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METHODOLOGY

Rejman E., Ph.D.,Eng.

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering – Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland

Rejman M.,M.Sc., Eng.

Designer, Turbine Engines Design Department – Wytwórnia Sprzętu Komunikacyjnego „WSK PZL-Rzeszów” S.A, Poland

Abstract: Weight is a critical factor in aircraft engine design, where it is required to keep the smallest weight at the same strength

properties. Minimum weight requirements are especially applicable at reduction gearboxes of the turbo propeller engines where high

reduction ratio is required to transmit power from power turbine to the propeller. Depending on the required gear reduction value and

available space different gears arrangements are used. Specific gear arrangements allow to transmit high reduction values at certain weight

of the whole gear chain. The presented in the article methodology allows to size the gears and ratios of the gear chains, while keeping the

lightest possible design, still meeting transmitted power and strength properties requirements. The presented methodology is applicable at

the beginning of design process to judge which gear system will fit the best to specific performance requirements. Gear sizing outputs data

from the preliminary gear chain sizing are the inputs data for the detail design. Methodology is applicable to spur, helical and planetary

gears. Primary criteria to size gear dimension is maximum allowable surface durability factor. Based on the derived formulas there have

been created weight graphs. Graphs show the relationship between gear ratio and weight for different types of gears arrangements and

allow to choose specific type of gear system based on the required ratio.

Keywords: GEAR SIZING, GEAR WEIGHT

1. Introduction

Aircraft engine transmissions systems are assemblies from e) f)

which high reliability and low mass is required. Weight limitations

are related to gearboxes which are used to transmit power and

torque. Gearboxes are one of the heaviest assemblies included in

power transmission systems, that’s why mass of the power train is

one of the key factor which has an influence on gear train

arrangement.

The article presents the methodology of gear chain mass sizing

depending on kinematic drive scheme. Presented below

methodology allows to size raw dimensions of the gears with Fig. 1 Typical gears arrangement used in aircraft engine power

respect to required gear ratio, transmitted power and gears contact transmission

strength properties. Experience of authors in gearbox design

indicates that contact stress in gear mesh limits load carrying

capacity of the gearbox. Gearbox scheme depends on the role which it plays in transmission

chain and required transmitted power. Strength and mass

2. Discussion requirements are established by AGMA norm [1]. Design equations

are based on the assumption that the weight of a gear drive is

Gearboxes used in aircraft engines are built from a few typical proportional to the solid rotor volume of the individual gears in the

schemes which are presented in figure 1, in example: offset gears

(a), offset gears with idler (b), offset gears with two idlers (c),

drive, b * d 2 *ψ , where:

double reduction gears (d), multi branch gears (e) and planetary b - width of the gear, d - pitch diameter, ψ – gear volume fill factor.

gears (f).

Gear volume fill factor is defined:

a) b)

Vs

ψ =1− (1)

Vp

where: Vp – solid gear volume, Vs –gear material volume after final

machining.

In gearboxes used in aircraft industry gear volume fill factor ψ

value is from 0.3 to 0.7. When know contact stress relationship it is

c) possible to establish required gears volume, necessary to transmit

d) required load at known gearbox ratio. Relationship between

geometrical dimensions of the gearbox, ratios and power shows

equation [2]:

P * (i + 1)3

a 2 * b = 4,84 * 106 (2)

K * n1 * i

18

pitch diameter of the output gear. which can be a baseline to compare different gears arrangement. from equation (17). i0 – overall ratio. b. 1b). ∑b * d *ψ i 2 i i where M = is a gearbox mass factor. f. gearbox input ratio i1 can be calculated for which mass will be minimal.5 * d1 * (1 + i ) (3) If it is taken under consideration that After substitution equation (3) into (2) we have: d 3 = i0 * d1 2 P i +1 where d3 . K – surface durability factor. Based on that and after next transformations equation (6) can be used for pinion drive d 2 = d1 * i . Hence 3 2 2 2 * i1 + i1 = i0 + 1 (17) b1 * d 2 *ψ 2 = b1 * d ∗ i *ψ 1 2 2 2 1 (8) For given overall gearbox ratio i0.where: a[mm] – axis to axis center distance of the gearbox stage.5-4 MPa [3][4]. for given ratio i0. Assuming that i1 – ratio between input gear and idler gear. Based on fig. To be able to estimate gearbox weight quickly it is necessary to describe presented procedure for different 2000 * T1 gearbox arrangements in graphical form or computer algorithm [5].1a) summary weight will be proportional to example at give i0=5 input ratio i1=2. c.196. gears. 1a. Equation The presented design methodology has also an application for C other types of gearbox arrangements. equation: 3. Experience in gearbox design shows that maximum allowable equation (6) is surface durability factor should be K=1.62 * 106 * (4) K * n1 i 2 2 * T1 i1 + 1 2 b * d 3 = 2000 * * * i0 (14) If power P is written as a function of the torque T K i1 T1 * n1 Assuming that gears in the gearbox are not fully machined. Weight of the whole gearbox is proportional di1 i1 i1 to the sum of the volume of each gear in the gearbox. i2 – ratio between idler and output gear. then 19 . If C= then which allow to take quick decision of kinematic drive scheme at K minimum weight. As an example of graphical representation mentioned methodology ∑b * d *ψ i 2 i i 1 for gears arrangements in fig. where d2 – pitch diameter of pinion drive. From figure 2b mass factor M can be determined in function of the given overall ratio i0. which corresponds to minimal mass of the Real gear volume Vr1 describes the equation: given gearbox stage. Calculating derivative of equation (15) and resulting equation is set π * d12 equal to zero we get Vr1 = * b *ψ 1 (7) 4 2 dM 1 io Equations (6) and (7) show that gearbox volume is a function of = 1 + 2 * i1 − 2 − 2 = 0 (16) input drive volume Vr1. Gearbox mass calculation methodology has also application to evaluate mass of the geartrain with idler gear (fig. 2 i i 1 2 i then equation (4) will be written : M= i =1 = 1 + + i1 + i1 + i0 + 0 (15) C i1 i1 2 T1 i + 1 b * d1 = 2000 * * (6) There is only one value of the ratio i1. Next it will be presented (10) allows to provide gearbox ratio with minimum mass of the methodology for gears arrangements shown in figure 1 d.5 * (d1 + d 2 ) = 0. Center 2 2 * T1 i1 + 1 2 distance of mating gears describes relationship: b * d 2 = 2000 * * * i1 (13) K i1 a = 0. i = 1 = 2 Pitch diameter of the idler gear is n2 d1 d 2 = d1 * i (12) P[kW] – power on input drive. then b * d1 = 10. 2a it is possible to determine input C i ratio i1 for given overall ratio i0. we can P= [kW] (5) get gearbox mass factor M 9500 3 ∑b *d *ψ i 2 where: T1 [Nm] – torque on input gear. i0 = i1 *i2 (11) n d n1 [1/min] – input gear speed i – gearbox ratio . Results of discussion 2 2000 * T1 i + 1 ∑ ψ i * bi * d i = 2 * * (1 + i 2 ) (9) Taking into consideration equation (15) it is possible to i =1 K i calculate mass function. e. For For offset gears (fig. at which K i function M is minimal. can be weighted curves M= = +1+ i + i2 (10) shown in figure 2.

a) b) b) Fig. which allows to determine gearbox input ratio i1 for gearbox with minimum weight. For gears arrangements showed on figure 1 d. Figure 3b allows to find mass factor M and what next.4 * (i0 − 1) 2 + n 20 . Where: n – number of planets. multi branch and planetary gear system. mass of the gearbox. b) total weight curves Table 1: Minimum weight equations Gearbox type Minimum weight equation 2 2 3 2 * i1 i +1 2 * i1 + = 0 Double reduction ⎛ i0 + 1 ⎞ ⎛ i0 + 1 ⎞ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎝ i0 ⎠ ⎝ i0 ⎠ 2 2 3 2 * i1 i0 + 1 Multi branch 2 * i1 + = ⎛ i0 + 1 ⎞ ⎛ i +1⎞ (four branch) ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 4 * ⎜⎜ 0 ⎟⎟ ⎝ i0 ⎠ ⎝ i0 ⎠ Fig. 2 Offset gears characteristics: a) minimum weight curves.4 * (i1 − 1) 2 + 1 Planetary 2 * i0 + i0 = Figure 3a shows relationship between overall ratio i0 and input ratio n i1 for double reduction.4 * (i0 − 1) 2 1 1 2 + + is + is + n n * is n * is Planetary 0. is – ratio between plane and sun gear. e. Table 2: Total weight equations a) Gearbox type Total weight equation 2 2 Double 1 2 i i reduction 1+ + 2 * i1 + i1 + 1 + 0 + i0 i1 i0 i1 2 2 Multi branch 1 1 2 i i i + + 2 * i1 + i1 + 1 + 0 + 0 (four branch) 4 4 * i1 i0 4 * i 4 0. b) total weight curves 3 20. f Accordingly mass function M equations are (table 2): minimum weight equations has been established. 3 Double reduction gears characteristics : a)minimum weight curves. Equations are presented in table 1.

Gear technology. Di Francesco G.Rejman M. Gearbox arrangement at the early phase of the design has serious impact on the gearbox weight. WNT Warszawa 1996.47-51. Marini S. 5. Műller L. [2]. References [1]. p. [3]. 4.W. CRC Press.: Structural analysis of asymmetrical teeth: reduction of size and weight.: Handbook of practical gear design.: Gearbox weight calculation spreadsheet.. AGMA 911-A94 Design guidelines for aerospace gearing. New York 2002. Conclusions Weight of the gearbox is the basic criteria used in aircraft industry. Rejman E. September 1997. [5].. 21 . Application of the gearbox ratio share methodology for specific gearbox stages allows to minimize gearbox weight. [4]. Dudley D. Rzeszów 2010 (not publicized).: Przekładnie zębate.

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