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Day 3; Soya Processing

13th June 2013

Presented by Liew Mei Hin

Understanding soya
bean chemistry
/2
Soya
y bean composition
p
An interesting little fellow

THE BAD
Soya Protein

Protein q quality
alit eq
equivalent
i alent to that of animal protein
(PER, AA score )
Lowers cholesterol and risk of heart disease (US
FDA approval)
Easily digestible protein
Contains lysine unlike other cereal proteins.
Fulfills essential amino acid requirements.
requirements
Amino acid composition of soya

Essential Amino Acids Amino acid composition of soya


requirements of humans
Isoleucine Isoleucine
Leucine Leucine
Lysine Lysine (unlike other cereal
Methionine
proteins)
Phenylalanine
Methionine (low amount)
Threonine
Phenylalanine
Trytophan
Threonine (low amount)
Valine
Trytophan
ytop a
Histidine (in infants only)
Valine
Histidine
Cysteine (low amount)
Tyrosine
Soya protein digestibility

Protein digestibility:
digestibilit Protein absorbed after
ingesting.
Important gauge of protein quality
Factors affecting digestibility:
Biologically active components, e.g phytates & trypsin
inhibitors, may reduce protein digestibility.
Heating inactivates these components and modifies soya
protein making it more digestible
digestible.
Chemical form of protein
The chemistry of the beany flavour

Characteristic fla
flavour
o r of so
soya:
a bean
beany, green
green,
rancid, bitter.

Polyunsaturated fatty lipoxygenase Volatile components


acids e.g. ketones,
aldehydes and alcohols

Note: In the presence of oxygen and water.

Elimination: grinding in hot water, heat treating the whole bean,


blanch whole bean, adjust moisture/pH levels or use aqueous
alcohol.
Soya lipids

Consists of trigl
triglycerides,
cerides free fatt
fatty acids
acids,
phospholipids, tocopherols, phytosterols,
hydrocarbons and trace elements
Low total fat content
High proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (60%)
compared to saturated fatty acid (40%)
High in omega
omega-3 3 and omega-6-fatty
omega 6 fatty acids
Good source of essential fatty acid (1-2% of daily
caloric intake))
Soya carbohydrates

Soya Carbohydrates

Soluble carbohydrates Insoluble


( li
(oligosaccharides)
h id ) carbohydrate
(fibre)

Sucrose, Cellulose,
Raffinose, hemicellulose,
Stachyose pectin, starch
Soluble carbohydrates

Raffinose & stachyose


Cannot be digested by humans, but can be used by
intestinal flora. Humans lack -galactosidase.
g Causes
flatulence and abdominal discomfort.

Benefits:
B fit
Increase population of indigenous bifidobacteria in
colon, increase vitamin content , prevent pathogenic
diarrhoea, prevent constipation, reduce blood
pressure, etc...

Methods of eliminating oligosaccharides:


Ethanol extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis or genetics.
Insoluble Carbohydrates

Source
So rce of dietar
dietary fibre
Factors affecting insoluble carbos:
Prolonged cooking can soften soyabean texture due to the
pectin in between the cells.
Dehulling: Hulls contain major portion of carbohydrates
( 86%)
(~86%).
Removed with okara
Soya minerals

Contains the mineral content of so


soya
aee.g.
g
potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulphur,
calcium chloride and sodium
calcium, sodium.
Majorportion of minerals extracted with protein. But
calcium, magnesium and phosphorous extracted with
phospholipids.
phospholipids
Soya Vitamins

So a is rich in vitamins.
Soya itamins
Water soluble (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid,
folic acid)
Oil soluble (Vit A and E)

Effects of processing:
In processes involving water:
Thiamin (7.6-15.7% retention)
Riboflavin (11.7-21.1% retention)
Tofu
T f processing:
i
Vit E loss (30-47%)
Biologically Active Components

Biologically
active
componentsts
Trypsin inhibitors
Isoflavones

Phytates
L ti
Lectins
Trypsin Inhibitor (TI)

Nutritional value:
Inhibits trypsin and chymotrypsin (protein digestion enzyme)
Disturbs digestion in humans.

Effects of processing:
TI activity inactivated through heating
heating.
Overheating may reduce protein solubility and lead to a loss
in amino acid content.
Optimum heat treatment = 80% destruction of TI activity.
activity
TI inactivation increases the nutritive value of soya proteins,
which makes it an important indicator of soya quality.
Effect of steaming on trypsin inhibitor
activity
ti it and
d protein
t i efficiency
ffi i ratio
ti (PER)
of soya meal.
Lectins

Effects:
Clumps red blood corpuscles.
Lowers blood insulin levels.
Degenerates liver and kidneys
kidneys.
Interferes with the absorption of iron and lipid from the diet.

Methods of elimination:
Moist heat treatment destroys lectins.
Dry heat treatment ineffective.
Phytates

N tritional value:
Nutritional al e
Soya beans main source of phosphorous.
Inhibits enzymes involved in digestion.

Methods of elimination
Heating decreases phytate content significantly.
Increase in soaking temperature decreases phytate content
by ~26%.
26%.
Isoflavones

Effects
Effects:
Estrogenic activity
Antioxidant properties
Antifungal properties
Anticarcinogenic properties

Effects of processing:
During production of soya beverages,
decrease after soaking (12% loss)
alkaline extraction in soya protein isolates (53%)
Bean quality
B lit ffor soya
milk extraction

Understanding Soya
Bean Chemistry
High q
quality
alit prod
products
cts cannot be prod
produced
ced from
poor quality raw materials.

But poor quality products can be made from


high quality raw material.

Bernard von Bockelmann


Bockelmann,1998
1998
Soya quality aspects

Quality parameters

Raw material Soya beverage

Age
g
Ph i l
Physical
Physical Sensory
Biochemistry Time of harvest

Variety
Bean defects & cleaning system
Quality parameters at the raw material
stage
t

1. The cotyledon should be lightly coloured.


Colour 2. The hull should be light golden yellow, or a clean white.
3. The hilum should be white.

Protein
NSI (Nitrogen Solubility Index) of the beans should be above 85%.
Solubility
Protein It is the soluble protein content which is important and not total
C t t
Content protein.
t i

Moisture 10-12% preferred and should not exceed 13%. If over 14%, there
Content is a risk of enzyme activity which will cause oxidation of the fat.

Time of The beans should be fully ripened. Unripe beans may give a raw
Harvest and bitter flavour.
Size The beans should be of uniform size
size.
The beans should not be older than 12 months. Excess storage
Age may cause discolouration, diminished NSI, high viscosity and
poor flavour.
p
Uncleaned Soybeans
Same Soybeans after being cleaned
Types of Soybeans Removed

Split & Cracked So


Soybeans
beans
Stained, Mottled, Bug bit & Dirty Soybeans
Obl
Oblong andd Mi
Misshaped
h dSSoybeans
b
Undersized / Immature Soybeans
F i M
Foreign Materials
t i l
Bug Bites
Cracked Soybeans
Split Soybeans
Cracked Seed Coat
Fish Eye Shaped Soybean
M ttl d S
Mottled Soybeans
b
Immature Oblong Soybeans
Purple Stain Virus
Shriveled Soybeans
Foreign Materials
Overview of Soybean Cleaning

Remove
Remo e Undersi
Undersized ed So
Soybeans
beans
Remove Defective Soybeans
R
Remove S
Splitslit & Mi
Misshapen
h S
Soybeans
b
Remove Discolored Soybeans
R
Remove allll F
Foreign
i M Materials
t i l
Remove Dust and any Light Materials
Magnets to remove metal objects
State Approved Moisture Detection Machine / 40
NIR Analysis detects protein content and other nutritional properties / 41
Trait test for Non-GMO purity
Results Shown By Thin Red Line
GMO Test Records
Sampler takes 100 seeds per 30 kgs of soybeans for sample records
Testing Procedures

Moisture
Moist re
NIR testing (protein and other nutritional data)
T it ttestt for
Trait f detection
d t ti off GMO contamination
t i ti
Germination
S
Screen ttestt for
f foreign
f i material
t i l content
t t and
d also
l
odor/mold content
Requirements of US Grade Number 1 Soya
b
beans according
di to
t the
th Offi
Official
i l St
Standards
d d
of The United States
Grade Min. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max. Max.
test limit of limit limit of limit of limit of limit of
weight moisture of damaged heat foreign brown,
per splits kernels damaged material black,
litre total kernels and/or
bi-
coloured
soya
beans in
yellow
or green
soya
beans

(kg) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

1 0.72 13.0 10 2.0 0.2 1.0 1.0


Factors affecting soya bean quality
parameters
t

Drying
Dr ing
Moisture content
Cl
Cleaning
i prior
i tto storage
t
Storage temperature
St
Storage h
humidity
idit
Storage duration
Bean Storage effect on protein recover
Colour & pH affected by storage
Soya bean variety affects quality too

Varieties vary
ar in
in:
agronomic characteristics
yield, maturity group, disease and pest resistance
chemical composition
oil and protein content, fatty acid composition, types of
storage
g pprotein p
present
physical appearance
seed size, seed shape, seed coat colour and hilum colour
Soy Bean Variety key point

Hilum=white
Storage time, moisture
& temperature
t t afect:
f t
Yield
Colour
pH

Cleaning + size
selection
Low immature seeds
Colour sorting
GMO Declaration Definitions

GMO free:
free traceability
traceabilit free of all kinds of GMO.
GMO
Legally problematical because some aspects are
not well-defined,
well defined like analytical control
control,
contamination by seed counts etc.
From non GMO sources (Gold Standard = Identity
Preserved Certified): traceability from GMO free
sources, but contamination accepted by a
maximum of 0.9 %
Processed from GMO: has to be declared, if soya
from GMO sources is consciously used
IP soyabeans are planted under exacting conditions to meet specifications
under contract.
contract

Public / 54
Commercially grown organic IP soyabeans.

Public / 55
Organic soyabeans can not be treated with herbicides. Weeds in this particular
farm are picked by hand.
Public / 56
Identity preservation requires segregated storage of specific
varieties. This is done both on farm and at IP co-operative
elevators.
IP soyabeans are often shipped in containers rather than bulk
commodity vessels
vessels.

Public / 58
T i l soya bean
Typical b certificate
tifi t

Public
LMH/SoyaUHT seminar 2013/03/19 / 59
Differentt R
Diff Raw IIngredients
di t
for Soya milk production
Raw materials options for Soya drink
production
d ti

Beans
Own extraction
Buying liquid soya base

Protein Isolates
Protein concentrate
Whole Soyay Bean ppowder
Using beans

Product Quality starts from the consistency and


quality of bean.
Have to be clean especially if used direct into the
extraction system
Usuallyy first g
grade food beans recommended
Using dehulled beans

Difference with using whole beans


Gives better mouthfeel
Less bitter taste
Smooth
S th taste,
t t less
l astringency
ti
Whiter colour

Effect on process
Hull is responsible for about 9% to 10% insoluble
fibres in the bean.
Better separation efficiency
Beans

Whole Beans
Low cost raw mtrl. Higher investment
Okara by-product Okara disposal
Complex process
All nutrients Raw mtrl. Q variations
Natural image Fat/protein fixed

Liquid base
L
Less iinvestment
t t Availability
A il bilit off b
base
Hygiene risk
All nutrients Raw mtrl. Q variations
Natural image Fat/protein fixed
Isolate / Powder

Isolate 90%
Concentrate 70%

Low investment Higher cost


Simple process Less natural
Convenience
Neutral taste
Cons raw mtrl.
Cons. mtrl Q
Fat/Protein flexible

Whole bean powder


As above except
p Fat/Protein Fat/Protein fixed
Natural image Sensory quality?
All nutrients incl. okara Stability/sediment?
Lower cost vs.
vs Isolate Higher cost vs.
vs Bean
Soya Powder

Spray dried soya powder

Low investment Higher cost of raw


material
Simple reconstitution Fat/Protein fixed
process
Convenience
C
Cons. raw mtrl.
tl Q