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Structural Enneagram

Personality Explained

By Jean Adeler

Copyright Jean Adeler 2009-2014


Structural Enneagram and Conventional Enneagram ....... 3

Personality as Perspective ............................................................ 4

Developmental Path .......................................................................... 4
The Six Perspectives ......................................................................... 4
Perspective Seven .................................................................. 4
Perspective Five..................................................................... 5
Perspective Eight ................................................................... 6
Perspective Two .................................................................... 6
Perspective Four .................................................................... 7
Perspective One ..................................................................... 8
Binaries ............................................................................................. 8
The Seven-Five Binary .......................................................... 9
The Two-Four Binary .......................................................... 10
The Eight-One Binary ......................................................... 11
Combination Perspectives on the Triangle ..................................... 12

Personality as Structure ............................................................... 13

Personality Dynamics ..................................................................... 13
The Nine Personality Structures ..................................................... 14
The One-Two Structure ....................................................... 14
The Two-Three Structure .................................................... 14
The Three-Four Structure .................................................... 15
The Four-Five Structure ...................................................... 15
The Five-Six Structure......................................................... 16
The Six-Seven Structure ...................................................... 16
The Seven-Eight Structure................................................... 17
The Eight-Nine Structure..................................................... 17
The Nine-One Structure....................................................... 18

Personality Types with Wings ................................................... 19

One-wing-Two, The Servant-Leader .............................................. 19
Two-wing-One, The Altruist........................................................... 20
Two-wing-Three, The Giver ........................................................... 21
Three-wing-Two, The Motivator .................................................... 22
Three-wing-Four, The Achiever ..................................................... 23
Four-wing-Three, The Individualist ................................................ 24
Four-wing-Five, The Artist ............................................................. 24
Five-wing-Four, The Visionary ...................................................... 25
Five-wing-Six, The Observer .......................................................... 27
Six-wing-Five, The Guardian ......................................................... 28
Six-wing-Seven, The Loyalist......................................................... 28
Seven-wing-Six, The Enthusiast ..................................................... 29
Seven-wing-Eight, The Excitement Seeker .................................... 30
Eight-wing-Seven, The Rebel ......................................................... 30
Eight-wing-Nine, The Boss............................................................. 31
Nine-wing-Eight, The Mediator...................................................... 32
Nine-wing-One, The Peacemaker ................................................... 33
One-wing-Nine, The Idealist........................................................... 34
Structural Enneagram 2
Structural Enneagram and Conventional Enneagram

The Structural Enneagram is a fundamental Even at the surface level of delineation and
rethinking of the Enneagram model of personality. The description of types, the Structural Enneagram's
conventional Enneagram is a system of nine personality innovations are quite extensive. For example, while the
types organized on a graph called an enneagram, or conventional Enneagram describes nine personality
nine-part figure. types with the option of assigning a wingthe type on
As an adaptation of that well-known personality- either side of the dominant typethe Structural
typing system, the Structural Enneagram introduces Enneagram makes wings an essential factor in
several new features, among them: personality typing.
Specification of the underlying structures of The principal new elements of the Structural
personality. Enneagram are as follows:
More-accurate, two-number structures as opposed 6 Perspectives that form the building blocks of
to the old single-number types. personality
These and other modifications of the Enneagram model 9 personality structures corresponding to pairs of
add exponentially to its explanatory value and useful- adjacent numbered points
ness. 18 type-plus-wing personalities
Moreover, the Structural Enneagram model exposes the
dynamics of personality, consisting of three separate
moments that drive the personality. In short, the
Structural Enneagram understands the Enneagram to be
not merely an organized collection of personality types
but also a dynamic model of the underlying structure of

A Note on Language Choices

People are more than their personality types. Yet it

gets tiresome repeatedly reading phrases like a person
The basic Structural Enneagram still looks like the having Structural Enneagram type Eight-wing-Seven.
illustration above, although its parts may have different So instead of spelling the idea out in eight words, I might
meanings. For example, in the conventional Enneagram, shorten it to three: Eight-wing-Seven.
the lines connecting numbers map a direction of In a sense, the Eight-wing-Sevenness of a person
integration, while in the Structural Enneagram some of can be said to have its own, autonomous agency, acting
the lines are repurposed to map a developmental path, within, and at times almost independently of, the whole
the order in which certain perceptual and cognitive person. In that sense, it can be true to say that Eight-
abilities arise in childhood. wing-Seven does something or thinks something. We all
For those wishing to break out of personality traps, have occasions (probably many more than we would
the conventional Enneagram's vague recommendations care to know) when some unconscious or automatic part
to behave more like the type in one's direction of of us takes over. So, although I never mean to imply that
integration are replaced by a better understanding of personality is the whole of a person, I will use this
how and why such traps exist. This information can help shorthand throughout.
in devising a plan of action for personal growth.

Structural Enneagram 3
Personality as Perspective

At the root of personality is Perspective. The word use of each of these Perspectives contributes something
perspective has multiple meanings: it is worldview; to your sense of identity, to your selfhood.
point of view; perceptual position; and mental posture
relative to yourself, others, and the environment. In the
Structural Enneagram, Perspective is contingent upon
many factors, among them, physiological capabilities
and constraints, psychological drives, accidents of
personal history, cultural contributions, and (largely
unconscious) linguistic structures.

The Six Perspectives

The six Perspectives that undergird the personalities

of the Structural Enneagram are listed here in the posited
developmental order, which can be traced on the above
enneagram figure by starting at Seven and following in
The six points on the enneagram hexadthe six- the direction of the arrows, stopping at One.
pointed star shapemark the Perspectives modeled by
the Structural Enneagram. (The points on the triangle Perspective Seven
will be covered later in this section.) The typical patterns
of underuse and overuse of these six Perspectives add Perspective Seven is the state of being as one with
up to nine personality structures and eighteen people and thingsthe state of being immersed in the
personality types. environment. I also use the NLP term associated to
name this state. From an associated position, you
experience yourself as if inside the scene, using your
Developmental Path senses to see, hear, feel, smell, and taste what is going
on around you. This applies whether the experience is
I believe that five of the six lines connecting the happening now, is being recalled, or is only imagined.
points on the hexad trace a developmental path, When you are in an immersed state, your emotions
beginning with Perspective Seven and ending at One. are activated. While riding a roller coaster, you are
The origins of Seven are in infancy, and One is the most excited and scared. While giving a speech, you are
sophisticated Perspective and probably the last to be nervous. While serving on a jury, you become
added. passionately vengeful in sympathy with a murder
This model assumes a norm in which, in the course victim's family. You eagerly await the final game of a
of growing up, almost everybody acquires and is able to tournament.
perform all six Perspectives, but everybody also favors An amusing illustration of Perspective Seven is
some Perspectives over others. A stable pattern of lesser found in the opening paragraph of Edmund Morris's
use of some Perspectives and greater use of others is
what determines a personality type. But the common
principle uniting all six Perspectives into a wholeand
the justification for systematizing themis that your
Structural Enneagram 4
Colonel Roosevelt, a biography of Theodore Roosevelt.1 good in a flash. Either way, they are completely
The former president is on an African expedition: absorbed in the experience.
Sitting above the cowcatcher, on an Although we all retain some access to Perspective
observation bench rigged for him by British Sevens immersion in experience, only an infant could
East Africa Railway officials, he feels the thrust possibly sustain this proto-Perspective Seven for any
of the locomotive pushing him upland from length of time. Once we acquire language and the
Mombasa, over the edge of the parched Taru ability to partialize, we will always, to some extent,
plateau. He has the delightful illusion of being stand out from the world in our own minds.
transported into the Pleistocene Age. Uncontaminated Perspective Seven will never again be
Here TR, as if a part of the train, coursing through the possible. But as the personality matures and adds other
African landscape, eager for excitement, inhabits the Perspectives, the associated, Sevenish point of view will
Seven state to the utmost. continue to provide a space for being as one with people,
things, and experience.

Perspective Five

At around 18 months of age, children noticeably

begin to acquire Perspective Five. Using this
Perspective to conceptually distinguish themselves from
the maternal environment, they pull themselves up from
passivity, helplessness, and dependency.
Whether or not you adopted Perspective Five as a
prime component of your personality structure, you
have it available to you. It is a skill set that allows you
to get some distance on your environment and to avoid
feeling that situations and people are swallowing up
your individuality.
I believe that a sort of proto-Perspective Seven
arises in infancy, at the personality's first emergence
from the nurturing maternal matrix, probably at around
six months of age. Before that, although infants may
have a definite temperament, there is little to suggest
that they have a sense of themselves as individuals. Self
and environment are a unity.
Once they do begin to develop a sense of being
different from the environment, they still experience
themselves as a reflection of it. To a large extent, the
state of the environment is the state of the self. Their
budding sense of identity is wrapped up in what they
see, hear, and feel. If the world is orderly and pleasant
and they are well-fed, then they are composed. If the When using Perspective Five, you are detached2, or
world is chaotic and noisy and the diaper is clammy and objective, as opposed to losing yourself in your
the child hungry, then everything falls apart. Babies experience. As you are somewhat removed from the
selfhood, like their emotional state, reflects their scene, you occupy an observer space, so to speak, from
immediate circumstances. which you see and hear what is going on over there.
And their experience is holistic. They dont draw This Perspective allows you to be less
fine distinctions. The world is either good or its bad at personally involved and more analytical. If, for
this moment, although whats bad now may change to example, you were objectively evaluating an orange

Edmund Morris, Colonel Roosevelt (Random House, 2010), psychiatry dissociation has all negative connotations, in
3. order to avoid confusion, I've dropped the term.
In previous accounts, I used the NLP term dissociated for
Perspective Five rather than detached. However, since in
Structural Enneagram 5
maybe you're going to serve fruit salad to guestsyou subject and object in grammatical terms borrowed from
might rate its acidity or notice that the juice tasted the parts of the common English sentence structure:
sweeter than usual. Enjoyment of the orange has been subject-verb-object. The subject does something that
subordinated to observation. involves an object. I love youI am the subject. You
When you are detached, your feelings are more love meI am the object.
under your own control and less contingent upon
circumstances. While riding a roller coaster, you may
become curious about the physics of the cars staying on
the pitched track. While giving a speech, you may
evaluate the audience reaction. On the jury in a murder
trial, you can dispassionately weigh the evidence for and
against the charges.
The developmental aspect of shifting from the
associated to the detached perspective is well illustrated
in an account written by psychoanalyst Jeanne Lafont.3
A four-year-old girl is being treated. On a rainy day,
Lafont asks the girl to look out the window and then
draw what she sees. The girl grasps the pencil in her fist
and performs rain by dotting the paper. According to
Lafont, most children at that age take a step back from
the scene of rain and draw vertical lines depicting the
drops falling. While under the influence of Perspective Eight,
In dotting the paper as if the pencil were the rain, people of any age try to earn and maintain the positive
the girl is taking the perspective of the rain itself; this is regard of the other. For those who are Eight-dominant,
Perspective Seven, associated. Drawing rain as vertical a recognition-seeking strategy also plays a pivotal role
lines requires detached Perspective Five. in self-identity and motivation, as will be discussed in
By training her patient on how to enter the detached the descriptions of individual personality structures and
state, Lafont reverses the condition that had brought the types.
girl into therapy. Cognitive therapy does something As with the other five Perspectives, you never
similar, teaching the person stuck in all-good or all-bad outgrow Perspective Eights mode of being, even if you
thinking to step back and observe a more nuanced don't express it as a major life theme. While holding
reality. subject position, you love, lead, follow, assert, motivate,
convince, desire, see. In object position, you are desired,
Perspective Eight punished, rewarded, valued, taught, led, loved, seen.
Whether the other is giving you attention or wanting
The child once having attained some degree of attention from you, Perspective Eight secures a sense of
distance from the maternal environment, with identity via the recognition and desire of the other.
Perspective Five, the pendulum again swings in mom's
direction. With the arrival of Perspective Eight, the child Perspective Two
locks into a mother-child dyad, a bonded state steeped
in the fantasy that identity is a function of holding Perspective Two connects you to other people's
another's attention. If you believe you are necessary to desires. It often involves the use of what NLP calls other
mother, then you can be sure she will not lose you. positiona projecting of consciousness into the space
This is also a time of ego expansion. Children of of the other in order to imagine, from their point of view,
three and four can be at their most aggressive and what they think. I tend to discuss this perspective in
demanding. And, of course, they are becoming ever terms of the others desire because I think the main thing
more self-aware. you want to know about others' thoughts is what they
Under Perspective Eight, self-identity is founded on want, and most particularly what they want from you.
a subject-object relationship. This is a common When straightforwardly expressed, Two-con-
distinction in psychology, but you can also think of sciousness is centered squarely in the other. Some would

Jeanne Lafont, ed. by Ellie Ragland, The Inherent Twisting
of the Gaze, (Re)-Turn: A Journal of Lacanian Studies Vol.
4, Spring 2008: 127-134.
Structural Enneagram 6
call it thinking with the heart. It's an empathy that makes Complicating matters, children may feel they have to
you feel connected to and responsible for each other. compensate for a father who is missing or otherwise not
This direct sort of Two-consciousness dominates in the doing his job of keeping the mother off their back. But
altruistic and caring types. whatever the reason behind a stuck Two pattern, it keeps
the mother (and, later, any other) nearby, while at a
reasonably safe distance.
For you, this childhood drama may have been less
intense and is long since forgotten, but it nevertheless
left you with a highly useful ability to project your
consciousness into other position and emerge with
invaluable information. How else could you know how
your audience is responding to you? Or what your
market will buy? Or even how to love?

Perspective Four

Mental separation from the mother is at long last

possible with the acquisition of Perspective Four. Rather
than remaining in thrall to the task of giving the mother
Thinking psychoanalytically, we see that Per- what she wants (in order to remain in some measure the
spective Two develops when children recognize that the object of her desire), children at some point identify
mother desires something other than them. As the more with their own drive for autonomy and self-
psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan said, her gaze is turned creation.
elsewhere. As every mother knows, younger children
often find it totally unacceptable if her entire attention is
not trained on them. But it does happen. By school age,
children solve this problem by putting themselves in her
place in order to find out what she wantshow she
wants them to be. Maybe, by giving her what she wants,
they can draw her gaze back in their direction.
But at some point, in the logic of the budding
psyche, even this much attention can begin to pose a
problem. There might be danger in attracting and
holding the gaze of the mother. Practically speaking,
there is the danger of being overwhelmed by the duty of
fulfilling her desire. Not to mention the dawning
realization that if you are able to project your
consciousness into her mind, then she can do the
reverse. She can possess you with her thoughts!
Granted, you probably don't remember thinking this. Perspective Four is a turning inward to ask, Who am
Nevertheless, that this fear of possession is both real and I separate from other people, and what do I want for
intense is evidenced by its frequently showing up as the myself? Such questioning promotes creative thinking
theme of horror movies, such as Invasion of the Body since, without the (m)other to show you who you are and
Snatchers. Lacan depicted the fantasy of the possessive what to want, you have to discover new reference points
mother by the sinister image of the praying mantis. for yourself.
Given the danger of psychological engulfment and But the crucial first task of Perspective Four is to
possession, you would think that we would all be cover over, to repress, the Perspective Twos
spurred to abandon Perspective Two at the first enmeshment with the mother. From Perspective Four
opportunity. But there is a paradoxical reason to cling to you insist on your difference from others. You begin to
a strategy of monitoring the mother's thoughtslet us create your personal version of reality, a version that will
say, her mental condition. A mothers excessive eventually hook into some set of truths in the larger
neediness or negativity may activate childrens sense of world, beyond the family.
responsibility for her happiness for the simple fact that
having an unhappy mother threatens their well-being.
Structural Enneagram 7
Perspective One
In ways large and small, personality types that rely
on Perspective One are principled reformers. They The six Structural Enneagram Perspectives are
notice where people and institutions are not living up to further organized into three binary pairs. A binary is a
standard and try to rectify the situation. Moreover, they whole with two parts that stand in polar opposition to
notice where family or societal norms lack justification each other. Here, the opposition is between relational
and try to change them. and individuated Perspectives.

It appears that the acquisition of Perspective One

might begin with the young person's decision to As illustrated in the above figure, the three binary
somehow embrace a principle, quality, or worldview pairs are Perspectives Seven and Five, Perspectives Two
that is not well-represented in their family. They and Four, and Perspectives Eight and One.
experience firsthand the family's deficiency, for As shown in the following table, at one end of each
example, a lack of education. Then, probably without pole are the relational Perspectives, and at the other end
going through any formal or even conscious are the individuated Perspectives:
deliberation, they begin to identify with a principle, or
purpose, that, if realized, would fill the lack. So one Binaries
child determines to become the first person in the family Relational Pole Individuated Pole
to finish college. Another leaves the city and buys a
farm. Immersed in Detached from
Since Perspective One is rooted in a sort of experience Seven-----Five experience
judgment on your family's shortcomings, it becomes a
way of distinguishing yourself, a way of individuating Oriented to Oriented to
through self-improvement. others desire Two-------Four own desire
At the same time, Perspective One involves heeding
a call emanating from the world beyond the family. Identifies in Identifies with
Maturing means being pulled away from parents by the relation to Eight------One principle
larger reality and interacting with it in a meaningful way. others
Again, a major premise of Structural Enneagram is
that all normally functioning people use all six These three binaries represent mutually exclusive
perspectives. We all use Perspective One. We are all takes on three critical issues. The Seven-Five binary
principled. Yet some personalities rely more heavily on deals at bottom with the state of being either inside or
Perspective One than do others. This will be explained outside your environment. The Two-Four binary locates
more fully in the next section, Binaries. desire either in the other or in the self. And the Eight-
One binary locates the source of identity and purpose
either in the other or in an ideal self. This source of
identity, in turn, determines how we channel desire.
Although it appears that almost everyone is capable of
Structural Enneagram 8
taking all six positions, at any given moment only one is going on outside you. But for those habitually stuck
position in each pair can be occupied. in Seven's worldview and unable to detach, having fun
And yet, it turns out that a certain sort of access to and being happy are absolutely necessary states to be
the relational Perspectives is absolutely necessary to the preserved at all costs. Because of this they develop an
efficient functioning of the individuated Perspectives. astonishing talent for denial. Denial is a skill that is
Unconscious access to Perspective Seven undergirds the usually understood in its pejorative sense, but it comes
ability to perform normally from Perspective Five, and in handy whenever its not a good time to focus on
so on. But to prove this would require an extended hardships; in this sense, denial can also be called
argument, one that I hope will unfold over time (perhaps optimism. Yet, to carry on frenetically, pretending
in future revisions of this paper). Now to an explanation everything is great, ignoring all evidence to the contrary,
of the Structural Enneagram binaries. is to risk an eventual, devastating incursion of the dark
side of life.
The Seven-Five Binary A variant of the Sevenish penchant for refusing to
deal with the negative is talking about it too much. To
Over time, your preferred stance with regard to the off-load all your disturbing thoughts onto another
two Perspectives of the Seven-Five binary determines person tries the patience of the listener and spares you
your baseline mental and emotional states for the reason from facing them yourself.
that it determines how you position yourself relative to Normally the Sevenish experience is modulated
your cognitive and physical environments. You can through an entire personality structure encompassing
continually immerse yourself in experience, which I several easily accessible Perspectives. But for the
also call being associated (Perspective Seven), or you person in the grip of Seven, not being able to make an
can step outside of experience and detach (Perspective objective, nuanced assessment of reality means that the
Five),4 or you can switch between the two as world seems pretty much either all good or all bad. (This
appropriate. is sometimes called good-bad splitting or just
splitting.) If the world goes all bad for people stuck in
Seven then they flip over from denial into wallowing in
pain. Everything is horribleto use a word I hear a
lot from a distressed Seven-wing-Eight.
People stuck in Perspective Seven often seem to
have their heads in the clouds. They may find that
people actually tell them things like, You need to come
down to earth. Not that they dont try to get themselves
grounded, even if by proxy. For example, some
Sevenish men seem to collect women, who may
Distinguishing Perspective Seven from Five is first represent something of nature for them. Or Sevenish
and foremost a matter of determining whether you are men and women may use pets to help them get
experiencing a situation from the inside or the outside. grounded. Cluttering is often a problem since, from
Relational Perspective Seven gives the sense of being Perspective Seven, relating to material things can give
inside, or associated to, experience, while individuated the impression of being connected to physical reality.
Perspective Five gives the sense of being outside it, or One Seven-wing-Six told me she simply couldnt put
detached. clutter away or else her things might disappear, and this
Perspective Seven is the recommended state if you thought was deeply unsettling to her. All of her things
want to really feel something, from having fun and had to be out in the open where she could see them.
being happy to enduring an authentic moment of grief Throwing out even useless junk provoked extreme
and sadness. It's also essential if you are to be able to anxiety. Her professional work was carried out in the
pop into someone else's emotional atmosphere for a sublime realms of energy and spirits, but the ever-
moment, if you want to understand or get into rapport present signs of her existence in the material world
with that person. apparently helped to ground her.
Perspective Five could release you from having to The alternative is to shift into the Five pole of the
take on the mood of the moment. It would allow you to Seven-Five binary. Standing apart from a person, place,
feel objective, or curious, or peaceful, regardless of what or situation, you reach detachment. You can perceive

The associated and detached states are closely related to
extraversion and introversion, respectively.
Structural Enneagram 9
patterns that could not be seen from the inside. You can Personality Structures and the Seven-Five Binary
remove your emotions from the scene and merely Seven Five In Flux
witness. You can evaluate things objectively. Two-Three Five-Six
Obviously, each position, Five and Seven, has its Seven-Eight Eight-Nine One-Two
merits. It has been recommended that we associate to Three-Four Four-Five
positive experiences and detach from negative ones. Six-Seven Nine-One
Common language testifies, for example, that grieving
must be gone through but we are not to wallow in Of the nine structures, four include the relational,
it. So individuated Perspective Five is often considered Seven Perspective, four include the individuated Five
to be the more mature and adaptive of the two Perspective and one has a more complicated relationship
perspectives in painful emotional contexts: we do say to Seven and Five.
we achieve objectivity. Yet it is apparent upon
reflection that both perspectives of this binary are The Two-Four Binary
absolutely necessary in all matters of the heart. You
know that you must be immersed in experience, in the The most telling distinction between the poles of the
moment, to enjoy being with another person, and yet Two-Four binary is the location of desire in either self
you periodically detach in order to view the situation or other. Personalities incorporating Perspective Two
from the outside, if you want to avoid any number of are prone to a bit of mindreading, paying attention to
atrocious outcomes. what they imagine the other person wantsalthough
And it's the same with intellectual pursuits. their reply to the other's desire may amount to either a
Perspective Five probably initiates the process of direct response to it, an interpretation of it, or a defense
reasoning, analyzing and synthesizing patterns. But or rebellion against it. Personalities relying instead on
once you have taken in a certain amount of information Perspective Four pay more attention to their own
on a topic, you can move seamlessly and intuitively desires, through introspection. Even so, they may not go
back and forth from associated to detached states. after what they want due to interference coming from
You just can't do both at the same instant. And the factors related to other perspectives.
state you favor will constitute the foundational factor of
your self-concept and personality.

Perspectives on Experience
Seven Five
Relational Individuated
Associated Detached
Inside Outside
Subjective Objective
Participant Observer
Extraversion Introversion
Fluent Hesitant Most of us never lose the ability to empathize that
Uninhibited Inhibited comes with Perspective Two, and that is obviously a
Enthusiastic Discerning good thing. But, unfortunately for personalities that are
wedded too tightly to Perspective Two, total attention to
The T-chart is suggestive of some of the basic the others desire precludes healthy attention to their
differences between Perspectives Five and Seven. This own. No matter how rewarding or necessary their
chart is neither exhaustive nor exact. Each of the Perspective-Two strategy may be, they eventually or
descriptors refers to how the individual interacts with occasionally crave separation from the other
experiences, including experiencing people and things. separation such as Perspective Four offers.
In coming sections I will introduce and discuss Some Two-types say thats when the fear of
personality structures. All of the personality structures abandonment kicks in. This fear is often attributed to the
are influenced by the Seven-Five binary in some way. fathers literal or emotional abandonment. And the
The following information is provided as a reference problem is exacerbated by a mother who either does not
point. know what she wants or who fails to obtain what she
wants and for whose desires the child feels responsible.

Structural Enneagram 10
Later, this habitual willingness to consider the The Eight-One Binary
others desire is extended beyond the mother. Although
Two-types may not always respond positively, they do Finally, personality hinges on a choice regarding the
tune into the others demands and preferences. Eight-One binary: whether to form an interpersonal
On the other hand, personalities that use identification and motivational strategy or an
individuated Perspective Four are only too happy leave individuated one. The Perspective-Eight self-concept
such responsibility for the other behind in order to and purpose come primarily from relationships and
follow their own desires. They will be far more interactions with other people, while the Perspective-
autonomous, and even self-absorbed compared to One self-concept and purpose emerges from a
someone who favors Perspective Two. relationship to ideas and principles. This distinction is
Of course, it is quite possible to be balanced important in that these two Perspectives control not only
between Perspectives Two and Four, to switch how people conceptualize themselves but also how they
seamlessly back and forth between them. Only you cant express themselves.
do both at the same time. Most people lean noticeably
toward one or the other.
The following T-chart is suggestive of some of the
basic differences between perspectives Two and Four. It
is neither exhaustive nor exact. Each of the descriptors
refers to how the personality is oriented to other people,
especially as concerns the location of desire.

Perspectives Relative to the Other

Two Four
Relational Individuated
Others desire Own desire Keeping in mind that all normally developed
Empathy Introspection people, in other words, almost all of us, use both of these
Heart Libido Perspectives. However, people do display a marked
Connected Separate preference for one or the other. Since Eight-types form
Giving Creative an identity out of others' reactions to them, they respond
Serving Self-sufficient to interpersonal factors such as power, status, and
Fear of aban- Need for autonomy hierarchy. For One-types, on the other hand, since an
donment idea in mind is the guarantor of their existence, self-
activation occurs in response to thought-impressions
In coming sections I will introduce and discuss such as standards, spiritual beliefs, principles, mission,
personality structures. All of the personality structures purpose, and ideals. They are motivated to thought and
are influenced by the Two-Four binary in some way. The action by something other than what will cause others to
following information is provided as a reference point. affirm their existence.

Personality Structures and the Two-Four Binary Perspectives Relative to

Two Four In Flux Identity and Motivation
Eight One
Two-Three Three-Four
Six-Seven Eight-Nine Seven-Eight Relational Individuated
Five-Six Four-Five Interpersonal Principled
One-Two Nine-One Recognition Being right
Role Purpose
Hierarchical Unique
All of the personality structures are influenced by
Worldly Idealistic
the Two-Four binary in some way. Of the nine
structures, four include relational Two Perspective, four
include individuated Four Perspective, and one has a The T-chart is suggestive of some of the basic
differences between perspectives Eight and One. It is
more complicated relationship to Two and Four.
neither exhaustive nor exact. Each of the descriptors
relates to the individuals source of identity and

Structural Enneagram 11
In coming sections I will introduce and discuss The triangle points, Nine, Three, and Six, are
personality structures. All of the personality structures derived from the hexad in the following way:
are influenced by the Eight-One binary in some way.
The following information is provided as a reference Six Single and Three Combination Perspectives
point. Single Combination
Perspectives Perspectives
Personality Structures and the Eight-One Binary One and Two combine at point Six.
Eight One In Flux Seven and Eight combine at point Three.
Seven-Eight One-Two Four and Five combine at point Nine.
Eight-Nine Nine-One Four-Five
Two-Three Five-Six The depiction of the combination perspectives through
Three-Four Six-Seven the triangle is what makes it possible for the Structural
Enneagram to depict nine personality types out of six
All of the personality structures are influenced by Perspectives.
the Eight-One binary in some way. Of the nine
structures, four include the relational, Eight Perspective,
four include the individuated, One Perspective, and one Recap
has a more complicated relationship to the two.
The Structural Enneagram dictates that each of its
nine personality structures be assembled out of two or
Combination Perspectives three of its six Perspectives. It is axiomatic that a given
on the Triangle personality will not include both Perspectives in the
same binary since both cannot be expressed
A crucial difference between Structural Enneagram simultaneously. We have seen the logic in this: you cant
and the conventional Enneagram of personality is be both associated (Seven) and detached (Five) in the
Structural Enneagram's redefinition of the points on the same instant; similarly, you cant be impelled by the
triangle as combinations of the six points on the hexad. others desire (Two) and at the same time divorced from
it (Four); nor can you be guided simultaneously by
considerations of power relationships (Eight) and an
ideal principle (One).
The very existence of personality is being redefined
here as the reality that, within each binary, you are
bound to favor one side over the other. Although an
evolved person might be flexible enough to switch
easily back and forth between both poles of all three
binaries, most people will have home positions that they
operate out of most of the time, and by definition
personality stems from the relative balance of
Perspectives in habitual use.

Structural Enneagram 12
Personality as Structure

Each of the Structural Enneagrams nine personality Perspective Three, are not captured by the Three-Four
structures is a combination of two or three of the six arc.
Perspectives. The following table lists these com-

Six Perspectives Underlie

Nine Personality Structures
Perspectives Structure
One + Two One-Two

Two + Three Two-Three

(Two + Seven + Eight)
Three + Four Three-Four
(Seven + Eight + Four)
Four + Five Four-Five

Five + Six Five-Six

(Five + One + Two)
Six + Seven Six-Seven And, if it were possible to have a single-Perspective
(One + Two + Seven) personality structure, then the arc, or continuum, would
Seven + Eight Seven-Eight be reduced to a point coequal with the single
Eight + Nine Eight-Nine
(Eight + Four + Five)
Nine + One Nine-One Personality Dynamics
(Four + Five + One)
In the descriptions of personality structure and type
One-Two means a personality structure that that follow, one of the points of discussion will be
combines Perspectives One and Two. The fully personality dynamics. Each personality structure has its
differentiated personality type could be either One- own dynamicits own movement through experience.
wing-Two or Two-wing-One. Since the points on the These movements are triggered by psychological drives.
Structural Enneagram represent Perspectives rather than (Psychological drives are a source of the theory
types, personality structures are depicted as the arcs, or underlying this model but are not covered in this
sections, between the points. Thus, personality document.)
structures are continua formed by varying weights of
two or three Perspectives. Parts of the Personality Dynamic
The personality structure is typically tilted to favor Perspectives/
one of the two or three Perspectives that comprise it. Binary Function
Seven-wing-Eight means Seven is the prevailing Seven or Five Mode of being in the world
Perspective. But the structure name Seven-Eight does Two or Four Source of desire
not specify the prevailing Perspective. Seven-Eight is Eight or One Channel of expression
the combination of two Perspectives and encompasses
both personality structures Seven-wing-Eight and The aspects of personality dynamics that are
Eight-wing-Seven. emphasized by the Structural Enneagram are 1) a mode
Similarly, a Three-Four personality structure of being in the world, 2) a source of desire, and 3) a
includes both personality types Three-wing-Four and channel of expression. These aspects correspond to the
Four-wing-Three. The relative strengths of Perspectives binary pairs of the six Perspectives.
Seven and Eight, which make up Combination
Structural Enneagram 13
In the Structural Enneagram model, once drive is that One-Twos would prefer to maintain detached
triggered, it sets out from a state, or mode of being in the Perspective Five, but that certain situations toss them
world (Perspective Seven or Five). Drive then takes into a negative-Seven state of anger or despair.
shape as a desire, seeming to emanate from either the One-Twos' personal evolutionary path requires
other (Perspective Two) or the self (Perspective Four). them to overcome their particular difficulty with holding
It is then processed through a motivational channel that Perspective Five. This will be apparent in their choice of
involves your self-identity and sense of purpose goals that calls for sustaining objectivity, even in the
(Perspective Eight or One). Unfortunately, there can be face of externally or internally generated conflict or
hiccups in the flow of drive. And some of those hiccups, criticism.
along with other personality dynamics, will come up in
the individual structure descriptions that follow, as well The Two-Three Structure
as in the type descriptions in the section after that.
Since Perspective Three is a combination of
Perspectives Seven and Eight, the Two-Three structure
The Nine Personality Structures comprises Perspectives Seven, Two, and Eight. Because
all three Perspectives lie at the relational ends of their
Following are descriptions of the nine Structural respective binaries, Two-Three is the most relational,
Enneagram personality structures. Recalling that these least individuated of the nine structures. The result is an
structures are represented by the arcs between points outgoing and charming personality that is rather too
around the enneagram circle, note that the list begins dependent on the reactions of others.
with the One-Two structure and continues around the
circle to Nine-One.

The One-Two Structure

The One-Two structure includes individuated

Perspective One and relational Perspective Two.

Two-Threes rely on Perspective Seven, which

means that they turn their attention outward rather than
inward, so in order to feel good they are dependent on
the environment and the people in it to support and
nurture them. Given a supportive environment, Two-
Threes are free to be their engaged and enthusiastic
Perspective Twos empathy for others is either Their direct expression of Perspective Two makes
turned to direct service to individuals or sublimated into them interested in other people and eager to give them
social forms of service such as running charities, what they need and want: attention, love, entertainment,
performing business support functions, teaching, and gifts, or assistance. In return they might draw to
promoting political causes. themselves the loving gaze of the other.
Since Perspective Ones idealism tends to turn The presence of Perspective Eight means that Two-
thoughts and actions toward more abstract and universal Threes need the positive regard of important others in
rather than personal themes, thinking turns to how order to be fulfilled. Status is important to them, and
things ought to be. they are likely to achieve it by hitching their wagon to a
What is not immediately apparent in this structure is star.
where One-Twos stand with respect to their physical and
interpersonal environment. Is their personality usually
absorbed into the world through Perspective Seven or
looking on objectively from Perspective Five? I believe

Structural Enneagram 14
The Three-Four Structure cool Perspective may also make it difficult to fully
engage with people and experience. Having Perspective
The Three-Four structure combines individuated Four in the personality makes Four-Fives artistic, anti-
Perspective Four with relational Perspectives Seven and conventional, and original. Too much Four and they
Eight to make a highly achieving, adaptable, creative, become merely eccentric.
and individualistic person. (As explained in the previous
section, point Three unites Perspectives Seven and

Both Four and Five are individuated rather than

Having Perspective Seven in their makeup makes relational Perspectives. Behind a habit of detachment
Three-Fours passionate and engaged. Perspective Four (Five) lies an original drive to break away from what
makes them look to their own desire rather than allow feels like the engulfing influence of the family
themselves to be controlled by what others want from atmosphere and to stand out from the environment. And
them. On the other hand, having Perspective Eight behind a move toward self-expression (Four) lies a
makes Three-Fours crave the positive regard of others, drive to cut the apron strings and release the need to
so they will strive to excel and to control their image. please the mother. With two individuated Perspectives
Dynamically, the Three-Four process looks some- and no relational Perspectives, Four-Five is one of the
thing like this. Three-Fours have in mind some most autonomous personality structures in the Structural
objective, the achieving of which might reward them Enneagram. (Nine-One is the most autonomous.)
with recognition or improved status. But this objective Four-Five is one of the three personality structures
needs to align as much as possible with their own desire that at first glance appear to involve only two
for self-expression rather than coming from somebody Perspectives rather than three. (The others are Seven-
else or from society. Eight and One-Two.) As stated earlier, the dynamics of
Thoughts of achieving a particular objective ignite the Structural Enneagram model require three
their drive. They then set out from the associated Seven Perspectives to complete a personality structure. Four-
state, which means that Three-Fours will throw Five has Perspective Five as its mode of being in the
themselves into the project and get swept up in it. As world and Perspective Four as its source of desire but
Four-types, they will prefer to act creatively, not always lacks a secure Perspective on identity, which either
following procedure. Unless some external factor stops Eight or One would provide.
them, they will probably achieve their goals because But Four-Fives do not effectively use either Eight or
they are not internally inhibited or conflicted about self- One to self-activate and complete projects and bring
imposed goals, as long as those goals are consistent with them to market. If Four-Fives had settled at Perspective
their own values. Eight, then they would have been Eight-Nines and
would have been motivated by the drive to be a leader
The Four-Five Structure and, moreover, to be recognized as a leader. Instead
Four-Fives have shifted away from Eight and are
Four-Fives are creative, introspective, and cerebral attempting to use Perspective One.
individualists. They can at times be alienated, isolated, When they do succeed in holding Perspective One,
and avoidant. then they are like Nine-Ones, motivated by a sense of
Perspective Five, the quality of being detached and purpose to act and achieve completion. Furthermore,
observant, contributes intuition, introspection, and any time Four-Fives attempt and fail to self-activate
insight to this personality structure. But too much of this through Perspective One, they tend to fall back onto a
Structural Enneagram 15
disempowered position, becoming someone who can principle. They are not particularly concerned with
easily be thwarted by criticism and aggression (real or status, if that means compromising their principles. To
imagined). This appears to be the pattern of those Four- some degree they are always going to be reformers.
Fives who are conflicted about bringing their creations Their Five and One components are usually pretty
to the world. obvious. Its Perspective Two that you may have trouble
Consequently, Four-Fives lives too often appear to seeing in some Five-Sixes. Thats because, although
be a roiling mass of unfulfilled desire. Lacking the they are focused on the others desire rather than their
effective motivational strategy that either Eight or One own, they may be quite suspicious of the others values
would provide, their output may consist of partially and motives. Or they may simply believe that they know
finished projects and products that never hit the market, better what the other should want.
especially if they are acting independently, without an The dynamics of this structure are as follows: Five-
employer or agent of some kind to motivate them. To Sixes observe what already exists (Five) and what
self-actualize, Four-Fives need to either consolidate people seem to need (Two). They then compare these
Perspective One in their skill set or recruit or be findings to their own guiding principles to see what
recruited by another person or agency to manage and ought to be said or done, and that is what they do (One).
represent them. The ranks of Five-Sixes include many lawyers,
Lacking these resources, they revert to their investigative journalists, investors, philanthropists,
characteristic ego defense: avoidance. This could mean inventors, scientists, and philosophers.
they withdraw from the world or simply that they
withdraw drive. The ultimate withdrawal of drive, short The Six-Seven Structure
of suicide, is depression.
In the Six-Seven structure, the combination of
The Five-Six Structure relational Perspectives Seven and Two and individuated
Perspective One produces an engaged, reasonably
The Five-Six structure includes Combination stable, and genuinely nice personality, albeit one that is
Perspective Six, which unites Perspectives Two and prone to anxiety.
One, so this structure comprises individuated Their accustomed use of Perspective Seven makes
Perspectives Five and One plus relational Perspective Six-Sevens throw themselves into life, but they do not
Two. The result is a personality that may be described necessarily come across as extraverted. The more Seven
as contrarian. in the personality, the more they turn their attention
Perspective One makes them identify with a guiding
principle, and they will often build a career around it.

Perspective Five makes Five-Sixes detached from

the environment. This does not mean they are either
uninterested or disinterested. Perspective Five still
leaves people free to be involved and concerned. They Although their Seven and One components are
simply remove themselves from the immediacy of usually straightforward and obvious, their expression of
experience and observe it, more or less objectively. This perspective Two may be indirect and not immediately
makes these personalities good investigators. apparent. Unlike Two-Threes, Six-Sevens are not
Having Perspective One means that Five-Sixes are necessarily helper types in that they don't typically
identified with and motivated to action by a guiding respond directly to others' needs. Rather, they apply
Structural Enneagram 16
their own principles to deciding what the other should
want and then try to provide that. Instead, Seven-Eights use Perspective Two to
The dynamics of this structure are that Six-Sevens discern what the other wants, and then, by applying
start out from an associated position (Seven), engage powerful strategies of influence, manipulate the
some objective having to do with the other's needs situation to either win people over or bring them to their
(Two), and then do something that is consonant with knees.
both the other's desire and their own principles (One). Riso and Hudson write about [personality type]
This often means bringing some value such as laughter, Eight's destructive antisocial tendencies,5 but this
order, or harmony to a situation that lacks it. characterization really only applies to Seven-Eights, not
The Six-Seven structure is home to people in a to Eight-Nines. These tendencies often trace back to
number of occupations. Many business people, lawyers, Seven-Eights' antipathy toward a mother whom they
comedians, actors, physical therapists, and medical experienced as neglectful or withholding or whose love
doctors share this structure. was given conditionally.
The dynamics of the Seven-Eight structure are as
The Seven-Eight Structure follows. Starting from an associated position (Seven),
they find out what the other wants and generally do the
The Seven-Eight structure includes two relational opposite (inverse of Two). What happens after that will
Perspectives, Seven and Eight, and has not comfortably depend on whether their actions win the esteem of others
settled on either Perspective from the Two-Four binary. or land Seven-Eights in trouble.
This structure produces aggressive, determined, often As adults, Seven-Eights form very close bonds with
rebellious individuals who run the gamut from John F. another person, only to sometimes become vindictive
Kennedy to Idi Amin. after the honeymoon period, if the other fails them in
Perspective Seven makes Seven-Eights crave some way. All their rebellion is a misguided effort to
material things and experiences that they can either find claim independence. If Seven-Eights were able to
themselves or lose themselves in, depending on their follow the example of Three-Fours in letting go of their
state of mind. emotional enmeshment with the (m)other, then they
Perspective Eight adds an element of confidence, would succeed in creating a separate identity.
tenacity, and intensity. Underlying these characteristics But then who would lead the revolutions?
is a need to be admired and elevated in status.
As rebellious types, Seven-Eights would at first The Eight-Nine Structure
appear to have entirely rejected Perspective Two as a
home position, but, in fact, they have not. Rather, Seven- The Eight-Nine structure is individuated on two
Eights are heavily embroiled in Perspective Two, being fronts, Perspectives Five and Four, and relational on the
largely incapable of unplugging from the other and third, Perspective Eight. Eight-Nines are leaders.
consistently using individualistic Perspective Four, no Being skilled in the use of Perspective Five, Eight-
matter how much they would like to do so. Nines are ordinarily objective rather than being caught
up in the moment.
Using Perspective Four, they look to themselves
rather than to the other for inspiration. (This most
certainly does not mean, however, that they are
incapable of taking Perspective Two. Most Eight-Nines
are warm and engaging. True leadership requires great
facility in taking the other's point of view.)
However, with Perspective Eight in their makeup,
their self-esteem is a function of how others recognize
them, so they are motivated to win the respect of
competitors and the admiration of others in their tribe.
Eight-Nines recognize a hierarchy of authority, and they
want to earn a place high up in it.

Don Richard Riso and Russ Hudson, Personality Types:
Using the Enneagram for Self-Discovery, Rev. ed.
(Houghton Mifflin, Boston), 1996, p. 295.
Structural Enneagram 17
Added to the other two individuated Perspectives,
Perspective One increases Nine-Ones' air of inde-
The dynamics of the Eight-Nine structure are as pendence and intellectual self-reliance. They consult
follows. Starting from a detached position (Five), they their own principles and goals rather than relying on
turn inward for a plan (Four), then get others to follow external demands to direct their actions. Nor are they
them in carrying it out (Eight). particularly motivated by the prospect of recognition
Because they do enjoy being the linchpin between from others. Rather, they take it as an obligation to
the little guy and the higher authority, Eight-wing-Nines respond to the call to bring their ideals into
become good at managing, and particularly good at manifestation.
delegating. Ronald Reagan, a Nine-wing-Eight, had a From being so individuated, Nine-Ones develop a
reputation for appointing capable people who agreed talent for looking beyond individual interest to the larger
with him in principle and leaving them alone to do their picture. From this comes a unifying point of view that
jobs. The movie director Robert Altman, probably an makes them think more sociologically than other types.
Eight-wing-Nine, prided himself on casting good actors
and trusting them to interpret their roles without his

The Nine-One Structure

The Nine-One personality structure is the most

individuated, least relational in the Structural
Enneagram model. All three component perspectives,
Five, Four, and One, lie at the individuated poles of their
respective binaries. This means that Nine-Ones form the
most self-possessed personalities. Consequently, they
may be perceived by people with more interpersonal
structures as being overly detached or cool.
Perspective Five gives Nine-Ones their raw powers
of observation as well as the impetus to bring something
of value to the world.
Perspective Four gives them a mental posture of
separation and difference from others. They look to
themselves rather than to others to determine what
should be done.

Structural Enneagram 18
Personality Types with Wings

The conventional Enneagram assigns one personality type to each numbered point around the circle and allows
for an optional adjacent wing, with the wing referring to collateral parts of the personality. Although the Structural
Enneagram adopts the conventional Enneagram practice of calling the secondary number a wing, this model does not
actually recognize a single-number type. Wings are considered to be integral to the personality type. Consequently,
personality types are always identified by two numbers rather than one.

The 18 Structural Enneagram personalities are listed nobility, a sense of mission, impassioned striving,
in this section, in the order that they appear around the orderliness, and intelligence.
enneagram circle, starting with One-wing-Two and Perspective Two, the heart position, is the secondary
ending with Nine-wing-One. posture for One-wing-Twos. Because of their reliance
on Perspective Two, even though they typically
gravitate toward a leadership role, they will lead with
One-wing-Two caring and generosity.
The Servant-Leader

Perspective Two's empathy with individuals joins

with One's idealism to form Servant-Leaders, people
who are concerned with improving the human
condition. They are compassionate, caring nurturers and
managers, as well as advocates for the underdog.
Since the dominant Perspective of this type is One,
One-wing-Twos will seek to evince the principles
dictated by the higher self. That is why we see in well-
developed people of this type characteristics such as

Structural Enneagram 19
Hillary Clinton, Eleanor Roosevelt, Jerry Brown, They enjoy giving smiles, hugs, compliments, and
Mario Cuomo, Emma Thompson, and Martha Stewart gratitude.
probably have personality type One-wing-Two. Probable examples of personality type Two-wing-
Where the others desire meets the judgment of the One are Florence Nightingale, Mother Teresa, and
ideal self, One-wing-Twos purpose appears. As Bill Desmond Tutu. Tutu's Made for Goodness: And Why
Clinton said of his One-wing-Two wife, Shes got the This Makes All the Difference (co-written with his
best combination of mind and heart Ive ever seen. daughter Mpho Tutu) reads like a manifesto for the Two-
Yet heart does not always figure prominently in this wing-One way of being.
type's public image. Obviously, the heavier influence of Other reported examples are John Bradshaw and
mind (One) has something to do with this. Danny Glover.
As suggested above, when advocating or working
on behalf of reforms, it is sometimes preferable to avoid
getting too emotionally invested in the process. One-
wing-Twos probably do better when practicing
detachment (perspective Five), and they may sabotage
their causes by becoming overly attached to specific
outcomes or taking things too personally.
Moreover, when One-wing-Twos lose their normal
reserve, they seem unnatural and incongruent to
onlookers. On occasion, Hillary Clinton has been
accused of having a meltdown. She may tear up or get
melodramatic. She can become overly controlling and Two-wing-Ones' commitment to service springs
what anti-feminists delight in calling shrill. These are from both the heart and the head. Since Perspective Two
clearly moments of reverting to associated Perspective is the main influence, they have a real talent for helping
Seven when she should have stayed in Five, the observer others. Although they may act in a quiet, personal way,
state. their secondary Perspective, which is One, gives them a
I have a hypothesis that because One-wing-Twos sense of duty and purpose that may nudge them toward
want to help people they may attach themselves to business or community work rather than strictly family
spouses and employers who actively solicit their service.
assistance. This dynamic would make both parties feel The childhood need to attend to the mothers desires
loved and appreciated. Potential partners would tend to (Perspective Two) carries over into adulthood, with the
be people with an Eight component since they like mother's role being displaced onto others. Two-wing-
making demands on others. Bill and Hillary Clinton fit Ones look after friendships and relationships of all
this picture since he is a Three-wing-Two (Seven plus kinds. Furthermore, like the other type in this pair, they
Eight plus Two). may attach themselves to Eight-types simply because
Among the liabilities for One-wing-Twos is that Eight-types are more than willing to play this game. But
they can be perfectionistic, impatient, emotionally habitual overuse of Perspective Two can cause Two-
constricted, judgmental, inflexible, and intolerant. wing-Ones to lose themselves in the fantasy of being
Furthermore, they can fail to match up to their own high able to satisfy others unrelenting requirements and
standards in any number of ways. But the loss of demands.
Perspective Five under stress and the simultaneous slide Giving too much of themselves is always a risk with
into negative-Seven is the biggest risk for this type. this type. As illustrated in the biography of famous Two-
wing-One, Florence Nightingale, somatizing is a
common defense against not being able to say no.
Two-wing-One Nightingale believed that God had called her to be a
The Altruist nurse. In the nineteenth century, that vocation was not
acceptable in a young woman of her social class, yet she
Through helping others, Altruists combine persisted in spite of disapproval. Convinced that
Perspective Two's generosity with One's principles to marriage would interfere with her ambitions, she
demonstrate unconditional love. Unfortunately, they can rejected at least one seemingly advantageous offer.
be other-oriented to self-destructive extremes. Through of her experience of nursing soldiers in the
You can recognize people of this type by their Crimean War, Nightingale revolutionized nursing care
warmth, encouragement, and overall air of acceptance. in both military and civilian hospitals of Victorian
Structural Enneagram 20
England, and her influence spread around the world. But Two-wing-Three
she eventually fell ill and became an invalid. Some The Giver
observers have thought there was an element of hysteria
to her illness, which did, in fact, have the effect of Givers are friendly, charming, and adaptable. While
getting her out of a lot of things she didnt want to do, they give all sorts of gifts, perhaps the common thread
while still allowing her to dictate social and healthcare is that Two-wing-Threes give the gift of making people
reforms from her bed. feel better. They have the warmth and social graces to
When Two-wing-Ones allow the hopelessness of make people comfortable. This makes them welcoming
others eternal, unremitting need to get under their skin hosts and effective motivators. Many entertainers are of
they may spiral downward into illness, depression, or this type, but many more are the pillars holding up
escapism. Even as these strategies help them disengage families and organizations.
from the others lack, they can prevent them from Possible examples of personality type Two-wing-
fulfilling their own larger missions. Three are Lewis Carroll, Barbara Bush, and Kathy Lee
And when frustrated, they may revert to the pattern Gifford. Other reported examples are Barry Manilow,
of absorbing and getting stuck in others' negative Sammy Davis, Jr., Kathy Bates, John Denver, and Pat
feelings. A Two-wing-One woman had been going back Boone.
and forth between two possible responses to a sticky
family situation for several days. She felt an obligation
to travel to a distant location to support her mother and
other family members through a crisis, but she didnt
want to become embroiled in their habitual negativity.
Her Seven-wing-Eight mother had even told her not to
come, but that refusal of help was obviously part of a
dysfunctional pattern of her own.
When the daughter tried to think about her dilemma,
she regressed into an inverse-Seven state and just felt
despondent. Using NLP, I guided her into the detached
Five state and asked her to examine objectively not only Point Three is a combination of Perspectives Seven
every relevant scenario she could think of but also her and Eight.
present experience of being unable to choose and feeling Two-wing-Threes are notorious for expressing
bad about it. By the time she completed the exercise, she almost exclusively positive affect, at least in public.
had already made a decision to go. She easily followed Like most Sevenish people, they would prefer that the
through on her decision. Once there, she found that her dark side be kept out of sight. And if they can add to the
presence was helpful to the family, and she was even happiness of others through their joyous, affirmative,
able to stay detached from the family drama, all of and often passionate attentions, then the environment
which gave her a great sense of satisfaction. becomes that much brighter. People of this type, along
with their cousins the Three-wing-Twos, probably
Differentiations invented business networking and relationship selling.
With Two as the dominant Perspective, this type is
On average, the givingness of One-wing-Twos is openly loving, friendly, and supportive. In fact, people
probably a little less personal and more universalized of this type adapt easily to the desires of their chosen
than that of Two-wing-Ones. The former may be less apt other. Of course, anyone with any sense of self-
to get caught up in the net of the others perennial preservation does the same or pays for it in lost rapport,
neediness. lost sales, or lost influence of some other kind. But this
You also may be able to differentiate these types by type ratchets up adaptability, turning themselves (or
attending to the degree of warmth they emit. One-wing- what they have to offer) into the object of desire. At the
Twos are relatively more distant and cool; Two-wing- extreme, some especially Two-heavy Givers may
Ones are typically more emotive. hesitate to even say what they think for fear that it will
contradict what you want them to think.
This type also incorporates Perspective Eight,
which involves an identification with role or status, and
Two-wing-Threes are known for being status conscious.
Although we usually think of Perspective Eight as being
Structural Enneagram 21
a power position, many Two-wing-Threes are willing to To the degree that they operate from Perspective
hold a subordinate role. If they think their own talents Eight they identify with role, image, status, and achieve-
cant get them far enough, then they may hitch their ments. This means they will probably be competitive
wagon to a rising star. This is the route of seduction and compare themselves to others. Although people
rather than obvious power. with the Seven-Eight or Eight-Nine structure will often
Beyond positive affect and gift-giving its hard to be impelled to challenge others for leadership, Three-
characterize this personality through typical behavior. wing-Twos are more likely to challenge others for moral
Two-wing-Threes may be active or inactive, attractive authority: they want to influence how others think and
or plain, depending upon whom they are wooing. behave.
However, on occasion they will admit that their
particular adaptation to life has prevented them from
fully becoming themselves. They may feel thwarted in
their self-expression. They would like to be more selfish
and creative. One Two-wing-Three told me she feels as
if her creativity has been bottled up. Suppressed drive
can manifest itself as tension in the chest and abdomen
or may be converted into illnesses that have a marked
stress componenthigh blood pressure, adrenal failure,
spinal problems, and diabetes, for example.
Two-wing-Threes may on some level be aware of
These three Perspectives come together to form the
when they are creating an image of themselves and not
following dynamic: The setting is a Sevenish
an authentic self. A Two-wing-Three of my
atmosphere of being immersed and engaged in life.
acquaintance acknowledges that many of her beliefs
Three-wing-Twos want to be happy, so their
and attitudes really belong to her Eight-wing-Nine
environment must be happy, so the people around them
husband and not to herself. To become more authentic,
must be happy, too. Then, from an Eightish need to win
she would need to take on the perspective of the Three-
others over to their point of view, they will give
wing-Four. However, if she made that shift, it would
whatever they think will make important others happy
cause friction with her husband, who does not want a
(Two). Often they will motivate people to achieve their
more independent partner.
own happiness.
This particular dynamic requires that Three-wing-
Twos craft a positive image of themselves. Negativity
must be brushed aside. Three-wing-Twos are always, in
The Motivator
a sense, on stage, acting a role. This often means
attention to wardrobe, spending hours in the gym, and
Motivators are exceedingly charming. They have a
speaking well, among many other possible factors.
need to be happy, and to accomplish that they also need
Maintaining an image can become a compulsion.
the people around them to be happy. Since they often
Probable examples of personality type Three-wing-
play the part that they believe will win the other over,
Two are Bill Clinton, Oprah Winfrey, Mary Kay Ash,
they may be professional entertainers of one kind or
Mike Huckabee, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bill Cosby,
another. They are naturally enthusiastic people who
Anthony Robbins, John Edwards, and Lance
infect others with their optimism and drive.
Armstrong. Other reported examples are Elvis Presley,
Combination Perspective Three incorporates
Burt Reynolds, Christopher Reeve, and Sylvester
Perspectives Seven and Eight.
To the degree that Three-wing-Twos rely on
In everyday life you will recognize Two-wing-
Perspective Seven, they would like to express
Threes as hosts, entertainers, and motivators. As
exclusively positive affect: they know theres a dark
motivators, they typically try to inspire people to change
side, but ordinarily they dont see any point in giving
at a personal level rather than trying to make societal or
voice to it. I suspect that this is the most likely type to
institutional reforms. You can follow this pattern clearly
believe that the most important thing in the world is to
in Bill Cosbys career. He started out as an entertainer
be happy.
and has hosted a television game show. The Cosby Show
Perspective Two influences them to think in terms
had an inspirational element and is credited with helping
of giving and service to others. Three-wing-Twos like
to change white America's view of African Americans.
people and want to help and encourage them.
Structural Enneagram 22
Currently, he is a motivational speaker and writer who Perspective Seven makes Three-wing Fours
emphasizes personal boot-strapping rather than enthusiastic and committed, and sometimes overly
institutional change. emotional. When in balance, they can use Perspective
Cosby also demonstrates that you cannot always Five (the other Perspective in the Seven-Five binary)
recognize Three-wing-Twos by their dapper appear- quite effectively. But when something happens to make
ance. He doesnt have to worry about his physical them feel insecure, they double down on Perspective
image. It is enough that he is a highly educated African Seven
American role model who has become extremely Perspective Four makes Three-wing-Fours indi-
wealthy and successful through his own efforts, and that vidualistic and original. They want to distinguish
is the impression that matters to his current audience. themselves in some way in order to give evidence of
Three-wing-Twos may strive to demonstrate some their difference.
virtue, like Arnold Schwarzenegger, who achieved fame
as a model of fitness. Like motivational guru Anthony
Robbins, this personality works hard to acquire the skills
and success necessary to make a mark.
Although the emphasis on image might imply that
Three-wing-Twos will always be superficial, that is not
the case. This strategy of projecting a positive image is
not only adaptive, it can also propel them toward true
personal growth. At the end of his acting career,
Schwarzenegger expanded his talents toward childhood
fitness and nutrition programs and then into politics. Perspective Eight influences them to want to have
Before he could attract followers, Robbins had to an audience and to be motivated by achievement. They
improve his own life in a substantial way through may be interested in teaching others how to do what they
practicing what he preached. I know a Three-wing-Two do.
minister who has developed a deep spiritual practice. Three-wing-Fours earn success and recognition
Three-wing-Twos' craving for admiration very often through accomplishing self-determined goals, by being
propels them toward becoming authentically admirable the best at something or projecting the best image.
people. Probable examples of personality type Three-wing-
Four are Paul McCartney, Sting, and Taylor Swift. Other
Differentiations reported examples are Johnnie Cochran, Michael
Jordan, Bryant Gumbel, Salman Rushdie, Andy Warhol,
Two-wing-Three leans more toward being a host Richard Gere, Tom Cruise, Angelina Jolie, Werner
and Three-wing-Two is more of a motivator: Two-wing- Erhard, Andrew Cohen, David Copperfield, and Ben
Three Kathy Lee Gifford and Three-wing-Two Oprah Kingsley.
Winfrey are both televisions hosts, but Oprah almost Since Three-wing-Fours feel they have to work so
always has a self-improvement angle. hard for recognition, they often feel inauthentic. If they
shownot their real selvesbut their whole self, they
fear they may lose the love and respect of others. If even
Three-wing-Four in their own minds they identify too closely with their
The Achiever image, this is, of course, the definition of narcissism.
But healthy narcissism is an absolute requirement of
Achievers are driven and resourceful people who worldly success. Image is properly thought of as merely
strive to create and control their own images and their the atmosphere one creates around one's true self. At
own lives in order to be recognized as exceptional. They best, it's a projection of the true self into the
are skilled at gaining rapport by fitting into their chosen environment.
milieuexcept that theyre often the best at what they Werner Erhard, who is reported to be a Three-wing-
do and the smartest guys in the room. Whether because Four, may embody the term checkered past, and some
of or in spite of all this striving, they are typically both people who took his est training decry its indoctrinating,
successful and likable. even brainwashing tone. But that doesnt detract from
Since Combination Perspective Three unites the fact that he offered a toolkit of useful self-
Perspectives Seven and Eight, this type incudes Seven, improvement tactics. And, if he is indeed a Three-wing-
Two and Eight.
Structural Enneagram 23
Four, then perhaps his teachings would be especially Simon, Naomi Judd, Steve Martin, Laurence Olivier,
good for that personality. John Malkovich, and Judy Garland.
Some of his teachings involve loosening up the
dependence on Perspective Seven and being more
comfortable with Five. This means cultivating a
willingness to look at the whole of reality and even to
be comfortably aware of the dark side. For example, in
an interview with John Denver, who was guest-hosting
The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson, Erhard
advised that people get in touch with the person theyre
afraid they are. He then demonstrated a technique for
giving a space to evil. With Tom Snyder he talked
about looking at the big picture: Take the blinders off
and look at it. Both interviews are available on
If Three-wing-Fours make better use of Perspective Differentiations
Five to accept themselves warts and all, they may be
able to incorporate some of the better leadership Sometimes you can tell the difference between the
characteristics of Eight-wing-Nines and be less subject two types in the Three-Four structure just by looking at
to unwanted bouts of negative emotion. their clothes. Three-wing-Fours want to dress for
success, so they will usually prefer to look stylish but
also appropriate. Four-wing-Threes want to emphasize
Four-wing-Three their uniqueness, so their dress may appear costumey or
The Individualist even eccentric.
Although they may be found in many lines of work,
Since they view life as art, whether creating music, it is good if they can somehow utilize their knack for
running a business, or putting together a wardrobe, being dreamers, poets, and artists. I know a Three-wing-
Individualists perform with flair. They win acclaim by Four who is a minister, but not the kind that heads one
being both original and outstanding. church; rather, she travels, giving clever and profound
As explained previously, point Three unites sermons at many churches. I know another who works
Perspectives Seven and Eight. at a veterinary office and communicates with pets.
Having associated Perspective Seven, Four-wing-
Threes are engaged and engaging. They throw
themselves into life and try to set a positive tone. There Four-wing-Five
can be some emotional volatility if the environment is The Artist
difficult, but they will bounce back. Sometimes, when
talking to others, it seems as if they dont have a filter. The Artist is all about creating something new and
Although they have this penchant for getting caught different. Four-wing-Fives dont fit in with the crowd.
up in experiences, they are very independent when it Quite the opposite. They are seldom moved by
comes to deciding what to do with their own lives. convention, tradition, or the will of another, although
Perspective Four makes them outsiders with the desire they may go along to avoid confrontation. This
to create something unique. Ultimately, the thing they independence shows up in Four-wing-Fives artistic
are trying to create is a better version of themselves, and creativity, original thinking, or bohemian style. Not
they will go to great lengths of self-improvement and every Four-wing-Five is literally an artist, but all bring
training to do so. individuality and artistic sensibility to whatever they do.
With their Eightish requirements for a good self- Self-expression above all!
image and self-esteem, Four-wing-Threes are sure to be People of this type are introverted, brainy,
both affable and ambitious. If criticized, they develop insightful, and enigmatic. Their individuality can stretch
thick skin and try again. all the way to idiosyncratic self-absorption. They
One probable example of personality type Four- alternate between cool and emotional. They are
wing-Three is Cyndi Lauper. Other reported examples romantic dreamers as well as romantic philosophers.
are Tennessee Williams, Marcel Proust, E. M. Forster,
Michael Jackson, Jessica Lange, Jeremy Irons, Paul
Structural Enneagram 24
their field of endeavor, they are iconoclasts who bristle
at authority. Under difficult conditions, they may
become reclusive.
With Five as their dominant Perspective, Five-wing-
Fours are detached from their environment, which
means they are looking on as if from the outside rather
than immersing themselves in the scene. Although they
may seem emotionally distant, they dont want to be
rejected by other people, so they strive to prove their
own worth and the worth of their ideas.

Probable examples of the Four-wing-Five

personality type are Sren Kierkegaard, William Blake,
Virginia Woolf, and D. H. Lawrence. Other reported
examples are Hermann Hesse, Vincent van Gogh,
Marlon Brando, Harvey Keitel, Johnny Depp, Joni
Mitchell, and Ingmar Bergman.
Four-wing-Fives are drawn to writing, painting,
music, film, crafts, speculative philosophy, and the
social sciences. They bring their imaginative talents to
whatever role they find themselves in.
The thinking style of Four-wing-Fives is more On the other hand, this striving is influenced by
synthetic than analytic. I know a Four-wing-Five painter Perspective Four, which brings a need to assert their
who also has a Ph.D. in English, and she calls upon her individuality. So they try to be different, perhaps
knowledge of each to inform the other. through cutting edge or eccentric social movements,
A clue that you may be dealing with a Four-wing- food, clothes, or the books they read.
Five can sometimes be found in the colors of their Combining these two Perspectives, we see that
clothes. Since the dark side is never far from their Five-wing-Fours are continually creating new and
awareness, they may wear all black. Then again, many original works in order to make something of
wear violet, both because more conventional people themselves and distinguish themselves from others.
have in the past considered it unseemly to wear violet Probable examples of personality type Five-wing-
and because it is a color associated with transformation Four are Albert Einstein, Thomas Jefferson, Sigmund
and growthself-creation being the psychological Freud, Jacques Lacan, Noam Chomsky, Williams
object of all Four-wing-Fives' creative efforts. Shakespeare, Woodie Guthrie, Bob Dylan, John
Four-wing-Fives dominant drive concerns the need Lennon, Emily Dickinson, Walt Whitman, and J. D.
to sever a certain kind of connection with others. Salinger. Chomsky has elsewhere been pegged as a One-
Imagining (and this would typically be unconsciously wing-Nine, but I think that, as an anarchist and a system
imagining) that you can offer others what they need to builder, he belongs in this group. Below I explain part
be satisfied is just a way of allowing them to keep you of my rationale for placing him here.
on a string. Its called co-dependence. Fours of all types Other reported examples are Friedrich Nietzsche,
insist, rather, on their separation from the other, and so Werner Heisenberg, Umberto Eco, Georgia OKeefe, k.
their whole lives emphasize being different. d. lang, Laurie Anderson, James Joyce, Stanley Kubrick,
David Lynch, Kurt Cobain, Gary Larson, Franz Kafka,
Tim Burton, and T.S. Eliot.
Five-wing-Four In business, education, or technical and scientific
The Visionary fields, Five-wing-Fours will usually be found pushing
the limits of understanding. In the arts, they are drawn
Five-wing-Fours, whom I call Visionaries, are to imaginative roles such as writing, composing, and
introverted, cerebral personalities who enjoy learning, designing rather than strictly performance. Even as
theorizing, and innovating. They are often artistic, scientists, Five-wing-Fours work more in the manner of
intellectual, or scientifically oriented. No matter what
Structural Enneagram 25
artists, intuitively and creatively. They are options- On the other hand, Five-wing-Fours may be often in
oriented rather than procedural. the public and may talk assertively. Still, closer
It also appears that their reasoning style is more observation reveals a certain discomfort or awk-
synthetic than analytic. They are system builders. wardness mixed in with seemingly extraverted behavior.
Consequently, a Five-wing-Four scientist might tend to Perhaps overcompensating, some may come across as
meld science with philosophy. A song writer might brash or brusque. Undoubtedly, they can be provocative,
blend music with politics. as if being willing to put up with their eccentric or
Their working style corresponds to their thinking antagonistic ways were the price you had to pay for their
style. First, as already established, they are more scintillating company. If feeling criticized, they may
concerned with their own internal thoughts than with turn snarky. In general, when feeling under attack, they
maintaining a connection to the external world, so they may defend themselves with rudeness and contempt.
may be unsuited for teamwork or carrying out other There are a few patterns associated with Perspective
peoples agendas. Fives psychological drive that are noticeably expressed
As writers, composers, and philosophers, they lean by Five-wing-Fours. They want to be loved but think
toward the experimental and speculative and are they have to prove themselves worthy of love; to that
captivated by irony, surrealism, pessimism, and end, they can be seductive and anxious to please. They
nihilism. In fact, this may be the type most at home with may have an interest in subjects such as insanity, crime,
looking at the dark side. Because they are so detached, and the occult. They may have cleaning compulsions.
they can explore the underside freely and not get too They may be collectors. They may have hobbies or
bogged down in bad feelings. vocations that in some ways resemble the aims of the
In addition, Five-wing-Fours often have a passion alchemists of old, who worked at turning base metals
for neologisms, playing with words, letters, and images. into gold: finding and preserving rare collectibles,
Partly, this results from an aptitude for seeing patterns turning kitchen scraps into compost, and anything
and connections, but it also fits into a general having to do with money and investing. They may take
enthusiasm for the new, the original, and, yes, the all this too far and turn demanding, insatiable, greedy,
quirky. Yet when others find them opaque, they still or parsimonious.
suffer from not being understood. There is one further consideration that is especially
Five-wing-Fours emotional tone can be playful or important for the types in the Four-Five structure, and
serious and is often moody. They may seem distant. In that is the choice they seem to have made regarding the
fact, if you try to get too close too fast they will probably Eight-One binary. As explained elsewhere, people who
put up an emotional shield. Too much effort expended express Perspectives Four and Five and are comfortable
relating to others will require some compensating alone operating out of Perspective Eight have the Eight-Nine
time. personality structure. And, if they adopt Perspective
At times, just by looking, you may be able to One instead of Perspective Eight, then they have the
recognize this type by their unconventional dress. Emily Nine-One structure. But it appears that Four-Fives have
Dickinson wore only white. Or, like the other type in this renounced Perspective Eight, while at the same time
structure, Five-wing-Fours may wear dark clothes. I failing to use Perspective One effectively. With neither
once gave a Structural Enneagram reading to a man of these stabilizing Perspectives in place, Four-Fives
who turned out to be a Five-wing-Four, although he have no firm identity and no internal motivational
didn't look like one to me. But I realized his color- strategy for bringing their work to the public.
blocked t-shirt might be throwing me off, so I asked him Evidence that Four-wing-Fives have indeed rejected
if this was the way he ordinarily dressed. He replied that Perspective Eight lies in their antiauthoritarian views
he usually wore black, but that he had recently been in a and behavior. Eights are authoritarian, but Four-wing-
bicycle accident, and now he wore bright colors so that Fives are subversive iconoclasts, bristling at any hint of
drivers could see him when he rode. dominating power.
You might also recognize Five-wing-Fours from Either Eight or One would offer the personality a
several behavioral tells. Sometimes their introversion stable sense of identity and a solid motivational strategy.
will be apparent, although introversion does not But having settled on neither Perspective from the
necessarily mean shy. They may hesitate, perhaps Eight-One binary, Four-Fives live their lives untethered
speaking in a halting voice, or touching the nose. They and adrift unless they have external support in the way
often lean backpossibly a sign of withdrawing, but of people or institutions to manage and push them in the
certainly a means of getting distance. direction that they already wish to go, or possibly an
audience clamoring for their work.
Structural Enneagram 26
In addition, Five-wing-Fours are hypersensitive to Probable examples of this personality type are Ren
criticism. Many of them are hindered, inhibited, and Descartes, Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, Steve Wozniak,
slowed down by fear of not being good enough. They Nassim Nicholas Taleb, Neil Armstrong, John Grinder,
have anxiety about sharing or publishing ideas, fearing Eckhart Tolle, Alan Turing, Karlheinz Stockhausen,
criticism or ridicule one moment and plagiarism the Woody Allen, and Isaac Asimov. Other reported
next. examples are Stephen Hawking, Charles Darwin, B.F.
For some, Four-Five can be an untenable Skinner, and V.I. Lenin.
personality structure. Four-Fives are always going to be
striving to consolidate Perspective One as their home
position unless they have the external support
mentioned above. Yet, Five-wing-Fours who have found
acceptance from an appropriate audience or whose work
is in demand may seem like Nine-Ones because they are
prolific and in the public and apparently have no lack of
motivational strategy. I am thinking of Noam Chomsky,
who seems to fit this description, if I have re-typed him
correctly. Chomsky gained an academic position as a
linguist and earned a specialized audience for his
scholarly work before spreading out from that base to The following quotation from Steve Wozniak's
attract a wider audience. And it appears that, for any autobiography (iWoz: Computer Geek to Cult Icon,
Five-wing-Fours who may have hit upon an attractive 2006, p. 18) richly illustrates the motivations of a well-
proposition early in their careers, the missing rounded Five-wing-Six.
Perspective One signifiers can be replaced by external Thats how I was, how Ive always been
demand for their talents. and still am, it seems. Ive always had this
This is not to deny the possibility of some people technical side and then this human side. For
having started out as Five-wing-Fours and actually instance, I remember telling my dad when I was
evolved as adults into Nine-Ones. ten that when I grew up, I wanted to be an
engineer like him, but I also remember saying I
wanted to be a fifth-grade teacher, like Miss
Five-wing-Six Skrak at my school. Combining the human and
The Observer the technical turned out to be the main thing for
me later on. I mean, even when it came down
Observer types investigate and improve their world. to something like building a computer, I
They have to investigate, because they have a tendency remember watching all those geeks who just
to question received wisdom. As with Ren Descartes, wanted to do the technical side, to just put some
their thinking begins with doubting. And they usually chips together so the design worked.
see how they could make something betterbetter than But I wanted to put chips together like an
what people have been settling forbetter than what artist, better than anyone else could and in a
people had thought they wanted. Five-wing-Sixes are way that would be the absolute most usable by
true contrarians. humans. That was my goal when I built the first
Observer types possess superior perceptual and computer, the one that later became the Apple
reasoning skills, which, nonetheless, often fail them I. It was the first computer to use a keyboard so
when it comes to understanding people. Although Five- you could type onto it, and the first to use a
wing-Sixes are very interested in people, they are at the screen you could look at. The idea of usable
same time wary of being overwhelmed by them and thus technology was something that was kind of
feel the need to erect barriers. Some of the most born in my head as a kid, when I had this
sensitive Five-wing-Sixes are too defended to be able to fantasy that I could someday build machines
make the empathetic connections that would enable people could use. And it happened!
them to find out what others want and expect from them. Anyway, anyone you meet who knows me
Consequently, they may come off as socially inept. Yet will tell you that that is exactly mean
Five-wing-Sixes' principles and interests almost always engineer, but an engineer who worries about
keep them engaged in the world, often with spectacular people a lot.
Structural Enneagram 27
world more, while Five-wing-Fours are inside creating
and doing thought experiments and having feelings
Six-wing-Five about them.
The Guardian

Keen observers of society, Guardians stand up for Six-wing-Seven

justice and security. Ethical or political commitments The Loyalist
are important to them, and they will devote their lives to
protecting and supporting whichever groups or Loyalists value harmony and security and carry
individuals they adopt as their own cause. these values into both private and public life. Although
Although Six-wing-Fives are intensely loyal to they do not directly channel the others desire the way a
those they have chosen to support to those they disagree One-Two might, they are intensely loyal to those they
with, they can be contrarian zealots, pushing against have chosen to support.
their opposition. You might think of Richard Nixon with Because of their Seven wing, they highly value a
his enemies list and Christopher Hitchins with his positive environment, so it is important to them that
proselytizing for atheism. This is a common type for those around them also be well and happy. Since they
lawyers and politicians and is probably the most have Perspectives Two and One in their makeup, their
common type for investigative journalists. self-concept relies on making a career, formally or
informally, of improving peoples' lives, even if it is only
to entertain them for an evening. (But entertainment is
sneaky in that a movie can change your life.)

Probable examples of personality type Six-wing-

Five are Jimmy Carter, George H. W. Bush, Richard M.
Nixon, Edward M. Kennedy, Dick Cheney, Mark Twain,
Michael Moore, Gloria Steinem, Rachel Maddow,
Probable examples of personality type Six-wing-
Christopher Hitchens, Ralph Nader, and Tucker
Seven are Neil deGrasse Tyson, Tom Hanks, Paul
Carlson. Other reported examples are Walter Mondale,
Newman, Alan Alda, Julia Roberts, and Jennifer
Bob Dole, Robert F. Kennedy, Malcolm X, Phil
Aniston. Other reported examples are Johnny Carson,
Donahue, Joseph McCarthy, J. Edgar Hoover, and
Jay Leno, Sally Field, Candice Bergen, Gilda Radner,
Oliver North.
Robert Redford, Marilyn Monroe, Mikhail Barysh-
Six-wing-Fives have concerns about security, which
nikov, Reggie Jackson, Patrick Swayze, and Tom
they displace onto selected others, and then set
themselves up as their guardians. People of this
As Seven is only the wing and not the dominant
personality type may even sacrifice their own needs to
perspective, Six-wing-Sevens are probably less
the safety and well-being of their favored groups and
extraverted than the other personality in the Six-Seven
pair, yet they value friendship and want to be liked. Not
only is it important to them to have a safe, harmonious,
and organized environment, they also want to have
interesting experiences, whether artistic, physical,
Probably because they are less wedded to the
social, or intellectual.
detached, observer point of view, Six-wing-Fives can be
Rather than exercising Perspective Two directly by
a lot more sociable than the other personality in the
simply trying to give people what they want, Six-wing-
Five-Six structure.
Sevens interrogate the others' desires, including their
Of the two personalities dominated by perspective
motives, across their own ideals. It seems they may have
Five, Five-wing-Sixes exhibit less interiority than Five-
actually developed their standards out of a dialectic
wing-Fours. Five-wing-Sixes look out and observe the
Structural Enneagram 28
between others desires and their own judgment of them Probable examples of personality type Seven-wing-
because, although they are warm-hearted, they can also Six are Robin Williams, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,
be opinionated. David Letterman, Steve Martin, Lily Tomlin, and
Since Six-wing-Sevens want to act from principle Marianne Williamson. Other reported examples are
yet do care about the other's needs, and yet again are Steven Spielberg, Arthur Rubinstein, Leonard
always questioning the others motives, they face Bernstein, Richard Feynman, Timothy Leary, Bette
continual anxiety about what to do. They must be Midler, Liza Minnelli, Carol Burnett, Jim Carrey, Bob
prepared for all eventualities. They may hash out Hope, Mel Brooks, Regis Philbin, Zsa Zsa Gabor, and
alternatives with friends before coming to a decision. John Belushi.
Other ways they resolve internal conflicts are reading
and research. They will often submit their judgment to
preexisting systems of knowledge, such as law,
medicine, or astrology as a means of resolving internal
impasses. One such system may also form the basis for
a career.
Evolving Six-wing-Sevens are typically trying to
incorporate more of the benefits of Perspective Five,
particularly as concerns getting grounded and being able
to face the dark side with equanimity. Their secondary
issue seems to be acquiring Perspective Four and
Even if they have a career in some kind of personal
becoming more independent, and some may go to great
service, Seven-wing-Sixes wont be just order fillers.
lengths to achieve this. For example, a Six-wing-Seven
They could be doctors improving the world by bringing
had found herself immersed in one too many
the highest standard of care to their patients. They could
relationships in which she had given herself over to
be realtors creating community while showing clients
pleasing whatever man she was with at the time.
the ideal houses for their needs. They could be massage
Wanting to make something more of her life, she arrived
therapists raising the vibration of humanity by giving
at an almost intentional decision to get fat and use her
clients the kind of care that everybody ought to have. Or
less attractive appearance as an obstacle to losing herself
hair stylists spreading beauty by cutting the most
in any more unhealthy relationships.
flattering styles.
Six-wing-Sevens' feelings of insecurity are
Seven-wing-Sixes demand on the environment
probably a result of repressing their aggression in order
seems to be that it be engrossing. The world is their
to keep peace and harmony. If Six-wing-Sevens
playground, and they want to experience as much of the
overvalue harmony enough to block rather than
goodness of life as they can. This makes them restless,
sublimate their own aggression, then they are surely
curious spirits. Benjamin Franklin, the wit, writer,
imagining aggression returning to them from the
publisher, inventor, ladys man, politician, and diplomat,
direction of the other. And when they do lash out at
is a good example of that spirit.
another person, this is viewed by both parties as an
To give an example of Seven-wing-Sixes trying to
aberration. Repressed aggression can best be handled by
bring others along on their romp, I will mention Leonard
stepping into detached Perspective Five and facing
Bernstein, who devoted the later part of his career to
buried thoughts head on.
helping people understand and enjoy classical music as
much he did.
Seven-wing-Sixes split loyaltyto their own
ideals and to the others needsintroduces some
The Enthusiast
uncertainty into their thinking: Will their actions really
be what people need, or will they have failed to live up
Enthusiasts demand that life be engrossing and
their own standards? This uncertainty makes them
entertaining. And they aren't stingy with the
defensive and a bit dependent on receiving
entertainment, either. Being both other-oriented and
acknowledgement that they are doing well.
principled, they want to make sure the good experiences
get spread around. So, to ensure a positive environment
for all, they strive to make life fun and fulfilling for
others as well as themselves.

Structural Enneagram 29
Differentiations them. Here we should keep in mind that manipulating
people needn't always be a bad thing.
Since Six-Sevens use Perspective One, their chan- Probable examples of personality type Seven-wing-
neling of the others desire seems more sublimated, Eight are Theodore Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Ernest
more universalized than that of Two-Threes, who take Hemingway, Malcolm Forbes, Timothy Ferriss,
the others needs upon themselves in a more personal Federico Fellini, Cary Grant, Harry Houdini, and
way. Howard Stern. Other report Seven-wing-Eights are
Six-wing-Sevens may lean even more than the other Marlene Dietrich, Joan Collins, Joan Rivers, Phyllis
personality in the Six-Seven structural pair toward Diller, Helen Gurley Brown, George Plimpton, Noel
universalized expression. Think of Tom Hankss war Coward, Cole Porter, David Niven, Larry King, Lauren
memorial projects. Bacall, Judith Krantz, Jacqueline Susann, Susan Lucci,
and Geraldo Rivera.
In The 4-Hour Workweek: Escape 9-5, Live
Seven-wing-Eight Anywhere, and Join the New Rich (Crown 2007),
The Excitement Seeker Timothy Ferriss issues the Seven-wing-Eight manifesto,
extolling the benefits and the possibility of designing a
People of this extraverted personality are fully and life and career that will make you happy. Oh, and, by the
often fearlessly engaged in experiencing the world. way, the opposite of happy is not sad, it's bored. In fact,
Having Perspective Seven dominant keeps them the real meaning of happiness is excitement! (p. 51).
fully engaged in the environment. They like enjoyable That's where I got the name for the Seven-wing-Eight
and exciting activities, which includes acquiring personality type: the Excitement Seeker.
material goods, and when things go badly, their
activities and their possessions help them escape from a
harsh or boring reality. Eight-wing-Seven
Having Perspective Eight makes Seven-wing- The Rebel
Eights want success in the eyes of the world. They may
be strong leaders like John F. Kennedy, who was Rebels seek autonomy and freedom. In practice,
probably a Seven-wing-Eight. Kennedys ability to these bad boys tend to go for the opposite of what is
think counter to accepted opinions shows in his handling the opposite of what other people wantso that they are
of the Cuban missile crisis. Or, if it's peacetime and their in fact still tethered to the other's desire, only in a
rebellious instincts are stronger than any desire to lead, negative way. Nevertheless, Eight-wing-Sevens are
they may more closely resemble Joan Rivers and often able to amass the power to succeed.
Howard Stern, who can be blunt, callous, and even Lyndon B. Johnson, Miley Cyrus, Richard Bandler,
obnoxious in their continual pursuit of saying the Courtney Love, Allison DuBois, and Sylvia Browne are
opposite of what the world thinks they should. probably Eight-wing-Sevens. Other reported examples
of personality type Eight-wing-Seven are G. I.
Gurdjieff, Donald Trump, Henry Kissinger, Richard
Burton, Sean Connery, Harvey Keitel, Bella Abzug,
Norman Mailer, Frank Sinatra, Bette Davis, Roseanne
Barr, Leona Helmsley, Muhammad Ali, Richard
Wagner, Sarah Palin, Al Capone, Ferdinand Marcos,
Joseph Stalin, Mao Tse-tung, Moammar Gadhafi, Idi
Amin, and Jim Jones.
Eight-wing-Sevens have been said to be the most
Although many of them would probably have liked independent personality. That reputation probably rests
to ambivalently include Perspective Four in their skill on the fact that they expend the most effort toward
set (in which case they would have been Three-wing- achieving autonomy of desire. True autonomy of desire
Fours), Excitement Seekers instead remain enmeshed (Perspective Four) would, in fact, be their direction of
with others in a variation of Perspective Two. When they personal growth. But people of this personality type
take Perspective Two, putting themselves in the position have issues with their mothers similar to those of their
of the other, they are likely to do one of two things. cousins the Seven-wing-Eights. Even when Eight-wing-
Either they spurn or rebel against others' desires, or they Sevens seem to idealize their mothers, they have
use their knowledge of others' desires to manipulate underlying experiences of neglect or conditional love.
Structural Enneagram 30
The more stuck Eight-wing-Sevens are in
personality, the more autonomy eludes them, as they
repeatedly revert to rebellionwhich, far from being Probable examples of personality type Eight-wing-
independence of the others desire is merely the inverse Nine are Franklin D. Roosevelt, Steve Jobs, George W.
of it. Nevertheless, that drive for autonomy makes Bush, John McCain, Ann Richards, Lee Iacocca, Dick
Eight-wing-Seven a highly motivated personality. They Clark, Vince Lombardi, and Robert Altman. Other
are often entrepreneurs, promoters, and other kinds of reported examples are Winston Churchill, Indira
risk takers. If they are in politics, they may be Gandhi, Golda Meir, Martin Luther King, Jr., H. Ross
revolutionaries, transformational leaders, or mavericks. Perot, George Patton, Douglas MacArthur, Janet Reno,
Eight-wing-Sevens want to be in control, to be the Charlton Heston, Johnny Cash, Barbara Walters, Ed
subjective agents, mastering their objects, whether Asner, and John Wayne.
through persuasion, magnanimity, competitive Dick Clark has been listed elsewhere as a Three-
advantage, or confrontation. Perhaps it is the Seven wing-Two. Although he may have presented that cheery
wing that makes them also want to dominate the Motivator's image on camera, accounts of his producing
environment. It would also be great if everyone could and directing style peg him as a dictatorial, demanding
acknowledge their superiority. Boss.
Since they want the opposite of what is, they often Paul Newman has elsewhere been categorized as an
have a talent for reform. They can envision what is not Eight-wing-Nine, but I believe this to have been an
but should be, and, often through manipulation of example of confusing an actor with his roles. To me, the
others, gain power to bring it into existence. But if the affable and philanthropic Newman seems to have been
compulsion to go for the opposite of what others want a Six-wing-Seven, a common type for actors. His
gets too out of control, mayhem will ensue. Maybe it racecar driving is probably an indicator of the Seven
will be a controlled mayhem, as is fairly common in wing.
rockers like Courtney Love. On the other hand, prisons Being the Boss is important to Eight-wing-Nines
are full of Eight-wing-Sevens. What can be a talent and because, to the extent that perspective Eight is
a strength in educated, talented, or well-connected dominant, Eight-wing-Nines feel that they are what
people can become a curse for someone who is not in a other people recognize them to be. They identify with
position to legally grab the bull by the horns. their role, their performance, their status in a hierarchy.
In their ideal hierarchy, the people below them
recognize them as a superior and a leader and are
Eight-wing-Nine rewarded for doing so. The people above them are their
The Boss authorities, whose recognition and approval they in turn
require. Even a United States president may not consider
Self-confident and assertive Bosses are drawn to himself to be always at the top of a hierarchy since he
leadership roles, whether in organizations or personal may answer to advisers, Congress, corporate donors, or
relationships. They regularly challenge others for an anthropomorphic God. Eight-wing-Nines need
authority but will be affable about it unless the others reassurance that they are doing their duty by upholding
resist them, and then the fight is on. But when the and enforcing the will of whatever authority they
contest is over they will probably shake hands and subscribe to.
respect the outcome. Having perspective Five means this type is self-
contained and not dependent on atmospherics for their
feelings. Using perspective Four, Eight-wing-Nines feel

Structural Enneagram 31
their difference from others and dont need to lean on being weak in that same area. Still, Bush seemed to truly
others to decide what to do. want to be able to claim this moral high ground.
In general, Eight-wing-Nines give more thought to
personal or tribal rather than universal considerations.
Their actions are governed by their allegiancesthe Nine-wing-Eight
authorities to which they bow and the in-group they The Mediator
protect and lead. Their own tribe is always right, as can
be observed in lawsuits, in which Eight-wing-Nines Mediators have strong egos, but they also have the
sometimes refer to their side as the good guys and the knack of winning the cooperation of others with less
other side as the bad guys. strife than their Eight-wing-Nine cousins. Their good-
Perhaps because of the need to always know where natured, agreeable manner inspires trust. They are
they stand and how they can move up the ladder, Eight- natural leaders who have the ability to smooth over
wing-Nines are people watchers. They can sniff out differences and organize groups toward a common goal.
others motives; Phil Dr. Phil McGraw, who probably Since Perspective Nine is a combination of
has this personality, was a jury selection specialist, and Perspectives Five and Four, we have to look at those
his ability to size people up quickly now drives his components first. Perspective Five gives Nine-wing-
performance as a television psychologist. Eights the ability to take a step back and study the big
When overusing Perspective Eight way of thinking, picture. Perspective Four gives them the space to decide
everything can be personalized, or anthropo- on their own course of action rather than being wedded
morphized, even countries and organizations. The to or merely reacting to other people's wants.
United States government is still our Uncle Sam, but his
name is changed depending on the president who is in
office. Similarly, people personalize the Constitution
when they try to interpret it through the founding
fathers original intent.
Personalities that rely on Perspective One, the
binary opposite of Eight, might define good citizenship
as acting in conformance with a set of guiding
principles. From Perspective Eight, you would be more
likely to extol loyaltypatriotismand belief in
country as though it were an actual thing rather than an Perspective Eight gives Nine-wing-Eights a concern
abstract or legal idea. In an article called McCains with position and status. But since Eight is not the
Embarrassing Last Act in The Daily Beast dominant type, they may be less insistent than Eight-
(, Tunku Varadarajan quotes a wing-Nines on being in control. As Riso and Hudson
colleague of Eight-wing-Nine John McCains: state, Nine-wing-Eights have an ability to subordinate
What you need to know is that he really does themselves to others (Personality Types, 371). But
believe in duty, honor, country... and he is an they do seek and hold leadership positions.
American hero. But he thinks that is all there is. Probable examples of personality type Nine-wing-
He has no deep interest or principle on any Eight are Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald Reagan, Other
other subject. Every other issue has become reported examples are Gerald Ford, Kevin Costner,
personal with him, viewed through politics or Gary Cooper, Woody Harrelson, Keanu Reeves, Ingrid
pique. He is a patriot for whom most other Bergman, Geena Davis, Sophia Loren, Ringo Starr,
issues are simply situational, which is why he Whoopi Goldberg, Janet Jackson, Bing Crosby, Walter
can change so easily on them. Cronkite, Hugh Downs, and Lady Bird Johnson.
So this brings up the question, do Eight-wing-Nines Coming out of the military, former president Dwight
aspire to be moved more by principle, like a Nine-One? Eisenhower exemplifies the Nine-wing-Eight ability to
During the 2004 election campaign against John Kerry, occupy both subordinate and superior rungs in a
probably a One-wing-Nine, George W. Bush repeatedly hierarchy. Although Eisenhower had not seen military
accused Kerry of being unprincipled and claimed the action, during World War II his administrative skills and
attribute of being principled for himself. Certainly, that talent for leadership and diplomacy propelled him up the
would have been consistent with a Karl Rove tactic: find ranks to the command of the Allied troops in Europe.
out the oppositions strength, and then attack them for

Structural Enneagram 32
His success in that role later propelled him into the that they lack self-awareness. Rather, I believe this
presidency. result merely exposes deficiencies in the conventional
Perspectives Five and Four would appear to clash Enneagram understanding of personalities. When Nine-
with Eight in that Five and Four drive interior behavior, wing-Ones find many personality characteristics within
while Eight drives external, interpersonal behavior. But, themselves, it is probably because they are more
in fact, the three Perspectives hang together quite integrated than most. Whether you see it in them or not,
seamlessly, even though it may appear otherwise to the they sense within themselves many of the characteristics
outside observer. In My Father at 100 (Viking 2011), typically listed for the majority of the Enneagram points.
Ron Reagan describes his father, Ronald Reagan, as
simultaneously warm yet remote (p. 9). Even as he
acted out his extraverted roles as father, actor, and
politician, another, quieter Reagan, just as vital, rested
invisibly beneath the waves; that quieter Reagan was
the producer and director for the man onstage (p. 13).
Ron Reagan's analysis of his father goes some distance
to illustrate how Five and Four, the behind-the-scenes,
producer-director perspectives, interact with the out-
front perspective Eight to create the Nine-wing-Eight
For example, although Nine-wing-Ones generally
Differentiations use detached Perspective Four, they do get good rapport
and typically make others feel comfortable. This leads
In the conventional Enneagram, Nines (a single- me to conclude that most of them must not be shut out
number type) are said to be peacemakers. In the of Perspective Two since, as I believe, the ability to enter
Structural Enneagram, Nine-wing-Eights want every- the others mental or perceptual space is necessary for
one to accede to their authority; Nine-wing-Ones want rapport.
everything to conform to their ideals. Thus would peace Still, Perspective Four is often the one that is hardest
and harmony be achieved in differing ways for each for people to discern in Nine-wing-Ones. It is true that
type. some of them may have difficulty formulating goals
based on their own desires, and this can be perceived as
a deficiency in a Three-type culture that valorizes goal-
Nine-wing-One setting.
The Peacemaker Being less influenced than most by perspective
Eights need for interpersonal validation, Nine-wing-
With their pleasant, easy-going personas, Nine- Ones generally take things somewhat less personally.
wing-Ones are frequently underestimated. Some This, along with their reliance on detached Perspective
conventional Enneagram writers describe them as lazy Five, allows them to see all sides of an issue. Having the
and indifferent; however, many are quite industrious and One component, they have a strong sense of purpose,
effective. At its highest intensity, this personality melds although it may not be a reality-shifting purpose.
penetrating insight into what makes people and societies Finally, Nine-wing-Ones concerns and aspirations
tick with soaring dreams as to what they may become. will be found at the intersection of reality and their
Probable examples of personality type Nine-wing- ideals. If there is a good enough match, they will be
One are Barack Obama, Abraham Lincoln, Carl Jung, content and relatively non-activist. If there is not a
Joseph Campbell, Queen Elizabeth II, George Lucas, match, then their choice of goals is apparent: they must
and Pope John Paul II. Other reported examples are either withdraw from that particular environment or
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Disney, Jimmy Stewart, change it. If Nine-wing-Ones have adopted a view of
Garrison Keillor, Princess Grace of Monaco, George themselves as intellectuals, then they will obviously
Lucas, and the Dalai Lama. need to educate an uninformed world. If they view
When I have given my own sorting test based on themselves as spiritual, then they will model holiness for
conventional Enneagram types to Nine-wing-Ones, they a materialistic society. If they have had instilled in them
resonated with six to eight of the personalities (but never a sense of their obligation to lead, then they will study,
with type Eight). Other have cited similar results as plan, and act toward that end. They unpretentiously
evidence that Nines are out of touch with themselves,
Structural Enneagram 33
allow themselves to be used and used up on behalf of One-wing-Nines, even if they work in the corporate
their goals. world, are teachers, reformers, moralists, and philo-
sophers. They are, if anything, more idealistic than the
other wing in this pair. They can be somewhat ascetic,
One-wing-Nine suppressing impulses that do not accord with their
The Idealist principles. And they can be intolerant of the weaknesses
and hypocrisies of others. You are likely to find them
Idealists want to express and embody their values engaged in convincing others to live up to their own
and beliefs, so they push for reforms on either a local or professed ideals. With respect to the greater good, they
a more universal level. They want things to be done see themselves as not only reformers but also rescuers,
according to their own guiding principles. Through saving people from themselves and each other, but
teaching, writing, leading, and mentoring, they attempt primarily from wrong thinking.
to convince people to overcome groupthink and adopt In my observation, One-wing-Nines, more than any
principled, self-reliant thought and action. other type, have a tendency to occupy the place of an
abstract ideato represent an idea and act on its behalf.
This Perspective-One ability to think from the place of
an idea was illustrated by a former teacher of mine, who
would muse, I wonder what wants to be said on this
topic. People of other types dont typically consider
that an idea might want something.


Typical Nine-wing-Ones are less standards-driven,

less proactive, and slightly less judgmental than the
Probable examples of personality type One-wing-
typical One-wing-Nine. Consequently, Nine-wing-Ones
Nine are Nancy Pelosi, Michael Dukakis, Al Gore,
appear to have less drive overall. One-wing-Nines
Socrates, and George Harrison. Other reported
appear to be more principled and purposeful than Nine-
examples are Plato, Gandhi, and Colin Powell.
wing-Ones, sometimes to the point of seeming rigid.

Forward-Evolution of Consciousness

Understanding your personality may be only half I continue to research and write about the Structural
the story. For many people, the second half is putting Enneagram and its applications, and in the coming
that understanding to work in order to evolve months I will be making more of that work available.
consciousness to the point where they can get what they Please check my website for updates.
want out of life.
Of course, some people are not on any such
trajectory; they are right where they should be for now. Jean Adeler, Ph.D.
But for those wanting to upshift personal consciousness
to a higher level, the Structural Enneagram is a good September 14, 2014
place to start.
It should be obvious to those familiar with NLP that
the Structural Enneagram is full of implications for
change work using NLP techniques. The Structural
Enneagram is also highly useful in the interpretation of
dreams, fantasies, and behavioral patterns.

Structural Enneagram 34