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You are on page 1of 35

Compound Pendulum

The University of Texas at Austin

Fall 2014

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Overview

pendulum system studied in lab experiments.

This lecture reviews the model, then shows how to develop the

mathematical model both as a second order ODE and in state space form.

A key goal is to learn about how numerical simulations of math models can

be used to predict response of a system. A model simulation can be thought

of as another way to experiment with a system.

Block diagrams are also introduced as a way to describe systems within

simulation environments, and LabVIEW examples are provided.

The model simulation results from the pendulum system can be compared

to measured response data in order to improve the model, especially for

determining the dominant type of friction causing the pendulum motion to

decay.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Lab Objectives

friction effects

2 Become familiar with the National Instruments Control and Simulation

module

3 Use a simulation model to compare with measured data and tune system

parameters

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

system model

pendulum response observed in the lab, we need a dynamic system

model in the form of ODEs

Recognize any special considerations. There is significant friction in

the pivot/bearing causing the pendulum oscillation to decay, so the

model needs to include torques induced by friction.

Make sure the model can be used for the intended purpose. Given a

proper model, we need to be able to solve the equations. Since the

ODEs cannot be solved in closed-form, we need to put the model in a

form suitable for simulation.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

forces, accelerations, or velocities of bodies at specific

instants in time. Consider the example below.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Example continued...

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

equations (ODEs) for key variables of interest in order to

study how a system behaves over all time.

The measured decay of the pendulum oscillations in the lab indicates loss

of energy over time due to dissipative effects.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

represents dynamics of a point torque for rotation about the pivot

mass at the end of fixed length, is,

massless, rod or string, constrained X

to move in a plane as shown below. T = T = mgl sin

Gravity acts downward.

Now, apply Newtons law,

dh X

= h = J = T

dt

where J = ml2 , so a 2nd order

ODE in is found,

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

pendulum

J = ml2 2

J0 = J + mlC

m is the total mass, l is distance from m is the total mass, lC is distance

the pivot to the mass from the pivot to the CG

g mglC

+ sin = 0 + sin = 0

l J0

depends on how widely mass is distributed. In some cases, a simple pendulum

might be a reasonable approximation.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Aside from proper modeling of the inertia effects, the model also needs to

consider other torques that cause changes in the angular momentum. Primarily,

we are concerned here with torques due to dissipative effects (friction at the

pivot, air friction, etc.), or any applied torques or forces on the pendulum body.

Both can be included in the Newtons law equation,

h = T Tf Ta

where Tf is the net torques due to friction/losses and Ta are applied or actuator

torques.

It is clear that the pendulum studied in the lab is not lossless since it does not

oscillate indefinitely, and there are no other applied forces or actuator torques.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Frictional effects can be modeled as frictional torques that act about the pivot.

These torques are modeled as functions of angular velocity, T = f (). Consider

two types:

bearing has a (viscous) fluid film, induced forces tend to vary linearly with

velocity (left). On the other hand, bearings with dry contact result in forces more

similar to Coulomb-type friction, being relatively constant with velocity (right).

ME 144L Dynamic Systems and Controls Lab (Longoria)

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Consider a linear damping torque in the pendulum equation,

X

h = T = T Tb

where

Tb = b = linear damping torque

where = . Now,

J0 + b + mglC sin = 0

This equation can be made linear by assuming small motion, so sin would be

approximately and the equation becomes a linear 2nd order ODE with a

closed-form solution.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

nonlinear friction

Now include a nonlinear friction torque,

X

h = T = T Tb Tc

where

Tc = To sgn() = Coulombic (nonlinear) frictional torque

Linearizing for small motion as done for Case 1 is problematic, because of the

sgn (signum) function.

The signum function has a very large change in value when its argument is close

to zero: sgn(a) = +1 if a > 0 and sgn(a) = 1 if a < 0.

Closed form solutions for motion cannot be found as readily as for Case 1. It turns

out that this type of friction is more prevalent in many practical systems. Solving

this ODE requires numerical integration schemes for simulating the system.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

When we talk about system simulation in DSC, this typically refers to solving an

ODE initial value problem. This means that we have a set of ODEs that model

our system of interest1 .

Consider the simplest type of dynamic system, a first order ODE,

dx

= f (x, u, t)

dt

which well call a state equation for the state variable, x. The right hand side is a

function of x itself, an input to the system, u, and time, t.

The modeling process provides f (x, u, t).

Numerical integration requires an initial value at initial time, t0 , x(t0 ) = x0 .

Then, the solution at the next step, t = t0 + t, is to be approximated.

1

Some systems may involve both differential and algebraic equations (DAEs), which

wont be considered in this course.

ME 144L Dynamic Systems and Controls Lab (Longoria)

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

You may recall that numerically solving ODEs for initial value problems is simply

marching forward in time. The solution is found at discrete time steps, given the

initial value at t0 . Given x0 , the value at initial time, an estimate of the value at

t1 is,

x1 = x0 + x0

The job of the solver is to estimate x0 . The simplest algorithm is the Euler

solver, which is basically a Taylor series approximation.

The Euler solve estimates x0 by,

x0 = f (x0 , u0 , t0 ) t

x/t f (x, u, t), and given all

initial values. There is always error in

the estimate of the true value, x1 .

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

The Euler method is the simplest ODE solver, and it usually uses a fixed

time step. To get good solutions (more accurate, stable), usually you need

to make the time step very small.

The Euler method is a 1st order Runge-Kutta (RK) method. You may have

learned about Runge-Kutta methods in a computational methods course.

The most commonly used RK algorithm is 4th order, which uses four

evaluations of the ODEs to estimate the next value of x, as opposed to the

single evaluation made by the Euler routine. The RK4 algorithm allows you

to take larger time steps than Euler, is more stable, but as for Euler the error

must be managed by the user. More sophisticated algorithms use variable

time step to control numerical errors.

Many commercial and open-source software packages have built-in fixed-step

and variable step algorithms that can be used for ODE simulation. This

course will provide practice in using the algorithms available in LabVIEW.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

order form

The Euler solver was described using the simple 1st order ODE in the variable x.

This is the form required by ODE solvers.

Consider the single x variable generalized as a vector x formed by n state

variables of a system.

ODE algorithms are designed to accept descriptions of the system ODEs as a

vector formed by the model equations. In general, the 1st order vector of state

equations is,

x = f (x, u, t)

where u is now a vector of r inputs.

Writing the equations in this form can either be done by converting the nth order

ODE to n 1st order ODEs, or the n 1st order ODEs can be derived directly. The

latter method is the way equations are directly derived when the bond graph

method is used.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

order to 1st order form

variable, x2 = . To find this

ml2 + mgl sin = 0 equation, we must use the original 2nd

order ODE, which has as well as .

To convert this 2nd order ODE to 1st Solve for ,

order, first define n = 2 state variables

as x1 = and x2 = . We now want = (g/l) sin = (g/l) sin x1

to write two 1st order ODEs in terms

of these new state variables. The first This gives us the second state

one is found by taking the derivative equation,

of the first variable, x1 = , which is

recognized as x2 . Therefore, the first x2 = (g/l) sin x1

equation is,

These two equations are the state

x1 = x2 space equations for the simple

pendulum.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Here are the simple pendulum state space equations in matrix form:

x1 x2

x = = f (x, u, t) =

x2 gl sin(x1 )

These are in the form required by ODE solvers.

The state equations are generally coupled; i.e., each equation can be

a function of any and all system states.

Each equation quantifies how each state changes over time (the slope

at each time step).

In a numerical algorithm, each equation is used to estimate the value

of the state at each time step, as illustrated for the simple Euler

routine.

ME 144L Dynamic Systems and Controls Lab (Longoria)

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

that will numerically integrate ODEs. The ODEs are usually formatted in

a script function file.

For example, for the simple pendulum, a script file may take the form:

function file

function f = PendulumEqs(t,x)

global g l

f1 = x(2);

f2 = -g*sin(x(1))/l;

f = [f1;f2];

Here, the values returned by this function are sent to the solver (e.g., ode45).

The use of script files is very effective. In this course, we will be learning a

different approach that uses block diagrams to graphically describe the ODEs.

Using this approach allows use of LabVIEW for simulation.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

functional relationships between signals.

A directed line (with arrowhead) indicates a signal, which can

represent a system variable or a control input.

Nodes, shown as blocks, represent input-output relationships between

signal variables..

Basic functions are gains, summers, integrators and differentiators,

and as such block diagrams are effective in representing differential

equation models.

Modern software programs use block diagrams as a way to

communicate system representations to computer-aided analysis tools.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

very popular as part of computer-aided engineering

packages

Why?

They allow us to describe systems using a graphical form, which can

be useful for communicating how different components interact.

Block diagrams are functional and not just schematics (as we will

see).

There is a rich history not only in describing control systems but also

in how (analog) computational algorithms were originally designed.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

general nonlinear systems, the output

is simply, y = g(x).

Branching point

system transfer function, G(s).

The s represents the Laplace

operator.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Other blocks especially useful for These are common blocks, but they

representing physical system models are sometimes shown in software

include the integrator: products using the s Laplace operator.

For example, the integrator is:

numerical integration/differentiation (not Laplace

transforms).

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

equations?

For a given complete set of state equations (as you will learn to derive in ME

344), the following steps are taken:

1 Identify an integrator for each first order equation, so each integrator

generates a state

2 Form the terms of each equation using system parameters, gain blocks, and

functional blocks

3 Use summing blocks form the state derivatives (i.e., add terms as needed to

form the right hand side of each 1st order equation)

4 Specify initial conditions, x(0), and system inputs, u

NOTE: There are some systems that result in equations where the ODEs do not

take this desirable form. You may learn about algebraic loops and derivative

causality in your DSC course.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

The system equations generate the dx/dt for each state, and the n

integrators produce the states, which are then passed back into the system

equations.

ME 144L Dynamic Systems and Controls Lab (Longoria)

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

dx 1

= [x + u(t)]

dt

Then we can use basic block elements to describe the algebra and the

calculus in the equations, as shown below.

x(0).

ME 144L Dynamic Systems and Controls Lab (Longoria)

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

are LabVIEW and Matlab/Simulink.

combined structured and block diagram programming

a capacity to communicate with physical hardware

efficient means for designing a human-user interface

modeling and simulation tools for physical and engineering systems

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Build your block diagrams within the Basic block diagram VIs are found

C&S Loop: under Signal Arithmetic:

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

state equations

integrator block will be the derivative block, you can access settings:

of your state:

how you will set key integration

and the output is the state.

parameters and whether you will set

them in the dialog box or wire to a

terminal.

ME 144L Dynamic Systems and Controls Lab (Longoria)

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

system

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

alternate way to code the state equations rather than with block diagrams.

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Experimentation

Here are some suggestions for using your simulation model:

determine if your estimates of the pendulum moment of inertia allows

predictions to compare well with measured response data; show how

the simulation can be tuned to improve the model

show that the simulation gives the same type of response

characteristics, especially with proper frictional torque models; weigh

the effect of linear versus nonlinear type friction

calculate stored energy, and improve prediction on how energy

decreases with each cycle

Modeling Simulation Block Diagrams Experimentation Summary

Summary

Use a known physical problem for learning about constitutive models,

especially linear vs. nonlinear types

More opportunity to experiment with LabVIEW VIs for simulation,

learning about Control and Simulation Module

Use LabVIEW for analyzing data from experiments, relating to

modeling results

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