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Theoretical Study of Effect of Ring Spinning Triangle Division on Fiber Tension Distribution

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Xinjin Liu, Xuzhong Su

Correspondence to:

Xinjin Liu email: liuxinjin2006@163.com

ABSTRACT

The spinning triangle is a critical region in the yarn, and the spinning triangle is formed [1]. The

spinning process of staple yarn. Its geometry spinning triangle is a critical area in the staple yarn

influences the distribution of fiber tension at spinning process and its geometry influences the

spinning triangle directly and affects the qualities of fiber tension distribution at the spinning triangle

spun yarns. Taking appropriate measures to change and affects the properties of spun yarns [1-4].

the ring spinning triangle geometry and improve the Taking appropriate measures to change the spinning

qualities of yarn has attracted more and more triangle geometry and improve the quality of yarn

interest recently. Spinning triangle division is one of has attracted great interest recently [3-5]. All the

the most effective measures, such as solospun existing spinning technologies are achieved by

technology. Therefore, in this paper, the effect of changing the ring spinning triangle in a sense, such

ring spinning triangle division on fiber tension as the sirospun [6], solospun [7], and compact

distribution was studied theoretically. The general spinning [8]. Spinning triangle division is one of the

case that the spinning triangle is divided into two most effective measures, such as solospun

parts, primary triangle and final triangle, was technology, which is implemented by dividing the

investigated. Firstly, theoretical models of the fiber ring spinning triangle into several small primary

tension distributions in the final and primary triangles and one final triangle by using a solospun

spinning triangles are given respectively using the roller [7]. Meanwhile, a series of achievements on

principle of minimum potential energy. Secondly, solospun technology haven been obtained, such as

the fiber tension distributions in the spinning Solo-Sirofil Composite Yarn [9], twist amplitude

triangle with different shape parameters are and breaking strength of Solospun yarns [10], and

numerically simulated. Finally, the possible effects Solospun worsted yarns [11] .

of ring spinning triangle division on yarn qualities

are analyzed according to the numerical simulations The subject of spinning triangle has been one of the

and previous results. In addition, the properties of most important research topics and has attracted

spun yarns produced by the modified ring spinning increasing attention recently. Fruitful results have

system were evaluated and analyzed. been obtained [3,4,12,13]. A theoretical model of

the symmetrical spinning triangle was developed

Keywords: Spinning triangle division; Fiber tension using the principle of stationary total potential

distribution; Ring spinning energy [13]. However, the spinning triangles are

often asymmetric due to the frictional contacts of

INTRODUCTION fibers with the bottom roller in real situations.

In the ring spinning process, the fiber strand comes Therefore, this model was further extended to the

from the draft zone which is flat, and almost all asymmetric spinning triangle by introducing a shape

fibers are parallel to the twisting axis of the strand parameter for describing the skew level of the

in this time. Then, when it is twisted, the fiber geometry of the spinning triangle [1]. Furthermore,

strands rotate around the axis and the width begin to yarn spinning tension often has an obvious angle

decrease, and the fibers on both sides of the axis with the vertical axis perpendicular to the nip line in

fold gradually and roll into the center of the spun some modified ring spinning systems [4,5].

Volume 10, Issue 3 2015

Therefore, the model was proposed further by

considering the inclination angle of the spinning

tension [3]. Furthermore, the quantitative

relationships between the mechanical performance

of a ring spinning triangle and the spinning

parameters were investigated by using the Finite

Element Method (FEM) [17].

triangle division on fiber tension distribution. The

general case that the spinning triangle is divided

into two parts, primary triangles and final triangle,

is investigated. Theoretical models of the fiber FIGURE 3. Fiber distribution at middle primary spinning

tension distributions in the final and primary triangle.

spinning triangles are given respectively by using

the principle of minimum potential energy. With the

help of the High-speed camera, the fiber tension

distributions in the spinning triangles with different

shape parameters are simulated numerically.

triangles.

THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

The spinning triangle with three primary triangles is

shown in Figure 1. Here, h1 and h2 are the

height of the primary and final triangle respectively,

H denotes the height of ring spinning triangle and

FIGURE 2. Fiber distribution at left primary spinning triangle.

satisfies

Volume 10, Issue 3 2015

H= h1 + h2 (1) For convenience of analysis, we make the following

assumptions [1,3]. The cross section of all fibers is

circular with identical diameters. All fibers are

is the division proportion and defined as gripped between the front roller nip and the

convergence point. Fiber slippage and migration

and the frictional contacts between fibers and the

= h2 / h1 (2) front roller are not taken into consideration. The

velocity of fibers in the spinning triangle is constant.

The fibers stress-strain behavior follows Hooks law

The primary spinning triangle models are shown in for small strain. The ends of all fibers gripped in the

front roller nip distribute evenly.

Figures 2-4 respectively. Here, C1 , C2 and C3

are the twisting points with the load F1 , F2 and

In the following, the fiber tension distributions at

F3 respectively. 2n + 1 denotes the total number primary triangles and the substrand tension

of fibers at the front roller nip line, and distributions at final spinning triangles will be

2n1 + 1= (2n + 1) / 3 denotes the total number of analyzed by using the principle of minimum

fiber at each primary triangle. 1 and 1 are potential energy. First, the substrand tension at final

inclination angles of spinning tension in the left and triangle will be investigated. For giving the general

right primary spinning triangles respectively. i is substrands tension distribution model, we suppose

that there are 2m + 1 substrands at final spinning

the angle between the right i -th fiber and the

triangle. Then, by using the principle of minimum

central fiber, and i is the angle between the left potential energy, the substrand tension distribution

i -th fiber and the central fiber at each primary at final triangle can be presented in Eq. (3) and Eq.

triangle. The final spinning triangle model is shown (4).

in Figure 5. Here, C is the twisting point with the

constant load Fs , 1 is the angle between the Second, according to the primary spinning triangle

models shown in Figures 2-4 and substrand tension

right first substrand and the central substrand, and

distribution at final triangle shown in Eq. (3) and Eq.

1 is the angle between the left first substrand and (4), by using the principle of minimum potential

the central substrand. Then, we have 1 = 1 and energy, the fiber tension distributions at primary

1 = 1 . Suppose that the width of the spinning triangles can be given in Eq. (5) through Eq. (8).

triangle at front roller nip line is w .

Fs 2 ( 2v + 1) AE M j ( M j 1)

m

=Fj =0,1,,m n

j =1

M j + ( 2v + 1) AE ( M j 1) (3)

2 M j 1 2

j =1

m

Fs 2 ( 2v + 1) AE M j ( M i 1)

=Fj=0,1,,m m

j =1

M j + ( 2v + 1) AE ( M j 1) (4)

2 M j 1 2

j =1

Volume 10, Issue 3 2015

Where 2v + 1 =

2n + 1 denotes the total number of fibers in each substrand, A is the cross section of fiber, E

2m + 1

1 , 1 , wj ( 2n + 1) .

M j = =

tan aa =

tan

cos j 2nH ( 2m + 1)

j

cos j

j

v

Fj AE M i , j ( M i , j 1) + M i, j ( M ij 1)

v

F = i 1 =i 1 M + AE ( M i , j 1) (5)

=i 0,1,

= , v , j 0,1,, m v v i, j

i, j

=i 1 =

M

2

i 1

+ M i, j 2 1

v

Fj AE M i , j ( M i , j 1) + M i, j ( M ij 1)

v

i 1 =i 1 M + AE M 1

= F

i 0,1,

= , v , j

=

0,1,, m v v i, j ( i, j ) (6)

=i 1 =

i , j i, j

i 1

M 2

+ M 2

1

v

Fj AE M i , j ( M i , j 1) + M i, j ( M i, j 1)

v

F = i 1 =i 1 M + AE ( M i , j 1)

(7)

=i 0,1,

= , v , j 0,1,, m v v i , j

M

i , j

=i 1 =

2

i 1

+ M i, j 2 1

v

Fj AE M i , j ( M i , j 1) + M i, j ( M i, j 1)

v

F = i 1 =i 1 M + AE ( M i, j 1)

(8)

=i 0,1,

= , v , j 0,1,, m v v i, j

M

i , j

=i 1 = i 1

2

+ M i, j 1

2

1 1

Here, M i , j = , M i, j =

cos i , j tan a j sin i , j cos i, j + tan a j sin i, j

1 1

M i , j = , M i, j =

cos i , j + tan a j sin i , j cos i, j tan a j sin i, j

wi h1 tan a j wi + h1 tan a j

tan (i, j a j ) = , tan ( i , j + a j ) =

h1 h1

wi + h1 tan a j wi h1 tan a j

tan (i, j + a j ) = , tan ( i , j a j ) =

h1 h1

w w

wi = i , wi = i .

2n 2n

Volume 10, Issue 3 2015

SIMULATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS

1.5

From Eq. (3) through Eq. (8), we can see that the

fiber tension distribution at the spinning triangle

mainly depends on the spinning tension, the number 1

b=0

of primary triangles, the division proportion, the

b=0.25

b=0.5

fiber tensile Youngs modulus and cross section, and 0.5 b=1

b=2

the height and width of the spinning triangle. For b=3

obtaining the height of the ring spinning triangle H ,

0

High-speed camera should be applied. In the

experiment, a High-speed camera system,

OLYMPUS i-speed3, was set up above the -0.5

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Fiber position (Number)

transparent roller and used to capture the geometry

of the spinning triangle. Combed cotton roving of

600tex (Ne0.97), with the twist of 1.19/inch and FIGURE 7. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles with

different division proportions when m = 4 .

containing 40% long-staple cotton and 60%

medium cotton was used as raw material. The fiber

properties are fiber length 32.5mm; fiber strength 1.4

Fiber Tension (cN)

b=0.25

cotton yarn used in the analysis 0.6

b=0.5

b=2

-0.2

twist direction Z. By using Matlab software, the

-0.4

numerical simulation results of the fiber tensions at

-0.6

spinning triangle were obtained in Figures 6-11. 0 20 40 60 80

Fiber position (Number)

100 120 140

at the front roller nip from left to right, y-axis FIGURE 8. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles with

denotes the fiber tension, and the negative value different division proportions when m = 7 .

indicates the compressive force whereas the positive

2.5

value indicates the tensile force.

2

2.5 m=0

1.5 m=1

m=4

2 b=0

Fiber Tension (cN)

m=7

b=0.25 1 m=13

1.5 b=0.5 m=22

b=1

b=2 0.5

Fiber Tension (cN)

1

b=3

0.5 0

0 -0.5

-0.5

-1

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Fiber position (Number)

-1

-1.5

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Fiber position (Number) FIGURE 9. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles with

different primary triangle number when = 0.25 .

FIGURE 6. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles with

different division proportions when m = 1 .

Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 24 http://www.jeffjournal.org

Volume 10, Issue 3 2015

Fi of each primary triangle is independent of

2.5

when the number of primary triangle 2m + 1 is

2

fixed. However, with the increasing of , the height

of primary triangle h1 decreases, and shape

1.5 m=0

m=1

parameter m = wm / h2 increases correspondingly,

Fiber Tension (cN)

1 m=7

each primary triangle are increased [1,3], where

( )

w ( n m ) / n ( 2m + 1) denotes the width

m=13

0.5

m=22

wm =

of the primary spinning triangle. Meanwhile, with

0

the decreasing of h1 , the angle between the left

-0.5 boundary fiber in the j -th primary triangle and the

right boundary fiber in the j + 1 -th primary triangle

-1

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 is increased, which leads to the increase of fiber

Fiber position (Number)

tension fluctuation between two adjacent primary

triangles. Furthermore, as shown in Figures 6-8, the

FIGURE 10. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles with total magnitudes of fiber tensions at spinning

different primary triangle number when = 1 . triangles with divisions are larger than that of

common ring spinning. Meanwhile, comparing

Figure 6, Figure 7 and Figure 8, for the same

3 division proportion , with the increasing of primary

2.5

triangle number 2m + 1 , the magnitudes of fiber

m=0

m=1

tensions at each primary triangles are decreased.

2

m=4 According to Eq. (3) and Eq. (4), with the increasing

m=7

1.5

of m , the difference between the load F j and

Fiber Tension (cN)

m=13

1

m=22

Fj +1 is decreased, which lead to the smaller fiber

0.5 tension fluctuation between two adjacent primary

0

triangles according to Eq. (5) through Eq. (8).

Meanwhile, with the increasing of m , the fiber

-0.5

number at each primary triangle 2v + 1 is

-1 decreased, and the load F j also decreased, which

-1.5

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

lead to the reduction of fiber tension magnitudes at

Fiber position (Number) each primary triangle.

FIGURE 11. Fiber tension distribution at spinning triangles

five different numbers of primary triangle are shown

with different primary triangle number when = 3. in Figures 9-11. Here, m = 0 denotes the ring

spinning without division. As shown in Figures 9-11,

It is easy to see that the distributions of fiber tension with an increasing of , the fluctuation between two

are all symmetrical about the central fiber because adjacent primary triangles is increased greatly when

the symmetrical spinning triangle is considered only m = 1 , and the total fiber tension magnitudes

in this paper. The asymmetrical spinning triangles increases greatly when m = 22 .

due to the frictional contacts of fibers with the bottom

roller [1] or obvious angle with the vertical axis In the following, the possible effects of ring spinning

perpendicular to the nip line [3] can also be triangle division on yarn qualities will be analyzed

considered similarly. Fiber tension distribution at according to the numerical simulations above and

spinning triangles with five different division previous results.

proportions in Figure 6 when m = 1 . Here,

= 0 denotes the ring spinning without division. It

is shown that with the increasing of , the Hairiness is one of the most important properties of

magnitudes of fiber tensions at each primary triangle the spun yarn. It has been shown that the larger

are increased. According to Eq. (3) and Eq. (4), it is tension forces of the outer fibers at spinning triangle

obvious that substrand tension in the final triangle is would increase the wrapping of surface fibers and

independent of the division proportion . The load lead to the reduction of hairiness correspondingly

Volume 10, Issue 3 2015

[14-16]. According to the numerical simulation time by YG135G evenness tester at a speed of

results above, the tension of outer fibers at each 400m/min, and take the value as the evenness of

primary spinning triangle can be increased greatly this one bobbin of yarn. Finally, the average values

with appropriate spinning triangle division, such as of ten bobbin yarns were taken as the corresponding

m = 1 and = 3 (see Figure 6 and Figure 11). qualities of spun yarn. The measured qualities of the

Meanwhile, lots of hairiness will be rolled into the spun yarns produced are shown in Table I. From the

spun yarn body when the substrands are twisted into measured results, it is also shown that comparing

yarn at the final spinning triangle under the second with common ring spinning; appropriate ring

twisting [7]. Therefore, appropriate ring spinning spinning triangle division can reduce yarn hairiness

triangle division would be benefit for yarn hairiness greatly, and improve yarn strength slightly.

reduction. Meanwhile, yarn evenness changes little with

different spinning triangle divisions.

Yarn strength is another most concerned property in

evaluating yarn performance, which can be

reinforced by increasing the lateral pressure between

fibers [18]. The number of fibers at each primary

spinning triangle is decreased with the spinning

triangle division, which can help to the transfer of the

twist uniformly, and thus benefits for the fiber tension

balance. Then, a more compact core and a densely

packed zone located in somewhere half way from the

centre fiber to the boundary fiber can also be

produced easily. Then, the lateral pressure between

FIGURE 12. The diagram of the Solospun roller.

fibers can be increased.

TABLE I. Yarn properties.

EXPERIMENTS

3mm

For verifying our theoretical results, a number of Hairiness Evenness CV Breaking

Ne32 Ring spun and Solospun yarns were spun on -1 /% strength /cN

/(10m)

the EJM128K machine. The total width of the fiber Common ring

strand coming from the draft zone is equal to 52.3 12.68 325

spinning

4.5mm approximately. The diagram of the Solospun

Solospun with

roller is shown in Figure 12, where d is the width three substrands

41.7 12.43 332

of each groove. For getting the different substrands

(three and five), we take for d1 = 1.5mm and Solospun with

d 2 = 0.9mm respectively. Taking ten bobbin five substrands

39.8 12.52 330

were conditioned for at least 48 hours under

standard conditions before testing (652% RH and CONCLUSION

202). Yarn hairiness, strength and evenness were In this paper, the effects of ring spinning triangle

measured. The test instruments are as follows:

division on fiber tension distribution were studied

single yarn tester YG063, hairiness tester YG172A,

evenness tester YG135G. For each bobbin yarn, the theoretically. The case that spinning triangle is

hairiness was tested ten times using YG172A divided into two parts, including primary triangles

hairiness tester under 100 m/min speed and 5g and final triangle has been studied. Two parameters

pretention, and the test time is 1 minute, and take

the average value of ten tested results as the including division proportions and number of

hairiness of this one bobbin yarn; the breaking force

was also tested ten times on YG063 fully automatic primary triangle m , which describes the ratio of the

single yarn strength tester at a speed of 500 mm/min

with a pretension 1.8 cN/tex, and take the average primary spinning triangle height to the final triangle

value of ten tested results as the breaking force of height and division number of ring spinning triangle

this one bobbin yarn; the evenness was done one respectively, were introduced in the analysis. Then,

Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 26 http://www.jeffjournal.org

Volume 10, Issue 3 2015

by using the principle of minimum potential energy REFERENCES

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675-685.

AUTHORS ADDRESSES

Xinjin Liu

Xuzhong Su

Jiangnan University

Lihu Road 1800

Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122

CHINA

Volume 10, Issue 3 2015

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