barrier for water protection. R-Value per inch Recyclable
ber, the more effective the material is in providing adequate sou n d R = 3.6-3.8
insulation .
Thermal Conductivity (k)
0.022- 0.029 Btu/hr.ft."F
0.038- 0.050 W/m.K Made from renewable resources (cork forests)
Cork Harmful dust inhalation
R-Value per inch Recyclable and waterproof
R=3.0-3.1

ORGANIC NATURAL RAW INSULATING MATERIAL

~
Thermal Conductivity (k)
O.D18- 0.023 Btulhr.ft. of
Expanded 0.032- 0.040 W/m.K Can be reused
polystyrene Pollution risks from oil and plastic production
(EPS) R-Value per inch Recyclable

v R =3.5 -4.5

~
Thermal Conductivity (k)
0.017-0.021 Btulhr.ft."F
Extruded 0.028- 0.036 W/m.K Can be reused
polystyrene Pollution risks from oil and plastic production
(XPS) R-Value per inch Recyclable

v
ORGANIC SYNTHETIC RAW INSULATING MATERIAL
R =5.0-5.4

Thermal Conductivity (k)


0.018 - 0.023 Btulhr.ft. of
0.031 - 0.040 W/m."K Lightweight
Expanded clay Does not contain harmful substances
R-Value per inch Moisture resistant
R =2.0-2.2
INORGANIC NATURAL RAW INSULATING MATERIAL

Thermal Conductivity (k)


0.022- 0.028 Btulhr.ft.0 f
Contains glass waste
0.037 - 0.048 W/m.K
Cellular glass Landscape degradation caused by extraction
of material
R-Value per inch
Recyclable
R = 3.4-3.5

1. CMU Block Thermal Conductivity (k)


2. Wood Framing 0.018- 0.023 Btu/hr.ft. of Contains about 30 to 60% post-consumer
3. Wood Sheathing 0.031 - 0.040 W/m."K waste
4. Acoustic Mineral Wool Glass mineral
Landscape degradation caused by extraction
5. Plasterboard wool
R-Value per inch of material
6. Soundproofing Mat
7. Plasterboard R = 3.1-4.3 Recyclable

Fig. 2. 1-22 Sound Insulation


INORGANIC SYNTHETIC RAW INSULATING MATERIAL Fig. 2.1-23 Other Insulation Materials ' Properties

32 33
2. Building Envelopes Concepts
-------------------------------------------------------~
~~]
Thermal Material s
Building materials with significant mass such as concrete can act
as a thermal storage areas in climates where there is a signifi-
cant difference between the day and nighttime temperatures. A
number of newly developed materials can store energy without

requiring a great mass. Because these materials are being further
developed, tested and improved, their use in building construc-
tion is becoming more prevalent.
2-------------~

THERMAL MASS Concrete, masonry, and stone are good thermal


materials. When properly used, they can absorb excess energy
deep into their mass during high thermal loads and gradually 1--i~~ijp!T---------\
- - - 60N6RH-E-W'A
AND FLOOR USED
release it from their surface when the thermal loads are low.
AS THERMAL MASS
Materials such as wood and steel are not thermal materials. Wood
does not have an adequate emissive quality. The location of the Fig. 2.1-24 Thermal Mass absorbs solar energy and release heat
thermal mass in a building is critical to its performance. To effec-
tively mitigate the interior temperatures, the exterior thermal mass
should be well insulated.

PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS Like thermal mass, phase change materi-


als (PCMs) have the capacity to store energy and release it at a
later time. PCMs can be incorporated in wallboards, roofs, ceil-
ing, and floors to passively cool or heat buildings. When utilized
for passive heating, PCMs absorb surplus heat energy during the ..
day, and release the stored heat when the ambient temperature
drops at night. PCMs are also utilized for space cooling in hot
climates to reduce the energy requirement for mechanical air con-
ditioning systems. For a detailed disscussion of PCMs, refer to
Section 4.2.

TRANSPARENT THERMAL INSULATION Transparent insulation (TI) can 3---


transform the heat loss of massive building walls to solar heating
elements. Tl is composed of small transparent plastic or glass
honeycomb tubes with small openings. Tl is usually installed in
front of a dark, and preferably matt surface, and is backed by a 4 --~

high-density concrete wall. The insulation is then protected from


the outside with a single glass pane. When facing sunlight, the
solar radiation passes through the Tl and is absorbed by the dark 5 - -- -
material, thus warming up the concrete and storing heat in the
wall's mass. The stored heat is then gradually emitted for space
heating. In overcast skies, the insulation capacity of Tl prevents
heat loss through the wall, creating a superior thermal mass.
6----~\~
' '
\

\ \

''
Some Tl systems have integrated shading systems to avoid over- 1. Concrete ' \
\

heating of the dark absorbering material during the hot summer 2.


3.
Absorbent Plaster or Paint
Air Gap
',~~ I
I

I
season.
4. Transparent Insulation
5. Single-Pane Glass
6- - - - - - 6. Transparent Cylindrical Tubes ___ ____ ...
Fig. 2. 1-26 Transparent Thermallnsulaltion

1. Corrugated Aluminum
2. Aluminum Channel System
3. Lightweight Steel Framing System
4. Insulation
5. Gypsum Board
6. Microscopic View of PCM Embedded in the Gypsum Board
Fig. 2.1-25 PCM Embedded Wall Detail

34 35
2. Buildi ng Envelopes Wall Systems

2.2. Wal l Systems


The design and technology used in exterior walls entail the use of
diverse materials. In general, wall systems can be designed as a
monolithic construction or a multi-layered system. In monolithic
wall construction, the protective insulation and the structural sys-
tem are all integrated into the same layer. Multilayer walls carry
these functions in separate layers. The capacity of walls to func-
tion as structural systems is dependent on the material and con- H~-1'%#--- 2
Rt-~W....-- 3
struction type. Walls can serve as the p rimary or secondary load-
bearing structure, or not perform any structural function at all.
The following sections will introduce a number of commonly
used wall types, their components, construction and assembly ~'!~----- 5
methods, and their sustainability properties. Each wall will be 2
~=t---- 6
accompanied by tabulated property values for standard construc- iBIWI!..._- - 7
tion as well as for green construction. The values listed for green
construction are based on the use of alternative materials with 1\!:d- - - 8
improved environmental performance. Rj.-J;j!1i;l-- - 9
~:-!;~--- 10

Cavity Wall
A cavity wall consists of two unbonded wythes of masonry sepa-
rated by an air space. The primary purpose of the cavity is to pre-
vent water from reaching the inner wythe. Cavity walls can be load
bearing or nonload-bearing. For load-bearing constructions, the
floor and roof loads of the building are carried by the inner wythe.
For nonload-bearing assemblies, another primary structure such
as steel or concrete carries roofs and floors. The cavity wall car-
ries only its own weight.

Wall Components 1- - - 12
INNER WYTHE In load-bearing assemblies, the inner wythe is E~-- 13
structural. All floor and roof loads are transferred into the inner
wythe, which transmits those loads down to the foundations. The
inner wythe is typically made of concrete masonry units (CMUs) 1. Steel Nut and Bolt on Steel Angle
and can vary in thickness. In load-bearing assemblies, several 2. Reinforced Concrete Floor
3. Compressible Foam Filler
thicknesses of block might be used in the same building , typi-
4. Insulation
cally 8-inch (20.2 em) CMUs on upper floors and 12- or 16-inch 5. Brick Face
(30.5- 40.6 em) CMUs on lower floors where accumulated loads 6. Mortar Joint
are greater. 7. Metal Tie 2
8. Air Space
The most commonly used device where floor and roof loads are 9. CMU
10. Drywall on Furring
transferred into a CMU wall is a bond beam: U-shaped blocks
11. Vapor Barrier (Required Based on Climatic Conditions)
placed in a section without intermediate webs. The trough formed 12. Mortar Dropping Control 1. Reinforced Concrete Floor
is filled with steel reinforcement and grout, which ties the blocks 13. Aluminum Flashing 2. Steel Nut and Bolt on Steel Angle
together to create what is effectively a reinforced concrete beam 3. Compressible Foam Filler
Fig. 2.2-1 Section of a Cavity Wall
embedded in the wall, making a strong bearing beam to transfer/ 4. MetaiTie
5. CMU
distribute floor and roof loads into the wall. 6. Insulation
7. Vapor Barrier (Required Based on Climatic Conditions)
Masonry is strong in compression and effective in resisting gravity
8. AirSpace
loads, but has no strength in tension. To deal with wind loads, 9. Mortar Joint
which introduce tensile forces in walls, the cavity wall may require 10. Brick Face
reinforcing . This is typ ically accomplished by horizontal joint re- 11 . Mortar Dropping Control
12. Aluminum Flashing
inforcement and/or vertical rebar grouted solid within the cells of
the CMU inner wythe. In nonload-bearing assemblies, the inner Fig. 2.2-2 Exploded Axonometric of a Cavity Wall
wythe is an infill within another primary structure, such as a steel
or concrete frame. In this case, the inner wythe sits on the slab,

36 37
- ---~- - - --- --:J - - - -----

2. Building Envelopes Wall Systems

and its weight is carried by the primary structure. Typically, the vide a layer of continuous exterior insulation that protects from
outer face of the inner wythe is flushed with the edge of the slab to temperature fluctuations and keeps interiors more comfortable.
ensure a continuous cavity. In addition , by placing the insulation layer on the exterior of the
building, heat loss or heat transfer caused by thermal bridging is
OUTER WYTHE The outer wythe of a cavity wall is nonstructural. reduced. 6 The thickness of insulation can be varied to enhance
the thermal performance of the wall. This improved performance
The primary functions of the outer wythe are to determine the
must be weighed against increased costs of insulation cavity ties
appearance of the wall, keep most liquid water out (not all), and
and flashings for thicker assemblies. However, higher initial costs
transfer lateral wind loads to the inner wythe through the cavity
for better insulation can also help to save energy with significant
ties.
pay back.
In small scale construction, the outer wythe transmits its own load
directly down to the foundations. In larger scale construction, the
outer wythe is typically carried by a shelf angle, which is bolted to 2
the edge of the floor slab. At each floor level, this angle transfers
the weight of the outer wythe to the primary structure. Ideally, the
3
shelf angle is stainless steel. Less costly galvanized steel angles
may be used, but these carry the risk of corrosion. The shelf
angle, typically bolted to an insert cast into the edge of the slab, 4
has slotted holes for tolerance and leveling.

CAVITY The role of the cavity is primarily to provide a capi llary 5


break against water penetration. The secondary benefits are that
it allows for differential movement of the inner and outer wythes,
and enhances the insulation value of the wall. The dimension of
6
the cavity varies depending on how much additional insulation
is placed within the cavity. As a rule of thumb, the cavity must 7
retain a minimum clear dimensio n of 2 inches (50 mm) to work
8
effectively. A narrower cavity is too easily bridged by mortar, wh ich
can squeeze out of joints or drop down inside the cavity, or by
insulation, which has been unevenly placed. Any such bridging in 9
the cavity must be avoided because it provides a path for water to 10
pass into the inner wythe.
11

12
CAVITY TIES Because the two wythes of a cavity wall are not bond-
ed , they must be connected by cavity ties, wh ich are inserted in r - - - -- 6
the bed (horizontal) joints of both wythes at the spacing specified ,----- 7
by the manufacturer. Made of metal, plastic sheet or wire, cavity
ties are flexible and allow differential movement between wythes.
Because cavity ties must bridge the cavity, most are designed
with a drip detail to prevent the passage of water across the cav- 1. Gypsum Board
:&-1---- -- 9 2. Reinforc ed Concrete Floor
ity. As the width of the cavity increases, cavity ties become more
H - - - -- - -10 3. Aluminum Flashing
expensive. The most durable and costly cavity ties are stainless 4. Rough Jamb
steel. Galvanized steel ties are less expensive, but carry the risk 5. Rough Sill
of corrosion. 6. Metal Plate
7. Window Sill
8. CMU
INSULATION The air space of the cavity itself contributes to 1. Precast Concrete Lintel 9. Insulation
2. Rough Head 10. Brick Face
the insulation value of the wall. However, it is rarely sufficient to 3. Aluminum Flashing 11 . Window Casing
provide the required level of thermal, acoustical, and fire safety 4. Double Glazed Window System 12. Aluminum Window Frame with Thermal Break
performance, so insulation is typically added to the assembly. A 5. Window Casing 13. Double-Glazed Window System
common location for insulation is within the cavity, where it is fixed 6. Aluminum Window Frame with Thermal Break
Fig. 2.2-4 Exploded Axonometric of a Cavity Wall with Punched Window
7. Rough Jamb
to the outer face of the inner wythe. Because insulation within the 8. Window Sill
cavity will get wet from time to time, it is important to specify prod- 9. Insulation
ucts that will not d egrade under wet conditions. Another location 10. Drywall on Furring

for insulation systems are outside on the walls. They are called
Fig. 2.2-3 Section of a Cavity Wall with Punched Window
exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) . These systems are
added to bricks, concrete or other thermal mass materials to pro-

39
38

2. Building Envelopes Wall Systems

VAPORBARRIER Although the outer wythe and the cavity prevent hydrates too quickly, which reduces its strength. If temperatures
the ingress of water in liquid form , a barrier is required to resist drop below freezing, mortar will not hydrate. Work must either be
Glass Curtain Wall
the passage of water vapor through the wall. Vapor pressure delayed or heating within temporary enclosures provided to en- A glass curtain wall is a nonload-bearing external wall that is sup-
always seeks to equalize on both sides of a wall. Warm air has able work to continue. Masonry is a long-life material that requires ported by the structural frame of the building. The most common STANDARD CONSTRUCTION
a higher moisture contenVvapor pressure than cool air, so vapor relatively little maintenance. The primary maintenance issue is association is with fully glazed building envelopes, but curtain
walls may also be made of metal, stone, concrete or other materi- Glass Curtain Wall (8'x12') EMBODIED RECYCLED
will seek to move from warm to cool areas to equalize pressure. renewal of mortar pointing, which may be required at 50-year in- R-VALUE ENERGY CONTENT
As it does so, moisture-laden air cools and, if it reaches the dew tervals. als. Standard glazed curtain wall systems typically use aluminum Aluminum Frame & Firewall 0.00 2.00%
12,408
point, causes condensation problems within buildings. In general, frames because they are lightweight and strong, can be easily Double Glass (Volume less ~) 1.73 6,462 0.00%
the vapor barrier is located on the warm side of the insulation to formed into complex shapes by the process of extrusion, and Spandrel Glass (~) 0. 13 6,462 0.00%
prevent the moisture in warm air to cool and become condensate. STANDARD CONSTRUCTION readily accept a wide range of finishes. Glazed curtain wall sys- Fire Retardant Batt (F'>e<glass) 0.73 12,063 0.15%
A vapor barrier is made of plastic or foil and can be a separate tems are designed to be glazed either from the outside or the Steel Channel & Connectors N/A 10,512 26.44%
Per Square Foot of Wall 2.60 47,907 28.62%
membrane or, more commonly, an integral layer laminated to the Cavity Wall EMBODIED RECYCLED inside.
insulation. The vapor barrier may also be a liquid cementitious or Punched Window R-VALUE ENERGY CONTENT
asphalt-based coating applied by brush. Steel Connections N/A 10,512 8.20% GREEN CONSTRUCTION
Weatherproof Membrane <"'>'Y"'"""'' N/A 37,310 0.00% Wall Components
Flashing (PVC) N/A 33,260 0.00%
Compressible Filler (CMU) N/A 47,323 0.00% MULLIONS These complex extruded box sections of aluminum Glass Curtain Wall (B'x12') EMBODIED RECYCLED
INTERIOR FINISH If the inner face of the inner wythe wi ll not be R-vALUE ENERGY CONTENT
seen in the completed building, a finish is required. This might CMU 0.66 306 0.00% incorporate housings for either screw or snap-on fixings. Vertical
1/2" Gypsum Wallboard (Bo<h SKlesJ 0.41 1,292 0.00% Aluminum Frame & Firewall 0.00 12,408 5.43%
be gypsum board (dry wall) , wet plaster, tile/stone, or wood/ metal mullions are typically continuous from floor to floor and support Double Glass w/Mod SG Low-E 3.20 6,462 14.93~
Brick 0.36 47,323 0.00% discontinuous horizontal mullions. In standard systems, vertical (Yolumo ~,!!! l\hl>oC>el
paneling. Typically, wood or metal furring strips/channels are Compressible Filler (Brick) N/A 2,908 0.00% Spandrel Glass 0.13 6,462 1.25%
required. The furring strips are screwed to the inner wythe and Extruded Insulation (XPS) 5.00 38,171 and horizontal mull ions have the same depth. However, depths
0.00% Fire Retardant Batt <
.,......, WooOJ 0.73 7,152 0.44%
can be shimmed to provide a level surface. The fin ish is in turn 1/8" Uncoated Double Glazing 0.53 6,462 0.00% may differ for structural, thermal, visual or aesthetic reasons. Steel Channel & Connectors N/A 4,093 26.44%
screwed to the furring strips. The space created (1 - 2 inches or Aluminum Frame N/A 66,778 0.99% Per Square Foot of Wall 4.07 36,577 48.48%
2.5-5.1 em) between the inner wythe and the finish may be used Per Square Foot of Wall 6.95 291 ,646 9.20%
SETTING BLOCKS Made of synthetic rubber, setting blocks carry -
for concealing pipes, electrical conduit and wiring. the weight of the glass on the horizontal mullions, isolate the glass
from the frame on both horizontal and vertical mullions, and en- STANDARD CONSTRUCTION
GREEN CONSTRUCTION
FlASHINGs A flashing is a continuous sheet of thin, impervious able the glass to expand and contract within the frame. - ~F' h/BTU) B-llALUE
material used as a barrier against the passage of water. There are Cavity Wall EMBODIED RECYCLED GREEN CONSTRUCTION
I
Iso
Punched Window R-VALUE ENERGY CONTENT
two broad categories: external flashings, which keep water out of THERMALBREAK Made of extruded plastic, the thermal break fits MATERIAL WEIGHT
Steel Connections N/A 10,512 8.20% orJ!I'"'/ ~
. 1150
~ -

the cavity, and internal flashings which take water from the cavity 37,310 0.00% into the screw slot on the mullion. It separates the external metal
and direct it out. 1,292 0.00% components of the frame from the mullion to prevent hot and cold EME!QI:liEI:l Etl!;B(;2Y
IBTU/Ib!
N/A 33,260 0.00% bridging. ol - jlooooo
Examples of locations where external flashings are required are at N/A 47,323 0.00%
the top of a wall or at the junction of a flat root" and a parapet wall. 0.66 306 21 .64% (%/b~) BEQYQ!.EQ QQt:UEtlT
External flashings are not always hidden and could be exposed, 0.36 1 292 29.67% GLAZING GASKETS Made of rubber or neoprene, glazing gaskets ol ... ~00
such as a sheet metal coping/flashing at the top of a wall or the 47,323 fit into housings on the mullion and the pressure plate. Glazing COST
30 373
counter-flashing at a roof/wall junction. gaskets are attached prior to placing the glass. They isolate the 0 ~00
6462
Internal flashings, which are also called cavity trays, are required N/A 12 408 glass from the frame and make a weather-tight seal.
whenever anything interrupts, projects into, or bridges the cav- Per Square Foot of Wall 6.37 227,862
Estimated properties and values are based on the add1t1on of attnbutes of each
ity. The only exceptions are cavity ties, which do not need to be

-
GLAZING Prefabricated units of single, double or triple glazing component of an 8'x12' (2.4 mx 3.6 m) wall panel.
flashed. Locations where internal flashings are required include are connected to the aluminum frame from the exterior.
at floor levels where shelf angles are used to support the outer STANDARD CONSTRUCTION
wythe; at openings such as windows or doors, which must be R-VALUE
flashed at the top, the sides and at the sill; and at the base of a GREEN CONSTRUCTION PRESSURE PlATE The pressure plate, an aluminum extrusion, is
wall where the cavity terminates. Instead of extending horizontally screwed to the projecting spines on the mullions to hold the glass
through the wall, a cavity tray must be stepped 6-8 inches or 15.2- cj_-~~~~~~~~~~==~M~AT~E~R~IA~L~W~E~IG~HJTl150 in place.
20.3 em down toward the outer wythe, so that any water in the BTU!Ib EMBODIED ENERGY
cavity is naturally directed down and out. ,000 SNAP CAP The snap cap, an aluminum extrusion, which snaps
(% /b~)
into housings in the pressure plate, covers the screw fixings. It
CONSTRUCTION AND SUSTAINABILITY The construction of a cavity wall 0~ provides the external profile of the curtain wall frami ng and can
requires highly skilled labor. Because of the mortar, a cavity wall is vary in depth for visual or aesthetic purposes.
a form of wet construction, which is more time consuming and site
labor intensive than dry forms of construction, which can be pre-
fabricated and more quickly assembled on-site. Cavity wall con- Estimated properties and values are based on the addition of attributes of each
struction is weather dependent. In extremely hot weather, mortar component of an 8'x12' (2.4 m x 3.6 m) wall panel.

40 41
I 2. Bui lding Envelopes
------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Wall Systems

CONSTRUCTION AND SUSTAINABILITY Standard glazed CUrtain wall


systems are typically stick-built or are prefabricated panels. In
stick-built systems, metal frame components are assembled and
glazed on-site. Prefabricated panels are more costly to purchase
and transport, but they are typically of very high quality. Because
prefabricated panels can be quickly placed on-site with compar-
atively little site labor, using them can shorten the construction
time. In addition to glass, curtain walls can incorporate louvers,
vents and solid infill panels of metal, wood, translucent thermal
insulation, air collectors, and photovoltaics or other materials.
Enhanced thermal performance of curtain walls can be achieved
by combining single- and double-glazed leaves with an air space 2

in between that may vary from several inches to several feet, de-
pending on the servicing strategy for the building. Materials used
3
in the construction of curtain walls (i.e., metal and glass) tend to
have high embodied energy.
4

~~~~~~~~---- 5
IIi>-- - - 6

1. Reinforced Concrete Floor


2. Glazing Gasket with Thermal Break
3. Aluminum Window Frame System with Thermal Break
4. Double-Glazed Window System
5. Insulation
6. Spandrel Glass
1. Reinforced Concrete Floor
Fig. 2.2-5 Section of a Glass Curtain Wall
2. Insulation
3. Aluminum Window Frame System with Thermal Break
4. Glazing Gasket with Thermal Break
5. Spandrel Glass
6. Double-Glazed Window System

Fig. 2.2-6 Exploded Axonometric of Glass Curtain Wall

42 43
2. Building Envelopes Wall Systems

Concrete Masonry Unit Wall


The concrete masonry unit (CMU) wall is a prevalent building
component that is both simple to construct and durable over
time. It is composed of hollow elements that allow for expediency
and alterability during and after assembly. The voids of the CMUs
serve as forms for cast-in-place reinforced concrete columns and
beams and can accommodate other building systems such as
insulation, plumbing and condu its.

Wall Components
CMU The CMU is a factory-produced item. Although there are a
variety of shapes available to address particular wall conditions,
the standard American CMU block is 8 in x 8 in x 16 in (20.3 em x
20.3 em x 40.6 em). The standard block is hollowed out with two
vertical cells.

MORTAR The mortar or grout of CMU walls unifies the individual


masonry units into a monolithic system. Because the concrete
masonry units are hollow, the mortar is applied only to the outer
edges of the block. The mortar used in a CMU wall has more
water in it than typical concrete because the mortar needs to be a
workable material capable of being easily modified on-site.

HORIZONTAL JOINT REINFORCEMENT Horizontal joint reinforcement


provides lateral strength to the CMU wall. The size and frequency
of horizontal joint reinforcement depends on the structural loads
on the wall. Typically, joint reinforcement is placed at every other
horizontal joint line. This reinforcement is composed of "ladder
types" or "truss types" that span from the center lines of the block
faces.

VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT Vertical reinforcement provides the CMU


wall with the required compressive strength. This reinforcement is
1. Reinforced Concrete Floor
composed of reinforcing steel bars sized to the structural design
2. CMU Block
loads. The reinforcement, combined with grout-filled cells, forms 3. Horizontal Reinforcement
load-bearing columns embedded in the wall. 4. Stucco (Impermeable Medium)
5. Gypsum Board
6. Mortar
STucco Because a concrete masonry unit is porous, a water- 7. CMU Grout
8. Vertical Reinforcement
proofing surface is needed. Stucco serves as an inexpensive
9. Insulation
material that waterproofs a CMU wall and hides imperfections.
Fig. 2.2-7 Section of a CMU Wall
The surface of the stucco can be smooth or textured and can be
Note: Insulation Detail based on Schock lsokorb, "Schock
scored. For stucco to serve as an effective waterproofing agent,
Innovative Building Solutions." http://www.schoeck.co.uk/
its surface should not to be pierced or disrupted. upload/ files/ download/1 001 13_TI _IK_GB_rz_web_EBA_
type_K_5B2736_50[2736].pdf.
--
CONSTRUCTION AND SUSTAINABILITY The CMU wall has been a preva-
lent building enclosure because of its forgiving nature and adapt- 1. Reinforced Concrete Floor System
ability. Because it is hollow, a CMU wall is easy to cut and break 2. Insulation
3. Horizontal Steel Reinforcement
to conform to specific dimensional requirements. If errors occur 4. Vertical Steel Reinforcement
on-site, it is a system that can be easily modified and rebuilt. This 5. CMU Grout
malleability makes it cost effective and requires a moderate skill 6. CMU
level. In addition, the hollow cells can absorb a variety of building 7. Mortar
8. Reveal
complements and adapt to a wide range of structural capacities. 9. Stucco (Impermeable Medium)
CMU walls are quite durable. Their weakness is porosity, there-
Fig. 2.2-8 Exploded Axonometric of a CMU Wall
fore waterproofing this building system requires special attention.

44 45
+'

-----------------------------------~--------------------------~

2. Building Envelopes Wall Systems


~J
If left unprotected, the CMUs can act like sponges and absorb a
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION
great deal of water. In addition, because the CMU is an intensely
EMBODIED RECYCLED
site-built system, the assembly of a CMU wall is exposed to hu-
CMU W a ll (8'x 12')
Punched Window R-VALUE ENERGY CONTENT man error and the realities of weather and site conditions.
CMU Block 1.11 306 0.00%
Concrete is a tremendously energy-consumptive material. Al-
3/4" Stucco 0.15 948 0.00%
Steel Reinforcement N/A 3,791 0.30% though CMU blocks are made quickly, additional energy is re-
Mortar N/A 603 0.00% quired to speed up the curing process. In spite of this, CMU walls
Metal Z Furring N/A 10,512 0.00% require little maintenance over time.
1/2" Gypsum Wallb?ard 0.45 1,292 0.00%
Extruded Insulation (XPS) 15.00 38, 171 0.00%
Glass Double (1/4", 1/2", 1/4") 0.53 6.462 0.00%
Aluminum Frame N/A 66,778 1.44%
Pe r Squa re Foot of Wall 17.24 128,865 1.74%

GREEN CONSTRUCTION L--+--++---1--11--- -- 3

CMU Wall (8'x 12') EMBODIED RECYCLED


Punched W indow R-VALUE ENERGY CONTENT

l9MU.(Rec~cled/Reused) T 11 306 30.75% ]


3/4" Stucco 0.15 948 0.00%
Steel Reinforcement N/A 3,791 0.30%
Mortar N/A 603 0.00%
Metal Z Furring N/A 10,512 0.00%
1/2" Gypsum Wallboard 0.45 1,292 0.00%
lExtruded Insulation PoMsocvanu" 21.60
~
30,373
Glass Double (1/4", 1/2", 1/4") 0.68 6,462 0.75%
Aluminum F rame N/A 12,408 3.84%
Per Square Foot of Wall 23.99 66,696 35.70%
.

--STANDARD CONSTRUCTION

GREEN CONSTRUCTION cj

cf
(ft' F' h/BTU)

(lbslff)

(BTUAb/
L ~
B-)[8llJE

MATERIAL WEIGHT

EMBODIED !;NER!:2Y
jso

1150

of """ i;;: pso.o:x> - - - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -- -- - - 10


(% Jbslll'l RE!;;Y!;;LED CQNTENT
or roo
1. Gypsum Board
COST
ol J.::JIIIii:: ~[[ roo
2.
3.
Insulation
Reinforced Concrete Floor
4. CMU
5. Aluminum Flashing
6. Base Coat
Estimated properties and values are based on the addition of attributes of each
1. Reinforced Concrete Floor 7. Slucco (Impermeable Medium)
component of an 8'x12' (2.4m x 3.6m) wall panel.
2. Gypsum Board 8. Window Casing
3. Insulation 9. Aluminum Window Frame
4. CMU 10. Double-Glazed Window System
5. Window Casing
6. Double-Glazed Window System Fig. 2.2-10 Exploded Axonometric of a CMU Wall with Punched Window
7. Aluminum Window Frame
8. Aluminum Flashing
9. Base Coat
10. Stucco (Impermeable Medium)
Fig. 2.2-9 Section of a CMU Wall with Punched Window
Note: Insulation Detail based on Schock lsokorb, "Schock
Innovative Building Solutions." http://Www.schoeck.co.uk,/
upload/files/download/ 100113 Tl IK GB rz web EBA
type_K_5B2736_5D[2736].pdf. - - - - - - -

46 47
2. Build ing Envelopes Wal l Systems

Concrete Wall
---
Concrete has been used since the times of the Romans and
continues to be a major building material. Concrete is a durable aa ~
--.
enclosure material and once it has been properly installed, it lasts
for many years. Its nature as a fluid that becomes a solid allows
for limitless spatial possibilities, ranging from simple cubic forms
--.
-- F:..-
~r .
"I~
to complex cuNes.
I I~
Ill
Ill
Ill
2
Wall Components ~I

CONCRETE Concrete is a mixture of water, Portland cement, ag- '


I
..
Ill

.
I
I
gregate and sand. Upon adding water, the mixture undergoes a 3
process of hydration (curing), wh ich transforms the liquid mate- I

.
I
rial into a solid mass. This is not a drying process, rather it is a I
4
process in which water combines with cement to form concrete. I
I
Concrete has tremendous compressive strength, but very low
I~~
A ~
tensile strength.
I 5
_....I

STEEL REINFORCEMENT Steel reinforcement provides concrete with


tensile strength, allowing it to span distances without an arch form.
Standard reinforcing takes the form of hot-rolled steel bars. These
bars are ribbed to allow the steel to grip the surrounding concrete.
I 6
Steel reinforcement can also be in form of wires or strands and be
pulled in tension to squeeze concrete into compression to pro-
duce more efficient spans. The tension force applied to strands 7
can occur before the concrete has cured (pretensioned) or after it
has cured (posttensioned).
r/1
Ill
Ill
FORMWORK Formwork is required to create the shape of the final
concrete element. Typically, formwork is a temporary structure that ..
Ill

is assembled to support the weight of concrete while it cures and


I "
A
I
is removed once the concrete has reached sufficient strength. ?- I

The inside of a formwork surface can be manipulated to produce ... 8


patterns, lines and reveals on the exterior of the finished concrete
wal l. Due to the weight of concrete, engineering of the structure of
the formwork is often required.
1.
-=-
-- ...
===

Reinforced Concrete Floor


2. Gypsum Board
FORM TIES Form ties are used to hold the walls of formwork at a 3. Insulation
specified distance from one another. When the concrete is poured 4. Metal Furring
into the cavity of the formwork, the form ties prevent the walls from 5. Concrete Panel
separating and failing. 6. Reveal
7. Form Tie
8. Cold Joint
Fig. 2.2-11 Section of a Concrete Wall

Note: Insulation Detail based on Schock lsokorb. "Schock


Innovative Building Solutions." http://www.schoeck.co.uk/
upload/ files/download/ 100113 Tl IK GB rz web EBA
type_K_5B2736_50[2736].pdf. - - - - - - -

1. Gypsum Board
2. Insulation
3. Reinforced Concrete Floor
4. Metal Furring
5. Reinforced Concrete Panel
6. Reveal
7. FormTie
8. Cold Joint

Fig. 2.2-12 Exploded Axonometric of a Concrete Wall

48
49
2. Building Envelopes Wall Systems

S TAN D A R D CON STRUC T ION CONSTRUCTION AND SUSTAINABIUTY W h e n Conc rete iS in its wet s tate,
g reat care is required in assemblin g the formwork to p revent leaks
Concrete Wall (8'x12') EMBODIED RECYCLED and failures. The water-to -cement ratio must b e managed and
Punched W indow R-VALUE ENERGY CONTE NT
checked to ensure corre c t mixt u re . C oncrete is a hea vy mat e rial.
Concrete 0.60 409 0.00%
Steel Reinforcement D u ring the c u ring proces s , engin eered s horin g f o r formwork is
N/A 3,791 0.22%
Metal Z Furring N/A 10,512 0.00% re qu ired . Once con c rete h as cured , it is q u ite labor intensive to
1/2" Gypsum Wallboard 0.45 1,292 0.00% correct e rrors. Concrete is tremendously e nergy consumptive and
Extruded Insulation (XPS) 15.00 38,171 0.00% produ ces C02 gas emissions in its p rodu ction p rocess. In s p ite
Glass double (1/4", 1/2", 1/4") 0.53 6,462 0.00% o f this , concrete walls are durab le and requ ire little maintenance
Aluminum Frame N/A 66,778 1.05% over tim e.
Per Square Foot of Wall 16.58 127,417 1.27%

G R E E N CONSTRU C TIO N

Concrete Wall (8'x12') EMBODIED RECYCLED


Punched Window R-VALUE ENERGY CONTENT
~50%-FfV\sll 0.60 2ao--5.22~
Steel Reinforcement N/A 3,791 0.22%
Metal Z Furring N/A 10,512 0.00%
1/2" Gypsum Wallboard 0.45 1,292 0.00%
!=xtruded Insulation 21 .60 30,373 0.04%
(Polyisocyanurate)
Glass double (1/4", 1/2", 1/4") 0.68 6,462 0.55%
w/mod Low-E
Alumjrfum Frame N/A 12 4.Q_8 2.81 % ]
Pe r Square Foot of Wall 23.33 65,120 8.84%

--
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION

GREEN CONSTRUCTIONoj

of
(ft' F' hiBTU)

' bS'YI'j
~~
B-'i8LUE

MATERIAL WEIGHT
j50

1150
O ~BTUAb" EMBODI!;D ENERGY
I ~50.000
(%/bS'YI'i RECYCLED CONTENT
0~ ., 1
~00
COST
ol , ~00
"' ~~

Estimated properties and values are based on the addition of attribules of each
componenl of an 8'x12' (2.4m x 3.6m) wall panel.

1. Gypsum Board
2. Insulation
1. Reinforced Concrete Floor 3. Reinforced Concrete Floor
2. Insulation 4. Metal Furring
3. Reinforced Concrete Panel 5. Window Casing
4. Metal Furring 6. Reinforced Concrete Panel Reveal
5. Window Casing 7. Form Tie
6. Double-Glazed Window System 8. Aluminum Window Frame
7. Aluminum Window Frame 9. Double-Glazed Window System
8. Reinforced Concrete Panel Reveal
9. Gypsum Board
Fig. 2.2-14 Exploded Axonometric of a Conc rete
Fig. 2.2-13 Section of a Concrete Wall Wall with Punched Window
with Punched Window

Note: Insulation Detail based on Schock lsokorb, "Schock


Innovative Building Solutions." http://Www.schoeck.co.uk/
upload/files/download/ 100113 Tl IK GB rz web EBA
type_K_5B2736_5D[2736] .pdf. - - - - - - -

50
2. Bui lding Envelopes Wall Systems

Metal Veneer Wall


A metal veneer wall is a nonload-bearing curtain wall that is sup- coMPOSITE PANELS To reduce the amount of metal used, com-
ported by the building's primary structure. Different metals used posite panel cladding systems may be used. In this system. very
for cladding systems include aluminum. steel, lead, copper, lead- thin sheet metal is bonded to another material, which is typically
coated copper, bronze. stainless steel and titanium. As with all rigid insulation. The insulation stiffens the metal, enabling panels
building systems, the evolution of metal clad ding has focused on to span up to 12 feet (3.6 m). Composite panels were developed
reducing the amount of metal in order to reduce the cost, not only in the 1970s in response to the energy crisis, when insulation and
of the cladding itself, but also of the supporting structure. The thermal performance of buildings first became a real concern.
most common metal cladding assemblies are metal sheet panels Joints in composite metal cladding systems are typically sealed
and composite panels. by silicone. metal connectors, or neoprene gaskets.

Wall Components
METAL CLADDING The appearance of the build ing is determined by
the metal sheets or panels. These may be flat or corrugated or
be composite panels in which metal is bonded to another mate-
rial. Sheet metal requires a continuous substrate of support, while
corrugated metal and composite metal panels can span between
supports.

suPPORT STRUCTURE Metal cladding is fixed to a support structure,


comprising vertical and/or horizontal framework. This framing
spans floor to floor and is fixed to the building's primary support
structure by cleats bolted to fixings cast into the ed ge or face of
the concrete slab.

JOINTS Metal cladding may be joined by overlapping, interlock-


ing or the incorporation of a jointing material such as silicone or a
neoprene gasket.
7
THERMAL INSULATION There are several methods of incorporating
thermal insulation into a metal cladd ing system. Insulation may
be (a) loose laid on the rear of the panel , either in the factory or 8
on-site, (b) bonded to the metal in a composite panel, and/or (c)
incorporated in a separate backup wall.
9
1 ~'='1------ 10
BACKUPwALL A backup wall is a nonstructural wall constructed
on-site that spans from slab to slab. The most typical construc- -t~p---- 11
tion is light-gauge metal studs with insulation between the studs
and a gypsum board, wood or veneered plywood interior finish. lo----- - - 12
A backup wall also carries and conceals pipework and electrical i--.------ - - - 13
services.

METALCLADDING ASSEMBLIES A flat metal Sheet is thin, has no stiff- 1. Reinforced Concrete Floor -~------------~~----~~----------------- 13
2. Steel Angle 1. Gypsum Board
neSS, and therefore requires a continuous supporting substrate
3. Compressible Foam Filler 2. Insulation
(plywood, etc.). A flat metal sheet that spans without support, is 4. Lightweight Steel Framing System 3. Reinforced Concrete Floor
typically at least V.. inch (6.4 mm) thick and therefore is heavier 5. Channel Bolted with a Bolt and Washer 4. Steel Angle
and requires a more robust support structure. Alternatively, thin 6. Aluminum Channel System 5. Compressible Foam Filler
7. Gypsum Board 6. Lightweight Steel Framing System
sheet metal can be corrugated to enable it to span. Typically, a 7. Aluminum Mounting Profile
8. Insulation
corrugated sheet of 2-3 inches (51-67 mm) deep can span 5-8 9. Aluminum Mounting Profile 8. Aluminum Channel System
feet (1.5-2.4 m) . Thin sheet metal panels are typically joined by 10. Vapor Barrier (Cold Climate) 9. Air Space (Beyond)
11 . Air Space (Beyond) 10. Vapor Barrier (Cold Climate)
interlocking standing or flat seams for flat sheets or overlapping
12. Corrugated Aluminum 11 . Channel Bolted with a Bolt and Washer
joints for corrugated sheets. 13. Ventilation Screen 12. Corrugated Aluminum
13. Ventilalion Screen
Fig. 2.2-15 Section of a Metal Veneer Wall Fig. 2.2-16 Exploded Axonometric of a Metal Veneer Wall

52 53
2. Building Envelopes Wall Systems

Precast Concrete Wall


Precast concrete cladding for large scale buildings is typically
a nonload-bearing cu rtain wall that is supported by the struc-
tural frame of the building. Precast concrete cladding panel
sizes are governed by the 10-12 foot (3.0 -3.6 m) width of
typical factory casting beds and by the limited dimensions of
road, rail or ship transportation from factory to site.
Precast concrete cladding can achieve a variety of textures
and colors by varying the concrete mix, particularly the aggre-
gate. A wide range of finishes may also be developed through
(a) manipulation of the formwork, (b) incorporation of other
facing materials such as ceramic tiles, thin bricks or thin stone,
either by incorporation in the formwork or application to the
surface of the precast panel, and (c) manual manipulation of
the surface either during or after the curing process.

Wall Components
PRECAST CONCRETE PANELS Precast concrete panels are fabri-
cated in factories with high-quality, reusable formwork. Panels
are typically 3-6 inches (76-1 52 mm) thick, 10-12 feet (3.0
-3.6m) wide and 1-2 stories high.

PANEL FIXINGS Made of stainless steel, panel fixings transfer


the weight of the panel into the building 's primary structural
frame. Panels are typically fixed at the top and bottom edges
to angles bolted to a steel frame or to anchors cast into the
edge or face of a concrete slab. The anchors, which have
slotted holes to allow for adjustment, carry bolts that slot into
holes cast into the back face of the precast panels.

PANEL JOINTS Precast cladding is typically used to create a


sealed building envelope in which joints are made weather-
tight by the insertion of a compressible backer for mastic seal-
ant.

THERMAL INSULATION There are several methods of incorpo- 1. Sealant


rating thermal insulation into a precast cladding system. In- 2. Reinforced Concrete Slab
~~~~-L+----------8
3. Wedge Anchor Insert
sulation may be (a) sandwiched between layers of concrete
4. Precast Concrete Wall Panel ~~~~~~--------9
during the casting process, (b) fixed to the rear face of the 5. Metal Stud
panel, either in the factory or on-site, and/or (c) incorporated 6. Gypsum Board ~~~~~-4~--------- 1 0

in a separate backup wall. 7. Insulation


8. Steel Nut and Bolt
9. Fire(Thermai/Acoustic Stop
BACKUP WALL A nonstructural backup wall is constructed on- Fig. 2.2-19 Section of a Precast Concrete Wall
site and spans from slab to slab. The most typical construction
is light-gauge metal studs with insulation between the studs 1. Gypsum Board
and a gypsum board , wood or veneered plywood interior fin- 2. Insulation
3. Reinforced Concrete Floor
ish. The backup wall also carries and conceals pipe work and
4. Steel Angle
electrical services. 5. Metal Stud
6. Wedge Anchor Insert
7. Precast Concrete Wall Panel
CONSTRUCTION AND SUSTAINABILITY The advantages Of using 8. Fire!Thermai/Acoustic Stop
pre-casting include high quality, reduced time on-site, and 9. Steel Nut and Bolt
10. Steel Angle cast into Concrete
economy. Factory p roduction, which is independent of weath-
er conditions, enables the concrete mix and curing conditions Fig. 2.2-20 Exploded Axonometric of a Precast Concrete Wall

56
57
2. Building Envelopes Wall Systems

to be highly controlled. Precasting has typically benefited from an


STANDARD CC.. ~ . . .. ION economy of scale, that is, it is most economical when there is a
Precast Concrete Wall (8'x12') EMBODIED RECYCLED high degree of repetition of elements.
Punched Window R-VALUE ENERGY CONTENT
Concrete, after aluminum and steel, has high levels of embod-
Concrete 0.27 409 0.00%
Steel Connections N/A 10,512 0.65% ied energy and produces C02 gas emission, both in its manufac-
Weatherproof Membrane (Po<ysty,.ne) N /A 37,310 0.00% turing and its transport. Concrete is a huge consumer of natural
1/2" Gypsum Wallboard (One Sidel 0.27 1,292 0.00% resources , whose extraction causes environmental degradation
Steel Frame iS<uds aoF)(58'10'LF I N/A 10,512 1.12% and requires large amounts of water and heat in the process of
Fiber Glass Insulation (Balls) 8.81 12,063 0.14%
manufacturing. These factors can be mitigated by using fly ash or
1/8" Uncoated Double Glazing 0.53 6,462 0.00%
N/A 66,778 0.47%
other forms of industrial waste in place of Portland cement or by
Aluminum Frame
Per Square Foot of Wall 9.89 145,340 2.38% using ground up concrete or other durable recycled materials as
aggregate. Reusable formwork also helps to minimize the consid-
erable resources needed for concrete construction.
GREEN CONSTRUCTION Precast cladding units are typically large and very heavy and
Precast Concrete Wall (8'x12') EMBODIED RECYCLED
therefore are costly to transport. The most sustainable strategy is
Punched Window R-VALUE ENERGY CONTENT to minimize the transportation distance from factory to site. Well-
Concrete - FW...., 0.27 280 5.43% detailed concrete cladding is a long-life material that requires little
Steel Connections N/A 10,512 0.65% maintenance.
Weatherproof Membrane (Pol"i'Y'"""I N/A 37,310 0.00%
1/2" Gypsum Wallboard iOneSidei 0.27 1,292 0.00%
Steel Frame (Siud aoF) N/A 10,512 1.12%
Mineral Wool Insulation a- 8.81 7,152 0.42% 1
~ow-E D~~ble glazing,
1.Qil-
0.68 6,462" o.59% 1
Aluminum Frame "N/A 12,408 1.2~
Per Square Foot of Wall 10.03 85,928 9.46%

--
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION

GREEN CONSTRUCTION L; - a - -

Lf
~bsllt'j

{BTUAb)
!;:
'
B-ll8ll!F

MATERIA!. W!;I~HJ

EMBQDIED E!::lEB~Y
150

150
oj M )oo.ooo
;.lbsllt'l REQYQ!.EQ QQ!::lTENT
0 ~--- = ~00
COST
oil iiii.,. ~00
="'
Esllmated properties and values are based on the addition of attributes of each
component of an 8'x12' (2.4m x 3.6m) wall panel.
1. Gypsum Board
2. Insulation
3. Reinforced Concrete Floor
4. Metal Stud
5. Window Casing
6. Wedge Anchor Insert
---- 9 7. Precast Concrete Wall Panel
8. Aluminum Window Frame
o--- - - 10 9. Fire/ Thermal/Acoustic Stop
1. Reinforced Concrete Floor 10. Double Glazed Window System
2. Gypsum Board
3. Metal Stud Fig. 2.222 Exploded Axonometric of a Precast Concrete Wall
4. Aluminum Window Frame with Punched Window
5. Window Casing
6. Double-Glazed Window System
7. Insulation
8. Precast Concrete Wall Panel
9. Fire!Thermai/Acoustic Stop
10. Sealant
Fig. 2.2-21 Section of a Precast Concrete
Wall with Punched Window
58 59
2. Bu ilding Envelopes Wall Systems

Stone Panel Wall


Stone cladding for large-scale buildings is typically a nonload-
bearing curtain wall that is supported by the structural frame of the
building. Because of their appearance, durability and weather re-
sistance, granite, limestone and marble are the most widely used
types of stone for external cladding.
======
._D..
II
II

Wall Components
sToNE PANELs The thickness of stone cladding panels is gov-
erned by the panel size and the type of stone. Smaller stone pan-
els are usually supported by a steel sub frame that spans vertically
from floor to floor. The larger story-height panels are fixed directly
to the building's primary structure. The recommended minimum
thickness for panels of up to 20 square feet (6 square meters) is 1
'I inches {31. 7 mm) for granite and 2 inches (50.8mm) for lime-
stone or marble. The type of stone determines the color and pat-
2
terning of the cladding. A wide range of textures can be achieved,
including sawn, honed , polished, flame cut, bush-hammered and 3
6 ,.
split-face finishes. "
""
/
7 / 4

8
PANEL FIXINGS Stainless steel fixings transfer the dead load of 5
the stone panel and lateral wind loads into the building's primary 9
structural frame. The simplest fixings are combined dead-load
10 6
and tie-back anchors. Story-height panels are typically fixed to
angles bolted to a steel frame or to anchors cast into the edge or
face of a concrete slab. Smaller panels are fixed to a steel sub-
frame that spans vertically from floor to floor. The anchors, which 7
have slotted holes to allow for adjustment, fit into kerfs (grooves)
cut into the top and bottom edges of each stone panel. Panel
joints for a sealed building envelope are made weather-tight by ---- a
the insertion of a compressible backer for mastic sealant. 11

THERMAL INSULATION Thermal insulation is incorporated in a sepa- 12


rate backup wall. 13

BACKUP WALL A non structural backup wall is constructed on-site


and spans from slab to slab. The most typical construction is light- 1.Reinforced Concrete Floor
gauge metal studs with insulation between the studs and a gyp- 2.Compressible Foam Filler
3.Steel Bolt with Nuts
sum board , wood or veneered plywood interior finish. The backup
4.Lightweight Steel Framing System
wall also carries and conceals pipe work and electrical services. 5.Insulation
6.Gypsum Board
7.SteeiTube
CONSTRUCTION AND SUSTAINABILITY Stone cladding iS expensive rela- 8.Caulk
tive to many other materials. The detailing of stone cladding and 9.Stone Veneer System
1. Gypsum Board
1 0.Vapor Barrier
its highly specialized fixings is typically done by the stone subcon- 2. Insulation
11 .Air Space
tractor, who provides shop drawings for approval by the design 3. Reinforced Concrete Floor
12. Fire/Thermal/Acoustic Stop 4. Compressible Foam Filler
team. Fabrication and installation are carried out by highly skilled 13. Metal Ties
5. Lightwe1ght Steel Framing System
labor. Each piece of stone is prefabricated in a shop and marked 6. Steel Bolt with Nuts
with a code to identify its precise location in the building envelope. Fig. 2.2-23 Section of a Stone Panel Wall 7. Steel Tube
8. Metal Ties
Because stone is robust and durable, it typically requires minimal 9. Caulk
protective measures, such as wrapping, either in the shop or on 10. Stone Veneer System
the building site. 11 . Fire/Thermal/Acoustic Stop

Fig. 2.2-24 Exploded Axonometric of a Stone Panel Wall

60 61
2. Building Envelopes Wall Systems

Stone has low levels of embodied energy in its manufacture.


STAN DARD CONSTRUCTION
Large blocks of stone are quarried and transported to workshops
Stone Panel Wall (8'x 12') EMBODIED RECYCLED
where the stone is cut and finished. Although water is required
Punched Window R-VALUE ENERGY CONTENT continuously during cutting and finishing to cool the equipment,
Stone (Imported) 0.05 431 0.00% the amount of this water is minimal relative to other materials such
Compressable Filler w/ Sealant N/A 47,323 0.00% as concrete. However, stone quarries disfigure the landscape.
Weatherproof Membrane (Polystyrene) N/A 37,3 10 0.00%
1/2" Gypsum Wallboard (Boch s""''
0.44 1,292 0.00% The embodied energy in stone, related to transportation, is signifi-
Steel Frame (Wall Studs/BOF) N/A 10,512 2. 18% cant because stone is transported globally. In some cases, inter-
Fiber Glass lnsulatjon 8.81 12,063 0.37% national shipping and foreign labor add up to less than domestic
Steel Frame (Stone Studs/BOF) N/A 10,512 4.47%
Extruded Insulation (XPS) 5.00
labor and transportation by truck. Well-detailed stone cladding is
38,171 0.00%
1/8" Uncoated Double Glazing 0.53 6,462 0.00% a long-life material that requ ires little maintenance.
Aluminum Frame N/A 66,778 3.07%
Pe r Square Foot of W a ll 14.84 230,855 10.09%

2
GREEN CONSTRUCTION ---1
3
Stone Panel Wall (8'x 12') EMBODIED RECYCLED - - -2
Punched Window R-VALUE ENERGY CONTENT 4
LStone_(Domestic)_ 0.05 431 0.00% l 3
5
Compressable Filler w/ Sealant N/A 47,323 0.00%
Weatherproof Membrane (Polystyrene) N/A 37,310 0.00% 4
1/2" Gypsum Wallboard (Both Sides) 0.44 1,292 0.00%
6
Steel Frame (Wall Studs/BOF) N/A 10,512 2.18%
Mineral Wool lnsulatio 8.81 7 152 1.10% ]
Steel Frame (Stone Studs/BOF) N/A 10,512 4.47%
5 7
EXtruded lnsulatiQ!l ) _5,34. 30373 0.14% l
H8" low-E Double Glazing.J!J:-oTI: 5.34 6,462 1.58.% J 8
~luminum Frame N/A 12 408 n a.%J
Per Square Foot of W all 15.33 163,776 17.65% 6

--
STANDARD CONSTRUCTION

GREEN CONSTRUCTION ~~-

or-
~bsfll'j

{BTUAb)
.

~
B-~ I I ! F

MAT ERIAL WEIGHT

EMBODIED E NE ~gy
1150
jso 9

10

oj pso.ooo - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - 11

o ~snl'l RECY!:;LED COt::,!T !;;NT


~ l ~00 1. Gypsum Board
COST 2. Insulation
0 3. Reinforced Concrete Floor
1100
4. Compressible Foam Filler
5. Lightweight Steel Framing System
6. Window Casing
Estimated properties and values are based on the addition of attributes of each
7. Steel Tube
component of an 8'x12' (2.4m x 3.6m) wall panel.
8. Stone Veneer System
9. Fire/Thermal/Acoustic Stop
10. Aluminum Window Frame
1. Reinforced Concrete Floor 11 . Double-Glazed Window System
2. Compressible Foam Filler
3. Gypsum Board
Fig. 2.2-26 Exploded Axonometric of a Stone Panel Wall
4. Insulation
with Punched Window
5. Window Casing
6. Double-Glazed Window System
7. Aluminum Window Frame
8. Steel Tube
9. Fire/Thermal/Acoustic Stop

Fig. 2.2-25 Section of a Stone Panel Wall


with Punched Window

62 63
2. Building Envelopes Climate Responsive Fagades

2.3 Cl imate-Responsive Fagades


Beyond the functions of providing shelter, form, views, and image, sUFFER SYSTEM A buffer system utilizes two sealed layers of glaz-
the building fagade plays a critical role in the thermal behavior and ing spaced from 10 inches (25.5 em) to 3 feet (91.5 em) apart.
the overall building's energy consumption. Advanced technolo- The exterior layer is usually single safety glazing whereas the
gies in fagade construction are enabling buildings to respond to interior layer is often low-E double glazing. Buffer systems usu-
the environment effectively and take advantage of the site forces ally incorporate shading and daylight control devices between
to develop passive strategies. These fagade systems have the the two layers to provide solar protection. The buffer fagad e may
potential to capture, filter, and redirect daylight, provide natural include automated dampers at the top and bottom of the cavity
ventilation and control solar radiation and g lare, and to signifi- to allow ventilation and prevent overheating during the summer.
cantly improve the buildings' energy performance. Some of these These dampers perform as a thermal buffer during cold winters by
systems include double-skin !agades for thermal comfort, shad- maintaining the interior cavity closed, acting as solar thermal air
ing devices for solar control, and fagade-integrated photovoltaics collectors with heat exchangers for heating the interior.
for electricity generation.
3------l-H~---t/-H~//

Double-Skin Fagades 4- - -+H t----


Double-skin !agades are generally composed of two layers of
glazing separated by an air cavity that performs as insulation
........
against extreme temperatures. The exterior layer is usually com-
posed of hardened single glazing that mediates climatic condi-
tions to reduce the building's overall energy consumption. The
interior layer is usually a double-glazed window that seals and
.............
..............

.............
.............
insulates the b uilding. The air cavity between the two layers of .............
.............
glazing can be totally natural, fan supported or mechanically :0::..:..:.'...::::.: ... :.:::::::::.. ............
................
ventilated. A double-skin fagade can incorporate integrated sun- ~~~~--:-:-
::~:-
.:~
::~:~
::-:--- 2
shading devices, natural venti lation systems, and thermal, acous-

tical, and fire safety insulation materials. In general, there are three
............

............
types of double-skin !agades: the extract-air system, the buffer 1. Exterior Single Glazing

system, and the twin-face system. There are also hybrid double 2. Integrated Sun-Shading Devices
3. Interior Double Glazing (Low-E Glass)
!agades that include opaque, translucent or screen elements as
4. Air Cavity
an alternative to single glazing on the outer skin to control solar
heat gains, glare, and daylighting levels. Fig. 2.3-1 Double-Skin Far;ade
.......... .
.............
.............
..............
~~-~~~~~~~~-~----- 3
AIR EXTRACT SYSTEM An air extract system is utilized in areas where
natural ventilation through operable windows is not possible. In an
L . .t .



air extract system, the cavity between the two skins is part of the
heating, ventilation and air condition ing (HVAC) systems. Exhaust
air is mechanically removed through openings in the interior skin .............

to the cavity where it is drawn out of the building, often through .............

.............
.............
a heat-energy recovery system. This fagade system utilizes auto- ...............
...............
mated dampers at the top and bottom of the wall to ventilate the
.......... ....
cavity.
f~~~--7--~--.7---~---~---~-~~---7--~----------4

:::::-..
----- ___________ ___

o(~)
fF;=:::;::=:;::=;::=~-- 4 1. Automated Dampers
1. Exterior Hardened Safety Glazing
2. Air Cavity
2. Metal Louvers
3. Exterior Hardened Safety Glazing
3. Interior Double-, Low-E Glazing
4. Interior Double-, Low-E Glaz~
4. Motorized Open Dampers
Fig. 2.3-2 Air Extract System 5. Motorized Closed Dampers

Source: Shahin Vassigh and Jason Chandler. Building Systems Integration for
Enhanced Environmental Performance (Fort Lauderdale: J. Ross Publishing, 2011).
Fig. 2.3-3 Buffer System. Thermal Buffer for Winter Climates
P. 56

64 65
-
2. Building Envelopes -~---------C_I_im_at_e_R_es_po_n_si_ve_F_ag_a_de_s__________________~
__l_[_
~_]___j
TWIN-FACE SYSTEM A twin-faced tac;;:ade system consists of two HYBRID SYSTEM A hybrid system includes double-skin fac;;:ades
layers of single safety glazing and low-E double glazing separated that do not utilize an additional layer of glazing as the secondary
by an air cavity extending at least 2 teet (61 em). Both the interior skin. The hybrid double-skin fac;;:ade usually incorporates a layer
and exterior skins include operable windows to allow natural venti- of screens or opaque elements to control excessive heat gains.
lation inside the building. These windows are generally controlled
by the building management system with a manual override. The
twin-face system allows nighttime cool ing through automated
purge windows.

.. .... .-w.-===~
......
:.::..:.
.. .
.......
....
.. .
.. .. .
~;~I~\ ~ ~ : (~:\;:._~ }~;~ ~ ;/~{t;:t~
0 0

:_ _ - ':':-:7.:-:-----itt-_:_~"'-/o ltl ~~t,%-i:;:_; i,!~ir !! Ii'


:. ...... :;:. .....
...
..
. :

~I;Jt i~ ~ ~!l :.
.
....


....
......
...
........
. ...
..
...
.....


.....

.....
...

....
...
.. .
......
.. ...... ..
.
Fig. 2.3-4 Twin-Face System (Summer: Day Ventilation) @

......
............
......... .
...................
3----'7~~!Fl-:~.:..:J=#=Hllil-!-.1-:o:'.:;
:::::::::::::::::

......................
...................
............... .
......................
...................... .... ...
4
.......................
......................
....................... .
....
.
......................
.......................
.
.......................

......................
......................

1. Exterior Safety Glazing
2. Air Cavity 1. Wood Screen
3. Interior Double-, Low-E Glaz1ng
2. Air Cavity
4. Open Operable Window 3. Interior Double- or Triple-. Low-E Glazing
5. Closed Operable Window with Operable Windows
Fig. 2.3-5 Twin-Face System (Summer: Night Cooling) Fig. 2.3-6 Twin-Face System (Winter: Thermal Buffer) @ Fig. 2.3-7 Hybrid System
66 67
2. Building Envelopes Climate Responsive Fagades

Shading Devices Photovoltaic Fagades


Shading systems are a passive method to control solar heat gains Photovoltaic (PV) systems can be integrated into the building's
and g lare while providing ample daylight and views to the outside. fagade to generate electricity and reduce reliance on fossil fuels,
Shading devices are often attached to the building's cladding while minimizing green house gas emissions. PV systems may
frame or mounted directly to the building structure. They can be be utilized as the external wall finishing or as part of the fagade
DO UBL E ----~~~
manually operated or automatically controlled by a building man- to provide shading. The optimum orientation and correct tilt angle
GLAZING
agement system. External louvers generally consist of glass fins , of the PV installation are fundamental in the solar access and the
perforated metal louvers, or wood slats utilized to control solar potential electrical output of the system. Photovoltaic fagades on
radiation and glare based on the fagade orientation. Horizontal ALUMINUM - - --11
the northern hemisphere should be oriented south and tilted at
louvers are efficient in southern !agades whereas vertical lou- VERTICAL
an angle 15 degrees higher than the site latitude for maximum
vers respond effectively to the low summer sun striking the east LOUVERS efficiency.
and west fagades, as well as sun in the higher latitudes on the
northeast and northwest fagades. When used in combination with ALUMINUM _ _ ____:==----!--.
EXTERNAL BUILDING WALLS PV systemS utilized as external build-
double-skin fagades , the shading devices can be incorporated PANEL WITH
ing walls are generally made of safety-glass to allow some light
into maintenance walkways attached or integrated in the fagade INSULATION
penetration. They consist of double-glazed panels with PV cells
cavity. in between. The PV glazed panels can be manufactured in any
CON CRETE ----~~~-+~~~Wb~~
SLAB form and size to match the dimensions and visual attributes of
HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICES Horizontal SCreening is highly effi- conventional glazing.
cient in the southern fagades to reduce the amount of solar radia-
tion entering the building from a steep angle. Horizontal shading SHADING SYSTEMS PV systems utilized as external louvers to
devices allow diffused natural light inside the building while reduc-
provide shading are generally more effective because they block
ing excessive heat gains and the need for artificial lighting.
solar radiation wh ile allowing views to the outside. These systems 1. Louver
replace the conventional shading devices and combine two func- 2. Photovoltaic Laminate
VERTICAL SHADING DEVICES Vertical Shading devices work effec- tions of providing solar control and collecting solar energy. They 3. Strut Anchor
4. StrutArm
tively on the east, west and north fagades. They minimize heat may be fixed or automatically controlled to track the sun's path
gains by screening direct solar radiation from the low summer sun Fig. 2.3-8 Vertical Shading Devices and optimize both the solar shading effect and the energy collec- Fig. 2.3- 10 Photovoltaic Shading System
while allowing daylight entry and views to the outside. tion strategy.

REFERENCES
ALUMINUM -------+~ill;;,
1. Transit Green House Gas Emissions Management Compendium, U.S. Depart-
PANEL WITH ment of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration, p.104; http://www.fta.dot.
INSULAT ION gov/documents/ GHGCompendGTv2.pdf
2. Treloar. G., McCormack. M. , Palmowski, L .. Fay, R. (2004) Embodied water of 2
STEEL - - - - --m""" construction. In Royal Australian Institute of Architects. BOP Environment design
CATWALK guide (pp.1 -8). Royal Australian Institute of Architects
3. Maureen Puettmann. Wood life, "Carbon Footprint of Renewable and Nonrenew- 3
able Materials." October, 18, 2009. http://www.corrim.org/presentations/2009/
G LASS-----~-~~~"~ Puettmann_WEI. pdf
HORIZONTAL 4. Klaus Daniel and Ralph Hammann. Energy Design for Tomorrow , (Stuttgart: Edi-
LOUVERS tion Axel Menges, 2009). 4
5. Simmler. Hans, Samuel Brunner, and Ulrich Heinemann. "Vacuum Insulation
D O UB LE ----~~
Panels- Study on VIP-Components and Panels for Service life Prediction of VIP in
GLAZING Building Applications." HiPTI-High Performance Thermal Insulation IEA!ECBCS 5
GLASS - - -- -----f--,- Annex 39. no. September {2005). http://WWW.ecbcs.org/docs/Annex_39_Report_
Subtask-A.pdf.
HORIZONTAL
LOUVERS 6. Sto Corp. "Exteri or Insulated Finish Systems (EIFS)." http://WWW.stocorp.com/
index.php/componenVoption.com_catalog2/ltemid,1%2096/catiD, 1/catLevel,2/
subCatiD,15/
STEEL ------~~~~~~'
FRAME

STEEL ------~~~~r;~~~ 1. Finished Floor


2. Reinforced Concrete Floor
BRACKET
3. Window Frame
CO N CR ETE ----------~ 4. Glazing
SLAB 5. Embedded Photovoltaic Film

Fig. 2.3-9 Horizontal Shading Devices Fig. 2.3-11 Photovoltaic External Building Walls

68 69
-

Structure
Designing and selecting structural materials and systems for
buildings is often based on material efficiency and reducing the
structural components to the smallest possible size without com-
promising safety. Although this process promotes effective use
of natural resources, other strategies that utilize materials with
high recycled content and reduced impact on the environment are
significant ways in which the design of a structure can contribute
to minimizing a building's carbon footprint.

71
70
[~
~- ~--~-~-~~
-o~-
~ ---
3.Str_
uctu_
re _ __ __ __ = Structural Materials

3.1 Structural Materials Reinforced Concrete


Because structure constitutes the most massive and permanent Glue-Laminated Wood Concrete is a commonly used build ing material with a high capac-
part of a building, the selection of structural materials with an un- Glulams are manufactured from individual pieces of wood ar- ity to carry compression forces, but very small strength to resist
derstanding of resource extraction and their environmental impact ranged in horizontal layers joined together to produce high capac- tension forces. Adding reinforcing steel bars or wires to concrete
is becoming increasingly important. Common building materials ity structural members. Glulams are used as beams, columns and provides tensile strength, making it suitable for structural purpos-
used for structural purposes are structural wood, reinforced con- arches and can be manufactured in larger sizes. es. Because the production process of cement used in concrete
crete, masonry and steel. The following sections briefly explain causes significant C02 emissions, replacing 15-40 percent of ce-
the structural capacity, types, and environmental impact of these ment with fly ash in the concrete mixture is becoming a common
materials. practice. Fly ash is a by-product from the combustion of coal elec-
tric power generation plants. Fly ash has a low embodied energy
and it is lighter than cement.
Wood

-- --
Most wood structures are composed of linear elements used as
beams or joists to frame building floors and roofs. These frames Prestressed Concrete
are often supported by wood columns, masonry bearing walls, Prestressing concrete is a process by which external forces are
or closely spaced studs enclosed by plywood. Be.cause wood deliberately applied to concrete in order to counteract expected Applying prestressing forces to concrete by tensioning the steel wire
has limited strength and spanning capacity, it is mostly used in WAX AND RESIN ADDITIVES
stresses on the structural members during their service life. or strands.
residential and small-scale construction. Because utilizing wood Controlling stresses in the structural members results in smaller
involves harvesting forests, using wood from managed and certi- elements with larger spanning capabil ity. Although prestressed
fied resources is critical. Recycling and reusing wood structural members use much less concrete, they require high-strength
components are other important considerations in sustainable steel, resulting in higher cost. Prestressing concrete can be
wood construction. achieved by pretensioning or posttensioning.

souD SAWN LUMBER Solid sawn lumber members are wood mem- PRETENSIONED coNCRETE In pretensioned concrete, the steel ca-
bers that are produced directly from the cutting of a log. Solid LAYERS WITH
bles placed in the casting beds are tensioned prior to the casting
GRAINS AT RIGHT ANGLES
sawn members are often used as beams, columns and trusses in of the concrete. Once the concrete is cast and hardened, it bonds
GLUE
small-scale construction. Using solid sawn lumber members that to the steel cables. When the concrete reaches the requ ired
2
are greater than 2 in x 10 in (5 em x 25 em) requires cutting large strength, the tension forces in the cables are released and trans-
trees that take a long time to grow and be replenished . ferred to the concrete through the bond, thus placing the concrete
in compression. In many cases, transferring the cable forces to
ENGINEERED wooD When larger wood members are required, the concrete creates a camber and bends the concrete member
engineered wood products may offer a viable alternative to solid in the opposite direction of the anticipated deflection due to ap-
sawn lumber because they are designed to be more efficient. plied loads. Once the load is applied, the camber flattens, thus
Prestressing forces are released by cutting the steel wires, lifting up
Engineered wood products can perform structural functions minimizing the beam deflection. Pretensioned members are often the concrete and producing a camber.
with smaller sizes manufactured from smaller trees that can be produced as prefabricated elements in concrete plants under
replaced by rapidly growing trees. To manufacture engineered LAMINATED controlled environment.
VENEER
wood products, wood strands and particles are bonded together LUMBER (LVL)
with adhesives under controlled conditions to maximize the natu- PANEL
ral strength and capacity of wood. As a result, these products can 3
span larger distances with less material.
Fig. 3. 1- 1 Engineered Wood Products
Structural Wood Panels
Plywood, oriented strand board (OSB) and laminated veneer lum-
PREST RESSEDIPRETENSIONED
ber (LVL) are three types of structural wood panels that are often CONCRETE HOLLOW-
used in a variety of applications, such as walls , floors, roof sheath- CORE SLAB
ing and concrete formwork. OSB and LVL are also used as web
elements in the construction of 1-joists.

Wood !-Joists
Wood 1-joists are composed of horizontal members or flanges Once the load is applied the concrete becomes flat and the camber
connected to the top and bottom of a vertical member cal led a disappears resulting in reduced deflection.
web. The flanges are often composed of swan wood . The web
members are often composed of LVL or OSB. HEAT AND
PRESSURE Fig. 3.1-3 Prestressed, Pretensioned Concrete Hollow Core Slab
Fig. 3. 1-2 Glue-Laminated Wood
72
73

3. Structure Structural Materials

Masonry Products
POSTIENSIONED coNCRETE In posttensioned concrete, cables are The most common masonry product used for building structures
threaded through hollow conduits in the concrete to prevent is concrete masonry units (CMUs). Because masonry products
bonds between the steel and concrete. Once the concrete is have very low tensile strength, their use is often limited to con-
cast and it has reached the required strength, the tension force struction of load-bearing walls and columns. CMUs used for
is applied by hydraulic jacks and the cables are anchored at their structural purposes are reinforced with steel bars. Brick masonry
..- .
ends. The result of this force is a bending in the opposite direction is another product with structural applications. In addition to wall
of the anticipated deflection of the beam. and column construction, brick masonry has been traditionally
used in the construction of arches and lintels.
_...>_:::-_
. . . _,.._.
_. - - - - - ,./--................ ....,:.

//,_____ ---....
Stee l
Steel has a wide range of structural applications, such as beams,
columns, decks, connection plates, fasteners and reinforcing
_ ... bars, which are commonly used in both small- and large-scale LADDER-TYPE
construction. Because steel is strong in carrying both tension HORIZONTAL
REINFORCEMENT
and compression forces, structural elements made of steel have
smaller cross-sections and can span longer distances with less
..
__ ................. 1'--- ~--- VERT ICAL
material, often making steel structural elements an efficient struc- "'llr...il~~,.,__ REINFORCEMENT
.. .. tural choice .
................ - ::..-....,..._ ____ ... GROUTED IN CMU
CELL
Steel has high embodied energy and embodied water because
the process to produce steel requires a significant input of raw
materials and energy. In addition, steel fabrication produces haz-
ardous emissions, water pollution and solid waste. However, steel
... \\\ is highly recyclable and produces little waste on the construction
site. Steel is vulnerable to moisture and corrodes easily, therefore, CMU BLOCK
it must be covered with a protective layer when exposed to the
environment.
~-~~----- 4 Fig. 3. 1-6 Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU) Wall

__ ....
....-

1.
2.
Plastic Coating
Standard Anchors
I
WIDE FLANGE
[
C-CHANNEL
3. Prestressed Concrete Strand
4. Wedges
5. Pocket Former
Fig. 3.1-4 Anchor Detail tor Posttensioned Slabs

LSTEEL
ANGLE
0
STEEL PI PE

0HOLLOW
SECTION
D
HOLLOW
SECTION

Fig. 3.1-5 Beam Post-Tensioning Fig. 3.1-7 Standard Steel Sections

74 75
[~
~- ~--
~-~-~-~---3.-
Struc_
ture _ __ _ _ _ _ = 3.2 Horizontal Spanning Systems

3.2 Horizontal Spanning Systems Noncomposite Steel Frame (One-Way System)


Horizontal structural systems can be designed as slabs, beams, A noncomposite steel frame system is composed of a series of - .....
girders and trusses. In general, limiting the horizontal span of a parallel steel beams that extend in the short direction to frame a
floor or a roof system will lead to a more efficient structure. This floor or a roof structure. The concrete deck slab is continuously
\1
can be achieved by placing the vertical supports closer to each supported by resting on the beams without any additional struc-
other. Shorter spans lead to shallower depths, reduced deflec- tural connection. This comprises a one-way system that is most
tions, and material savings. efficient for spanning rectangular bays.
Horizontal spanning ~ystems used for floors and roofs can be
Frame Components
treated the same although there are some differences in their - -- -- 2
load-carrying capacity. In general, roof systems are subjected to coNCRETE DECK SLAB In noncomposite construction, the con-
smaller loads, and depending on the building's geographical lo- crete slab rests on the steel frame with no connection to the steel ----- 3
cation, they may be subjected to wind and snow loads. Horizon- beams. It acts independently from the supporting steel frame. As
tal spanning systems can be organized based on their structural a result, there is no mechanism to transfer the horizontal shear
behavior into two categories: one-way and two-way systems. forces to the frame, and the deck slab cannot assist in carrying
bending moment to the frame . The deck acts as dead load placed
on the steel frame, therefore, the concrete slab must be designed
One-Way Systems to carry its own weight.
One-way systems or slabs are utilized when the structural bays
STEEL BEAMS Wide-flange steel beams run parallel to form rect-
form a rectangular or near rectangular shape. One-way systems
angular bays that support the reinforced concrete deck slab.
are designed as a system of beams, girders, or trusses that sup-
The beams are all connected to girders at their ends, where they r-~--~~---~~~~-~~~~=r--- 2
port the deck slab. In one-way systems, the slab carries loads by
transfer loads to other structural elements. Smaller steel beams
bending in only one direction, redirecting loads to the supporting ~--~~~~~~~~~~~-- 3
may be used to provide bracing for the beams.
structural elements located at the two longer opposite sides or
edges. It is preferable to span the beams in the short direction STEEL DECK In noncomposite construction, the deck functions
in order to keep beam deflection and sizes small, thus achieving as a form for normal-weight, structural lightweight or insulating
maximum efficiency. concrete. The steel deck is constructed from thin sheet metal and
comes in a variety of corrugated profiles and thicknesses. The - - -t- - 4
Fig. 3.2-1 One-Way System Load Distribution Direction
corrugations increase the stiffness of the deck. The deck thick-
Two-Way Systems ness determines the spanning capacity. The steel deck has a high
strength-to-weight ratio , making it an economically viable choice. 1. Concrete Slab
Two-way horizontal spanning systems are utilized when the struc- 2. Reinforcement
tural bays form square or near square bays. Two-way systems can 3. Corrugated Metal Deck
be designed as a system of beams, girders or trusses that sup- 4. Steel Beam
port a deck slab. In the two-way system , the slab carries the load Fig. 3.2-3 Noncomposite Frame Components and Section Detail @
by bending in two directions, redirecting loads to the supporting
structural elements located at four sides or four edges.

I
I I

+
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I II 1. Concrete Deck
II
I 2. Column
I
---=--=---* - - .,. . . . ----
I
~---- 3. Girder
11 II 4. Beam
II II
II II
5. Cross-Bracing
II II
Fig. 3.2-4 Noncomposite Frame with Bracing Fig. 3.2-5 Noncomposite Frame without Bracing
Fig. 3.2-2 Two-Way System Load Distribution Direction
76
77
3. Structure 3.2 Horizontal Spanning Systems

............................................>
Composite Steel Frame (One-Way System) Concrete Frame (One-Way System)
Concrete can be designed as a one-way system comprised of
Similar to the noncomposite steel frames , a composite steel
frame system utilizes a series of parallel steel beams extend ing in
~ parallel concrete beams supporting a reinforced concrete slab.
the short d irection that carry the deck slab. However, in the com- To increase the efficiency of this system, the beams and the slab
posite steel frame system the concrete deck slab is connected can be connected to act as a mono lithic system. In this case, the
to the beams via structural connections called shear studs. This beams may consist of a series of connecting T-beams that create
comprises a one-way system that is most efficient for spanning the slab.
rectangular bays.

Frame Components
coNCRETE DECK SLAB In composite construction, the integral
connection of the concrete deck slab and the steel framing pro-
vides resistance to the slippage of the concrete slab relative to
the beams. As a result, the deck slab and the steel beams act in
unison to resist the loads and the horizontal shear fmces. In this _r------- 1
monolithic construction, the deck slab is no longer considered as _r-----1-- 2
a dead load resting on the beam, but as a load-carrying compo- 3
nent of the entire assembly.
STEEL BEAMS Wide-flange beams ru n in parallel to form rectan- I
gular bays that support the reinforced concrete deck slab. The II II II
beams are all connected to girders at their ends where they trans- II II II 4
fer the loads to other structural elements. Smaller steel beams II II II II II
1. Column
may be used to provide bracing. 11 - 11 - 11 - 11 - 11
2. T-Beam
3. Concrete Floor Slab II II II II II
In composite construction, the steel beams and the concrete deck 4. Girder II II II II II
slab are connected by the use of shear studs. Shear studs are II II II II II
often welded to the top of the beam flanges and are embedded Fig. 3.2-7 One-Way Concrete Floor System with T-Beams
1. Concrete Slab
in concrete to create an integral system for resisting loads. They
2. Shear Stud
provide interlock between the concrete deck and the steel beams. 3. Steel Reinforcement
4. Corrugated Deck Slab
STEEL DECK A composite steel deck consists of a profiled steel 5. Steel Beam
decking that provides a permanent form for the cast-in-place con-
crete deck. In this type of construction, the deck is considered
Fig. 3.26 Composite Frame Components and Section Detail 1. Concrete Deck
a component of the overall load-bearing deck assembly. During 2. Beam
construction, the steel deck supports the weight of the wet con- 3. Girder
4. Column
crete, steel reinforcement, and any temporary loads associated
with the construction process. Once construction is complete, the Fig. 3.29 One-Way Concrete Floor System with Rectangular Beams
composite action is obtained by the interlock between the con-
crete and the decking via shear studs.
The monolithic action provided by connecting steel and concrete
via shear studs utilizes both materials to thei r fullest capacity and
achieves significant strength. Composite deck assemblies have
greater stiffness than noncomposite assemblies. They can carry
larger loads or similar loads with smaller sections. This leads to a
20-30 percent savings in the weight and size of the primary steel
structure. Consequently foundation sizes can also be reduced. In
addition, the composite deck system allows for service integration
through utilization of the space between the ribs and the decking. '!iiillllll----,-- 2
The system provides a one hour fire rating without adding any fire - ---.,-- 3
protection. ----'-- 4

1 Concrete Floor Slab


2. Steel Reinforcement Mesh
3. T-Beam
4. Steel Reinforcement

Fig. 3.28 Detail of One-Way Concrete Floor System with


T-Beams

78 79
[~~ 3. Structure
-- 3.2 Horizontal Spanning Systems
~------------------------------~-------------------------------------

Pan Joist or Ribbed Slab (One-Way System) Frame Components


The pan joist or ribbed slab system is an integrated or a mono- coNCRETE DECK SLAB The reinforced concrete slab is cast and
lithic beam-slab system composed of evenly spaced, parallel, Integrated with the beams to produce a monolithic floor system.
reinforced concrete joists or beams, and a cast-in-place concrete This type of construction leads to relatively thin concrete slabs,
deck. The joists are spaced at close intervals and are framed into with typical thickness ranging between 2-4 inches (5-1 0 centime-
beams that are supported by columns. Pan joist constitutes a ters). Standard joist spacing is about 30 inches (76 centimeters)
one-way system. Like all one-way systems, it is preferable to span and can span distances of 40-60 feet (12-18 meters). The rein-
the joists in the short direction to achieve maximum efficiency. forced concrete slab system uses removable metal pans to form
joists. Although the formwork can become expensive, it achieves
economy through the reuse of standard forming pans.
The pan joist floor system comprises a relatively lightweight sys-
tem that spans large d istances and can resist larger loads. This
efficient system utilizes less concrete in construction and the
reusable pan forms produce less wasted material. Furthermore, .........................................................................
pan joist systems do not require additional fire proofing because
concrete provides adequate fire resistance.

t - -- - - 2
- - - I- - ,_ 1- - - - - - - -
1. Concrete Slab
2. Pan Joists
1- t -1-1-lfl-+ - - - - - 3 3. Reinforcement
4. Pan Form

Fig. 3.2-12 Pan Joist Components and Section Detail

1. Pan Joists (Monolithic Floor System)


2. Framing System
..........................!
3. Load Distribution Direction

Fig. 3.2-1 1 Pan Joist Load Distribution

CECO Flange FORM

1.
2.
Pan Joists
Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement
!,
.' !'f HL~:ui CECO Wide Flange FORM
3. Pan Forms ..... ................................
4. Tensile Reinforcement
5. Framing System

Fig. 3.2-10 Pan Joist System Components

J
.........................................
Fig. 3. 2-13 Example of Pan Joist Types and Section Details

80 81
3. Structure 3.2 Horizontal Spanning Systems

Hollow-Core Slabs (One-Way System) Flat Plates and Flat Slabs (Two-Way System)
Hollow-core slabs are modular prestressed members cast with Flat plates are two-way slabs that transfer loads directly to the
continuous voids to remove concrete mass in order to produce vertical supporting elements without using beams or girders. This
lighter members. The voids in the slab are introduced to replace construction is unique to reinforced concrete and is often used for
nonfunctional or ineffective concrete, thereby increasing the supporting light loads such as floor loads in apartment buildings.
slab 's strength-to-weight ratio.
For supporting larger loads, such as those in industrial buildings, 2

Hollow-core slabs are designed and constructed as one-way sys- th ickening of the floor plate around the columns aids in transfer-
tems that span in the direction of hollow cores. The slabs are cast ring loads to the columns and reduces the possibility of columns 3
as prestressed me'mbers in a plant or a controlled environment puncturing through the plates. The thickening of the slab can be
and brought to the site as individual units. Once in place, they are accomplished by adding drop panels and column capitals. This 4
connected and grouted together at keyways and are topped with system is referred to as a flat slab. These slabs often have slight
concrete to produce a monolithic slab. cantilevers on all sides in order to reduce the bending of the slab
5
at the center, thus increasing their efficiency.
Hollow-core slabs can be actively used as a thermal mass for
saving energy. Studies show that integrating the thermal mass of
hollow-core and air conditioning systems can save about 50 per-
cent of cooling and 4- 10 percent of heating energy.1 The voids in
1. Load Distribution D1rection
the slab allow for the integration of electrical wiring or mechanical
2. Concrete Slab
ducts. 3. Column Capital
. 4. Drop Panel
5. Columns
Fig. 3.2-16 Flat Slab Load Distribution@

... - 1
2
r----------~---- 3

1-------------- 1
rl- - - - - - - - 2
i-=========~~~,----------- 3

4 ~~~~~~---------- 4
f--- -- - - - - -- - - 5
5

1. Top Layer Cast-In-Place Concrete


2. Steel Reinforcement
3. Cast-In-Place Concrete Fill at Keyways
4. Prestressing Wire
5. Precast Hollow-Core Slab 1. Concrete Slab 1. Concrete Slab
2. Tensile Reinforcement 2. Tensile Reinforcement
Fig. 3.2-15 Hollow-Core Slab Components and Section Detail 3. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement 3. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement
4. Column 4. Drop Panel
5. Capital
1. Top Layer Cast-In-Place Concrete Fig. 3.2-17 Flat Plate Components and Section Detail Fig. 3.2- 18 Flat Stab Components and Section Detail
2. Steel Reinforcement
3. Hollow-Core Slab
4. Prestressing Wire
5. Beam
6. Column
Fig. 3.2- 14 Hollow-Core Slab Axonometric

82 83
3. Structure
- 3.2 Horizontal Spanning Systems

-
Slabs with Beams (Two-Way System) Waffle Slabs (Two-Way System)
When a slab is supported by orthogonal beams located in the When slabs are required to span larger distances and support
perimeter of a square bay, rather than directly on columns, it pro- heavier loads, the slab thickness must be increased. However,
duces a two-way slab system. This system permits thinner slabs the increase in the slab thickness does not have to be uniform
and is one of the most economical reinforced concrete systems. throughout the slab, because the full thickness is not utilized
These slabs often have slight cantilevers on all sides in order to evenly across the entire slab.
reduce the bending of the slab at the center, thus increasing its
Waffle slabs are designed with variable thickness to achieve maxi-
efficiency even further.
mum efficiency by removing material from inactive parts of the
concrete. To save materials where forces are not critical, a series
of voids are introduced to the slab while keeping it at full depth in
the vicinity of the columns.

SECTlON

~~3
~~~------------- 2

<::-----t-- -------- -- 3
i ------- 2
--------~-------------- 4
~~---------------------- 4 +-- - - - 4

, / .' /
/
L.
2
3

i,_.,.
~ ~ II II

~ ;;: 4 II
II
II
li - -- ---1-- - - - - - - 3

~~~ -.-.-.:.sc-r-1~,-----=.--=.-=-- 1 - - - -
-....._
5
4

1. Concrete Floor Slab


1. Concrete Slab 2. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement
2 Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement
3.
4
5.
Tensile Reinforcement
Beam Reinforcement
Concrete Beam
I
-=.-=.-=. ~
II
=--..:n---.. I
-=-lf--=.-=.-=.
II
3.
4.
Tensile Reinforcement
Waffle Form

II II Fig. 3.2-21 Waffle Slab Components and Section Detail


Fig. 3.2 19 Two-Way Slabs with Beams II II

1. Load Distribution direction


2. Concrete Slab
3 Beam
4. Column 1. Concrete Floor Slab
Fig. 3.2-20 Two-Way Slabs with Beams Load Distribution 2. Load Distribution Direction
3. Column Capital
4. Column

Fig. 3.2-22 Waffle Slab Load Distribution

84 85
3. Structure 3.2 Horizontal Spanning Systems

---
Bubble Decks (Two-Way System)
Waffle slab construction utilizes removable metal or fiberglass Most waffle slabs have deeper sections leading to deeper floors; Bubble decks are flat slabs with significantly reduced weight. The its weight by almost 35- 50 percent without any major reduction
domes to form a grid of voids in the slab. The voids can be however. the void space can be utilized for mechanical and life- reduced weight is a result of embedding hollow plastic balls within in the load-carrying capacity of the deck. The significant weight
shaped by using standard square forms that are tapered for safety featu res creating an integrated system. Like other two-way the slab to create voids.2 Bubble decks are partially prefabricat- reduction leads to further material savings as it transfers smaller
easy removal. Triangular forms or other customized forms slab systems, cantilevering the deck slab over columns increases ed and equipped with auxiliary support. The semicast units are loads to the supporting columns and foundation . The adverse en-
can also be used to provide architectural expression and efficiency of the systems. brought to the site with the lower layer of steel reinforcement in vironmental impact of this deck type is relatively lower than other
finishes. place. The upper steel reinforcement bars are placed on-site and horizontal spanning systems because it uses recycled plastic for
concrete is added to complete the deck. producing the balls. The material efficiency of the systems con-
Waffle slabs are suitable for spanning medium-to-long spans
tributes to lower embodied energy and smaller carbon emissions.
and carry larger loads with a lighter weight. Although waffle The incorporation of the plastic balls into the deck slab reduces
slab form work can be expensive, it can be composed of re-
cycled plastic and be reused to save materials and produce
less waste.

~~~~~----- 5
~--------------- 6

.r..~..v---- 3
Ul:~-'--- 4

~~-------- 5

~:J
4 .

~19"----1
.

y,:[ f l- - - - - - -- - - - 6
\ H--1-- 3
o-1-!!.;::;r-- 4

~~~==~~~~~~~~-- 5

1. Cast-In-Place Concrete Slab 1. Cast-In-Place Concrete Slab


1. Concrete Floor Slab 2. Top Reinforcement Mat Placed On-site 2. Top Reinforcement Mat Placed On-site
2. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement 3. Plastic Hollow Bubbles 3. Lattice Trusses to Hold Bubble in Place
3. Waffle Forms 4. Semi-Precast Slab 4. Plastic Hollow Bubbles
4. Tensile Reinforcement 5. Bottom Slab Reinforcement 5. Semi-Precast Slab
5. Columns 6. Column 6. Bottom Slab Reinforcement

Fig. 3.2-23 Waffle Slab Components Fig. 3.2-24 Typical Waffle Slabs and Section Details Fig. 3.2-25 Bubble Deck Components Fig. 3.2-26 Bubble Deck Components and Section Detail

86 87
[~
~- ~--~-~-~--~---3.-
Struc_
ture _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ----
- _-
= 3.3 Vertical Spanning Systems
--------------------------------------~---------------------------------------
[ fJ][~] [~] J
3.3 Vertical Spanning Elements Load-Bearing Walls
Vertical spanning systems can be identified as columns or bear- Steel and concrete columns have a much larger load capacity. Load-bearing walls are structural components of a building that
ing walls that collect loads from horizontal spanning systems and As a result they can be designed with smaller cross-sectional ele- can be used as exterior or interior walls. These walls carry loads
transfer them to the foundation or other adjacent structural ele- ments, extend longer distances and be placed further apart. When from roofs, floors and lateral load-resisting systems to the foun-
ments. Columns and bearing walls are subjected to axial com- comparing steel and concrete columns, the larger load capacity dation. Exterior load-bearing walls are often composed of multi-
pression loads in addition to their own weight. Shear walls are ver- of steel provides for the design of more slender columns. The layers, including load-bearing materials, insulation and connec-
tical elements that provide lateral stiffness to the structural frame typical steel column occupies significantly less floor space than tors. The thickness of bearing walls IS a funct1on of the height and
and transfer lateral loads to the connecting structural elements. an equivalent concrete column. 3 1n addition, because steel beams the amount of load they must carry. Load-bearing walls can be
can span long distances, the number of columns can be reduced, composed of wood, metal, brick, concrete block or reinforced
leading to the use of less steel and the creation of more flexible concrete.
Columns spaces. Steel columns can be made in a variety of shapes. The Wood stud wal ls are often composed of 2 in x 4 in (5.1 em x 10.2
Column nomenclature can vary based on size, location and struc- most commonly used steel columns have a hollow square section em) or 2 in x 6 in (5. 1 em x 15.2 em) studs closely spaced and
tural function. Smaller-sized vertical elements are often referred to or are composed of wide flanges. held in place by board material such as plywood. They are best
as posts or struts. Large columns are often called pylons, piers or Concrete columns can be classified as tied or spiral. In tied col- suited for small-scale construction with one to three floors.
masts. Material choice for columns involves several factors, in- umns the longitudinal main steel reinforcement bars are tied with Masonry walls are used for medium-size construction and are
cluding construction type, loading size, height, shape, frequency smaller bars at certain intervals along the length of the columns. suitable for buildings of up to ten stories. Reinforced concrete
of the columns, and economic and availability considerations. Tied columns can be constructed in many shapes. In spiral col- walls can be constructed as solid or as containing cavity space.
In general, because wood columns have a smaller load-carrying umns, the longitudinal main steel reinforcement bars are tied with Masonry walls are thinner than masonry walls and can extend
capacity and span shorter distances, they are often used in resi- a single spiral bar. The spiral bar is used to contain column fail ure. further.
dential and small-scale construction. The most common use of It is mostly used in seismic areas where the column may suddenly
wood columns is in the form of 2 in x 4 in (5.1 em x 10.2 em) studs fail. Spiral columns are mostly circular in shape.
utilized in wall systems of light frame construction. Single wood
columns are larger (at least 4 in x 4 in or 10.2 em x 10.2 em) and
can be made in square, rectangular and circular cross sections.

// - - - -- ---7----- SYMBOLFOR
2 - - - - - -- ---

PRODUCING MILL
3------

0 0 H -------,>--------- TYPE STEEL


S FOR BILLET (A615M)

4 - -- ----'

5 - -- - --

6--------

8
1. Steel Reinforcing Bars
2. CMU Block
3. Ladder Reinforcement
4. WaiiTies
5. Insulation
SQUARE CIRCULAR WIDE FLANGE 6. Brick Veneer
COLUMN COLUMN COLUMN
7. Cavity Space
8. Concrete Slab
Fig. 3.3-1 Steel Columns 9. Dampproofing
10. Waterproofing
11 . Footing Pipe
12. Concrete Footing
Fig. 3.3-2 Concrete Tied and Spiral Columns Fig. 3.3-3 Masonry Load-Bearing Wall
88 89
3. Structure

Shear Walls 3.4 Structural Frames


Shear walls are vertical spanning elements that are used to resist Structural frames are among the most common building systems
wind load and earthquake forces. Because shear walls utilize their used in construction. Although most frames are composed of
stiffness to carry lateral loads, they can have very few openings horizontal spanning and vertical bearing elements, their ability to
in order to keep their rigidity intact. To increase the efficiency of carry loads varies considerably with the connecting joinery.
the structural system, shear walls are often incorporated into the
building core where the building circulation and mechanical sys- In simple post and beam frames, the horizontal and vertical span-
tems are located. ning elements are connected with simple joints and transfer loads
independently of each other. Simple frames are easier to construct
Most shear walls are composed of reinforced concrete. Wall thick- because the joints do not have to be rigidly connected. In this type
ness varies from 5.5 inches to 20 inches (140 mm to 500 mm). of frame, the deflection is only carried by the horizontal elements.
depending on the number of stories, building age, and thermal In rigid frames, the members are connected with rigid, moment
insulation requirements. Steel shear walls are less common in resisting joints that prevent the independent action of horizontal
building construction; however, in recent years their use has in- and vertical spanning elements. Rigid frames are more efficient
creased because they offer more efficient use of materials. When because the rigid connection between horizontal and vertical ele-
compared to concrete shear walls, steel walls are significantly ments enables the entire frame to deflect as a single entity.
less thick. Steel shear walls are composed of a steel plate that is
welded to beams and columns at its perimeter.
Wood Frames
Wood frames can be composed of light or heavy timber. Heavy
timber framing uses large beam and girder elements spaced 2-10
feet (0 .6 meters to 3 meters) apart that are at least 6 inches (1 5
centi meters) wide x 10 inches (25 centimeters) deep and columns
that are at least 8 x 8 inches (20 x 20 centimeters). Light wood-
frame construction employs smaller and more closely spaced ele-
ments. Light wood framing has evolved from the balloon frame,
1n which studs span from the foundation to the roof, to the widely
used platform frame. Most wood frames are constructed with
simple connections.

Concrete Frames
2- - - - --HI--.
Concrete frames can be either cast into forms on the building site
or precast at the manufacturing plant. Site casting is usually done
when the forms are too large or geometrically complex to be done
at the plant. Site casting includes one- and two-way slabs, cais-
sons and spread footings. Precast elements include hollow core Fig. 3.4-1 Simple Wood Frame Detail Connection
slabs, beams, T-beams, gird ers and columns. Concrete frames
can be constructed with simple frame connections.

"---,<,\. . . . . .
...
..

1. Steel Frame 1. Steel Reinforc ement


2. Steel Plate Panel 2. Concrete Wall
3. Floor Slab

Fig. 3.3-4 Steel Shear Wall Fig. 3.3-5 Concrete Shear Wall
...

Fig. 3.4-2 Simple Concrete Frame Detail Connection


90 91
3. Structure

Steel Frames Climate Control


Steel frames can be composed of light or heavy members. Light-
gauge steel members are produced by cold forming and usually
consist of channels and short-span open-web joists. Light-gauge Designing resource-efficient buildings withactive, passive or hy-
steel framing is often utilized for small-scale residential o r com- brid means of achieving comfort requires a thorough understand-
mercial structures due to its low cost, fire resistance, and the need ing of the cl imate, site conditions, building occupancy types,
to preserve natural wood resources. Heavy steel frames are used
in mid- to large-scale structures and use hot-formed, rolled-steel -....... and the availability of energy resources. Although awide range of
sections such as wide flanges, T-beam s, and composite sections mechanical systems exists for control ling the interior conditions
for the primary structural members. Steel frames can be con- of buildings, mechanical systems present significant drawbacks
structed with simple frame connections. to natural resources and the environment. Although it may be un-
realistic to completely move away from the active methods for
REFERENCES climate control, considering passive means of heating, cooling
1 Piia Sormunen, Tuomas Laine, Juhani Laine and Mikko Saari "The Achve Utiliza- and ventilation is becoming increasingly critical.
tion of Thermal Mass of Hollow-Core Slabs," Proceedings of Clima 2007 Well Being
Indoors, vn Technical Research Centre of Finland Espoo, Finland (2007). www
rehva.eu/projects/clrma2007/ SPs/D04B1190.pdf.
2. BubbleDeck Structure Solutions, CI/SIB, (23) Eq4. Part 1 (September 2008),
http://WWW.bubbledeckuk.com/ pdf/Product%201nformation%20_final_20070219.
pdf.
3. "Structural Steel Solutions," American Institute of Steel Construction, http://WWW.
aisc.org/content.aspx?id=3792

......
\ ,

............

Fig. 3.4-3 Rigid Steel Frame Construction

Fig. 3.4-4 Simple Steel Frame Construction

92 93
..
--- Concepts

4.1 Concepts
--- Building Occupancy Codes
One of the critical functions of a building is to provide a comfort-
able thermal environment that ensures human well-being. Ther-
, Building occupancy codes categorize build ings based on the
occupancy type, building function and operations. The codes
mal comfort can be achieved by passive means using natural dictate a range of requirements for occupant safety, thermal com-
systems; by active means using mechanical heating, ventilation fort, and expected resource and energy usage of the building.
and air conditioning systems; or a combination of both. In each Awareness of these code categories is important in provid ing an
case, a clear understanding of the local site and climatic condi- accurate estimate of the building's energy demand and designing
tions, comfort standards , the relationship between air and surface the environmental control systems properly.
temperature and humidity, and the influence of these factors on
thermal comfort are not only key aspects of energy efficient build-
ing design, but also essential for designing pleasant and livable
II
?o F 121.1 c
1
goF 1 32.2c
BUILDING THERMAL LOADS Building thermal load calculatiOnS are
conducted to estimate the total annual energy requirements
buildings.
to condition a building. Load calculations assist designers in
determining both the type and size of the environmental systems.
Thermal loads refer to the quantity of heat that must be added
Climate or removed from a space to meet the occupancy needs, ther-
Designing buildings based on climate-appropriaie strategies mal comfort, and air-quality requirements. Thermal loads take TIME: 12:00PM
entails utilizing, analyzing and interpreting climatic data properly. DEGREE DAYS FOR ONE DAY into consideration both external and internal loads. External loads 0 ; 14.27 Btu ft 2 (45Wim~
Data collected based on climatic zones provide a vast range of include the impact of solar radiation, wind, precipitation, humid-
information on air temperature, humidity, precipitation, solar radia-
STEP 1
ity, thermal bridges, heat, and moisture infiltration o n the build ing ---~0
~~----.
~-~- -
tion, natural light, wind, and vegetation. Making informed early- ~ HIGH ~ LOW ~ AVERAGE enclosure. Internal loads include heat generated from electrical
stage design decisions based on this data is critical in evaluating ~ TEMPERATURE + ~ TEMPERATURE + 2= ~ TEMPERATURE appliances, lighting systems, and the waste heat and moisture
alternative climate responsive strategies that can lead to supe- so F /32.2c 70F 121 .1c aoF 126.6c caused by the various activity levels of the build ing's occupants.
rior building energy performance. The following sections briefly
Building thermal loads are often accessed from various software
describe how climatic information can be utilized in the building STEP 2 applications. Most software allows designers to accurately simu-
design process.
late the building and predict its energy consumption by compiling
~ AVERAGE

Degree Days
~ TEMPERATURE
8o F 126.6c
-! BASE
TEMPERATURE
65F 118.3 c
=
COOLING
DEGREEDAY
(COD)
typical design load data based on particular climatic conditions,
occupancy classification and schedules, and build ing enclosure
15 F l -s.4c type. Most simulation software utilizes building thermal loads to
Degree days is a quantitative index used to estimate the energy model the building's behavior at the early design and planning
Fig. 4. 1-1 Example COD Calculation for One Day
demand of a building for heating and cooling. This index helps stage.
designers relate daily outdoor temperatures to the amount of en- '
ergy required for space conditioning in order to provide thermal
MONTHLY DEGREE DAYS occuPANCY TYPES The most commonly used building occupancy
comfort. Degree days shows the difference between the average
MIAMI , FL classification code in the United States is based o n the Interna-
daily temperatures and a base temperature representing human
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN tional Building Code (IBC). IBC classifies buildings into the follow-
comfort.
HOD 88.0 51 .0 14 .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 ing groups:
COD 156 149 221 306 425 492
HEATING DEGREE DAYS Heating degree days (HOD) indicates how Assembly (Group A)
JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
0.0 0.0 Gathering places for entertainment and worship, including
much (in degrees), and for how long (in days), outside air tem- 0.0 0.0 6.0 41 .0 200
546 552 507 412 264 168 4198 churches, restaurants (with 50 or more possible occupants), the-
perature drops below a specific base tem perature of 65F (18C) .1
aters. and stadiums. Equipment
In other words, HOD shows the number of total degrees that the
average temperature has been below the base temperature. HOD Fig. 4.1-2 Typical Monthly Degree Days in a Hot and Humid Zone Ill Lighting
Business (Group B)
(Miami, FL)
is used for estimating the building's heating requirement and can Places where services are provided, including banks, insurance People
Source: EIA Independent Statistics and Analysis. U.S. Energy Information Adminis-
be accessed from a wide range of resources that gather data tration, "Energy Units and Calculators Explained." agencies, government buildings (police and fire stations), and Fig. 4. 1-3 Example of Building Thermal Loads for a Single Day
from weather stations across the country. http://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/index.cfm?page= about_degree_days doctor's offices.
Educational (Group E)
COOLING DEGREE DAYS Cooling degree days (COO) designates Schools and day care centers.
how much (in degrees), and for how long (in days), outside air
Factory (Group F)
temperature has been above a specific base temperature of 65F
Places where goods are manufactured or repaired (unless con-
(18C). COD indicates the number of total degrees that the aver-
sidered "high-hazard ") , including factories and dry cleaners.
age temperature has been above the base temperature. COD is
used to estimate the building's cooling requirement and is avail-
High-Hazard (Group H)
able from a wide range of resources that gather data from weather
Places involving production or storage of highly flammable or
stations across the country.
toxic materials and explosives , including fireworks, hydrogen per-
oxide, and cyanide.

94 95

4. Cl imate Control
- Concepts

Institutional (Group I)
2 2
-- relative humidity changes over an entire year can be shown by
plotting the climatic data in a psychrometric chart with a deter-
- air temperature
Places where people are physically unable to live without assis- Heat output per unit area Btu (hf ) (W/m ) vs. time (hrs) - radiant temperature
mined thermal comfort zone defined by a particular building code.
tance, including hospitals, nursing homes, and prisons. - air velocity
45 14.27 - humidity
Mercantile (Group M)
THERMAL COMFORT STANDARDS Current thermal comfort Standards, - personal factors
Places where goods are displayed and sold, including grocery
such as the International Standard Organization for Standardiza- -clothing
stores, department stores, and gas stations.
tion (ISO) 7030 and the American National Standard Institute/ - activity level
Residential (Group R) 35 11.09 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning
With these factors in the optimal range, a minimum of 80 per-
Places providing accommodations for overnight stay (excluding N' N' Engineers (ANSI/ASH RAE) Standard 55-2011 , specify a thermal
. cent of the predicted mean vote (PMV) of the building occu-
Institutional), including houses, apartment buildings, hotels, and E comfort zone by representing the optimal range and combina-
~ pants are expected to express satisfaction. 2
:::>
motels. iii tions of the thermal factors listed to the right:
25 7.92
Storage (Group S) "'~ "'~
Places where items are stored (unless considered high-hazard),
"'
;: "'
;:
:::> :::>
including warehouses and parking garages . iii0. iii0. YEAR-ROUND DESIGN STRATEGIES
15 4.75
'5 '5 RELATIVE HUMIDITY
Utility and Miscellaneous (Group U) 0. 0. 281 - COMFORT
'5 '5
Water towers, barns , towers. 0 0 c:=J SUN SHADING OF WINDOWS 100% 80% 60%

"' c:=J HIGH THERMAL MASS


Q)
:r 5 1.58 :r "'
Q)

c:=J HIGH THERMAL MASS NIGHT FLUSHED


Psychrometries/Thermal Comfort c:=J DIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLING .028
c:=J TWO-STAGE EVAPORATIVE COOLING
One of the main goals of building design is to provide comfort- c:=J NATURAL VENTILATION COOLING
able indoor spaces for living and working. All indoor environments
6:00am 12:00pm 6:00pm 12:00am
c:=J FAN-FORCED VENTILATION COOLING
should be designed and controlled to assure thermal comfort, air c:=J INTERNAL HEAT GAIN
quality, safety and health for the occupants. Time (hrs) c:=J PASSIVE SOLAR DIRECT GAIN LOW MASS .024

Equipment c:=J PASSIVE SOLAR DIRECT GAIN HIGH MASS


Lighting 0 - HUMIDIFICATION
HUMAN BODY The human body has the capacity for regulating its
People 1 - DEHUMIDIFICATION
temperature between 98F (36.6 oq and 100F (37.8 C}. Th is pre- 252 - COOLING, ADD DEHUMIDIFICATION IF NEEDED COOLING, ADD DEHUMIDIFICATION IF NEEDED .0 0
sumes a nude body and dry air. The external heat transfer mecha- 2
8226 - HEATING, ADD HUMIDIFICATION IF NEEDED '-.... 252 HR
nisms for the human body include radiation, conduction, convec- Fig. 4. 1-4 Approximate Building Thermal Loads for a Single Day
tion, and evaporation of perspiration. However, these processes 8760 TOTAL COMFORTABLE HOURS WITH THE USE OF 0
Source: Manfred Hegger. Matlhias Fuchs, Thomas Stark and Martin Zeumer, En-
are not passive operations. The human body takes a very active ergy Manual: Sustainable Architecture, Detail Edition, (Basel: Birkhauser, 2008) SELECTED STRATEGIES OUT OF 8760 ~
role in regulating its temperature. During physical activity, the hu- .016 ~
man body produces waste heat, and the amount is mostly a func- C5
~
tion of the activity being performed. The following list represents =>
:r
environmental conditions in which the human body can dissipate
heat and remain at comfort:
.012
-Air temperature range of 68F to 78F (20C-25C}. HUMAN BODY
- Relative humidity range of 20 to 80 percent in the winter and 20
to 60 percent in the summer.
.'
- Air velocity range of 20 to 60 feet per minute (0.1 to 0.3 meters .008
per second).

PSYCHROMETRIC CHARTS Climate analysis with weather data files is BELOW COMFORT ABOVE
COMFORT ZONE COMFORT WET-BULB
the initial step for any climate-responsive design and evaluation T EMPERATURE, .004
of sustainable strategies. Psychrometric charts show designers COMFORT 58-68 F 68-78 F 78 - 80 F DEG'F
T EMPERAT URE 14-20 c 20-25 c 25-26 c
a variety of graphical representations of hourly climate data for
a chosen location. These charts visually demonstrate the unique 20 - 60% summer
RELATIVE < -20% 20 - 80% winter 80%-<
patterns and subtle details that characterize various climatic con- HUMIDITY
ditions. Without the help of these charts, valuable information <- 20 fUmin 20-60 fUmin 60 - < fUmin
AIR VELOCITY < -6 ml min
could be overlooked . The psychrometric charts aid in understand- 6- 18m/min 18- < m/min
ing the relationships between the exterior environment and the re- HEATING DEGREE DAYS/COOLING DEGREE DAYS
Fig. 4.1-5 Average Temperature Regulation of the Human Body
quired indoor conditions for the occupants' thermal comfort. They DRY-BULB TEMPERATURE, DEG ' F
also help to identify passive and active strategies for space condi-
tioning while matching the thermal comfort zone requirements to Diagram composed in Autodesk Ecotect Analysis Software
the building codes. The distribution of heating and cooling degree
days, daily or hourly air temperatures, dew point temperature, and
Fig. 4.1-6 Psychrometric Chart with Comfort Strategies for Minneapolis, MN @
96 97
4. Climate Control

Heat Forms Heat Flow


ROOM TEMPERATURE
A significant portion of energy consumption and discomfort 75' F/23.8' C Heat flows from the material with a higher temperature to the ma-
in buildings is a result of unwanted heat exchange through the 64.4' F/18'C ~
terial with the lower temperature, often leading to a temperature
envelope. The analysis of heat exchange through building enve- reduction in the hotter material and a gain in temperature of the
lopes requires an understanding of heat forms and heat exchange cooler material. However, there are some materials that can ab-
mechanisms. The following sections present some essential con- sorb heat without a significant change in their temperature (re-
cepts for explaining the interaction of the building skin with the ferred to as phase-change materials). Al l building materials, in-
exterior environment. cluding structures and the envelope systems, transfer heat by one
or a combination of the following three mechanisms:
LATENT HEAT Latent'heat is the amount of required energy to
change the physical state of a material (i.e, solid, liquid, or gas) ~~~~fi1~~.;;~~t- HEAT SOURCE/ coNDUCTION Conduction is the process of heat transfer in a mate-
FORCED AIR
without changing its temperature. In other words, latent heat is the rial from a high-temperature region to a lower-temperature region CONDUCTION
amount of energy absorbed or given-off when a material changes .
::.:~0'.\ :.:J>~~~~ki-ffi-t-- ENERGY/HEAT through direct interaction and collision between adjacent mole- THROUGH
its state. Because this form of heat does not cause a change in ~--~::,:.::~::::::::::-::: EXCHANGE cules. The ability of a material to transfer heat is called thermal KINETIC ENERGY
temperature, it cannot be measured with a thermometer. Latent conductivity. Some metals such as copper have good thermal ~~------------ HEATSOURC8
heat can be used to provide evaporative cooling in buildings. conductivity. Poor conductors are called insulators. RADIANT FLOOR
Fig. 4.1-9 Conduction
SENSIBLE HEAT Sensible heat is the amount of heat energy required RADIATION Radiation is the transfer of heat from a heat source by
to change a material's temperature without changing its physical electromagnetic waves. Heat transfer by radiation does not re-
quire contact between the heat source and the heated material.
state. Because sensible heat results in changing the material tem-
perature, it can be sensed or measured by a thermometer. Fig. 4.1-8 Sensible Heat The most common form of electromagnetic long wave is the infra-
red heat radiated by the sun.
70'

25'
coNVECTION Convection is the flow of heat through a moving
stream of liquid or gas. Convection occurs when higher-tempera-
ture areas of a liquid or gas rise to the areas with lower tempera-
The concept of latent heat for evaporative cooling has been used in
the Council House 2 (CH2) building in Melbourne, Australia. There are
tures. As lower-temperature gas or liquid moves to take the place
five shower towers attached to the south faQade of the building that of the high-temperature areas, a current is created. An example
provide cool air to the ground floor areas. of convection is the movement of air due to the temperature dif-
ference in a room, which is often used as a passive strategy to INFRARED
1. Fine droplets of water are sprayed from the top of the tower. RADIATION
ventilate and cool buildings.
2. As water falls, it draws air and absorbs energy or latent heat to
evaporate and gradually cools. HEAT ABSORTION
MEDIUM IN WALL
3. Cool air is used for cooling purposes inside the building. AND GLAZING

AIRINTAKE
- - - - 22'C/71.6'F

Fig. 4.1-10 Radiation@

ENERGY EXCHANGE
BETWEEN WATER AND AIR

WATER CONVERTED TO GAS

WATER AND AIR TEMPERATURE ~~ttt--N--- CONVECTION


DECREASES CURRENT

AIR EXIT
118'CI64.4'F 1"---~~-1+-- HEAT SOURCE:
RADIATOR

Fig. 4. 1-7 Concept of Latent Heat Used for Evaporative Cooling of Buildings
Source: Shahin Vassigh and Jason Chandler, Building Systems Integration for
Enhanced Environmental Performance (Fort Lauderdale: J.Ross Publishing,
Fig. 4.1-11 Convection

98
99

4. Climate Control
--- Concepts

Carbon-Neutral Design
Carbon-neutral design or carbon neutrality is a general term re- office buildings, schools, kindergartens, and supermarkets are LOW-ENERGY BUILDING FOR HOT AND HUMID CLIMATES
ferring to a building achieving zero net energy consumption and also constructed to the standard. In a passive house, the passive Example Location: Miami
zero carbon emissions. However, a common global definition for Latitude: 25. 46'26.004" N
strategies represent an integrated design process utilizing ap-
carbon-neutral buildings, or a standardized method to bench-
mark all resource inputs and outputs of a building, is still deficient.
Carbon neutrality with respect to operational energy means that
proaches such as optimal building orientation to harness natural
resources, high insulation standards, phase-changing materials,
etc.
Longitude: 8011 '38.004" W
G
no fossil fuel , greenhouse gases, or hazardous-emitting energy
sources are used to operate the building. Building operation in- Heat gain from internal sources such as radiated heat from elec-
cludes heating, cooling, electrical lighting and appliance use and trical appliances, lighting, and body heat play an important role
service energy. Carbon-neutral design can be accomplished by in passive buildings. Heat gain can be collected and utilized as
SUMMER
implementing innovative design strategies, generating on-site re- an energy source through heat energy recovery and heat pump
June 21 @ 12:00
newable power, purchasing renewable energy, and utilizing certi- systems for both cooling and heating in different zones. This ap-
fied renewable energy credits. proach has been mostly practiced in new buildings, but conser-
vation techniques with new insulation and heat energy-recovery 70' F I 2 1' C
Carbon neutrality is also based on embodied energy. As buildings systems are increasingly used for energy efficient retrofitting of
become more energy efficient, the ratio of the embodied energy the existing building stock. Estimates on the number of passive
to the lifecycle of the building become more important: Clearly, for houses around the world range from 15,000 to 20,000 as of De-
green buildings aiming to be "carbon neutral," "zero-fossil-ener- cember 2009 with the majority built in German-speaking countries FALL
gy" or "autonomous," the energy used in construction, operation and Scandinavia, as well as some in the U.S.4 Sep 21 @ 12:00
and maintenance, and final disposal , reuse, or recycling , takes on
a new significance. 3
65'F /18' C

susTAINABLE BUILDINGS There are m any definitions for a sustainab le


or a green building. The most common understanding refers to
buildings that are environmentally responsible and resource ef- WINTER
ficient throughout their life cycle. This includes the entire design Dec 21 @ 12:00
process and the building life cycle, beginning from site selection
to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation , de-
construction, reuse , and recycling of the building components. 4oF t 4c
This practice expands the standard building design concerns sig-
nificantly. Although new technolog ies are constantly developing
to advance cu rrent practices for achieving sustainable building
design, the common objective is to reduce the impact on the built
environment and human health while providing comfort for build- 4 - - -----
ing occupants.

LOW-ENERGY BUILDINGS Low-energy buildings utilize low-energy


design strategies for space heating and cooling to keep the ener-
gy consumption of the building in the approximate range of 6,300
to 15,850 Btu/ft2/yr (20kWh/m2/yr to 50kWh/m2/yr) for residential
buildings.3 The energy required to operate and provide comfort for
the occupants of low-energy buildings is often provided by renew-
able on-site energy production or through purchasing renewable
energy from the public energy grid. Worldwide, national standards
L-- -- - - - - - -- - - - ---- 7
for low-energy buildings vary considerably. A low-energy building
in one country may not meet the standards in another country. 1. Solar Thermal or Photovoltaic Systems (Optional) L----- -- - - - - - -- --- 6
2. Low-Energy Insulation: U:5:0.28 R ~ 20
3. Operable Daylight Shading Systems
PASSIVE HousE Originated in 1988 in Sweden and Germany, the 4. Air Intake with Filter
term "passive house" refers to the rigorous Passivhaus Standard 5. Heat Energy Recovery Systems
for energy efficiency with highly insulated buildings, solid-state 6. Summer-Air-Cooling/Dehumidification
lighting (LEOs), and energy efficient appliances. Passive house 7. Air Handling Unit
is an ultra-low-energy building that requires little energy for space 8. Boiler/Warm Water Tank with Heat Energy Recovery
9. Combined Heat and Power
heating or cooling. Since 1994, a comparable standard, called
10. Double-Low-E-Glazing: U:5:1 .1 W/m 2K R ~ 5.3
MINERGIE-P, has been used in Switzerland. The standard is not
confined to residential properties alone, other buildings such as Fig. 4.1-12 Low-Energy Building for Hot and Humid Climates

100 101
'Y

I
(~~-~
-~-~---~-~-~-~----4.-Ciim_ate_co_ntro_l--------~r------------Con_cep_ts-----------~-~
~
0J
PASSIVE HOUSE FOR HOT CLIMATES A zero-fossil-energy building or a

G
ZERO-FOSSIL-ENERGY BUILDINGS
Example Location: Miami zero-net-energy building offsets its annual energy consumption
Latitude: 25.46'26.004" N from utility sources by emission-free renewable energy sources
Longitude: 9011 '38.004" W
(such as solar, wind , biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal) .
During the operation of these buildings, greenhouse gas emis-
sions released into to the environment are minimized or elimi-
nated.
Because buildings are one of the largest consumers of energy
SUMMER
June 21 @ 12:00 and significant contributors to the cl imate change, moving toward
zero-net-energy buildings as the standard practice in building
2 --------- design has become a global agenda. In November 2009, the
European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and
?o F 1 21 c the European Commission made an agreement on the recast of
the Energy Performance of Building's Directive (EPBD) to make
\ it mandatory that all new buildings in the European Union must
FALL become nearly zero-fossil energy by 2020. In the United States,
Sep 21 @ 12:00 the voluntary American Institute of Architects (AlA) 2030 challenge
aims to reduce fossil fuel consumption for all new buildings by 90
percent in 2025 and become carbon-neutral by 2030. This goal
3- ---
can be accomplished through innovative design strategies, highly
65F 1 19c
insulated buildings, solid-state lighting (LED), energy-efficient ap-
pliances, and application of on-site renewable technologies.

WINTER
PLUS-ENERGY BUILDINGS A plus-energy building, or energy-plus-
Dec 21 @ 12:00
building, produces on average more energy from renewable
on-site or integrated building energy sources than it consumes
40F I 4C during its operation in a year. The harnessed annual energy sur-
plus, achieved by using appropriate strategies and innovative
technologies, is sold to the public infrastructure grid. Passive
solar building design , high insulation, very low U-values for the
entire building envelope, efficient daylighting , natural ventilation
systems, energy-heat recovery systems, careful site selection and
4- - _....
orientation to capture available natural resources are among the
plus-energy building techniques.

Most often a combi nation of renewable, energy generation sys-


tems, super-insulation systems, triple glazing and advanced
phase-changing materials, solid-state lighting , and energy effi-
cient appliances are also utilized to achieve a plus-energy build-
ing. The styles of built plus-energy buildings around the world are
almost indistinguishable from traditional architecture, since they
simply use the most energy-efficient solutions. Plus-energy build-
ings can be designed, constructed, and operated in any c limatic
zone.

'----?

1. Solar Thermal or Photovoltaic Systems {Optional)


2. Super Insulation: U:s; 0.11 Wlm2K R2!50
3. Daylight Shading Systems
4. Air Intake with Filter
5. Operable 3-Pane Low-E Glazing: U::; 0.7 Wlm2K R> 8
6. Boiler/Warm Water Tank with Heat Energy Recovery
7. Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger or Heat Energy Recovery System

Fig. 4. 1-13 Passive House for Hot and Humid Climates

102 103

[~
~-~-~--~
-l-
~-~---4-_
Ciim_
ate c_ l _ _ _ _ _ _=
o ntro_ Concepts

ZERO-NET-ENERGY BUI LDING FOR COLD CLIMATES P LUS-ENERGY BUIL D ING FOR COLD CLIMATES
Example Location: Minneapolis

G
Example Location: Minneapolis
Latitude: 44 58'48" N Latitude: 4458'48" N
Longitude: 93. 15'48.996" W

SU MMER
2- - - - -----
Longitude: 93. 15'48.996" W

SUMMER
June 21 @ 12:00
G
June 21 @ 12:00
Gs F 1 18 c

6sF1 1ac 3

4 ------, \
3- - - ,

FA LL FA LL
Sep 21 @ 12:00 Sep 21 @ 12:00

.
4s F 1 rc 4 5 F 1 rc
r - -- -13

5
W INTER
Dec 21 @ 12:00 W INTER
Dec 21 @ 12:00

21 F t -6 c
- 2 1 F

(.~
1 -6 c

F R E SH A IR ~ ===P.l
FRE SH AIR
4 - - --t-...
6

5 --4+~--~f=~V,7----~~~~~Ef)<~~~~~~ 7
6 ---++-~-~~-++-~11 8
7 - - -1--l--f;;f--7'' - - - -Htl 9

8 10

11

l _ __ _ _ _ _ 10
~---1 7
~--------- 1 1

L-- - - - - - - - - - - - 12 L-- - - -- 18

1. Photovoltaic Systems 9. Lights and Appliances Photovoltaic Wiring 1. Aero turbine Energy Generator 10. Public Energy Grid Photovoltaic Wiring
2. Solar Thermal 10. Chilled Water Cooling Tank Solar Thermal Cold Water Suppy Pipe with Glycol 2. Solar Thermal 11 .Lights and Appliances Solar Thermal Cold Water Suppy Pipe with Glycol
3. Adjustable Photovoltaic Shades 11. Warm Water Heating Tank Solar Thermal Hot Water Return Pipe with Glycol 3. Photovoltaic Systems 12. Operable 3-Pane Low-E Glazing: U s 0.7 W/m2K R > 8 Solar Thermal Hot Water Return Pipe with Glycol
4. Air Intake with Filter 12. Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger or Heat Energy Recovery System 4. Adjustable Photovoltaic Shades 13. Radiant Heating
5. Inverter ACI DC 13. Operable 3-Pane Low-E Glazing 5. Solar Vacuum Collectors 14. Operable Shutters
6. Photovoltaic Generation Meter 14. Radiant Heating 6. Air Intake with Filter 15. Air-tight Envelope with Super Insulation: U < 0.11 Wl(m2K) R> 50
7. Main Fusebox 15. Air-Tight Envelope with Super Insulation: U:50,15 Wl (m2K) R> 50 7. Inverter AC/ DC 16. Chilled Water Cooling Tank
8. Public Energy Grid 8. Photo Volteic Generation Meter 17. Warm Water Heating Tank
9. Main Fuse Box 18. Air-to-Air Heat Exchanger or Heat Energy Recovery System

Fig. 4. 1-14 Zero-Net-Energy Building for Cold Climates Fig. 4. 1-15 Plus- Energy Building for Cold Climates

10 4 105

Passive Systems

4.2 Passive Systems


Because the energy conservation and sustainability of the built SPRING/AUTUMN July 21
environment are rising to the top of the global agenda, passive

2:00pm

-
Miami 6~
building design presents an increasingly viable alternative for the
building and construction industry. Passive design strategies uti-
lize various forms of solar energy to augment or replace fossil July 21
fuels. In addition, passive design strategies employ sustainable 7:30am
methods to conserve energy through the use of proper materials,
construction methods .and advanced technologies.
Miami

35
e
Natural Systems
A passive approach to building design takes advantage of natu-

ral systems to ventilate, daylight, and heat or cool buildings, thus
eliminating the requirements for active mechanical systems and h= ELEVATION ANGLE: MEASURED UP FROM THE HORIZON
fossil fuel-based energy consumption. Passive design strategies A= AZIMUTH ANGLE: MEASURED CLOCKWISE FROM NORTH
are most effective when they are incorporated at the early stages 2 July 21 2 July 21
of design because they impact building form, orientation, and 2:00 pm 2:00pm
Miami 65
space distribution. When buildings are completely adapted to the Fig. 4.2-1 Building Orientation with Respect to the Sun's Position
Miami I
natural environment and are optimized for harnessing sun, wind, 65
air, and landscape elements, their overall environmental perfor-
mance is improved and the energy demand for operation and
maintenance of the building is significantly diminished.
'11am
12pm
J

suN Building orientation with respect to the position of sun is a


1Qam 0 SUMMER
9 am
significant factor in passive design. Sunlight can provide heat and
daylight and thus reduce the need for artificial lighting and active
heating. Passive solar design involves the knowledge of solar ge-
7am
Sam
0

0
0
SPRING/AUTUMN

W INTER

ometry, window technology and local climate. Solar geometry can
be described by solar azimuth, which is the angle from due north,
Sam O
0

0

and solar altitude, which is the angular height of the sun measured
from the horizon. Hourly solar altitude and azimuth are plotted on
annual solar charts for different latitudes and longitudes. These
3 3 July 21
2:00pm
plots can serve as effective tools in optimizing the building's ori-
entation for passive design in various climatic regions.
Fig. 4.2-2 Typical Sun Path in Hot and Humid Climatic Zones
Miami
~-:::
65

LIGHT Using natural light for illumination of the building's interiors


reduces the need for artificial lighting, minimizes building cooling I
load, diminishes glare, and provides visual comfort. There are a
number of architectural strategies to channel and direct natural July 21
light to the building interior. When these strategies are integrated 4:30pm
with building management systems and sensor technologies, Miami
21
they can reduce the energy requirement for electric lighting even
more. For a detailed review of lighting concepts and strategies
refer to Natural Lighting (Section 6.2). G1 Positive Air Pressure
8 Negative Air Pressure

AIR/WIND Air temperature and wind patterns are key elements for
sustainable design. Air and wind can be utilized to provide natural 1. Wind-Driven Ventilation with Wind Pressure Differences
venti lation and passive cooling, thus reducing energy demand. To 2. Stack or Chimney Effect Caused by Warm Rising Air
3. Combination of Both
provide adequate cooling and ventilation, it is important to con-
sider the building's shape, orientation and the climatic cond itions.
For more information on natural ventilation in buildings, refer to
Fig. 4.2-3 Natural Lighting Strategies Based on Miami's Sun Path @ Fig. 4.2-4 Passive Ventilation in a Building @
Building Form (Section 1).

106 107

------------------------

l~@J ~ 4. Climate Control


~----------------------------------------------------------------------
Passive Systems

4.2 Passive Systems


Because the energy conservation and sustainability of the built SPRING/AUTUMN
July 21
environment are rising to the top of the global agenda, passive
building design presents an increasingly viable alternative for the
building and construction industry. Passive design strategies uti-

2:00pm
Miami 65'

lize various forms of solar energy to augment or replace fossil


July 21
fuels . In addition, passive design strategies employ sustainable
7:30am
methods to conserve energy through the use of proper materials,
construction methods, and advanced technologies.
Miami

35'

Natural Systems
A passive approach to building design takes advantage of natu-

ral systems to ventilate, daylight, and heat or cool buildings, thus
eliminating the requirements for active mechanical systems and
h= ELEVATION ANGLE: MEASURED UP FROM THE HORIZON
fossil fuel-based energy consumption. Passive design strategies
A= AZIMUTH A NGLE: MEASURED CLOCKWISE FROM NORTH
are most effective when they are incorporated at the early stages 2 July 21 2 July 21
of design because they impact building form , orientation, and 2:00pm 2:00pm
space distribution. When buildings are completely adapted to the
natural environment and are optimized for harnessing sun, wind,
Fig. 4.21 Building Orientation with Respect to the Sun's Position
Miami

65'
Miami 65

air, and landscape elements, their overall environmental perfor-


mance is improved and the energy demand for operation and
maintenance of the building is significantly diminished.
11am
12pm

SUMMER

suN Building orientation with respect to the position of sun is a lOam

significant factor in passive design. Sunlight can provide heat and


Sam

9am
0 SPRING/AUTUMN


daylight and thus reduce the need for artificial lighting and active
heating. Passive solar design involves the knowledge of solar ge- 7am
WINTER
ometry, window technology and local climate. Solar geometry can


Sam
be described by solar azimuth, which is the angle from due north ,
and solar altitude, which is the angular height of the sun measured


from the horizon. Hourly solar altitude and azimuth are plotted on
3 3 July 21
annual solar charts for different latitudes and longitudes. These
2:00pm
plots can serve as effective tools in optimizing the building's ori- Miami 65'
entation for passive design in various climatic regions. "'-...:: _
Fig. 4.2-2 Typical Sun Path in Hot and Humid Climatic Zones

UGHT Using natural light for illumination of the building's interiors


reduces the need for artificial lighting, minimizes building cooling
load, diminishes glare, and provides visual comfort. There are a
number of architectural strategies to channel and direct natural

July 21
light to the building interior. When these strategies are integrated 4:30 pm
with building management systems and sensor technologies, Miami
21 '
they can reduce the energy requirement for electric lighting even
more. For a detailed review of lighting concepts and strategies
refer to Natural Lighting (Section 6.2).
<> Positive Air Pressure
8 Negative Air Pressure
AIR/WIND Air temperature and wind patterns are key elements for
sustainable design. Air and wind can be utilized to provide natural
1. Wind-Driven Ventilation with Wind Pressure Differences
ventilation and passive cooling, thus reducing energy demand . To 2. Stack or Chimney Effect Caused by Warm Rising Air
provide adequate cooling and ventilation, it is important to con- 3. Combination of Both
sider the building's shape, orientation and the climatic conditions.
For more information on natural ventilation in buildings, refer to Fig. 4.23 Natural Lighting Strategies Based on Miami's Sun Path @ Fig. 4.24 Passive Ventilation in a Building @
Building Form (Section 1).

106
107
4. Climate Control

- Solar Heating
LANDSCAPE Integrating landscape elements and systems can also
Passive solar heating is achieved by positioning a building to har-
lower energy demand and contribute to the overall health of the Heat is stored by the building's mass, with materials such as con-
ness, store, and distribute solar energy. The best orientation for
natural environment. Landscape elements improve air quality, crete or masonry, and is released over time. To avoid overheat-
capturing direct solar radiation is achieved by aligning the build-
contribute to the indoor and outdoor thermal comfort, and pas- ing of the space during the summer months, adaptable shading
ing's long axis in the east-west direction. This orientation maxi- devices can be used.
sively regulate air temperatures. A thoughtful selection of plant
mizes the building's southern exposure and takes advantage of
materials can create a natural screen to shield buildings from so-
the low sun angles in the winter. Placing large glazed openings
lar rad iation and protect them against wind and precipitation. A INDIRECT GAIN Indirect g ain systems provide space heating
on the south fa<;:ade will facilitate sun penetration into the interior
green roof creates a natural insulation layer on the building, con- through radiation , conduction , and convection. Indirect gain may
space. Using roof overhangs, or other shading devices to block
tributes to waterproofing and traps sound. The use of hydrologic be achieved by utilizing glazing elements with high thermal stor-
high sun angles in the summer months, can protect against over-
landscape systems such as bioswales or constructed wetlands age capacity. These glazing elements are designed to capture
heating. In general, passive solar heating strategies rely on direct
helps to filter, store and reuse water, thereby protecting and re- gain, indirect gain and isolated gain. and store a large fraction of indirect radiation for subsequent re-
storing the existing hydrology. A detailed discussion of landscape lease into the adjoining occupied space. Indirect gain can also
design strategies is addressed in Landscape (Section 7). be achieved by utilizing the mass of the wall material to hold and
DIRECT GAIN Direct heat gain is the simplest form of passive heat-
release heat over time. When walls are used to provide thermal
ing. Direct heat gain utilizes south-facing windows or skylights storage, the indirect gain system is called a solar, a trombe or a
to allow solar radiation to directly enter the zones to be heated. mass wall.

! ROOM TEMPERAT URE


7S.F/23.ac
! ROOM TEMPERATURE
7sFt23.a c
GREEN ROOFS
WATERPROOFING SUPPORT
RUNOFF REDUCTION
HEAT ISLAND PREVENTION
SOUND CONTROL
WILDLIFE HABITAT
AESTHETIC VALUE

SUMMER SUN
SUMMER SUN

i ROOM TEMPERATURE
~ 7sFt23.ac
! ROOM T EMPERAT URE
7s Ft23.ac

LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS
THERMAL SCREENING
WIND TRAPPING
WIND DIRECTING
RUNOFF CONTROL WINTER SUN
IMPROVED AIR QUALITY WINTER SUN
AESTHETIC VALUE
Fig. 4.2-5 General Considerations for Landscape/Building Integration Fig. 4.2-6 Direct Heat Gain from South-Facing Glazing Fig. 4.2-7 Indirect Heat Gain Glazing with Thermal Storage Capacity @

108
109
-
r~~~ ----
4. Cl imate Control
-------- - -- - - -- - - - - - -- - - -- - - - - -- ------- ----
Passive Systems
---------------------------------------~----------------------

ISOlATED GAIN Isolated gain systems are based on a thermal sepa-


ration of the occupied area from solar heating and storage. The
I ROOM TEMPERATURE cRoss-vENTilATION Natural cross-ventilation occurs when pressure STACK VENTilATION Similar to cross-ventilation, stack ventilation
~ 75"F/23.8"C differences to move fresh air from the cooler exterior environment capitalizes on temperature differences between the interior and
most commonly used isolated gain system is a sunroom. Sun- through the building, carrying out the warmer interior air. Pressure exterior of the building. Stack ventilation can be achieved by plac-
rooms utilize thermal mass such as concrete or masonry for the differences can be the result of wind or the buoyancy effect cre- ing a low and a high opening within the space to create a natural
walls and floors to absorb and store heat during the day. At night, SOLAR RADIATION - - -- ated by temperature and humidity differences. In either case, the flow. When the interior air is warmer than the exterior air, warm
the released heat can be distributed through openings such as (SUMMER) amount of ventilation will depend on the size and placement of air rises and is replaced by cooler exterior air entering the space
vents, windows and doors. Sunrooms are most effective when openings and outlets in buildings. Openings between rooms such through the lower opening. The higher the location of the exhaust
they are well insulated . as transom windows, louvers, grills, clerestories, or open plans opening, the greater the temperature difference it creates, result-
are vehicles to complete the airflow circuit through a building. ing in more effective ventilation.
DIRECT HEAT GAIN
Passive Cooling
THERMAL MASS
Passive cooling design strategies utilize natural air and wind ISOLATED HEAT GAIN
patterns to reduce energy consumption in buildings. These de- RADIATION
sign strategies are significantly dependent on both regional and
microclimates. The regional climatic data can be accessed and . . ..... . ...
SUMMER SUN WARM AIR .........
... ......... ....
0.

0
. .. . ..




0
0
0
0
0

FRESH AIR
. ..
. .. ...
.. ..
e
0

plotted on bioclimatic charts. Analyzing these data.and charts will .. ... ......
0 0

. . . ......
0
0

'~~i '
AIR OUTTAKE
assist the designers to identify suitable strategies for a particular ........



0

.

0
0 0

0

0. . ....
. . . ... . .
0
0

.
0 0 0 0

climatic zone. In addition to the regional climate, the microclimate . .....


0. 0
0

..... .. AIR INTAKE


0

I ROOM TEMPERATURE .. ....... ....


0. 0
0 . 0

surrounding a building is an important determinant of the cool- 0 0

~ 75"F/23.8"C
0

ing strategies. A building 's microclimate may receive more sun,


shade, wind, rain , snow, moisture, or dryness than the average
local or regional conditions. If the building is located on a sunny
southern slope, it may have a warmer microclimate, even if the !
OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE
70.2"F/21.2"C
larger regional context has more heating degree days than cool-
ing degree days (refer to Climate Control, Concepts, Section Fig. 4.29 Natural Cross Ventilation INSIDE TEMPERATURE
4.1). If the site is in a hot and humid region , the building may be
DIRECT HEAT GAIN ~ 64.4"F/18"C
situated in a comfortable microclimate because there is abundant
THERMAL MASS
shade and dry breezes. Nearby bodies of water could increase ISOLATED HEAT GAIN
the site's humidity or decrease its air temperature. In general, mi- RADIATION
croclimatic factors are another indicator of how air temperature WINTER SUN
and wind velocity change. They designate which cooling strate-
gies might be successful. Fig. 4.2-8 Isolated Heat Gain
l 1- 1-- - - - - - - - - - WARM AIR
HIGH OPENING

!
TEMPERATURE
75"F/23.8"C

OFFICE
OFFICE ..-1 + - - - - - - INSIDE TEMPERATURE
~ 68"F/20"C
OFFICE

COMPUTER

UIB

I
OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE
64.4"F/18"C UIB

<) HIGH AIR PRESSURE


LOW OPENING ( ) LOW AIR PRESSURE
FRESH AIR
@ ZERO AIR PRESSURE
<>

................... .....................
.................. .................
................... .............. ..
Fig. 4.2-10 Stack Ventilation through Thermo Dynamics and Pressure Differences
110
111
~@]~ 4. Climate Control Passive Systems
'------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

THERMAL MASS COOLING WITH NIGHT VENTILATION Thermal mass COOling


with night ventilation is an effective cooling strategy in climates
---
EVAPORATIVE coouNG Evaporative cooling is a cl imate control strat-
where there is a significant change of temperature between days egy used in hot and dry climates. Its operating principle is based
and nights. This strategy utilizes the mass of the building ele- on the same natural cooling that occurs near waterfalls and other
ments, such as floors , walls, and ceilings, to absorb heat during bodies of water. When dry air comes in contact with water, the
the day and slowly release it at night. At night, when the tempera- water is evaporated. The exchange of energy from liquid water to
tures are much cooler, opening windows or vents will admit cool gas, or evaporation, leads to a drop in temperature .
fresh air into the building and remove the released heat from the Evaporative cooling in buildings is often achieved by producing
thermal mass to the exterior of the building. The thermal mass will a downdraft of cool air through dropping water from the top of
be cooled and ready to absorb heat in the morning. a tower. As the water falls and draws air, it consumes energy to
Courtyard-type buildings can use this cooling strategy effectively evaporate and it gradually cools, thus cooling the surrounding air.
when the building floors and roofs can be protected with movable The cool and humid air at the base of the tower can be directed
shading devices during the day that can be opened at night. The and utilized for cooling.
building can switch from a thermally closed condition by day to
exclude sun and hot outdoor air, to an open condition at night to
allow ventilation to cool the mass.

Jllllllllllllll
THERMAL MASS 1 11111111111111
111111111111111

\\~:~.::.:::::...~/;.;. '-11---:><~------------------- t~?~~~~ WATER MIST

_.......,.......
...... ....
-- ..: -- .-.-.-.-.- \.'- t'.:.t'- - - -. -- .. '
::::-~,...~_;.:::::. :
141411111111111
111111111111111
IIIUIIIIIIUII

--------------------------- ! .:::
. . .:~,. ~::: : :
. . .t ...'1.
ENERGY EXCHANGE
BETWEEN WATER AND AIR
............. - ...... ..........
.......
. ...........
: .. ...
. . . . . . I ... . . . . .
DAY TIME ....
.......... .....
.. .... .
... ..........
........ .. ..
........
1111111
11141111
1111111

...............
..... .... ........
........
WATER CONVERTED TO GAS

....
.. ....... .. .... .

.......
...... .........
.......
... ....... IIIII II

... ........ .....


...
IIIII III
I I I I I I I
0
......____
.... .
............
.... ................... WATER AND AIR TEMPERATURE
DECREASES
------------!'- - . ..... .
FRESH AIR ENTRY
OPERABLE
AT NIGHT
3-PANE
LOW-E GLAZING
OPERABLE --==:::31-...,...:.:::::{{:{{:~:~:~:~::::::::::::..<i:;::l!~~=----------- COOL AIR ROUTED TO BUILDING
3-PANE
LOW-E GLAZING II IIIII
11~41114
4141114
~---------- WATER EXIT
1 s3Ft12 c

NIGHTTIME
Fig. 4.2-12 Evaporative Cooling@

Fig. 4.2-11 Thermal Mass Cooling with Night Ventilation @

112
113
[~@J~ 4. Climate Control
- Passive Systems
~------------------------------~--------------------------------------

Phase-Change Materials DAY TIME


Although phase-change materials (PCMs) are relatively new to the
building industry, their use is rapidly increasing. PCMs are utilized oRGANIC PCM Organic PCMs consist of noncorrosive, chemically EUTECTICPCM Eutectic PCMs are comprised of a mixture of organ-
in building construction because of their thermal capacity for stor- stable compounds with a high latent heat per unit weight. Organic ic and inorganic compounds. Eutectic PCMs consist of nontoxic
ing latent and sensible heat. Incorporating PCMs into construc- PCMs are comprised of paraffin, fatty acids and polyalcohol. Par- salts and materials with freezing temperatures above 32 degrees
tion materials, such as concrete, plaster, gypsum board and other affin is one of the most promising PCM because of its thermal Fahrenheit (zero degrees Celsius) . The freezing and melting
building enclosure materials, is an effective passive strategy to storage capacity and its low cost. Paraffin can be incorporated in points of eutectic PCM can be customized by adjusting the per-
reduce the building's thermal load. building materials such as plasters and gypsum boards. It can be centages of the mixing compounds. For example, eutectic PCM is
securely encapsulated in a plastic shell and evenly spread in the used in the Council House 2 Building (CH2) located in Melbourne,
PCMs change their physical state or phase under small tempera- building material. Australia. The PCM is stored in 4-inch-diameter (1 00-mm) metallic
ture changes; however, their phase change absorbs or releases balls in three tanks holding a total of 30,000 balls. Chilled water
significant amounts of heat. For example, when the ambient tem- EXTERIOR INORGANIC PCM Inorganic PCMs include salt hydrates, salts, met- is added to the tanks. freezing the PCM, where it is stored for use
perature rises, PCMs change from solid to liquid while absorbing >9oFt32c als and alloys. Inorganic PCMs consist of nonflammable com- when required.
heat. As the ambient temperature decreases, the material solidi- pounds with a higher latent heat per unit mass and volume when
fies releasing heat energy back into the environment. The temper- compared to organic PCM. They can also be encapsulated and
ature of the material stays almost constant during toe melting and placed in building components such as ceiling panels. Inorganic
solidification process. There are three types of PCMs: organic, PCM decompose over time and can lose their phase-change
inorganic and eutectic. properties.

! 54' Ff12'C ~ 54' Ff12' C Temperature ...-... PCM melts while


increases -....- absorbing and
NIGHTTIME storing heat

TEMPERATURE
INCREASES

PCM solidifiev
while releasing
the stored heat

Temperature
decreases
EXTERIOR
>?oFr21c

I
30
~CM
1
meks while
bsorbing and
~ 61 ' Ff16' C
25
20 oring heat Temperature ....-.. PCM solidifies
decreases ~ while releasing
TEMPERATURE stored heat
DECREASES
1. PCM (salt hydrate in liquid form) mounted in the ceiling, stores heat
Fig. 4.2-13 Phase-Change Material (PCM) Behavior when ambient temperature increases.

2. Embedded PCM (paraffin) in the wall stores heat when ambient


temperature increases.

3. PCM (salt hydrate in liquid form) mounted in the ceiling, releases the
stored heat when ambient temperature drops. PCMmelts Temperature
~ 54.Ff12' C while absorbing
and storing heat
increases
4. Embedded PCM (paraffin) in the wall releases heat when ambient
temperature drops.

Fig. 4.2-14 PCM Thermal Storage Behavior in Buildings


Fig. 4.2-15 Storage Mechanism with the Use of Eutectic PCM Filled Tanks

114
115
4. Climate Control
~l_[~__J___]
4.3 Active Systems
-----
---_________________
Ac_ti_ve_s_ys_te_m_s____________________

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) refers to the the thermal loads within a building and the exterior ambient condi- The criteria used for thermal load calcu lations include the num- perature. Active mechanical heating can be achieved by solar
equipment, distribution network and terminal units utilized to tions. Space conditioning equipment generally consists of boilers, ber of people, artificial lighting, and appliances for internal load thermal systems with thermal storage tanks, various types of heat
control temperature, humidity, ventilation, filtration, and air move- furnaces, air-handling units, chillers and heat pumps. The selec- calculations; activity levels and thermal zoning within the space, pumps and heat energy-recovery systems with boilers or electri-
ment in the occupied space. Ideally, on-site integrated building tion of HVAC equipment for buildings involves a complex design building envelope elements such as conductivity and thermal cal furnaces , air conditioners, and air-handling units. The amount
mechanical systems or active systems are required when all the decision that comprises a wide range of factors, including heating bridges; building configuration and orientation; and year-round of mechanical heating required is based on the local climatic
passive design strategies utilized to reduce the internal building and cooling needs, humidity control, air quality, energy efficiency, microclimatic conditions, including temperature, vapor, humid- conditions, the use of passive systems, and available renewable
loads and operation loads are optimized and exploited. Building codes, standards, life cycle and cost. Before selecting the HVAC ity, air flows , and air exchange. energy sources.
systems that embody both passive and active characteristics are equipment, a detailed , preliminary thermal load calculation must
often called hybric;t systems. Hybrid systems are engineered to be conducted.
achieve the highest resource use and energy efficiency. coouNG The cooling process consists of the removal of ther- VENTILATING Ventilating is the process that removes or supplies
mal energy or heat from the conditioned space by lowering the suitable quantities of fresh air to the conditioned space to main-
THERMAL LOADS Thermal loads on a building incorporate the temperature or humidity levels of ambient air. Mechanical cool- tain air quality. Ventilation includes air exchange, filtration, humidi-
Space Conditioning impact of all external and internal factors, including building oc- ing can be achieved by air conditioners and air-handling units, fication , dehumidification, and air circulation within the building. To
cupancy and climatic conditions. Thermal load calcu lations are chillers, evaporative coolers and heat pumps. The temperature minimize the potential of adverse health effects, minimum ventila-
Space conditioning involves the processes of heating, cooling, tion and air exchange rates , C02 monitoring, energy control, and
conducted to determine the type and size of HVAC systems and humidity of local climates will impact the amount of me-
and ventilating to maintain indoor air quality and provide thermal air-quality control are specified by the American Society of Heat-
required to achieve adequate and economical thermal comfort. chanical cooling required.
comfort. HVAC systems should provide adequate fresh air, hu- ing, Refrigerating and Air-Contioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and
Thermal loads can be determined through a complex user and
midity control, air-quality control, heating and cooling based on
appliance demand analysis using energy performance software. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
_/ " HEATING Heating consists of the addition of thermal energy to
the conditioned space to raise or maintain an adequate tern-

HEAT ENERGY
~~ RECOVERY/

e e
WIND DIRECTION
- VENTILATOR

~~

EXTERIOR
> 7oFt32 c -

POLLUTANTS

Positive Air Pressure


8 Negative Air Pressure

Fig. 4.3-1 Building Thermal Loads Fig. 4.3-2 Space Conditioning: Mechanical Cooling with Single AC Units Fig. 4.3-3 Space Conditioning: Under-Floor Radiant Heating Fig. 4.3-4 Space Conditioning: Decentralized Mechanical Ventilation
116 117
4. Cl imate Control

Distribution Medium
ALL-AIR SYSTEMS All-air systems utilize air as the only heat transfer
HVAC systems may be classified based on the distribution media medium to provide sensible cooling and heating. In this system,
used to transfer cooling, ventilation, and heating. The most com- air is moved through central station equipment to be cooled or
mon carriers of_ heating, ventilation, and cooling for building ap- heated, humidified or dehumidified, and filtered and freshened.
plications are a1r, water and refrigerant. The major categories are Conditioned air is distributed from the central equipment to the
refngerant systems, all-air systems, all-water systems, air-water zones it serves through distribution trees or ducts. Distribu-
system s, and thermo active building systems. tion ducts are generally thick and occupy significant amounts
of space within the building when compared to those utilized in
~EFRIGERANT SYSTEMS Direct refrigerant systems are usually utilized water systems or air-water systems with thermo active structural
1n small to med1um-sized spaces or zones that require their own components or thermal mass.
mechanical units. Refrigerant systems eliminate the distribution Supply registers provide streams of conditioned air to the zones,
t~ees utiliz~d by air or water HVAC systems and rely on a refrigera- while return grilles and a network of return air ducts transport
tion mach1ne, operating under the vapor compression refrigera- air from the conditioned spaces back to the central equipment.
tl~n cycle, and fans adjacent to or within the space they serve. In Although the space requirements for ductwork are larger, all-air
th1s system, the refrigeration machine uses a refrigerant fluid that systems provide comfortable results for local control of zones and
changes ~tate to provide cooling or heating. In the cooling mode, air quality because they regulate effectively temperature and hu-
room a1r IS blown over the evaporator coil filled with cold low- midity. All-air HVAC systems are comprised of an air-handling unit
pressure refrigerant. In the heating mode, fresh air is blow~ over with fans and heat transfer coils to preheat, heat and cool the air
the condenser coils filled with warm, high-pressure refrigerant. passing through them. In addition, they also have filters to c lean
the air and other equipment to humidify and dehumidify the air.

Exhaust Air

VARIABLE AIR
VOLUME

~,..._--+-- CON TRO L PANEL


iii"!-- \ - - - + - - BLOWING GRILL
.'ll~z8+---+- FILTER AIR-HANDLING
UN IT
INDOOR BLOWER FAN ----~

INDOOR HEAT E XCHANGER ---~.::>::::~4--+-J-.1:~

BOILER

HEAT ENERGY-
CHILLER - -- - -----' RECOVERY SYSTEM
Fig. 4.3-5 Refrigerant System
Fig. 4.3-6 All-Air System

118
119
4. Climate Control
-- Active Systems

the cooling coil. Conditioned water is pumped and piped to the


than all-air systems, they deal with temperature control only and AIR-WATER sYsTEMS Air-water HVAC systems utilize several distri-
ALL-WATER sYSTEMS All-water systems utilize water as the transfer terminal units which absorb or extract thermal energy. A ir qual-
medium for distributing heating and cooling. They utilize chilled require a separate ventilation system and other equipment to bution trees , including pipes and ducts that transport water and ity is accomplished via a separate central station that filters an?
control air quality and relative humidity. A ll-water systems are ap- a r to provide heating and cooling. In ~h1s system, most of the humid ifies o r dehumidifies the total fresh air required. Exhaust a1r
or hot water from a central refrigeration or boiler plant to be dis- 1
propriate when a large amount of ventilation is not required or can heating and cooling of each zone 1s ach1eved _ b y water, wh1ch uti- may be exhausted locally or it can be gathered in a return air duct
tributed to terminal units located within or adjacent to the zones
they serve. All-water systems provide radiant or sensible heating be achieved by opening windows for controlled natural ventilation. lizes much thinner distribution trees that requ1~e less space than system with an integrated heat energy-recovery system. Althoug~
When coupled with thermo active building systems, the efficiency the ductwork needed by air. Water is heated 1n a bo1ler up to a there are several distrib ution trees required, air-water system s uti-
or cooling. They require less space for distribution elements be-
of all-water systems is significantly improved. temperature of 250F (120C) and is pumped th_rough the heat- lize less space than that required by all air-systems.
cause water utilizes much thinner distribution networks than air.
Although all-water systems are generally more energy efficient 1ng coil during the heating mode. Dunng the cooling mode, water
1s cooled by a chiller up to 50F (1ooq and is pumped through

Exhaust Air

t l )

H EAT PUMP COOLING TOWER

CHILLED WATER

THERMO ACTIVE
BUILDING SYSTEMS A IR HANDLER
U NIT WITH VARIABLE
AIR VOLUME

THERMO ACTIVE
BUILDING SYSTEMS

AIR INTAKE
RETURN AIR
TO HEAT EXHANGER

HEAT ENERGY-
RECOVERY SYSTEM
CONDENSER

ABSORPTION
CHILLER

WATER PUMP
BOILER

COOL WATER
STORAGE TANK
HEAT ENERGY-
ABSORPTION CHILLER - - -- - - - -- ---l RECOVERY SYSTEM

Fig. 4.3-7 All-Water System Fig. 4.3-8 Air-Water System


121
120
Active Systems

-- Refrigeration Cycles
THERMO ACTIVE BUILDING SYSTEMS Thermo active building systems
Mechanical equipment can rapidly produce heating or cooling on
(TABS) are composed of water-carrying pipes embedded within
demand. The refrigeration cycle is a mechanical process utilized LITHIUM BROMIDE
the building structure to provide both heating and cooling. TABS
to produce cool or warm air within a building. The size of the re- ABSORBS MOISTURE
utilize pipes as heat exchangers to cool or heat the thermal mass
frigeration equipment depends on the calculated cooling loads,
of the building in order to condition the interior environment. TABS
air exchange and treatment rate requirement. There are two basic HEAT SOURCE
are classified based on the location of the pipes in the building
methods of producing cool ing for building applications: the vapor
elements and can be integrated into ceilings , walls, or floors .
absorption refrigeration cycle and the vapor compression refrig-
TABS implemented in buildings with low heating and cooling re-
eration cycle. When compression or absorption refrigeration ma-
quirements utilize energy for distribution on ly and not for genera-
chines are utilized to chill water and/ or air, they are called chillers.
tion. In order to meet higher heating and cooling requirements,
the system can be supplemented by a wide range of heating and
cooling equipment and can be com bined with renewable energy ABSORPTION CYCLE A vapor absorption refrigeration cycle utilizes
to maximize the system's efficiency. heat sources such as district heating, solar thermal , waste heat
recovery and natural gas to produce chilled water for cooling. A WATER SEPARATED
vapor absorption machine is composed of four interconnected FROM LITHIUM BROMIDE
chambers, a source of heat, chil led water and an absorber solu-
HOT WAT ER VAPOR
tion such as lithium bromide or ammonia. The process begins 170. Ff77"C
when water from one of the chambers evaporates and travels to
the second chamber, where it is absorbed by the lithium bromide.
As water evaporates, it removes heat from the chilled water coil
utilized to cool the building. Once the lithium bromide becomes
too diluted to absorb more water vapor, it travels to the thi rd cham-
ber, the regenerator. In th is chamber, a heat source boils the water
off the lithium bromide solution and the water vapor migrates to
a condenser chamber, while the concentrated lithium bromide re-
turns to its original compartment. In the condenser chamber, the WARM WATER
hot water vapor becomes liquid and it returns to the first chamber 120. FJ4a c
to continue the cycle. The vapor ab sorption cycle becomes ener-
... _ gy efficient when it utilizes renewable energy or other inexpensive HEAT IS RELEASED
-.:::-.-........__._ sources of heat.
'' ''
.
' ''
... '
' '
''
EMBEDDED FLEXIBLE PIPES
IN CEILINGS
RETURN --:~
WATER PIPE i : "-.

!
CHILLED WATER
45FtrC
IRETURN WATER
~ssF11 3c
l COLD WATER VAPOR
J 40"F/4"C

Fig. 4.3-10 Absorption Cycle@

UNDERFLOOR
TEMPERATURE CONTROL

COOLING ENERGY SOURCE

Fig. 4.3-9 Thermoactive Building Systems

122
123
[ ~ [@ ~ [hJ [lJ@]
~
----~-------~~------------~
4. Climate Control - Active Systems ~~ J

Heat Pumps
coMPRESSION CYCLE A vapor compression refrigeration machine Heat pumps consist of refrigeration machines operating under ing the winter or a heat sink during the summer. Like a compres-
consists of an evaporator coil, compressor, condenser coil, ex- n HOT VAPOR an electric compression or thermal absorption cycle that is uti- sion refrigeration machine, heat pumps utilize electricity to pump
pansion valve, and refrigerant. The cycle starts when the refrig- ! HIGH PRESSURE lized for both heating and cooling. Because heat pumps transfer heat from the evaporator coil to the condenser coil. During the
77' CI170' F
erant fluid is compressed and pumped into the condenser coil. heat rather than generate it, they can deliver up to fou r times the cooling period, indoor air is cooled as it is blown across the cold
Once compressed, the refrigerant becomes a hot, high-pressure ~ WARM LIQUID amount of energy they consume. Heat pumps are considered evaporator coil , while outdoor air is heated as it passes through
vapor and travels through the condenser coil where it condenses /
! HIGH PRESSURE an efficient method for c limates with moderate heating and cool- the condenser coil. During the heating period, the reversing valve
and becomes a warm , high-pressure liquid. The refrigerant pass- 48' C/120' F ing needs because they utilize a reversing valve to change the changes the direction of the refrigerant flow and the outdoor coil
es through an expar.lsion valve where it expands and gradually direction of the refrigerant flow to provide heating or cooling on becomes the cold evaporator while the indoor coil becomes the
becomes a cold, low-pressure liquid. The expansion valve allows demand. When heat pumps utilize the ground or a body of water condenser. In this mode, the heat pump extracts heat from the
a small amount of the liquid refrigerant into the evaporator coil as an alternative to outdoor air, they are called geoexchange heat exterior to warm the interior of the building. In hot and humid cli-
REFRIGERANT
where it boils and evaporates due to the very low pressure. The pumps. mates, highly efficient heat pumps reduce energy consumption
EXPANDS
evaporator coil cools to allow the refrigerant to change state and significantly because they dehumidify better than standard central
The term "coefficient of performance" (COP) describes the energy
evaporate. A fan blows air through the evaporator coil, releasing air conditioners.
~ COLD LIQUID efficiency of heat pumps. A typical Energy Star evaluation of the
cool air to the interior of the building. The cycle continues as the complete system is the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) , which indi- Air-source heat pumps are most commonly used in small build-
~ LOW PRESSURE
compressor pumps the refrigerant gas back into the condenser 2' CI35' F cates the ratio of the thermal energy produced to the total amount ings. They may come in a single-package unit or as a split system.
coil. The compression cycle can be inverted by a reversing valve of electrical energy consumed for a whole year. Another measure In a single-package unit, the heat pump transfers heat between
that changes the d irection of the refrigerant flow to provide heat- of efficiency in the cool ing mode is the Seasonal Energy Efficiency the building 's interior and outdoor air through a single piece of
ing or cooling on demand.
Ratio (SEER) that measures the ratio of cooling capacity to electri- equipment. Single-package units are generally located on roofs
REFRIGERANT
cal energy input. The higher the SEER value, the more efficient the because they require unlimited access to fresh air. In a split sys-
EVAPORATES
heat pump's performance. tem , the air-source heat pump utilizes an outdoor unit containing
the compressor and an indoor unit which treats and circulates
~ COLD VAPOR indoor air. Split systems reduce the noise of the compressor and
J LOW PRESSURE AIR-souRcE HEAT PUMPS An air-source heat pump is a central heat-
the air fan because they are located outdoors.
4' C/40'F ing and cooling system that uses outdoor air as a heat source dur-

Heat Released

CONDENSER
COILS
~~~------~,r------ CO ND ENS E R

COILS
HOT VAPOR
HIGH PRESSURE ~'>
~ ':r ~ast e Heat
170' F/77'C

COMPRESSOR ~ ~~turnAir
~~--~~--~~----~--------- EVA PORATOR
COILS
WARM LIQUID
1.,_------,1---- ----EXPANSION VALVE HIGH PRESSURE
120'F/48' C
EXPANSION VALVE
COLD LIQUID
LOW PRESSURE
35' FI2'C
COOLING COILS

OUTSIDE INSIDE

Fig. 4.3-11 Compression Cycle@ Fig. 4.3-12 Split System in Cooling Mode

124 125
4. Climate Control

WATER-SOURCE HEAT PUMPS Water-source heat pumps utilize water geoexchange systems: open loop, horizontal closed loop, vertical
MINI-SPLIT HEAT PUMPS Air-source heat pumps are also available in closed loop and pond/lake closed loop. The selection criteria are
as the heat transfer medium to provide heating or cooling. This
a ductless version called a mini-split heat pump. Ductless, mini- based on climate, soil conditions, available land, local codes, life-
system is generally used in buildings where both heating and
split heat pumps are generally used as decentralized systems for cycle costs and installation at the site.
cooling are simultaneously requ ired. The heat pump e1ther trans-
room additions with non-dueled heating or cooling systems. Like
fers heat from the water to the zone it seNes, or cools the space Open-loop systems utilize moisture from the ground for heat ex-
standard air-source heat pumps, mini-splits have two main com-
by removing heat from the zone, absorbing it into the circulating change fluid as water circulates directly through the geoexchange
ponents: an outdoor compressor/condenser and an indoor termi-
water. The primary advantage of a water-sou rce heat pump sys- heat pump system. Once the water has circulated through the
nal unit. In mini-split heat pumps, the refrigerant is compressed
tem is its ability to capture excess heat from spaces that require system, it is returned to the ground through wells. This system is
at the outdoor unit and transported via insulated refrigerant lines
cooling and transfer it to spaces that require heating at the same only effective when a clean supply of water is available and all the
directly to the indoor units, where air is treated and blown by fan~.
time. In a closed-water-loop heat pump system, a continuous local codes and regulations dealing with groundwater discharge
Each room or zone may have its own thermostat to control a1r
supply of water, maintained at a certain temperature, is pumped are met.
temperature. When compared to conventional systems, mini-split
throughout the building. The pipe loop is connected to bo1lers for
heat pumps are generally more energy efficient because they can The horizontal, vertical and pond/lake heat pumps consist of
supplementary heat and to cooling towers for heat reJection.
provide restricted heating or cooling to specific zones. closed-loop systems. Horizontal closed-loop installations are
most commonly used for residential applications if sufficient land
GEOEXCHANGE HEAT PUMPS Geoexchange heat pumps are alSO is available, because they require trenches of at least four feet
ABSORPTION HEAT PUMPS Absorption heat pumps Utilize heat as their
known as geothermal heat pumps. They consist of a central deep. Vertical closed-loop systems are generally used in large
energy source, rather than electricity, to provide heating or cool-
heating and cooling device that utilizes water as the medium to commercial, educational and institutional buildings. They are of-
ing. Absorption heat pumps operate the absorption refrigeration
transfer heat to or from the ground. Geoexchange heat pumps are ten the best option for geoexchange because the deep ground
cycle utilizing an absorbent, such as lithium bromide or ammonia, c-----IHfH-1-------t':---t------- - AI R DISCHARGE among the most energy efficient and cost-effective solutions be- is warmer during the winter and cooler during the summer. The
instead of the refrigerant fluid. Absorption heat pumps of natural VENT
cause they utilize stable ground and water temperatures for both pond/lake closed-loop system can only be used if there is a body
gas or solar thermal systems can be thermally driven by a variety
~ r---t-'-1----- INSULATED heating and cooling. During the summer, the system utilizes the of water at the site to be used as the heat source or heat s1nk.
of heat sources, such as internal heat energy from appliances PIPES earth or a body of water as a heat sink. In the winter, the earth or A closed-loop system is generally preferred over the open-loop
and people, through heat energy recovery systems. Solar thermal
the body of water become the heat source. There are four types of system because it requires less pumping energy.
systems are the most energy efficient option because they incor- OUTSIDE INSIDE
porate renewable energy technologies.
Fig. 4.3-13 Mini-Split Heat Pump

2
~)x
3
4 ------~~~~~~~--+
~;- 'tJI=- ~
5 ------~~~~~~~~~~~~ Waste Heat
Return Air

g -------------------------------------3~-'-----f~
1. Refrigerant Vapor
2. Generator
3. Regenerator 1. Water Heater and Boiler
4. Solution Pump 2. Return Water Pipe Loop
5. Condenser Absorber 3. Water Pump
6. Refrigerant Fluid 4. Heat Pump Unit
7. Nalural Gas Burner OUTSIDE INSIDE 5. Supply Water Pipe Loop
8. Expansion Valve 6. Cooling Tower for Heat Rejection
9. Cooling Coil
Fig. 4.3-15 Water-Source Heat Pump System
Fig. 4.3-14 Absorption Heat Pump

126 127
4. Climate Control -
-
-+- - - - STORAGE TANK
~----- STORAGE TANK

(INTIFREEZE MEDIUM f.NTIFREEZE MEDIUM


! 55.F/13'C J 55. F/13' C
SOIL SOIL

HORIZONTAL
f.NTIFREEZE MEDIU CLOSED
! 104' Ft4oc LOOPS
DISCHARGE WELL
"\__ HORIZONTAL
CLOSED
VERTICAL LOOPS
CLOSED LOOPS

--!-- - - STORAGE TANK


I -- - STORAGE TANK

f.NTIFREEZE MEDIU
! 55'Ff13c f.NTIFREEZE MEDIUM
!ssFJnc f.NTIFREEZE MEDIUM
! ss F113c
SOIL

HORIZONTAL

r NTIFREEZE MEDIUM CLOSED


i
~VERTICAL
104Ft4o c LOOPS
ANTIFREEZE MEDIUM
f.NTIFREEZE MEDIUM !104. F/4o c HORIZONTAL
CLOSED
! 104Ft4oc CLOS ED LOOPS LOOPS

Fig. 4.3- 16 Geothermal Heat Pump/Open Loop System @


Fig. 4.3-17 Geothermal Heat Pump/Horizontal Closed Loop Fig. 4.3-18 Geothermal Heat Pump/Vertical Closed Loop Fig. 4.3-19 Geothermal Heat Pump/Pond-Lake Closed Loop @

128

129
4. Climate Control
- Active Systems
J
-
Chillers
Active cooling is achieved by removing heat from a space via a
mechanical device. In large buildings, a chilled-water air-condi- Exhaust Air
tioning system is utilized to transfer excess heat from the building
to the outdoor air. A typical chi lled-water air-conditioning system
consists of one or more air handlers, a water chiller, circulating
t \)
I
pumps, and a heat-rejection device. There are several variations dr
to the application of this cooling system, including the integration I HI
of solar-assisted technologies that reduce energy consumption Iw .;:
significantly. COOLING TOWER -------------lr-
~~'~m'""#-4 "- '-..._,
.__

CHILLEDWATERAIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM A Chilled-water air-condition-


ing system utilizes the vapor compression or absorption cycle to
- l
;~ = == :: \ :: :=
. ' :"): == =
...... .--;-= .~II
;o
cool water and air. In this system, chilled water is pumped to cool-
ing coils inside air handlers or fan coil units. The air handlers' cool
.. . . .. . I.i.. . ..
fresh air is blown over the surface of the cool ing coils. As a result, A IR-HANDLING
..........



supply air leaves the air handler at a cooler temperature, while UNIT WITH VARIABLE ..

A IR VOLUME
the water that passes through the coil leaves the unit at a warmer
iiiiii iiiiiii~i ii iitt++4J)
temperature. After gaining heat from the coi ls, tempered water is
pumped back to the chiller where it is cooled again. Heat is trans-
ferred to a heat-rejection device that expels it to the atmosphere.
. ~:

.. ,
. ..
.. " 1' .....
-
.. ::r-"r
T . J".. . IIII
The rejected heat from the cooling power-generation equipment VARIABLE AIR
(e.g., turbines, microturbines, and engines) can be reused with an
absorption chil ler to provide cooling.
.:!: l J II VOLUME



I
.


WATER CHILLERS A water chiller is a key element of air-conditioning
- -~~
1---!Hr'

systems in large buildings. It is a cooling device utilized to remove


heat from buildings using water as the heat-transfer medium. A
water chiller consists of a compressor or generator, an evaporator =: ::::
::~::: : : \ < :: : =:=~
and a condenser. The type of chiller used largely depends on the r--
. .. . J.. .

:~ :=m
energy source and the cooling load required .
1= : .... ::::::::::::::.::: ... ... .
.. ::.: :::::::::::::::::::.::::::
.
I

The two categories of water chillers used in HVAC systems are


::
electric vapor compression chillers and thermally driven absorp-
... . ........ ~~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~:;:::~~~
tion chillers. The main difference between these two systems is
their energy source. Compression chillers use electricity to oper- " I
I

~ r-------~----,---,~=li~~~~~~~~~~====~~==~~~~~ AIR INTAKE



.... ............
........
. ........
..
........ . .
1---ittHt-' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ate a compressor used to raise the pressure of refrigerant vapors.


Thermally driven absorption chillers use heat for compressing
=~ 1\
v
refrigerant vapors to a high pressure. The storage, distribution,

~ \---'\H-\----\-H-----"\8~
and output of cooling energy is achieved through water and ice
storage technologies or through the use of thermoactive building
systems.
Small-scale and large-scale refrigeration machines and chillers
i/ GI / E \

I
are available from one to thousands of tons (3.5 kW- 3500 kW) of \'----- - - - - COOL WATER
cooling capacity. Efficient waste heat control, heat recovery sys-
tems, mechanical room size and location, and acoustic separa-
tion are important considerations when installing chillers in build-
ABSORPTION CHI LLER - - - -- -- - - - - - - ' \ '---- -- - - --
STORAGE TANK
HEAT ENERGY-
RECOVERY SYSTEM
ings. Absorption chillers can also be driven by heat rejected from
power-generation equipment (e.g., turbines, microturbines, and Fig. 4.3-20 Chilled-Water Air-Conditioning System
engines) and by solar thermal energy to generate cooling. Solar
thermal-assisted chillers utilize solar energy provided through so-
lar collectors such as flat plate collectors, solar concentrators and
heat pipe collectors. Solar thermal air-conditioning has the poten-
tial to replace conventional cool ing machines based on electricity.

130 131

4. Climate Control
-- Active Systems

-
CHILLED-WATER COIL A chilled-water coil transfers heat from recircu-
lated air to circulated water. A chilled-water coil consists of several
rows of copper tubes with copper or aluminum fins spaced along
the length of the tube. Chilled water is circulated through the
tubes, while air to be cooled is blown over the surface of the fins .
The coil provides a large surface area for heat to be transferred
from the warm air to the cool fins, causing the air to leave the coil
at a cooler temperature while the water that has gained heat from
... the air leaves the coil at a higher temperature. Tempered water is
returned to the chiller for recooling .

7 ----~~~;,..L-----1!~\

6 ------------~~~~-P
4 -------------~~

5 ---------------~~~
3 - - - - - - - - - - - -- ---

1. Solar Thermal System


2. Solar Thermal Tank
3. Heat Recovery System
4. Absorption Chiller
5. Evaporator
6. Condenser
7. Pump
8. Cooling Tower
9. Chilled Water Tanks
10. Air Handling Units with Variable Air Volume
Fig. 4.3-21 Thermally Driven Absorption Chiller

~~~
7---------

11~-------- 2 1. Air Handling Unit


2. Air Intake
3. Fan
4. Exhaust
3 - - - - -- ------... 5. Filter
1. Compressor
6. Chilled Water Coil
2. Compression Chiller (Powered by
7. Fan
Renewable Energy Sources) Fig. 4.3-23 Chilled-Water Coil
3. Heat Recovery System
4. Condenser
5. Evaporator
6. Pump
7. Cooling Tower
8. Air Handling Units with Variable Air Volume
Fig. 4.322 Vapor Compression Chiller

132 133
[~
~- ~-
~--~-~-~---4._
Ciim_
atec_
ontro_
l -----= _c_tiv_e_sy__stem
--_________________________A
,........--
____s__ ~-------------------~---j[___
~J ~J
Evaporative Cooling
COOLING TOWER A heat-rejection device is the part of an air-condi- Evaporative cooling consists of the process of cooling through the
tioning system that expels excess heat from a building to another evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling is most effect1ve when
medium. Outdoor air is the most common medium to which heat utilized in hot and dry climates where the air temperatu re 1s h1gh
is rejected . Other mediums include bodies of water and the earth. and the humidity levels are low. In some cases, it is not possible
Heat rejection is handled by the condensing system within refrig- to implement evaporative cooling as a passive system, therefore
eration cycles. In larger buildings, when chillers are utilized, the mechanical equipment is introduced and evaporative coolers be-
condensing water system requirement is met by a cooling tower. come part of the refrigeration system. Evaporative coolers, also
A cooling tower removes heat from circulated water so that it can known as swamp coolers, desert coolers, and wet air coolers ,
be recirculated and cooled by the chiller. In this process, tem- can reduce the peak mechanical refrigeration with low water and
pered water is pumped to the top of the cooling tower at a higher low energy requirements. Other advantages of evaporative cool-
temperature than outdoor air. ers include significant cost savings and substantial reduction 1n
the size of the mechanical refrigeration equipment. Evaporative
This water is sprayed over a large surface of plastic tubes or wood
coolers can be used for residential, comm ercial or industrial appli-
sheets called fill material. Water flows downward by gravity and is
cations. There are three main types of evaporative coolers: direct
cooled by evaporation and convection as the outdoor air enters
evaporative, indirect evaporative and two-stage evaporative.
the cool ing tower through louvers and is blown across the fill ma-
terial. Streams of air utilized to cool the water may be generated
by large fans or natural ai rflow patterns. When heat is transferred OIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLER Direct evaporative COOlers generally
to the atmosphere through a heat exchange coil, water is returned bring moist, cool air straight into the building . Direct evaporative
to the chiller to cool the interior of the building. coolers consist of a metal or plastic box with vents on both s1des,
enclosing a b lower, electric motor, water pad, and water pump. In
HEAT ENERGY-RECOVERY SYSTEMS FOR COOLING TOWERS Heat recovery
5--------------------------_J a direct evaporative cooler, ambient air is blown through a perme-
able, water-soaked pad. As warm air passes through the water
systems for cooling towers are increasingly employed to mini-
pad, it cools and evaporates the water from the pad whic~ is con-
mize the wasteful process of expelling heat into the atmosphere. 1. Heat-Rejection Device
2. Cooling Tower
stantly redampened to continue the cooling process. Pnmary or
In this system, latent heat can be reused to recover the rejected
3. Tube Fill Material supply air is cooled, filtered and humidified, to then be delivered
heat by cooling towers to generate low-temperature warm water 4. Cold Water to the building through vents on the roof or wall.
for storage tanks, supplemental space or process heating, or to 5. Pump
thermally drive heat recovery chillers. Heat recovery chi llers may 6. Water Sprinkles
require the installation of additional heat exchangers and piping Fig. 4.3-24 Cooling Tower
infrastructure.

4 -------------------------~

1. Water Distribution
2. Blower
3. Evaporative Pad
4. Pump

Fig. 4.3-25 Direct Evaporative Cooler

135
134

4. Climate Control Active Systems

--
Mechanical Heating
INDIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLER Indirect evaporative COOlers provide Ideally, mechanical heating systems are required to provide heating. There are several types of boilers. The type of boiler and
cool air without adding humidity to indoor air. In this system, out- thermal comfort when passive strategies are exploited and are energy source depends on the size of the heating load, avail-
door air is evaporatively cooled to lower the temperature of a heat not adequate. In large buildings, heat is generated at a central able renewable fuels, and the desired operation. In solar-assisted
exchanger. Primary or supply air then passes through the surface plant and is distributed through highly insulated ducts, or pipes, heating systems, boilers are driven by photovoltaic, solar thermal
of the heat exchanger and is sensibly cooled and delivered to the to radiators, convectors, or thermoactive building systems locat- energy and heat energy-recovery systems to reduce energy con-
space. Indirect coolers generally operate at a lower efficiency and ed at different parts of the building. Mechanical heating can be sumption.
cost more than direct evaporative coolers, but they can be utilized achieved by the use of solar heat, ambient heat via heat pumps, Solar-assisted gas boilers require photovoltaic-driven electric
in climatic zones and .occupancies where direct evaporative cool- heat energy recovery (waste heat), hot water, steam or electricity. pumps to circulate water through pipes to heating coils located in
ing is not a viable choice. Heating equipment includes multiple types of heat pumps, heat- terminal units in radiators, finned tube radiation, and air-handling
recovery systems, solar thermal systems with storage tanks and units. Heating coils transfer heat from the hot water or steam to
TWO-STAGE INDIRECT-DIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLER TWO-Stage systems boilers, electrical furnaces and coil heating, and convectors. It is the rooms and spaces to be heated. In buildings where both heat-
extremely important to select the heating equipment properly to ing and cooling are simultaneously required, any emerging waste
involve the use of both direct and indirect evaporative cooling.
minimize the cost and maximize energy efficiency. heat from the cooling system can be recaptured through heat
In the first stage, indirect cooling is used to pre-cool air without
adding moisture. Primary air leaves the first stage ar1d enters the energy-recovery systems directly into the hot water tank instead
second stage to be directly evaporatively cooled. The pre-cooled BOILERS A boiler is a device that uses hot water tanks with in- of releasing it to the exterior.
air then passes through a water-soaked pad and picks up hu- tegrated exchangers to heat water, for the purposes of building

,
midity as it cools to a lower temperature with the addition of less
moisture. Supply air is then delivered to the occupied space.

/ / I
1. Exhaust Air / / I
' / I
2. Water Distribution / / I

3. Evaporative Media ,'' ,' /


/ / I
4. Heat Exchanger / / I
/ / I
5. Pump / / I
/ I
/ I
Fig. 4.3-27 Two-Stage Direct-Indirect Evaporative Cooler

n~lf+--- 2
J'-=H- - - 3

3
1. Solar Thermal Collector
4 2. Expansion Vessel
3. Control Unit
5 4. Heating and Warm
Water Supply Pipe
1. Water Distribution 5. Temperature Controller 10
2. Heat Exchanger 6. Flow Control Valve
3. Blower 7. Insulated Pipes 11
4 . Evaporative Pad 8. Aquastat 12
5 . Pump 9. Expansion Vessel
13
10. Vent
Fig. 4.3-26 Indirect Evaporative Cooler 11 . Extension Pipe
12. Drain Valve
13. Back up Heater (Biogas Fuel)

Fig. 4.3-28 Solar-Assisted Gas Boiler

136 137
r I

-
[~
~-~-~--~
-l-~-~---4-
.Ci im_
ate _
C ont_
rol ------=
-
FURNACES Furnaces use chemical energy from a fuel to heat air HEAT PUMPS Heat pumps can be used for both heating and cool-
and warm the environment. The fuel source generally consists of ing. When utilized for heating, they extract heat from the exterior
natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, fuel oil, coal or wood. The and deliver it to the interior via the vapor compression cycle. In
fuel source burns air in a combustion chamber to generate heat. this mode, fresh air is blown across the surface of the warm con-
Hot gases travel to a heat exchanger in the chimney, while air is denser coil located within the indoor unit. Air captures heat from
forced around the surface of a heat exchanger to gain heat. Heat- the coils and is delivered to the space being served. Exhaust air
ed air is transported by a network of ducts to the building space can be used to minimize the need to generate new heat by the
being served. Furnaces are primarily used in residential and small use of heat energy-recovery systems. In order to reduce energy
office buildings, classrooms or industrial plants. When compared consumption, heat pumps may utilize stable ground and water
to boilers, furnaces ar-e not a better option because they heat air, temperatures as a heat sink or heat source. For detailed informa-
which is less efficient than transferring thermal energy with water. tion on heat pumps, refer to Heat Pumps on page 125.
For residential buildings, Energy Star requires annual fuel utiliza-
tion efficiency (AFUE) ratings of 85 to 90 percent or greater. r - - - - --+--"1--- 2

HEATING COIL Heating coils are essential components in most


heating systems because they transfer heat from the source to the
space being served. Heating coils are composed of copper tubes
and thin aluminum fins that increase the heat transfer area and
improve heat transfer rates. Heating coils may transport steam, 1. Fins
high- or low-temperature water, refrigerant and combustion gas. 2. Heaters
The distribution medium, either air or water, is forced through the 3. Vent Connections
4. Connections
surface of the coils to capture thermal energy. The heated air or 5. Tubes
water is transported by a network of ducts or pipes and is deliv- 6. Casing
ered to the spaces that require heating. Fig. 4.3-30 Heating Coil

FIRST FLOOR

4
5

1. Return Register
2. First Floor 6
3. Exhaust Stack
4. Return Duel
7
5. Draft Hood
6. Power Switch 12
7. Gas Control 8 11
8. Control Valves 1. Condenser Coil
9. Filler 9 2. Compressor
10. Blower 3. Expansion Valve
11. Burner Cover 10
4. Evaporator Coil
12. Burners
13. Combustion Chamber Fig. 4.3-31 Heat Pump
14. Supply Duel
15. Supply Register BASEMENT
Fig. 4.3-29 Basement Furnace

138 139
District Heating and Cooling Ventilation
District heating and cool ing (DHC) systems consist of city or A regular exchange of air via ventilation can be achieved by natu- air treated by the unit. Major energy-saving concerns are related
neighborhood, centralized or building off-site, networks and are ral or mechanical means, or a combination of both, depending on to ventilation transmission losses. An energy-efficient ventilation
generally used to provide heating or cool ing energy to individual the microclimate, location , and building occupancy type. Natural system must have a controlled air supply and extract system, with
buildings. DHC is an extremely flexible infrastructure technology ventilation must be careful ly planned and controlled because it is an integrated heat exchanger to recover heat, cooling energy, and
that can use any fuel, including waste energy, renewable energy strongly dependent on the way thermal currents or differi ng wind moisture.
and combined heat and power (CHP). DHC networks offer in- pressu res dominate a building site. Electric mechanical ventilation
creased opportunities for saving energy and minimizing environ- with the four types of technical air treatment, including cooling,
heating, humidifying, and dehumidifying, is very energy consum- AIR-HANDLINGUNIT An air-handling unit (AHU) is composed of fans,
mental impact while _replacing building heating/cooling genera-
ing. On average, for 35 cubic feet (one cubic meter) of air per sec- coils, filters and other parts that are utilized to condition fresh
tion plants.
ond, 8,524 Btu (2.5 kWh) is needed. Most commercial buildings air streams as a part of the HVAC system. AHUs are connected
tn hot, arid and humid climates use electric mechanical ventilation to ductwork that distributes and circulates the conditioned air
DISTRICT COOLING SYSTEMS District COOling (DC) systems generate throughout the building and returns it back to the unit. The AHU
to ensure that fresh air intake is filtered , conditioned, humidified or
and distribute cooling energy to multiple buildings within a district draws in fresh air and mixes it with return air from the building
dehumidified and delivered at the right comfort temperature, rela-
or neighborhood. This system distributes chilled water through to reduce the cooling or heating loads. The size of an AHU var-
tive humidity level, and required air quality. Controlled C02 content
highly insulated pipes to the building's air-conditioniQg unit, lower- ies greatly depending on the amount of air passing through the
and air flow rates are other important parameters. Air-handling
ing the temperature of air passing through the unit. DC plants can unit. In large buildings, AHUs are generally located in one cen-
systems are responsible for supplying adequate amounts of
produce enough cooling energy to meet the cooling requirements tral equipment room or in several separate, smaller mechanical
fresh, clean air and maintaining good indoor air quality and ther-
of several buildings and can replace ch iller systems that consume rooms.
mal comfort. Air-handling equipment may come in many varia-
large amounts of energy. tions depending on the size of the building and the amount of

DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS In district heating (DH) systems, thermal


energy is generated in a central plant and distributed through a
network of insulated pipes, in the form of hot water or steam, to
1. Meier
heat multiple buildings and/or provide domestic hot water. DH can
2. District Heating System Plant
make use of waste heat from combined heat and power plants 3. Underground District Storage Tank
and other industrial processes. DH systems are also commonly
Fig. 4.3-32 District Heating System
used with heat-driven cooling technologies such as absorption
chillers to provide cooling during the summer months.

COMBINED HEAT AND POWER Combined heat and power (CHP), also
known as cogeneration, consists of the simultaneous generation
of electric energy and thermal energy by capturing unused heat
rejected from the production of electricity, to fulfill space heating.
In this process, energy is used more efficiently because it recov-
ers waste heat generated in the electric production process. CHP
Cold Air
plants can be installed as part of DHC systems to significantly Supply
reduce energy consumption.

1. Condenser Coils
2. Compressor
3. Expansion Valve
Si - -INSIDE
4. Evaporator Coil OUTSIDE
5. Blower

1. Meter Fig. 4.3-34 Air Handling Unit


2. Combined Heat and Power System Plant
Fig. 4.3-33 Combined Heat and Power

140 141

4. Climate Control Active Systems
----- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------~

Heat Energy-Recovery Systems


Energy recovery ventilation systems provide a controlled way of HEAT-RECOVERY VENTILATORS Heat-recovery ventilators (HRV) in-
PACKAGE UNIT SYSTEM A package unit or rooftop unit is a self-con-
ventilating buildings while reducing heating or cooling require-
tained AHU usually mounted on the exterio: of a structu re or at clude a heat exchanger, fans , and climate controls. They use heat
ments. They minimize energy consumption significantly by elimi-
ground level on a concrete pad. Package unt~s generally tncorpo- exchangers to extract heat from exhaust air and transfer it to the
nating the need to generate new heat. Recovery systems capture
rate most of their components in a stngle untt and are fabncated fresh air introduced into the building. These systems pre-heat
waste heat, such as exhaust air, and transfer it to a fluid, either air or pre-cool incoming fresh air recapturing approximate 60 to 80
in a factory. They are composed of a blower, filter, compressors,
or water. During the winter season, the cost of heating is reduced percent of the exhaust air temperatures that wou ld otherwise be
evaporator coi l and an air-cooled condenst~g. sectton. Package
by transferring heat from the warm interior exhaust air to the chilly lost. Because exhaust air and fresh air do not mix, odors or water
units are usually employed on large retatl butldtngs, warehouses ,
fresh air intake. During the summer months, the inside exhaust air vapor are not transferred along with the heat. HRVs are available
and small commercfal buildings. Package units provtde atr dt-
cools the warmer incoming air to reduce ventilation and cooling in different scales and configurations. They can be used in both,
rectly to the space being conditioned. The adv~ntage of using a
costs. Recovery systems have the ability to meet the American residential and commercial HVAC systems.
package unit is the cost and time savings from tnstallatton labor.
Society of Heating, Refrigerating , and Air Conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE) ventilation and energy standards while improving
climate control and indoor air quality. There are two types of re-
covery systems: heat-recovery ventilators and energy-recovery
ventilators.

4 --

1. Filter
2. Blower
5
3. Evaporator Coil
4. Circuit Board
5. Compressor
6 . Condenser Coil 6
7. Condenser Fan

Fig. 4.3-35 Package Unit System


1. Stale Air from House
2. Casing
3. Fresh Air Distribution INSIDE OUTSIDE
4. Filter
5. Heat Exchange Core
6. Circulation Fan
7. Filter

Fig. 4.3-36 Heat Recovery Ventilator

142 143
4. Climate Control Active Systems

Distribution and Terminal Systems


ENERGY-RECOVERY VENTILATORS Energy recovery venti lators (ERVs) Distribution systems are responsible for transporting heating or
exchange energy contained in exhaust air and reuse it to pre- cooling fluids such as air, water or steam from the central equip-
condition incoming outdoor air. EVRs transfer both sensible and ment to the conditioned space. Distribution systems include net- Return Air
latent heat. They transport heat and water vapor from exhaust air works of pipes, pumps, ducts or fans that transport the fluids to
into the fresh air intake. In the summer months, ERVs pre-cool the terminal units. Terminal units vary depending on the type of
and dehumidify fresh air while in the cooler seasons they pre- system used to meet the cooling or heating requirements. All-air
heat and humidify incoming air. ERVs are recommended in hot systems supply only conditioned air from the central equipment
and arid climates, wh~re cooling loads place strong demands on directly to the conditioned space. All-water systems require termi-
HVAC systems. ERVs are not dehumidifiers, but they can limit the nal units to circulate chilled or heated water within the conditioned
amount of moisture coming into the building. These systems can space to provide cooling, heating, humidification or dehumidifica-
be integrated in both residential and commercial HVAC systems. tion. Air-water systems require terminal units in the conditioned
space to meet the cooling, heating and ventilation requirements.

SINGLEDUCT SYSTEMS Most all-air HVAC systems utilize a single


network of supply air ducts to provide either warmed or cooled air
to the zones they serve. Single-duct systems can serve as a single
zone or as multiple zones to control temperature and humidity. A Supply Air
single-zone system is very energy efficient and inexpensive. It uti-
lizes less energy to distribute conditioned air because the equip-
ment is typically located within or adjacent to the space it serves. Exhaust Air .c ..,:::: :,_
This system is typically used in smaller buildings and is controlled Released <.. 8:i===3===:== =====U:::::::E-::;:;:::J
i:::::.,i[;:
by a zone temperature sensor that regulates the required heat-
7
ing or cooling to achieve thermal comfort. A multiple-zone system
works very similarly to a single-zone system with independent Outdoor Air
temperature sensors for each zone that regulate the volume and
temperature of air discharged into the space. A multiple-zone sys-
tem serves various zones in a building that might have different
internal thermal loads or specific climate requirements.
3 4

1. Heat Energy Recovery


2. Outdoor Air Inlet Preheater
3. Boiler
4. Chiller
5. Filter/Humidifier/Dehumidifier
6. Cooling Coils
7. Fan

Fig. 4.338 SingleDuc t!SingleZone System

1. Filter
2. Exhaust Fan
3. Enthapy Wheel
4. Cooling Heating Coil
5. Supply Fan

Fig. 4.337 Heat Energy Recovery Ventilator

144
145
4. Cl imate Control -_ ________________
Ac_ti_ve_s_ys_te_m_s ______________________]__ ~ [~ ~]
SINGLE-DUCT VARIABLE AIR VOLUME (VAV) Variable air volume 0/AV)
HVAC systems utilize a mixing box or terminal unit generally lo-
cated above a suspended ceiling or below a raised floor within the
zones it serves. The terminal unit is an energy-saving option be-
cause it controls the quantity of air supplied to each zone based
on the thermal loads. In this system, the fan motors run at peak
condition speed only during peak hours. The terminal unit also
reduces noise and adjusts the velocity of air from the main duct to
the distribution ducts.

DOUBLE-DUCT SYSTEMS The double-duct system has the greatest


energy consumption of any all-air system. The double-duct option
utilizes two separate distribution ductworks to supply warmed and
cooled air. Warm and cold air ducts run parallel to each other, oc-
cupying a significant amount of space. During the summer peak,
cool air is provided by the cool air duct, while the warm air duct
provides heated air during the coldest winter days. Most of the
time, supply air from the two networks is mixed at each zone's
Supply Air air terminals. The d ual-duct system increases the required floor- 1. Heat Energy Recovery
to-floor height and the energy required for air distribution. Due to 2 . Preheater
3 . Boiler
the high annual energy costs, this system is not commonly used.
4 . Filter/ Humidifier/ Dehumidifier
5. Cooling Coils
6. Fan
7. Chiller

Return Air

1. Outdoor Air lnlevPreheater Exhaust Air


---
Supply Air
Exhaust Air
Released_.{:::\~C'I=====::::E:;;;;:===========::j
,:::::.t..
2. Filler/ Humidifier/Dehumidifier :_:_) !:;!~===::::::!;:::;:;:=======IJ:::::::::::!:::;:;:<:::::::J
Released <:{_:_
3. Fan
4. Heat Energy Recovery
5. Boiler
6. Chiller
7. Heating Coils
8. Cooling Coils
5
Fig. 4.3-39 Sing/e-Duct/Multiple-Zone System

7
3 7

Fig. 4.3-40 Single-Duct Variable Air Volume System Fig. 4.3-41 Double-Duct System in Cooling Mode

146 147
a

~J ~ ~ [ ][ J [f.)[; J[,e] 4. Climate Control ~ -~----~-A-ct-ive-S-ys-te_m_s---~~~~-~


~-[#_]_J
~------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------------~------------------------------------~

UNDER-FLOOR DISTRIBUTION Under-floor distribution eliminates SUp- FAN COIL UNIT A fan coil unit is typically located under windows
ply ductwork and introduces supply air through floor outlets us- and consists of a fan that blows room air across the surface of
ing the under-floor area as a plenum. Under-floor distribution with a coil filled with chilled or hot water. The water flow that passes
displacement ventilation provides supply air at a very low velocity. though the coils is regulated by a thermostat to provide heating
Fresh air rises to the occupant level and is drawn upward by the or cool ing. Fan coil units utilize a four-pipe , three-pipe or two-pipe
stack effect , as are gains in heat from people, lighting , and other system to circu late the water. A four-pipe system consists of two
equipment. Under-floor distribution systems provide better ther- pipes for hot supply and return water and two other pipes for cold
mal comfo rt by allowing the freshest air to be at the occupant level water supply and return. In this system, either heating or cooling
and the most stale air to be collected at the ceiling. is possible at any time of the year. A two-pipe system circulates
hot water during the winter and cold water during the summer,
providing only heating or cooling during each season. A three-
PERSONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MODULE Micro-zone systems are utilized
pipe system circulates hot, cold and return water. A three-pipe
in commercial buildings to provide a variety of individual controls
system is not as efficient because it circu lates hot and cold return
in rooms, offices or workspaces. Personal environment modules
water through the same pipe. Fan coil units come in many shapes
(PEM) are micro-zone systems that allow each user to adjust the
and sizes that allow flexibility. They can also be located above
supply air temperature, velocity and direction at each work station.
1. Air0utlet windows, in small closets, or above a suspended ceiling.
PEM systems are designed to fit under a typical office desk. In th is
2. Raised Floor
system, a mixture of outdoor air and recirculated indoor air is de- 3. Floor Plenum
livered to each personal environment module from the main duct 4. Floor Slab INDUCTION SYSTEMS Induction systems utilize a constant volume
or under-floor plenum. PEM systems reduce energy consumption 5. Supply Air Duct of fresh air supply, preconditioned at the central system and
by using occupancy sensors to turn off the system when the work- delivered to each induction terminal , typically located below win-
Fig. 4.3-42 Under-Floor Distribution
space is unoccupied. They also minimize the energy requi red for dows or above suspended ceilings. In the terminal unit, fresh air
cooling and heating because they provide thermal control to indi- is forced through an opening while room air is induced to mix with
vidual spaces versus the entire building or floor area. the incoming stream of fresh air. About 20 to 40 percent of fresh
air is mixed with room air and is blown over the surface of coils OUTSIDE INSIDE 1. Finned Tube Coil
filled with chilled or warm water for heating or cooling. The flow of 2. Hot Water Supply
3. Fan
cold/warm water and the flow of fresh air are directly contro lled by 4. Filter
local thermostats generally located within the terminal units. Fig. 4.3-45 Fan Coil Unit 5. Return Water

.. ~::.: -..

1. Heat Recovery
2. Cooling Coils
3. Fan
4. Reheater
1. Diffuser 5. Filter/ Humidifier/ Dehumidifier
2. Flexible Duel 6. Absorption Chiller
3. Air Mixing Box 7. Boiler
4. Preconditioned Air Source

Fig. 4.3-43 Personal Environmental Module Fig. 4.3-44 Induction System

148 149

4. Climate Control ------~--~~~----
.----
A c
_ t i_v e_s_y s
_ te
_ m_
s ____________~---~
---[~
__]__~]

FAN COIL WITH SUPPLEMENTARY AIR ThiS air-supplement system is RADIANT PANELS WITH SUPPLEMENTARY AIR In this air-water system, REFERENCES
closely related to the induction system, but it uses a fan at each the terminal unit is replaced by a large surface of radiant ceiling 1. Markuss Kottek, Jurgen Grieser, Beck Christoph, Franz Rubel and Bruno Rudolf,
unit to circulate the mixture of air throughout the unit. A fan coil or wall panels that contain the cooled and heated water. Radiant Map of the Kbppen-Geiger climate classification updated, Meteorologische
unit is a simple device consisting of a heating or cooling coil and panels can be used for both heating and cooling with chilled or Zeitschrift, Publisher E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Volume 15, No.
3, June 2006, pp. 259-263(5).
a fan that moves the air mixture. In this system , a constant volume hot water. Conditioned water is circulated through a finned tube
of preconditioned fresh air from the central system is delivered to mounted horizontally within the radiant panels. A constant volume 2. Fanger, P 0 . "Thermal environment - Human requirements." The Environmen-
of fresh air is brought into the space and cooled or warmed as it talist. 6. no. 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02238059.
the fan coil unit through air ducts. The fan draws room air through
a filter and moves it across the surface of the coil filled with warm passes over the hot/cold surface of the panels. Radiant systems 3. Jank R. Volkswohnung GmbH, GovEnergy, "Net Zero and Low Energy
are highly eHective in spaces exposed to large influxes of outside Buildings:Theory and European Practice." Last modified January 17th, 2008. http://
or chilled water that heats or cools the supply air. As in induc- www.annex46.org/kd/cache/files/645BB562D756407F95B9E4E8FE5CC5DD.pdf.
tion systems, the unit's output is controlled by a local thermostat air such as warehouses. They can accommodate many building
4. Passive House Institute. http://www.passiv.de/07_eng/index_e.html.
with a manual switch. Fan coils with supplementary air units are configurations.
typically used in buildings that have many thermal zones, such as
schools, hotels, apartments and office buildings.

1. Heat Energy Recovery ..


2. Cooling Coils
3. Filter/Humidifier/Dehumidifier
4. Outdoor Air lnleVPreheater
5. Chiller
6. Boiler
7. Fan

Fig. 4.3-46 Fan-Coil with Supplementary Air

..
.
.

1. Heat Energy Recovery Outdoor Air


2. Cooling Coils Intake
3. Fan
. 4. Reheater
..
.- 5. Filter/ Humidifier/Dehumidifier
6. Chiller
7. Boiler
8. Storage Cold Water 8
Fig. 4.3-47 Radiant Panels with Supplementary Air

150 151
I Renewable Energy
Fossil fuels are nonrenewable. Use of fossil fuels draws on fi-
nite resources that are diminishing. These fuels are becoming
increasingly more expensive and their extraction produces ir-
retrievable damage to the environment. In contrast, renewable
energy resources are constantly replenishing themselves. Their
capacity to replace conventional fuels is significantly increasing
on a global scale. In their various forms, renewable resources
include sunlight, wind, and geothermal energy. Energy harnessed
from these sources can be used to produce electricity and heat-
ing and cooling energy for building operations.

152 153

5. Renewable Energy
v--_____________E
_n_er_g_
y_so_u_rc_e_s_an_d_s_to_r_ag_e__ ~----------------------~~J
5.1 Energy Sources and Storage
soLAR coNCENTRATORs Solar concentrators operate similarly to flat
Solar Energy plate collectors, but have a larger area for receiving solar radia-
The sun is the most significant source of renewable energy. Most tion. They utilize optical concentrators such as reflecting mirrors
renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. and refracting lenses to concentrate sun rays in the absorber
Sunlight or solar energy can be used directly for heating, daylight- plate to allow the transferring fluid to reach higher temperatures of
ing, solar cooling and generating electricity. There are two main approximately 930F (500C) . Solar concentrators provide higher
approaches utilized to harness solar energy: solar thermal con- efficiency, but require continuous adjustment to solar orientation.
version and the photovoltaic effect. Solar thermal c onversion is
utilized to convert solar energy to thermal energy wh ile the photo- / '- - - 2 VACUUM TUBE SOLAR COLLECTORS Heat pipe COllectors COnSiSt of
voltaic effect is utilized to convert solar energy to electricity. '------ 3 hollow tubes inside vacuum-sealed tubes. The vacu um envelope
~~----------- 4
SOLAR THERMAL CONVERSION The most important component Of a reduces convection and conduction, allowing the system to oper-
~~~~~--------- 5
ate at higher temperatures. Each hollow tube is fil led with liquid at
solar thermal conversion system is the solar collector. Solar col-
a specific pressure that undergoes an evaporating-condensing
lectors are heat exchangers designed to capture ar:td store solar
phase change. As the liquid is heated by the sun, it evaporates
radiation for conversion into thermal energy or heat. They operate
and travels to a heat sink area where it condenses and releases
by absorbing sunlight to generate large amounts of heat. There
latent heat. This cycle is repeated as the fluid returns to the solar
are several types of solar collectors , including flat plate, solar
1. Air Duct collector where the sun starts to heat it again. Heat pipe collectors
concentrators, and heat pipe. Solar collectors mounted on roofs 2. Absorber Plate
must be firmly constructed and attached to avoid leaks and in- 3. Glazing
are capable of creating large amounts of heat.
ternal corrosion , and be able to withstand unfavorable weather 4. Metal Frame
5. Insulation
conditions. They can also be mounted on a tracking system to 6. Air Passage 3
continuously face the direction of solar radiation.
Fig. 5.1-2 Flat-Plate Collector (Air) 4----\,+_,-11'-~~
FLAT-PLATE COLLECTORS Flat-plate collectors are generally com- \
prised of a layer of glazing, an absorber plate, insulation, and a
transferring fluid . The glazing admits approximately 90 percent of
the solar radiation wh ile reducing the upward loss of heat. The ab-
sorber plate generally has a dark surface which collects much of
the radiation transmitted through the glass, and stores heat. The
heat is then removed by the continuous flow of the transferring
fluid.
e

"' \
. 1.
2.
3.
5 --~~~~~~

6- ---__:,---'1~

Refl ector
Insulated Absorber Tube
Insulated Solar Field Piping
4. Absorpti on Tube
5. Sunlight Rays
Hot Water Output
6. Parabolic Reflector

.. ..!.,104.Ft4oc 6
'----- 2
Fig. 5.1-5 Solar Concentrator
'---- 3
y<:- - - - - - - - - - - - 4
~~------------- 5

"---------------------- 6
'-------------- 7

1. Cold Liquid lnleVInsulated Pipe


2. Absorber Plate
3. Glazing
4. Metal Frame
5. Insulation
6. Copper Flow Tubes
7. Hot Liquid Outlet
2
Fig. 5 . 1-3 Flat-Plate Collector (Liquid)

Condensed Liquid
1. Condenser
1. Flat-Plate Solar Collector lobe Heated
2. HeatExchangerTube
2. Insulated Pipe
3. Thermallnsulation
3. Antifreeze Liquid
4. Selectively Coated Absorber
4. Control Valve and Pump
5. Conducting Tube
5. Heat Exc hanger
6. Impact-Resistant Solar Glass Tube
6. Storage Device ....
Fig. 5. 1-1 Flat-Plate Solar Collector Cycle @) Fig. 5.1-4 Vacuum Tube Solar Collectors

154 155

[~[~. _:;_J_[~__]_[__
~ ][_~__J ___[_~_]_[t?__]__~__s_.R_e_ne_wa_b_le_E_ne_rg_Y_______________~~-----------E-ne_rg_y_so_u_rc_es_a_nd_s_to_ra_g_e_________________________]
Photovoltaic Systems
Direct conversion of sunlight into electricity can be achieved by
". --
ENERGY
---
EFFICIENCY
TYPE OF PV CELL COST*.. 40'
the use of energy conversion devices called solar or photovoltaic .
PRODUCED*
-- --
RANGE(%)** :
(PV) cells. PV cells can be classified into three major categories: Monocrystalline 12watts 16-25 $1.50/watt
monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and thin-film silicon products. - --- ----- -:::----- --
Crystalline cells are the most efficient and the most expensive Polycrystalline 10watts 14-17 $1.25/watt
cells. They are generally used for window and fa<;ade applica-
tions. Thin-film cells have a lower efficiency than crystalline cells
with lower costs per s-quare foot. Thin-film modules are most com-
monly used in industrial building fa<;ades and roof elements. PV
Thin-Film
-- 5watts 7-12 $1.15/watt
J
*Energy Produced may vary depending on the system's orientation and tilt angle.
**EHiciency Range: The sunlight-to-electricity conversion rate.
systems do not need engines and operate quietly. They generate Actual costs may vary depending on the modules' specific features.
electricity only when the sun is shining and require an unobstruct-
ed exposure to sunlight for maximum efficiency. Source: Solarbuzz. an NPD Group Company, "Solar Market Research and Analy-
sis." Accessed March 16, 2012. http://solarbuzz.com/.
PV systems can be mounted on roofs. They can also be incorpo-
Fig. 5. 1-6 Photovoltaic Systems Performance Metrics
rated in the cladding system of a building. In this case, building
integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are used. BIPVs can replace con-
ventional roofing, siding, glazing, overhangs, and shading devices 1. Photovoltaic System
to generate a significant portion of the required electricity. BIVPs 2. PV Cells
3. Aluminum Frames
are composed of modules that come in many sizes, finishes and 4. Adjustable Support
colors. PV modules can be combined to form panels, which are 5. Inverter AC/DC
further combined to form an array. The amount of electricity gener- rR~~~~==rr::~ 5 6. Fuse
7. Lights and Appliances
ated by a PV array varies depending on solar exposure, the size of 6 8. National Grid
the system, the building location, and orientation. 7 9. Appliance
8
Fig. 5.1-8 Roof Cladding with Photovoltaic Cells
ROOFCLADDING WITHPVSYSTEMS PV systems integrated into the roof '------- - - - - 9
should be located on south-facing slopes to generate the maxi-
mum amount of electricity. When integrated with roofs. the under-
side of the PV system needs to be ventilated during the summer
to avoid overheating. In winter, the warm air under the PV system
can be collected to heat the building.
When utilized on flat roofs, PV systems require a support structure
4['
that provides the appropriate orientc;ttion and tilt for the system.
The optimal tilt is based on the time of year that maximum power ..........
is required. In hot climates, the peak energy demand is during
1. Active Ventilated Frame
the summer for air conditioning. In cold climates, the peak energy 2. Array of Fans
requirement is during the winter for heating.
Fig. 5.1-7 Ac tively Ventilated Photovoltaic Module

Pv FA<;ADES PV systems that are integrated into the building fa-


<;ades can generate significant amounts of electricity. The optimal
condition for energy production occurs when the PV modules are
oriented perpendicularly to the beam of solar radiation. The south
fa<;ade provides the maximum collection of solar energy, while the
east and west fa<;ades produce up to 60 percent of the optimal
south output. PV systems should be integrated only on the upper
portion of the fa<;ade if lower areas of the building are shaded. 1. Facade Integrated Transparent Photovoltaic System
2. Embedded PV
3. Slructural Grid System
4. Inverter AC/DC
5. Fuse 4 ~~~~~~~~T
6. Lights and Appliances 5 - - -----1 1--..L--1
7. National Grid
8. Appliance
Fig. 5.1-9 Photovoltaic Far;ades
~ ~~~~~~~
8 ----------___l

156 157
5. Renewable Energy Energy Sources and Storage

---
Wind Energy Geothermal Energy Biomass, Hydropower and Hydrogen Energy
A small portion of solar energy is converted to wind. Because the Geothermal energy is heat obtained from the earth. This heat is In addition to solar, wind, and geothermal energy, the use of other
amount of the sun's heat absorbed or reflected by the earth varies produced by the geothermal activity or the decay of naturally ra- sources of renewable energy, such as biomass, hydrogen energy,
with topography and the differences in day and night tempera- dioactive materials such as uranium and potassium located deep and hydropower, are becoming more widespread . Biomass is
tures, the atmosphere warms at a different rate. The warm air rises 1n the earth. Geothermal energy can be accessed by capturing the solar energy stored in organic matter such as plants, animal
and cool air is drawn to replace it, thus producing air currents or the heat from hot rocks, in the form of steam or hot water, located waste, and aquatic vegetations. This energy is released as heat
wind. The wind 's kinetic energy can be captured and transformed a few miles or deeper below the earth's surface. Geothermal en- when the organic matter is burned or converted. Energy released
WIND
into electricity or other forms of energy. This type of energy has the ergy concentration varies based on geographical location and is from biomass is used to produce power and fuel. Hydrogen is
lowest environmental impact. not available everywhere. In some areas, adequate concentration found in many organic compounds, as well as water. Hydrogen
produces heat flow to shallower depths wh ich makes it easier to is an abundant element, however it does not occur naturally as
Wind energy conversion can be accomplished through small- . access. This type of geothermal energy is often referred to as gas. It is always combined with other elements. Once hydrogen
or large-scale conversion systems using turbines. Small-scale ... geothermal power. It has the potential for generating significant is separated, it can be burned as fuel or converted into electric-
wind conversion systems have potential as distributed energy ..... ity. Hydroelectric power or hydropower is the energy harnessed
amounts of electric power.
resources. Distributed energy resources refer to a variety of small, ... from moving water that can be converted to electricity. With the
modular power-generating technologies that can be combined Another type of geothermal energy refers to the contained energy
increasing cost of fossil fuel and improving production technolo-
to improve the operation of the electricity delivery system. Large- 1n shallow ground. This energy can be accessed by shallow heat
gies, these renewable energy sources are becoming more effi-
scale wind conversion systems, known as "wind farms" or "wind pumps. It can be an efficient source for cooling and heating of
cient and economically viable solutions.
power plants," are more economical and can be expanded eas- 2----J.. individual buildings. These systems are d iscussed in Section 4.3.
ily because they are modular. The electricity generated by large-
scale systems is often collected and transferred to utility power GEOTHERMAL POWER Geothermal power plants are installed where
lines, where it is delivered to specific locations. 6 \
a geothermal site has been identified. In these plants, hot water
Wind energy power generators are classified based on their and steam from the geothermal activity are d irected to the sur-
rotational axes: the horizontal axis system and the vertical axis face utilizing deep pipes placed in the earth. The hot water and
system. Both of these systems can be utilized on rooftops where the steam are then redirected to drive steam turbines that run
there is adequate height and wind speed. Rooftop turbines can 1. Rotor Blade generators, producing electricity. The cycle of energy is renewed
create vibration on the roof and to the structure, which can be 2. Tower because steam returns to its liquid state in condensers. Most of
avoided by raising the turbine above the roofline. 3. High-Speed Shaft the residual heat evaporates, and the remaining hot water is rein-
4. Gear Box
5. Generator
jected into the reservoir.
6. Low-Speed Shaft
HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND-GENERATOR SYSTEMS Horizontal axiS wind
turbines are most commonly used. They consist of two or three Fig . 5.1 10 Horizontal Axis System Wind Turbine
Voltage is increased and
blades revolving around the horizontal axis, a gear box, an electri- sent out to power lines
cal generator, and other electrical equipment. As the wind blows,
it turns the blades of the turbine which are connected to the main
shaft. The shaft spins the generator to create electricity. Wind ROTATOR DIAMETER
The electrical charge generated
turbines are usually mounted on a tower or on top of a building is directed to a transformer
at one hundred feet or more above the ground. At this level, the
turbines take advantage of faster wind speeds to generate the
most energy.
Pressurized steam spins

-
the turbine blades
VERTICAL AXIS WIND-GENERATOR SYSTEM Vertical axiS systems COnSiSt
of vertically oriented blades revolving on the vertical axis. These
turbines have a greater surface area for capturing more energy
and are multidirectional, which means they do not have to face
the wind directly. They have a simpler design than the horizon-
tal axis systems and therefore are easier to maintain. In addition,
they can be placed in more locations, including parking lots and
highways. Because vertical axis systems operate at lower speeds,
birds do not get caught in the blades. New research in design and
construction of vertical axis turbines shows a great potential for Cold water is pumped
increasing their efficiency in the near future. beneath the surface

1. Upper Hub
2. Rotor Blade
3. Tower
4. Lower Hub
5. Gear Box Hot water and vapor travel
6. Generator toward the surface
Fig. 5. 111 Vertical Axis System Wind Turbine Fig. 5.1-12 Geothermal Power Plant @ 159
158
[___~_@]_~-~-~
-
~_Li]_
;_~_ _s_. Re_new_ab_le E_nerg_y ----=--- Energy Sources and Storage

Energy Storage Systems


One of the greatest impediments to the more extensive use of
renewable energy is the lack of adequate storage capability. Be-
cause the availability of solar and wind energy fluctuates both with
the time of day and seasonal changes, adequate storage capac-
ity is a critical component in providing a steady source of energy
for buildings. Energy can be stored in thermal storage reseNoirs
or batteries. Thermal energy storage holds energy in thermal
reseNoirs such as large water tanks, concrete slabs, or phase-
change materials for later use. Thermal storage can be used to
balance energy demand between daytime and nighttime to avoid
power outages due to high peak demand. Battery storage sys-
tems use the same electrochemical reactions used in car batter-
ies, but have a much greater storage capacity and can supply
power for longer periods.

COOL THERMAL STORAGE (CHILLER TANKS) Cool thermal storage or


chiller tanks offer storage for sizable amounts of cool thermal en-
ergy to be used for building operations. These storage systems
are typically composed of a large tank filled with water (or an-
other medium) that may have several smaller containers filled with
phase-change material (PCM) (see Section 2.1). During the off-
peak demand period, the chiller produces cool water that flows 1. Upper Hub
to the tank, solidifying the PCM. Because the PCM has a lower 2. Rotor Blade
temperature than that of the building 's chilled water temperature, 3. Tower
4. Lower Hub
it drops the storage tank's temperature. ' 5. Gear Box
6. Generator
In general, the selection of the storage medium and distribution of
the stored energy will determine the size of the storage tank and Fig. 5.1-13 Insulated Cool Thermal Storage Tank (Axonometric)
the configuration of the cooling systems. The choice of storage
medium includes chilled water, ice, and phase-change materials,
or eutectic salts (salts with low melting points) which are typically
cooled by refrigeration compressors.
I AC UNIT I
HEAT THERMAL STORAGE (SOLAR TANKS) Hot water collected from SOlar I
panels can be stored in thermal tanks. The stored water can be
used for domestic water or space heating. Most practical active
solar heating systems can store a few hours to a day's worth of
heat. There are also a growing number of seasonal large-scale
thermal storages used to store summer heat for space heating
during winter or summer cooling for space cooling during the hot
season.
REFERENCE
1. Kurt Roth, Robert Zogg, and James Brodnck, "Cool Thermal Energy Storage.
Emerging Technologies, ASH RAE Journal VoL 48, September 2006. http://IWVW tiax
! WARM WATER 60"FI15"C--I---+"f,j'!fk~ 1.
2.
Solar Collector
Insulated Pipes
biZ/publications/cool_thermal_energy_storage.pdf STRATIFIED LAYER- - 1 - -- WHI--
3. Collector Circulation Pump
COLD WATER 35"F/1"C --t---f7+:~- 4. Heat Exchanger
5. Expansion Tank
6. Storage Circulation Pump
7. Storage Tank
8. Return from Heating Energy Source
9. Supply to Heating Energy Source
Fig. 5.1-14 Insulated Cool Thermal Storage Tank (Section)
Fig. 5.1- 15 Heat Thermal Storage (Solar Tank)

161
160
I Lighting
Prior to the invention of electricity, natural lighting was the only
abundant light source for illuminating buildings. As a result, the
orientation and form of buildings, openings on fagades, size and
placement of windows, and the location of rooms were guided by
the availability of daylight. The building form and fagade/room
relationships changed dramatically with the invention of artifi-
cial lighting. Today, the use of artificial lighting in a building ac-
counts for a signi