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Theoretical Study of Effect of Ring Spinning Triangle

Division on Fiber Tension Distribution


Xinjin Liu, Xuzhong Su

Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu CHINA

Correspondence to:
Xinjin Liu email: liuxinjin2006@163.com

ABSTRACT
The spinning triangle is a critical region in the yarn, and the spinning triangle is formed [1]. The
spinning process of staple yarn. Its geometry spinning triangle is a critical area in the staple yarn
influences the distribution of fiber tension at spinning process and its geometry influences the
spinning triangle directly and affects the qualities of fiber tension distribution at the spinning triangle
spun yarns. Taking appropriate measures to change and affects the properties of spun yarns [1-4].
the ring spinning triangle geometry and improve the Taking appropriate measures to change the spinning
qualities of yarn has attracted more and more triangle geometry and improve the quality of yarn
interest recently. Spinning triangle division is one of has attracted great interest recently [3-5]. All the
the most effective measures, such as solospun existing spinning technologies are achieved by
technology. Therefore, in this paper, the effect of changing the ring spinning triangle in a sense, such
ring spinning triangle division on fiber tension as the sirospun [6], solospun [7], and compact
distribution was studied theoretically. The general spinning [8]. Spinning triangle division is one of the
case that the spinning triangle is divided into two most effective measures, such as solospun
parts, primary triangle and final triangle, was technology, which is implemented by dividing the
investigated. Firstly, theoretical models of the fiber ring spinning triangle into several small primary
tension distributions in the final and primary triangles and one final triangle by using a solospun
spinning triangles are given respectively using the roller [7]. Meanwhile, a series of achievements on
principle of minimum potential energy. Secondly, solospun technology haven been obtained, such as
the fiber tension distributions in the spinning Solo-Sirofil Composite Yarn [9], twist amplitude
triangle with different shape parameters are and breaking strength of Solospun yarns [10], and
numerically simulated. Finally, the possible effects Solospun worsted yarns [11] .
of ring spinning triangle division on yarn qualities
are analyzed according to the numerical simulations The subject of spinning triangle has been one of the
and previous results. In addition, the properties of most important research topics and has attracted
spun yarns produced by the modified ring spinning increasing attention recently. Fruitful results have
system were evaluated and analyzed. been obtained [3,4,12,13]. A theoretical model of
the symmetrical spinning triangle was developed
Keywords: Spinning triangle division; Fiber tension using the principle of stationary total potential
distribution; Ring spinning energy [13]. However, the spinning triangles are
often asymmetric due to the frictional contacts of
INTRODUCTION fibers with the bottom roller in real situations.
In the ring spinning process, the fiber strand comes Therefore, this model was further extended to the
from the draft zone which is flat, and almost all asymmetric spinning triangle by introducing a shape
fibers are parallel to the twisting axis of the strand parameter for describing the skew level of the
in this time. Then, when it is twisted, the fiber geometry of the spinning triangle [1]. Furthermore,
strands rotate around the axis and the width begin to yarn spinning tension often has an obvious angle
decrease, and the fibers on both sides of the axis with the vertical axis perpendicular to the nip line in
fold gradually and roll into the center of the spun some modified ring spinning systems [4,5].

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Volume 10, Issue 3 2015
Therefore, the model was proposed further by
considering the inclination angle of the spinning
tension [3]. Furthermore, the quantitative
relationships between the mechanical performance
of a ring spinning triangle and the spinning
parameters were investigated by using the Finite
Element Method (FEM) [17].

This paper investigates the effects of ring spinning


triangle division on fiber tension distribution. The
general case that the spinning triangle is divided
into two parts, primary triangles and final triangle,
is investigated. Theoretical models of the fiber FIGURE 3. Fiber distribution at middle primary spinning
tension distributions in the final and primary triangle.
spinning triangles are given respectively by using
the principle of minimum potential energy. With the
help of the High-speed camera, the fiber tension
distributions in the spinning triangles with different
shape parameters are simulated numerically.

FIGURE 4. Fiber distribution at right primary spinning triangle.

FIGURE 1. Spinning triangle division with three primary


triangles.

FIGURE 5. Fiber distribution at final spinning triangle.

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS
The spinning triangle with three primary triangles is
shown in Figure 1. Here, h1 and h2 are the
height of the primary and final triangle respectively,
H denotes the height of ring spinning triangle and
FIGURE 2. Fiber distribution at left primary spinning triangle.
satisfies

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Volume 10, Issue 3 2015
H= h1 + h2 (1) For convenience of analysis, we make the following
assumptions [1,3]. The cross section of all fibers is
circular with identical diameters. All fibers are
is the division proportion and defined as gripped between the front roller nip and the
convergence point. Fiber slippage and migration
and the frictional contacts between fibers and the
= h2 / h1 (2) front roller are not taken into consideration. The
velocity of fibers in the spinning triangle is constant.
The fibers stress-strain behavior follows Hooks law
The primary spinning triangle models are shown in for small strain. The ends of all fibers gripped in the
front roller nip distribute evenly.
Figures 2-4 respectively. Here, C1 , C2 and C3
are the twisting points with the load F1 , F2 and
In the following, the fiber tension distributions at
F3 respectively. 2n + 1 denotes the total number primary triangles and the substrand tension
of fibers at the front roller nip line, and distributions at final spinning triangles will be
2n1 + 1= (2n + 1) / 3 denotes the total number of analyzed by using the principle of minimum
fiber at each primary triangle. 1 and 1 are potential energy. First, the substrand tension at final
inclination angles of spinning tension in the left and triangle will be investigated. For giving the general
right primary spinning triangles respectively. i is substrands tension distribution model, we suppose
that there are 2m + 1 substrands at final spinning
the angle between the right i -th fiber and the
triangle. Then, by using the principle of minimum
central fiber, and i is the angle between the left potential energy, the substrand tension distribution
i -th fiber and the central fiber at each primary at final triangle can be presented in Eq. (3) and Eq.
triangle. The final spinning triangle model is shown (4).
in Figure 5. Here, C is the twisting point with the
constant load Fs , 1 is the angle between the Second, according to the primary spinning triangle
models shown in Figures 2-4 and substrand tension
right first substrand and the central substrand, and
distribution at final triangle shown in Eq. (3) and Eq.
1 is the angle between the left first substrand and (4), by using the principle of minimum potential
the central substrand. Then, we have 1 = 1 and energy, the fiber tension distributions at primary
1 = 1 . Suppose that the width of the spinning triangles can be given in Eq. (5) through Eq. (8).
triangle at front roller nip line is w .

Fs 2 ( 2v + 1) AE M j ( M j 1)
m

=Fj =0,1,,m n
j =1
M j + ( 2v + 1) AE ( M j 1) (3)
2 M j 1 2

j =1

m
Fs 2 ( 2v + 1) AE M j ( M i 1)
=Fj=0,1,,m m
j =1
M j + ( 2v + 1) AE ( M j 1) (4)
2 M j 1 2

j =1

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Volume 10, Issue 3 2015
Where 2v + 1 =
2n + 1 denotes the total number of fibers in each substrand, A is the cross section of fiber, E
2m + 1

is the fiber tensile Youngs modulus, M j =


1 , 1 , wj ( 2n + 1) .
M j = =
tan aa =
tan
cos j 2nH ( 2m + 1)
j
cos j
j

v
Fj AE M i , j ( M i , j 1) + M i, j ( M ij 1)
v

F = i 1 =i 1 M + AE ( M i , j 1) (5)
=i 0,1,
= , v , j 0,1,, m v v i, j

i, j
=i 1 =
M
2

i 1
+ M i, j 2 1

v
Fj AE M i , j ( M i , j 1) + M i, j ( M ij 1)
v

i 1 =i 1 M + AE M 1
= F
i 0,1,
= , v , j
=
0,1,, m v v i, j ( i, j ) (6)

=i 1 =
i , j i, j
i 1
M 2
+ M 2
1

v
Fj AE M i , j ( M i , j 1) + M i, j ( M i, j 1)
v

F = i 1 =i 1 M + AE ( M i , j 1)
(7)
=i 0,1,
= , v , j 0,1,, m v v i , j

M
i , j
=i 1 =
2

i 1
+ M i, j 2 1

v
Fj AE M i , j ( M i , j 1) + M i, j ( M i, j 1)
v

F = i 1 =i 1 M + AE ( M i, j 1)
(8)
=i 0,1,
= , v , j 0,1,, m v v i, j

M
i , j
=i 1 = i 1
2
+ M i, j 1
2

1 1
Here, M i , j = , M i, j =
cos i , j tan a j sin i , j cos i, j + tan a j sin i, j

1 1
M i , j = , M i, j =
cos i , j + tan a j sin i , j cos i, j tan a j sin i, j

wi h1 tan a j wi + h1 tan a j
tan (i, j a j ) = , tan ( i , j + a j ) =
h1 h1

wi + h1 tan a j wi h1 tan a j
tan (i, j + a j ) = , tan ( i , j a j ) =
h1 h1
w w
wi = i , wi = i .
2n 2n

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Volume 10, Issue 3 2015
SIMULATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS
1.5
From Eq. (3) through Eq. (8), we can see that the
fiber tension distribution at the spinning triangle
mainly depends on the spinning tension, the number 1
b=0
of primary triangles, the division proportion, the

Fiber Tension (cN)


b=0.25
b=0.5
fiber tensile Youngs modulus and cross section, and 0.5 b=1
b=2
the height and width of the spinning triangle. For b=3
obtaining the height of the ring spinning triangle H ,
0
High-speed camera should be applied. In the
experiment, a High-speed camera system,
OLYMPUS i-speed3, was set up above the -0.5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Fiber position (Number)
transparent roller and used to capture the geometry
of the spinning triangle. Combed cotton roving of
600tex (Ne0.97), with the twist of 1.19/inch and FIGURE 7. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles with
different division proportions when m = 4 .
containing 40% long-staple cotton and 60%
medium cotton was used as raw material. The fiber
properties are fiber length 32.5mm; fiber strength 1.4

26.8cN/tex; micronaire value 4.1. Then, the Ne32 1.2

cotton yarn will be spun in EJM128K ring spinning 1

frame. The yarn and fiber parameters of Ne32 0.8 b=0


Fiber Tension (cN)

b=0.25
cotton yarn used in the analysis 0.6
b=0.5

are w = 3.3mm , H = 2.9mm , yarn spinning 0.4 b=1


b=2

tension Fs = 20cN , number of fibers in yarn 0.2 b=3

2n + 1 =135 , fiber linear density A = 0.15tex , 0

-0.2
twist direction Z. By using Matlab software, the
-0.4
numerical simulation results of the fiber tensions at
-0.6
spinning triangle were obtained in Figures 6-11. 0 20 40 60 80
Fiber position (Number)
100 120 140

Here, x-axis denotes the serial number of the fibers


at the front roller nip from left to right, y-axis FIGURE 8. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles with
denotes the fiber tension, and the negative value different division proportions when m = 7 .
indicates the compressive force whereas the positive
2.5
value indicates the tensile force.
2

2.5 m=0
1.5 m=1
m=4
2 b=0
Fiber Tension (cN)

m=7
b=0.25 1 m=13
1.5 b=0.5 m=22
b=1
b=2 0.5
Fiber Tension (cN)

1
b=3

0.5 0

0 -0.5

-0.5
-1
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Fiber position (Number)
-1

-1.5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Fiber position (Number) FIGURE 9. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles with
different primary triangle number when = 0.25 .
FIGURE 6. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles with
different division proportions when m = 1 .
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Volume 10, Issue 3 2015
Fi of each primary triangle is independent of
2.5
when the number of primary triangle 2m + 1 is
2
fixed. However, with the increasing of , the height
of primary triangle h1 decreases, and shape
1.5 m=0
m=1
parameter m = wm / h2 increases correspondingly,
Fiber Tension (cN)

m=4 which indicates the magnitudes of fiber tensions at


1 m=7
each primary triangle are increased [1,3], where
( )
w ( n m ) / n ( 2m + 1) denotes the width
m=13

0.5
m=22
wm =
of the primary spinning triangle. Meanwhile, with
0
the decreasing of h1 , the angle between the left
-0.5 boundary fiber in the j -th primary triangle and the
right boundary fiber in the j + 1 -th primary triangle
-1
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 is increased, which leads to the increase of fiber
Fiber position (Number)
tension fluctuation between two adjacent primary
triangles. Furthermore, as shown in Figures 6-8, the
FIGURE 10. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles with total magnitudes of fiber tensions at spinning
different primary triangle number when = 1 . triangles with divisions are larger than that of
common ring spinning. Meanwhile, comparing
Figure 6, Figure 7 and Figure 8, for the same
3 division proportion , with the increasing of primary
2.5
triangle number 2m + 1 , the magnitudes of fiber
m=0
m=1
tensions at each primary triangles are decreased.
2
m=4 According to Eq. (3) and Eq. (4), with the increasing
m=7
1.5
of m , the difference between the load F j and
Fiber Tension (cN)

m=13

1
m=22
Fj +1 is decreased, which lead to the smaller fiber
0.5 tension fluctuation between two adjacent primary
0
triangles according to Eq. (5) through Eq. (8).
Meanwhile, with the increasing of m , the fiber
-0.5
number at each primary triangle 2v + 1 is
-1 decreased, and the load F j also decreased, which
-1.5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
lead to the reduction of fiber tension magnitudes at
Fiber position (Number) each primary triangle.

Fiber tension distributions at spinning triangles with


FIGURE 11. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles
five different numbers of primary triangle are shown
with different primary triangle number when = 3. in Figures 9-11. Here, m = 0 denotes the ring
spinning without division. As shown in Figures 9-11,
It is easy to see that the distributions of fiber tension with an increasing of , the fluctuation between two
are all symmetrical about the central fiber because adjacent primary triangles is increased greatly when
the symmetrical spinning triangle is considered only m = 1 , and the total fiber tension magnitudes
in this paper. The asymmetrical spinning triangles increases greatly when m = 22 .
due to the frictional contacts of fibers with the bottom
roller [1] or obvious angle with the vertical axis In the following, the possible effects of ring spinning
perpendicular to the nip line [3] can also be triangle division on yarn qualities will be analyzed
considered similarly. Fiber tension distribution at according to the numerical simulations above and
spinning triangles with five different division previous results.
proportions in Figure 6 when m = 1 . Here,
= 0 denotes the ring spinning without division. It
is shown that with the increasing of , the Hairiness is one of the most important properties of
magnitudes of fiber tensions at each primary triangle the spun yarn. It has been shown that the larger
are increased. According to Eq. (3) and Eq. (4), it is tension forces of the outer fibers at spinning triangle
obvious that substrand tension in the final triangle is would increase the wrapping of surface fibers and
independent of the division proportion . The load lead to the reduction of hairiness correspondingly

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Volume 10, Issue 3 2015
[14-16]. According to the numerical simulation time by YG135G evenness tester at a speed of
results above, the tension of outer fibers at each 400m/min, and take the value as the evenness of
primary spinning triangle can be increased greatly this one bobbin of yarn. Finally, the average values
with appropriate spinning triangle division, such as of ten bobbin yarns were taken as the corresponding
m = 1 and = 3 (see Figure 6 and Figure 11). qualities of spun yarn. The measured qualities of the
Meanwhile, lots of hairiness will be rolled into the spun yarns produced are shown in Table I. From the
spun yarn body when the substrands are twisted into measured results, it is also shown that comparing
yarn at the final spinning triangle under the second with common ring spinning; appropriate ring
twisting [7]. Therefore, appropriate ring spinning spinning triangle division can reduce yarn hairiness
triangle division would be benefit for yarn hairiness greatly, and improve yarn strength slightly.
reduction. Meanwhile, yarn evenness changes little with
different spinning triangle divisions.
Yarn strength is another most concerned property in
evaluating yarn performance, which can be
reinforced by increasing the lateral pressure between
fibers [18]. The number of fibers at each primary
spinning triangle is decreased with the spinning
triangle division, which can help to the transfer of the
twist uniformly, and thus benefits for the fiber tension
balance. Then, a more compact core and a densely
packed zone located in somewhere half way from the
centre fiber to the boundary fiber can also be
produced easily. Then, the lateral pressure between
FIGURE 12. The diagram of the Solospun roller.
fibers can be increased.
TABLE I. Yarn properties.
EXPERIMENTS
3mm
For verifying our theoretical results, a number of Hairiness Evenness CV Breaking
Ne32 Ring spun and Solospun yarns were spun on -1 /% strength /cN
/(10m)
the EJM128K machine. The total width of the fiber Common ring
strand coming from the draft zone is equal to 52.3 12.68 325
spinning
4.5mm approximately. The diagram of the Solospun
Solospun with
roller is shown in Figure 12, where d is the width three substrands
41.7 12.43 332
of each groove. For getting the different substrands
(three and five), we take for d1 = 1.5mm and Solospun with
d 2 = 0.9mm respectively. Taking ten bobbin five substrands
39.8 12.52 330

yarns as measuring samples and all the samples


were conditioned for at least 48 hours under
standard conditions before testing (652% RH and CONCLUSION
202). Yarn hairiness, strength and evenness were In this paper, the effects of ring spinning triangle
measured. The test instruments are as follows:
division on fiber tension distribution were studied
single yarn tester YG063, hairiness tester YG172A,
evenness tester YG135G. For each bobbin yarn, the theoretically. The case that spinning triangle is
hairiness was tested ten times using YG172A divided into two parts, including primary triangles
hairiness tester under 100 m/min speed and 5g and final triangle has been studied. Two parameters
pretention, and the test time is 1 minute, and take
the average value of ten tested results as the including division proportions and number of
hairiness of this one bobbin yarn; the breaking force
was also tested ten times on YG063 fully automatic primary triangle m , which describes the ratio of the
single yarn strength tester at a speed of 500 mm/min
with a pretension 1.8 cN/tex, and take the average primary spinning triangle height to the final triangle
value of ten tested results as the breaking force of height and division number of ring spinning triangle
this one bobbin yarn; the evenness was done one respectively, were introduced in the analysis. Then,
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Volume 10, Issue 3 2015
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AUTHORS ADDRESSES
Xinjin Liu
Xuzhong Su
Jiangnan University
Lihu Road 1800
Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122
CHINA

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Volume 10, Issue 3 2015