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Code-division multiplexing, the

Electro Receivers contain amplifiers,

oscillators, mixers, tuned circuits and
signals to be transmitted are converted
to digital
filters, and a demodulator or detector
nic that recovers the original intelligence
signal from the modulated carrier.
data that is then uniquely coded with a
faster binary code.

Communi Attenuation is proportional to the

square of the distance between the
Infrared is produced by light-bulbs, our
bodies, and any physical equipment

cations transmitter and receiver.

that generates heat. Infrared signals
can also be generated by special types
of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and
A very high SNR is preferred for best
Communication is the process of performance. lasers.
exchanging information
Infrared is the basis for all fiber optic
Modulation makes the information
Two of the main barriers to human communication.
signal more compatible with the
communication are language and medium, and multiplexing allows more 1 = 10-10 m
distance. than one signal to be transmitted
concurrently over a single medium. Visible range is approximately 8000
The telegraph was invented in 1844 Putting the original voice, video, or
(red) to 4000 (violet).
and the telephone in 1876. Radio was digital signals directly into the medium
discovered in 1887 and demonstrated in is referred to as baseband Bandwidth refers to the range of
1895. transmission. frequencies that contain the
information. The term channel
All electronic communication systems Baseband Tx: mathematical bandwidth refers to the range of
have a transmitter, a communication expression for a sine wave: frequencies required to transmit the
channel or medium, and a receiver desired information.
In electronic communication systems, Components that routinely work in
the message is referred to as
the microwave range:
information, or an intelligence signal.
Noise is the general term applied to any Transistors
phenomenon that degrades or interferes Magnetrons
with the transmitted information. Devices called modems (modulator- Integrated Circuits
demodulator) translate the data from Traveling-wave tubes
Transmitters are made up of oscillators, digital to analog and back again.
Other semiconductor devices
amplifiers, tuned circuits and filters,
International Telecommunications
modulators, frequency mixers, Another name for the demodulation
Union (ITU), an agency of the United
frequency synthesizers, and other process is detection.
Nations that is headquartered in
A multiplexer converts the individual Geneva, Switzerland, comprises 189
Radio is the broad general term applied baseband signals to a composite signal member countries that meet at regular
to any form of wireless communication that is used to modulate a carrier in the intervals to promote cooperation and
from one point to another. Radio makes transmitter. negotiate national interests.
use of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Frequency-division multiplexing: the Standards are specifications and
intelligence signals modulate guidelines that companies and
The communication channel is the
subcarriers on different frequencies individuals follow to ensure
medium by which the electronic signal
is sent from one place to another. that are then added together, and the compatibility between transmitting and
composite signal is used to modulate receiving equipment in communication
the carrier. systems.
Passive sonar listens for underwater
sounds with sensitive hydrophones.
Time-division multiplexing: the The term used to describe the ability of
Active sonar uses an echo-reflecting equipment from one manufacturer to
multiple intelligence signals are
technique similar to that used in radar work compatibly with that of another is
sequentially sampled, and a small piece
for determining how far away objects
of each is used to modulate the carrier. interoperability.
under water are and in what direction
they are moving.
Satellite phones use low-earth-orbit
satellites to give worldwide voice
service from any remote location on