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TASK FORCE REPORT

AGRICULTURE CHALLENGES
AND WAY FORWARD
(Submitted to NITI Aayog)

GOVERNMENT OF TELANGANA
AGRICULTURE & COOPERATION DEPARTMENT

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INDEX
Sl. No. Content Page Nos

1 Introduction 1

2 Areas requiring new initiatives 3

2.1 Water development 4

2.3 Sustainable Diversification 5

2.4 Seed 6

2..4.1 Horticulture 12

2.5 Livestock 15

3 Continuing Issues Requiring Greater Attention 19

3.1 Fertilizer subsidy, soil fertility and fertilizer use 19

3.3 Research & Extension 21

3.5 Credit & Finance 26

3.6 Agricultural Marketing & Trade 27

3.9 Crop Insurance 32

3.10 Farm Mechanization 34


Convergence of Schemes and Programmes Line
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Departments
4.1 Cooperation 35

4.2. Fisheries 39

4.3. Sericulture 41

5 Financial requirements from 2015-16 to 2018-19 44

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GOVERNMENT OF TELANGANA
AGRICULTURE & COOPERATION DEPARTMENT

TASK FORCE REPORT


AGRICULTURE CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD
***
1. INTRODUCTION:

Agriculture is the main occupation of population. The share of GSDP in 2013-14 is 13.86
percent at constant prices (2004-105). The percentage of agricultural workers (2011 census) is 55.7
percent as against 54.6 % at all India level. The share of GSDP of Agriculture& allied sectors which
was 18.2 % in 2006-07 has come down to 13.86 %. Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the
state. Other important crops are Jowar, Bajra, Maize, Ragi, small millets, Pulses, Tobacco, Cotton
and Sugarcane. Telangana is a predominant player in cotton, paddy, and maize, with a total Kharif
normal area of 53.77 lakh hectares. Telangana farmers grow cotton in about 12.17 lakh hectares
(normal). The other major crop which virtually dominates is maize with a normal area of 5.75 lakh ha.

The State of Telangana is endowed with immense natural resources. The total Geographical
area is 114.84 lakh ha with a Gross Cropped Area of 56.90 lakh ha. The details of Cropped Area, Net
Cropped Area etc. given below:
(2013-14)
Area
Sl. No Category Percentage
(in lakh ha)
1 Total Geographical Area 114.84 100
2 Forest 27.43 23.89
3 Barren and Uncultivable Land 6.15 5.36
4 Land Put to Non-Agri. Uses
Water logged Area 0.06 0.05
Social Forestry 0.07 0.06
Land under Still Water 2.46 2.14
Others 6.36 5.54
Total Land put to Non-Agriculture Use (TLPNAU) 8.95 7.79
5 Culturable Waste 1.78 1.55
6 Permanent Pastures and Other Grazing Lands 3.01 2.62
7 Land under Misc. Tree crops, Groves not included in Net Area
Sown 1.14 0.99
8 Other Fallow Lands 7.17 6.24
9 Current Fallow Lands 9.6 8.36
10 Gross area sown 62.88 54.75
11 Net Area Sown* (including Fish Culture) 49.61 43.2
12 Area sown more than once 13.27 11.55
13 No. of Farm holdings ( Lakh Nos) 55.54 -
14 Average Farm Holding size (Ha) 1.12 -
15 Average Annual Rainfall (in mm) 906.8 -
16 Net Irrigated area 17.74 38.12
17 Gross Irrigated area 31.64 50.32
18 Cropping Intensity (%) - 127
19 Irrigation Intensity (%) - 138

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Rainfall and Climate:

The rainfall in Telangana is influenced by South-West & North East monsoon. It receives a
normal rainfall of 906.8 mm in a year. The season wise breakup for the year 2013-14 is as follows:

2013-14
Rainfall received (mm) Percentage
S. No Season
Normal Actual over normal
1 South West Monsoon 715.10 851.50 119
2 North East Monsoon 129.20 243.20 188
3 Winter Season 11.50 1.30 11
4 Hot Weather 50.80 116.20 229
Total 906.60 1212.20 134

Normal Rainfall in mm

South West
Monsoon
North East Monsoon

Winter Season

Hot Weather

The bulk of rainfall is received in south-west monsoon period i.e. 78.98 percent followed by
north-east monsoon with 13.26 percent and the balance is received during winter and hot weather.
The Climate is predominantly Semi arid to arid in Telangana. The rainfall pattern is depicted in the
maps given below.

Annual Rainfall South-west Monsoon Rainfall

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Agro Climatic Zones:

Based on climatic parameters i.e. Rainfall, Soils and cropping pattern etc. the state is divided
in to 4 Agro-climatic zones.

Sl.
Name of the Geographical No. of No. of
No Districts
zone area(sq.km) mandals Res. Stns
.
1 Northern Karimnagar, 35.5 144 6
Telangana Zone Nizamabad, Adilabad
2 Central Warangal, Khammam, 30.6 132 7
Telangana Zone Medak
3 Southern Mahabubnagar, 39.3 164 6
Telangana Zone Nalgonda, Rangareddy
4 High Altitude & High Altitude & Tribal 4.66 13 3
Tribal Areas Areas of
Zone Khammam and
Adilabad districts
110.06 453 22
Source: Department of Agriculture

AGRO CLIMATIC ZONES IN TELANGANA STATE

Northern- Telangana Zone


Central-Telangana Zone
Southern-Telangana Zone

High Altitude Zone

2. AREAS REQUIRING NEW INITIATIVES:

States Agricultural Vision:

Despite the constraints, it is inevitable to bring up the agricultural situation in the state to the
perceived level, duly harnessing the available agricultural potential and integrating with technology
and resources.

Keeping in view the future requirements of agricultural production, a vision for Telangana is
framed as given below.

Soil Health Management and conservation of natural resources


Empowering the farmers in seed management enabling them to acquiring good quality seed in
right time and quality at affordable cost .

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Increasing productivity of crops
Making farming a commercial Endeavour and restore the lost social prestige of the farmer
Improve water use efficiency

Strategy Making Vision a Reality:

In the discussions with Dr. M.S. Swaminathan, Chairman of MSSR foundation, during
September, 2014 Chennai, he has suggested five pillars of agricultural development strategy which
would be adopted in Telangana state.

1) Soils Land use policy: Last year was the International year of Soil Health. Presently the land
is going out from agriculture; therefore it is essential that we have land use policy.
2) Water Rain, River and sewerage (recycling) water harvesting and effective use of its
quantity, demand management and Water augmentation. This has to be looked into.
3) Technology Management: Telangana ICAR, is well served by International & National
Agricultural Research Institutes, like DRR, DOR, NRCS, MANAGE and Prof. Jaya Shankar
Telangana State Agriculture University etc we have to make use of these Agril. Research
facilitates to the maximum extent.
4) Credit & Insurance: This is an important area, now receiving attention at all levels
5) Marketing: Marketing and Post Harvest Management is an important aspect especially for
perishables and grains.
He further advised that Agri-Clinics & Agri-Business Centres should be established in all the
mandals and it should necessarily have Agriculture, Horticulture graduates for Horticulture Mission
and also Home Science graduates to correct vitamin deficiencies through Food Based Approach.
He hoped that Telangana state would set an example for other states in this regard. The
above strategy would be adopted.

2.1 Water development:

The overarching objective of Telangana State Water Policy (TSWP) is to ensure


comprehensive multi sectoral planning, development and management of the States Water
Resources and to provide effective, efficient and equitable service delivery for different uses on a
sustainable basis.

Goals to be achieved:
i. Scientific assessment and development of all water resources, (both surface and ground
water) in a time bound manner. Revival and rejuvenation of water bodies in the State is
critical to achieve this goal.
ii. Efficient irrigation facilities to all the farmers in the state both through gravity and lift
irrigation methods. In order to achieve water use efficiency, state will encourage micro, drip
and sprinkler irrigation systems.
iii. Effective management of extreme climatic events such as floods and droughts.

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Irrigation Management: Concerted efforts shall be made to ensure that the irrigation potential
created is fully utilized. The gap between Irrigation Potential Created (IPC) and Irrigation Potential
Utilized (IPU) is minimized. As irrigation sector utilizes the major portion of available water, concerted
efforts should be made to ensure that water utilized in irrigation results increase in land productivity
and sustaining rural livelihoods in the predominantly semi-arid state.
Water saving in irrigation use is of paramount importance. Methods like aligning cropping
pattern with natural resource endowments, micro irrigation (drip, sprinkler, etc), automated irrigation
operation, evaporation-transpiration deduction, etc., would be encouraged and incentivized.
Ground Water Management: Since 1990, well irrigation in the state has progressed substantially at
the cost of decline in tank irrigation. Currently, wells provide 72% irrigation whereas tanks support
13% cultivated area with assured supply of water. The progressive increase in well irrigation has led
to consequent loss of groundwater recharge, the decline in the water table and slowdown in the
growth of irrigated acreage, reducing Telangana farmers incomes.
It will be ensured to carry out periodical reassessments of the ground water potential on a
scientific basis, taking into consideration the quality of the water available and economic viability of its
extraction. Exploitation of ground water resources should be so regulated as not to exceed the
recharging possibilities, as also to ensure social equity. The detrimental environmental consequences
of over exploitation of ground water need to be effectively prevented. Ground water recharge projects
would be developed and implemented for improving both the quality and availability of ground water
resource.

Adaption of Climate Change: Climate change is likely to increase the variability of water resources
affecting human health and livelihoods. Therefore, Special impetus should be given towards
mitigation at micro level by enhancing the capabilities of community to adopt climate resilient
technological options.
The adaption strategies could also include adoption of compatible agricultural strategies and
cropping patterns and improved water application methods, such as land leveling and / or drip /
sprinkler irrigation as they enhance the water use efficiency, as also, the capability for dealing with
increased variability because of climate change.
Stakeholder participation in land soil-water management with scientific inputs from local
research and academic institutions for evolving different agricultural strategies, reducing soil erosion
and improving soil fertility would be promoted.
Water Users Associations (WUAs) and the local bodies would be involved in the operation,
maintenance and management of water infrastructures / facilities at appropriate levels progressively,
with a view to eventually transfer the management of such facilities to the user groups.
Micro Irrigation with nutrigation in Horticulture, Agriculture, Sericulture under saturation mode.
Farm Ponds.
2.3 Sustainable Diversification: Crop diversification is bringing out a desirable change in the
existing cropping pattern towards more balanced cropping system to meet ever increasing demand
for the cereals, pulses, oilseed, fiber, fodder, fuel etc., and also aims at improving soil health and agro
ecosystem. Crop diversification takes into account of the economic returns from different crops and
this is very different to the concept of multiple cropping in which the cropping in a given piece of land
in a given period is taken into account. It implies the use of resources in a larger mix of diverse crop
group having complementary activities within crop sector and shifting of resources from less value
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crops to high value crops. With changing need of farmers and globalization of market, crop
diversification can be a useful means to increase the total productivity in terms of quality and
monetary values under different situations.
The fluctuations in cropping systems are more common in Telangana State, because of
variations in amount of rainfall received and non / late filling of water in projects and release of water
in canal commands. During 2012-13 the Gross Area Irrigated by different sources was 25.57 lakh ha
and the Net Area Irrigated was 17.74 lakh ha with an Irrigation intensity of 144 %. Tube wells and dug
wells are the main sources of irrigation in the state irrigating about 84% of the Net Irrigated Area

Keeping the available resources especially water and soil type, the crop planning has to be
done for 3 Agro-Climatic Zones for rainfed as well as irrigated areas. For the irrigated areas
cropping programme must be designed separately for the source wise irrigated areas under wells,
and canal commands / tanks in such a way that the scarce available water can be efficiently utilized
for higher and sustainable economic returns in agriculture. To prepare the crop plans, crop
diversification studies including research on farming systems have to be conducted in different
locations for improving the income of farmers on farm holding basis. Hence it is necessary to Identify
diversified, bio-intensive, resource efficient and remunerative cropping systems for different Agro-
Climatic Zones of Telangana State and development of agro-techniques for identified remunerative
cropping systems.

Hence it is proposed to develop and recommend Remunerative and resource efficient


cropping systems for various farming situations with an outlay of Rs 1.79 crores for five years.

2.4 SEED:

Strengthening of Seed Production chain and infrastructure development:


State as Seed Bowl:
Telangana is the seed hub of the country for production of various crop seed. It produces about
37.00 lakh quintals of seeds in an area of 3.22 lakh acres. There is a great potential for seed
production in Telangana. Hybrid Cotton Seed Production is primarily taken up in the districts of
Mahabubnagar, Hybrid maize Seed production is taken up in Karimnagar, Nizamabad and Medak
districts. The Hybrid paddy seed is produced in Karimnagar and Warangal districts.
To produce quality certified seed and to develop State as Seed Bowl, Government of Telangana
has contemplated a long term Seed Production Plan by involving various Research Institutions,
Government Departments / Agencies and Private Seed Producing Agencies.
The Government has allocated an amount of Rs. 5000 lakh under BEs 2015-16 towards
Strengthening of Seed Production Chain and Development of Infrastructure for implementation of
seed production plan, promotion and multiplication of new varieties, production of Soybean and
other crop seeds in the State to develop the Telangana State as Seed Bowl.
The Government sector are mainly concentrating on production of high volume and low value
crop seeds of notified varieties of Paddy, Jowar, Redgram, Green gram, Black gram, Bengal gram,
Groundnut, Castor and Sesamum.

i) Long Term Seed Production Plan: A long term Seed Production Plan is prepared based on
the certified seed requirement of the state for the targeted area for the next five years. Accordingly
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seed production requirement is prepared by calculating the requirement of various class of seed such
as Breeder seed, Foundation seed and Certified seed up to 2018-19.

1. Areas projected for the next five years (lakh ha):


The year wise, crop wise areas projected for the next four years are given below.
AREAS PROJECTED FOR THE NEXT FOUR YEARS (lakh ha)
Target Target Target Target
Sl.
CROPS Area Area Area Area
No.
2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19
1 Paddy 16.53 16.52 16.51 16.50
2 Wheat 0.09 0.10 0.10 0.11
3 Jowar 1.85 2.07 2.30 2.50
4 Bajra 0.27 0.35 0.43 0.50
5 Ragi 0.20 0.31 0.42 0.52
6 Maize 7.16 7.78 8.43 9.00
Total Cereals 26.10 27.13 28.19 29.13
7 Bengal gram 1.23 1.32 1.42 1.50
8 Redgram 3.14 3.26 3.39 3.50
9 Green gram 1.96 2.14 2.33 2.50
10 Black gram 0.77 0.85 0.93 1.00
Total Pulses 7.10 7.57 8.07 8.50
11 Groundnut 2.15 2.27 2.39 2.50
12 Sesamum 0.24 0.24 0.24 0.41
13 Sunflower 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55
14 Soybean 2.10 2.41 2.72 3.00
15 Castor 1.14 1.26 1.39 1.50
Total oilseeds 6.03 6.63 7.24 8.16
16 Cotton (*) 15.38 15.42 15.46 15.50
17 Other crops 2.52 2.98 3.37 2.59

2. Year wise Certified seed, Foundation seed, Breeder seed required for next four years for
targeted area:

The total certified seed required for the targeted areas for the next five years is as detailed
below;

Year 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19


Total C/S
2194533 2271018 2348288 2420178
Requirement (Qtls)
Total F/S
92107 97576 103082 108069
Requirement (Qtls)
Total Breeder seed
8525 9065 9611 10104
requirement (Qtls)
Breeder seed production
7775 8395 8770 9124
plan of PJTSAU (Qtls)

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ii. Seed Village Programme:

To improve the quality of farm saved seed the Seed Village scheme is being implemented by
the Department to ensure supply of quality certified class of seed to the farmers in time at their places
at affordable prices and to develop village as a Seed Village.

Under this scheme Foundation/certified seed will be supplied on 50% subsidy. The area for
one unit is 10.00 ha covering minimum of 50 farmers. Besides three one day trainings will be
conducted to the farmers on seed production technology.
Projection for the next four years.

Seed Training Total


Area F/S
No. of Budget Training Budget Budget
Year Proposed required
Units requirement (Nos) requirement (Rs. in
(Ha) (Qtl)
(Rs. in lakh) (Rs. in lakh) lakh)
2015-16 27542 2754 26948 680.00 1378 207.00 887.00
2016-17 29194 2919 28565 721.00 1460 219.00 940.00
2017-18 30654 3065 29993 757.00 1533 230.00 987.00
2018-19 32186 3219 31493 795.00 1610 241.00 1036.00

Certified Seed Production through Seed Villages (Cluster Approach):

The production of certified seeds in Pulses and Oilseeds is very low compared to demand and
need to be encouraged. To encourage production of these crop seeds, new intervention is being
proposed by the GOI for implementation from 2014-15 onwards under Sub-Mission on Seed and
Planting Material (SMSP) of National Mission of Agriculture Extension Technology (NMAET).

State Seed Farms: The Department is having ten (10) State Seed Farms in Telangana State,
wherein the Foundation seed is produced and distributed to selected farmers for organization of Seed
Village Programme for production of certified class of seed in the village to distribute farmer to farmer
and village to village.

Gross area is 740.20 ha and net cultivable area is 366.00 ha. It is proposed to bring more area
under cultivation during the next five years.

Projection for next four years is detailed below:

Area Expected F/S Budget required


S.
Year proposed production for strengthening
No.
(ha) (Qtl) (Rs. in lakh)
1 2015-16 400 6000 500.00
2 2016-17 430 6750 400.00
3 2017-18 450 7500 300.00
4 2018-19 450 7500 300.00

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Seed Valley Project:

Seed is critical input for long term sustained growth in Agriculture. The timely availability of
certified seed to farmers with good yield potential continues to be a major problem in the state.
In India only 20% of the farmers use certified seed and remaining 80% use farm saved seeds,
where as in Telangana about 70-80% farmers use certified seeds.
It may be mentioned here that rainfed crops are vulnerable to high risk and seed system have
to be oriented towards meeting shortages on account of risk

Waste of seed in rainfed areas due to prolonged dry spells immediately after sowing is a
common occurrence
There should be assured availability of a second batch of seed to repeat sowing if the first
sowing fails
In case of long dry spells the State Seed System must be capable of providing seeds for
contingency plan.
There is a great potential for seed production in Telangana. Hybrid Cotton Seed Production is
primarily taken up in the districts of Mahabubnagar, Hybrid maize Seed production is taken up in
Karimnagar, Nizamabad, and Medak districts. The Hybrid paddy seed is produced in Karimnagar
and Warangal districts.
Similarly there are large areas under seed production of varieties of various crops like Paddy,
Castor, Pulses, Ground Nut, Soybean and vegetables in Karimnagar, Warangal, Nalgonda,
Nizamabad, Mahabubnagar and Adilabad.
Export Potential:
USA, China, Japan are the major players in seed trade. India is also one of the few countries
where seed industry is fairly well organized. India is looking at Asia, African countries with the same
Agro-eco-zones for exporting seeds.
We can take up custom production of seeds for other countries in Telangana which would also
create employment in rural areas.

Strengths in Seed Production in Telangana:


Telangana has the advantage of location of ICRISAT and many ICAR research Institutes like:
(1) CRIDA, (2) DRR, (3) DOR, (4) NRCS, and (5) NBPGR and also State Agricultural
University at Rajendranagar with its network of research stations.
Therefore we would focus on seed producing activities in the state and provide support in the
following areas.
1) Establishment of Bio-tech laboratory
2) Storage facility
3) Maintenance of seed bank
4) Establishment of other industries for processing, packaging etc

We would also encourage private seed companies to have joint venture with foreign
collaboration.

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I. Supply of Seed to the Farmers on Subsidy: Year wise projections are detailed below:

(Qty in Qtls. Rs. in lakh)


2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19

Sl.

Subsidy

Subsidy

Subsidy

Subsidy
Crop

value

value

value

value
No. Qty Qty Qty Qty

1 Paddy (NFSM) 160000 1600 160000 1600 160000 1600 160000 1600
2 Jowar 2170 54 2170 54 2170 54 2170 54
3 Bajra 50 1 50 1 50 1 50 1
4 Maize 35000 875 35000 875 35000 875 35000 875
5 Redgram 6440 161 6440 161 6440 161 6440 161
6 Green gram 9610 336 9610 336 9610 336 9610 336
7 Black gram 8700 305 8700 305 8700 305 8700 305
8 Bengal gram 55000 990 55000 990 55000 990 55000 990
9 Soybean 175000 3500 175000 3500 175000 3500 175000 3500
10 Groundnut 84500 1521 84500 1521 84500 1521 84500 1521
11 Castor 750 19 750 19 750 19 750 19
12 Sesamum 367 9 367 9 367 9 367 9
13 Sunflower 1150 29 1150 29 1150 29 1150 29
Crops Total 538737 9400 538737 9400 538737 9400 538737 9400
14 Dhaincha 50000 900 55000 990 60000 1080 60000 1080
15 Sun hemp 25000 625 35000 875 35000 875 35000 875
16 Pilli pesera 5000 150 5000 150 5000 150 5000 150
Sub-total 80000 1675 95000 2015 100000 2105 100000 2105
Grand Total 618737 11075 633737 11415 638737 11505 638737 11505

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FINANCIAL REQUIREMENTS FROM 2015-16 TO 2018-19: (Rs. in lakhs)

Total
Sl.No.- Name of the Scheme 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 (2015-16 to
2018-10)
Centrally Assisted State Plan Schemes (National
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Missions)
National Food Security Mission
1 8425.05 8846.31 9288.62 9753.05 36313.03
(NFSM)
National Mission on Oilseeds
2 7385.88 7755.17 8142.93 8550.08 31834.06
and Oil Palm (NMOOP)
National Mission on Agricultural
3 Extension & Technology 5908.70 6204.13 6514.34 6840.05 25467.22
(NMAET)
National Mission for Sustainable
4 29249.30 30711.77 32247.36 33859.73 126068.16
Agriculture(NMSA)
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
5 29414.70 30885.44 32429.71 34051.19 126781.03
(RKVY)
TOTAL 80383.63 84402.81 88622.95 93054.10 346463.50
II NORMAL STATE PLAN
1 Integrated Nutrient Management 220.50 231.53 243.10 255.26 950.38
2 Farm Mechanization 10500.00 11025.00 11576.25 12155.06 45256.31
3 Supply of Seeds 6679.10 7013.06 7363.71 7731.90 28787.77
4 Polambadi 52.50 55.13 57.88 60.78 226.28
5 Extension 3080.57 3234.60 3396.33 3566.15 13277.66
National Agricultural Insurance
6 14676.38 15410.19 16180.70 16989.74 63257.01
Scheme (NAIS)
Buildings to Agriculture
7 Department (Mana vooru mana 545.96 573.26 601.92 632.01 2353.15
pranalika)
8 Vaddileni runalu 21000.00 22050.00 23152.50 24310.13 90512.63
9 PAVALA VADDI 2520.00 2646.00 2778.30 2917.22 10861.52
10 Input subsidy to other Farmers 723.28 759.45 797.42 837.29 3117.44
Markt Intervention Fund
11 42000.00 44100.00 46305.00 48620.25 181025.25
(MARKFED)
12 Strengthening of seed chain 5250.00 5512.50 5788.13 6077.53 22628.16
Development of crop colonies &
13 2100.00 2205.00 2315.25 2431.01 9051.26
Soil water analysis
farmers Field Schools and
14 1050.00 1102.50 1157.63 1215.51 4525.63
Exposure visits
TOTAL NSP 110398.29 115918.21 121714.12 127799.82 475830.44
III FINANCE COMMISSION GRANT
1 Seed Bank Scheme 1249.50 1311.98 1377.57 1446.45 5385.50
Department Plan Total 192031.42 201632.99 211714.64 222300.38 827679.43
Non plan 28434.70 34059.24 40802.43 48860.46 152156.83
Grand Total 220466.12 235692.23 252517.07 271160.84 979836.26

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HORTICULTURE

Horticulture Profile:
Telangana is a state in the Southern region of India and situated between 160
200N latitude and 770 820 E longitude.
Area of the state is 114,840 km2 (44,300 sq mi) and is the twelfth largest state in
India with a population of 3.53 crores (2011 census).
The state is well connected to other states with road, rail and airways except for
seaport transportation.
Area under Horticulture Crops 10.86 Lakh Ha., Production 112.56 Lakh M.Ts.
which 21.90% out of the net sown area is 49.61 lakh ha. (Source: DES, Hyd 2013-14).
Horticulture sector contributes approximately 5.16% GSDP (Rs.18,703 crores) of the
state.
In India, Telangana stands 3rd in area & 8th position in production of fruits and ranks
1st in cultivation of Turmeric.
In vegetables Telangana stands 11th in Area & 13th in Production.
Fruits and vegetables constitute 71% of the total horticulture cropped area followed
by spices and flowers.

1. Major Issues:
Quality plant material is not available as per the demand.
Vegetable production is only 20% of the state demand.
Low capacity of cold storage facilities.
Lack of processing industries
Requirement of more staff for technology dissemination and upgradation of technical
skills.
Orientation and training to the farmers for adoption of changes in the sector
Gap between research and extension
More front line demonstrations needed

2. Major thrust areas:

Area expansion and Rejuvenation of existing orchards due to Suitability of Agro


Climate and Soils and availability of vast extents of land for area expansion
To bring in more area under Hybrid Vegetable cultivation with new technologies to
achieve self sufficiency in vegetable production.
Production & supply of genuine plant material through the existing horticulture farms
by strengthening of infrastructure.
Efficient and effective utilization of water through Micro Irrigation, fertigation and
mulching, in view of depleting water table.
Establishment of latest infrastructure like cold storages, ripening chambers, collection
centers and intervention of marketing linkages.
To promote precision farming by establishing poly houses, micro irrigation, mulching
etc.
Harvesting of solar energy for horticulture sector through solar pumpsets
Awareness & motivation to farmers through extension campaigns, demonstrations,
exposure visits & trainings.

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3. Broad Improvement Strategies:
A. Area Expansion :

Introduction of new crops and export varieties:


o Mango: Dashaheri 35 (clone), Totapuri, Arunika,Ambika, CISH M2
o Orange: Kinnow oranges, Malta, blood red and other citrus varieties
o Guava: Lalith, Allahabad Safed, Swetha, VNR 1, CISH-35
o Jamun: J 37 (Bold type) J 42 (seedless)
o Custard apple: Balanagar
o Pomegranate: Mrudula, Baghuva
Supply of vegetable hybrid seedlings on large scale under subsidy.
B. Productivity Improvement:
Shifting from traditional crops to high value crops Protected Cultivation of vegetables
and flowers with new technology interventions.
Precision farming- Plug type, Pro-tray seedling, Nurtigation, Mulching, etc.
Mechanisation in cultivation Turmeric & Potato diggers, planters, Bhendi harvesters,
Bed raisers, Mechanical harvesters for Mango, Steam boilers & polishing drums for
Turmeric.
Promoting ultra high density & high density plantation in mango & guava

C. Water Management in Horticulture:

Micro Irrigation with nutrigation in Horticulture, Agriculture, Sericulture under saturation


mode.
Farm Ponds.

D. Promotion of Public Private Partnership for Processing & Export:

Establishment of spice parks for Turmeric , Chillies and Ginger and Turmeric Board,
Processing Industries for fruits and vegetables
Encourage Contract Farming.
Establishment of retail markets under control conditions (Farm to Fork)

E. Post Harvest Management:

Establishing Pack Houses, Cold Storages, Ripening chambers and supply of Plastic
Crates

F. Establishment of Centres of Excellence for fruits, vegetables and flowers and


provide demonstrations on latest technologies to farmers & supply of quality plant
material.

4. Key Performance Indicators & Goals:

Area expansion and productivity enhancement.


Water use management through Micro Irrigation
Promotion of Green Houses & Shade nets
Precision farming in vegetables and spices
Horticulture Farm Mechanization
16
Quality plant material - Plug type seedling nurseries
Post Harvest Management.
Farmers trainings and campaigns.

1. Year wise Proposed Action Plan:

To fulfill the goals envisaged in the major thrust areas of the department, the following
budget is proposed for the next five years.
(Rs. in crores)
S.No Scheme 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 Total
Promotion of Horticulture
1 Activities 252.00 260.00 275.00 290.00 1077.00
2 MIDH (SHM) 81.00 100.00 115.00 125.00 421.00
3 RKVY(Gen) 36.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 171.00
4 Micro Irrigation 308.00 620.00 650.00 675.00 2253.00
5 Oil Palm 7.50 10.00 12.00 15.00 44.50
6 Extension programmes 0.00 5.00 5.00 5.00 15.00
7 Salaries & other exp. 34.30 44.80 45.30 45.80 170.20
Total 718.80 1079.80 1147.30 1205.80 4151.70

HORTICULTURE UNIVERSITY:

Horticulture University proposed schemes like Strengthening of existing Horticultural


Colleges, Establishment of New Horticultural Colleges, Strengthening of existing PG centres and
Establishment of Centres of Excellence etc for which an amount of Rs. 1561.02 crores for the next
four years is proposed as given below.
Proposed Budget (Rs. in lakhs) Total
Sl. (2015-16
Particulars / Head of Account
No. 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 to
2018-19)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 University Head Quarters 5268 2072 910 1082 9332
2 Strengthening of existing Horticultural Colleges 2923 454 548 660 4585
3 Establishment of New Horticultural Colleges 4298 6630 3534 1812 16274
4 Strengthening of existing PG centres 2585 256 311 375 3527
Establishment of PG Centre at University Head
5 Quarters 143 2154 175 212 2684
6 Strengthening of existing polytechnics 697 46 56 68 867
7 Establishment of new Polytechnics 6848 834 920 1006 9608
8 Establishment of five new Research Stations 21600 1740 2275 3040 28655
9 Strengthening of existing Research Stations 6028 1870 2365 3025 13288
Establishment of Institutes of Centres of
10 Excellence 8868 2459 2130 2625 16082
Strengthening of existing and establishment of
new Krishi Vigyana Kendra's and Horticultural
11 training and information centre (HTIC) 32628 5074 6134 7364 51200
Plan Total: 91886 23589 19358 21269 156102

2.5 LIVESTOCK:

i) Status of Livestock and Milk production :


17
There are a total of 92.2 lakh bovines (50.3 lakh cattle, 41.9 lakh buffaloes) in the Telangana
state (2012). Of these, 48.1 lakh are breedable females (20.2 lakh cattle and 27.9 lakh buffaloes).
The annual estimated milk production for the year 2014-15 stands at 4.86MMTs. This translates into
average per capita annual milk yield of 1010 kg.
However, with genetic improvement of local cattle & buffaloes by way of cross breeding it is
possible to attain annual milk yields of 1800 litres and 2400 litres in case of buffaloes and cows
respectively with adequate feeding interventions.
ii) Sheep & Goat Production:

Sheep and goat do not require huge capital, resources, linkages and networks under
extensive grazing conditions. They are considered the moving banks of poor households,
Sheep/Goat rearing can be easily taken up by the resource poor landless, small and marginal
farmers, especially women and will be an assured livelihood provider. Dependency of small ruminant
holders on the State is very minimal. Rain fed, drought prone and resource poor areas in which this
state abounds are much suitable to rear small ruminants in a big way.

In Telangana, Mahabubnagar tops the list with about 40 lakh sheep followed by Nalgonda,
Warangal, Karimnagar and Medak districts. All the districts of Telangana have 46.75 lakh goats. This
indicates the suitability of the agro climatic conditions and suitability of this enterprise to the region.
There are about 2.25 lakh members in the 3467 sheep breeders cooperative societies in the state
indicating the popularity of sheep and goat rearing.

The productivity of sheep is reasonable given the conditions of rearing. However, the present
average meat yield of about 10 kg can be enhanced to 15 kg per animal by genetic improvement and
nutritional improvement.

iii) Poultry Production:

In India, commercial poultry production was first introduced in Hyderabad and since then, the
Hyderabad region continued its lead. Telangana State produced 1006crore eggs and 208423 MT of
broiler meat during 2013-14.

Poultry sector especially in Hyderabad region registered a phenomenal growth taking


advantage of all the technological developments that took place in the spheres of breeding, feeding,
healthcare and management including mechanization. Important factors which contributed to the
growth of poultry industry in Hyderabad region are a) Suitable climatic conditions ( free from
extreme weather conditions), b) proximity to important feed ingredient production areas ( maize and
soya bean), c) accessibility to infrastructure developers, d) availability of well trained human resource
and e) personal and family comfort due to proximity to metropolitan city.

Development of organized poultry has in fact masked the contribution of backyard poultry or
household poultry in rural sector. As per 2012 Quinqennial livestock census, rural poultry constitute
about 50% of the total poultry population at national level and about 27% in Telangana.

iv) Buffalo Meat Production:

18
During 2012-13, Andhra Pradesh figured as the third largest beef exporting state in the
country, accounting for a substantial 35% of the total 11.06 lakh metric tonnes of beef exported at a
cost of Rs 17,400 crore. Uttar Pradesh followed by Maharashtra was the top two exporters. About
5,000 buffaloes are slaughtered daily in the four integrated abattoirs in the state, officially. A
staggering 80% of the meat from the animals slaughtered is being exported. These privately owned
abattoirs located in Telangana are exporting meat in a big way to Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Saudi
Arabia, Egypt and the UAE, among other countries.

4. Vision for Livestock & Poultry Development in Telangana:

i) Dairy Development:

Local cattle present in Telangana State are hardy and suitable for draught power but are low
producers. Keeping these characteristics of the existing population, a strategy has to be developed
for the genetic improvement of the native bovines. In tune with the national breeding policy, it could
be crossbreeding of cattle with exotic/native breeds based on the feed and fodder resources available
in the region and upgrading of buffaloes with Murrah. However, there should be conscious efforts to
retain the qualities of heat tolerance, disease resistance etc. that are present in native cattle.

Breed Improvement together with better health care services and extension strategies are
essential to see that every improved progeny born due to Artificial Insemination should add to the
productive stock.

Though the APDDCF was monopolizing the milk procurement in the earlier times, it is the
private players who ruling the procurement and processing currently. In some places like Karimnagar,
the cooperative model is working well. However, the milk procurement network under the cooperative
model needs to be strengthened with due emphasis on encouraging the small dairy units to take care
of the livelihoods of poor farmers and modernizing the dairy processing & packing units. This creates
employment to the rural poor, enhances their income and also the nutritional level of farm families.

ii) Small Ruminant Production:

At present the states sheep and goat population is able to meet the 30% of the overall state
demand, rest of the 70% is imported from other parts of the country. Sheep and goat will come from
Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, and Maharashtra States. If the population of the small
ruminants has to be increased by 2 times to meet the increasing demand of the state. The rural
women, landless labor can take up ram lamb / goat kid rearing for fattening the animals and sale off
for meat purpose. It can be a full time employment to the rural youth, which will be able to provide
employment to about 100000 rural youth to rear the ram lambs/goat kids.

Though the rearing practices of meat animals are very much organic and eco-friendly, but
slaughterhouses in the State of Telangana are very primitive and unhygienic. Therefore, meat-
processing facilities have to be improved by the local bodies as per the guidelines provided by Animal
Welfare Board of India.

iii) Poultry Production:


19
To make Telangana as number one poultry producing state, the Government shall adapt
poultry sector friendly policy initiatives viz. giving agriculture status to poultry, tax benefits, liberal
finance facilities and providing subsidized quality electricity etc. Poultry industry has to spread to the
regions where it has posted slow growth. Similarly establishment of small and medium poultry farms
in rural areas will address the twin problems of accessibility and affordability to poultry products to
rural poor by cutting down costs on labour, transportation of inputs and outputs. This will ultimately
spur the growth by creating demand in rural areas also.
iv) Buffalo Meat Production:
Considering the demand profile of buffalo meat for export, male buffalo claves, which
otherwise are neglected may be reared on commercial scale for meat purpose. The private
slaughterhouses may be encouraged to have backward linkages with farmers to buyback the calves
after rearing for 1-2 years, similar to the commercial broiler industry. Modern Slaughterhouses need
to be constructed at strategic locations
v) Fodder Production:
Fodder based cheaper feeding strategies are required to reduce the cost of quality livestock
product as the feed alone constitutes 70% of the milk production cost. There is tremendous pressure
of livestock on available total feed and fodder, as land available for fodder production has been
decreasing.
To meet the current level of livestock production and its annual growth in population, the
deficit in all components of fodder, dry crop residues and feed has to be met either from increasing
productivity, utilizing untapped feed resources and increasing land area under fodder production.
There is an immediate need to develop integrated planning for crop and animal production at village
level.
5. Major Interventions proposed:
The major sub sector wise interventions proposed are as follows:
i) Dairy Development:

a. Expansion of Artificial Insemination facilities to cover the entire breedable cattle


&buffalo population of the State.
b. Production of Quality Inputs required for Artificial Insemination by establishing new
Frozen Semen Bull Station & Strengthening of existing FSBS at Karimnagar.
c. Addressing the problem of Infertility in bovines.
d. Better care & management of crossbred & graded murrah buffaloes its progeny
e. Increased fodder production & conservation and balanced ration to the milch animals.
f. Promotion of feeding of Area Specific Mineral Mixture
g. Better Delivery of Health Care Services Starting of new Vaccine Production Unit as
per the WHO specifications and improvement of infrastructure in Veterinary
Institutions.
h. Mobile Veterinary Clinics at Mandal/ constituency level.
i. Modernization of Milk Plant of APDDCFL located at Hyderabad & provision of bulk milk
cooling units.

20
j. Encourage commercial dairying by way of policy interventions such as Agriculture
Status, Concessions in Electricity tariff & providing feed ingredients on discounted
prices etc.
k. Est. model cattle breeding farms and demonstration units.
l. Provision of Sexed semen on large scale to have high pedigreed calves in the field.
ii) Sheep & Goat Production:
a.Avoid inbreeding among sheep & promote osmanabadi goats in Telangana.
b.Encourage Fodder Production in Grazing / Fallow lands.
c.Promote Fattening of Ram Lamb and Semi Intensive System of rearing.
d.Reduce the worm burden and disease incidence in Sheep & Goats.
e.Encourage Critical Feeding of Concentrates during summer months.
f.Strengthening of Sheep & Goat rearers Cooperatives, Unions & Federation.
g.Improvement of Slaughterhouse to produce hygienic meat.
h.Institutional Credit Support for Sheep & Goat rearers.
i.Estt. of model sheep market yards(365 days working) with facilities for sheep and also
sheep rearers.
iii) Egg & Broiler Production:
a. Encourage commercial poultry farming by way of policy interventions such as giving
Agriculture Status, Concessions in Electricity tariff and providing feed ingredients on
discounted prices etc.
b. Promote Rural Back Yard Poultry in remote & tribal villages to improve the quality of
nutrition on saturation mode.
c. Establish Disease Surveillance and control Measures.
d. Compulsory registration of commercial Poultry farms.
iv) Beef Production:
a. Encourage rearing of Male Buffalo Calves for slaughter purpose by relaxing the
existing policy.
v) Human Resource Development
a. Filling all the vacant posts of Vets & Paravets in AH Department and teaching & non
teaching posts in newly formed Veterinary University.
b. Estt. of State Animal Husbandry Training Center.
BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS FOR LIVESTOCK & POULTRY SECTOR (Rs. in lakhs)

S.
Sector 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 Total
No.
1 Dairy Development 6248.47 6644.32 6838.04 7119.84 26850.67
2 Health Services 16564.11 29441.86 27506.86 31430.86 104943.69
3 Sheep & Goat 13750.80 3945.00 3885.00 3295.00 24875.80
4 Feed & Fodder 2004.33 1704.48 1741.61 1791.23 7241.65
5 Poultry 1781.46 166.24 216.24 134.80 2298.74
6 Training & Extension 234.50 3599.50 3489.50 3339.50 10663.00
Total 40583.67 45501.40 43677.25 47111.23 176873.55

21
3. CONTINUING ISSUES REQUIRING GREATER ATTENTION:

3.1. Fertilizer subsidy, soil fertility and fertilizer use:

Fertilizers play an important role in increasing productivity of crops. The fertility of soils largely
depends n the amount and rat e of nutrients provided to it. To enhance healthy and continuous
growth of plants, it is important to provide the soil with adequate nutrients for providing higher yields.
During 2014-15 department has distributed 25.36 lakh tonnes of fertilizers as given in the statement
below.

Sl. No. Fertilizer Qty Distributed (L MTs)


1 Urea 13.67
2 DAP 1.89
3 SSP 0.48
4 MoP 1.09
5 Complexes 8.01
6 Others 0.22
Total 25.36

The plan for 2015-16 to distribute 35.74 lakh metric tonnes of Fertilizers.

Soil Health Card Scheme:


The Department of Agriculture has planned to issue Soil Health Cards to all the farmers in the
State in a phased manner, over a period of three years. This project will be taken up initially in 1/3 rd of
the villages in each district during 1st year i.e. 2015-16. The rest of 2/3rd villages will be covered during
subsequent two years.
Strategy has been evolved to implement the mission objectives.
i. Adopt a five year validity period for soil fertility data.
ii. The first five year period in this mission has been identified as 2015-16 to 2019-20.
iii. In a holistic approach, it is decided to issue Soil Health Cards to all the farmers.
iv. Due to emerging deficiency of Sulphur and micronutrients (zinc and iron), these are
also included.
Generation of Soil Health Cards:
The Operational STLs shall send the results to the District STL, and in turn, the District STL
shall prepare Soil Health Cards and communicate the same to the concerned Agricultural Officer for
handing over to the respective farmers.
(Phy. No. of samples and fin. in lakhs)
2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19
Phy Fin Phy Fin Phy Fin Phy Fin
2.0 380 2.0 380 2.0 380 2.0 380

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Land Resource Inventory of Telangana State:
It is also proposed to take up Soil Resource Mapping in Telangana in coordination with NBSS
and LUP. The scope of the project is as follows:
1. To characterize and map the soil resources of all the villages in different mandals of
Telangana State at 1:10000 scale.
2. To suggest optimal land use plan at village level for intensification of agriculture and
rejuvenation of fallow lands.
3. To develop Village level Land Resource Information System (LRIS) in GIS environment.
Soil profiles are collected for each 100 ha. block to study different themes viz, Gravelliness,
available water capacity, calcareousness, soil slope, soil degradation, potential soil loss, land
capability, land irrigability.

The project is proposed in 3 Mandals on pilot basis.


1. Gajwel - Medak District
2. Indervelli Adilabad District
3. Thimmajipet Mahabubnagar District

The total cost of the project is Rs 18.15 Crores which covers all the mandals and
commenced from the year 2014-15 till the year 2018-19 and village wise thematic maps will be
provided to the department.
Deliverables:
The LRI Project would provide following data in hard and soft copies.
1. Village wise soil and thematic maps, duly super imposed with survey number boundaries
2. Suggested land use and land treatment maps
3. Soil survey report of each mandal along with physico-chemical and soil profile characteristics.
The entire information shall be uploaded in a web based geo-portal for access to all the
functionaries and the farming community.
The project would be commenced from April-2015 and completed by April-2019.
(Phy. No. of mandals and fin. in lakhs)
2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19
Phy Fin Phy Fin Phy Fin Phy Fin
110 4.475 110 4.475 110 4.475 110 4.475

23
3.3 Research & Extension:

Research:
I. Breeders seed production of major crops in Telangana State:

Seed is the basic input in agriculture and all the technologies revolve around it. Production of
quality seed is paramount for achieving potential yields in any crop. Therefore utmost care is required
in the production of different categories of seed. Since both public and private sectors are involved in
this gigantic task, supply of required breeders seed of the popular and potential varieties and hybrids
of different crops to various stakeholders is the responsibility of the university so that the technology
developed with regard to new varieties and hybrids reach the ultimate clientele i.e. the farmers. It is
proposed to strengthen the breeder seed production programme of rice, sorghum, soybean,
Redgram, greengram, maize and castor.

II. Higher Water Use Efficiency and productivity

Out of 4.0 m ha of net cultivated area in Telangana state, about 60% is under rain fed
agriculture and irrigated agriculture accounts about 1.5 m ha from surface and ground water sources.
Tube wells and dug wells are the main sources of irrigation in the state irrigating about 84% of the Net
Irrigated Area. The water sector in the newly formed Telangana state is facing with critical challenges
viz. competition among different water using sectors, poor service in power supply for pumping
ground water (10.0 lakh ha area under well irrigation. Out-dated irrigation water management
practices resulting in low water productivity.

Hence the following projects are proposed to save precious water (surface and ground
water) and get more crop per drop of water through increased awareness and knowledge to the
farmers and field level staff.

1. Scaling up Water Productivity in Rice through Demonstration of Water Saving Technologies


2. Micro-Irrigation and Fertigation in field and Horticulture Crops - Capacity Building of field level
staff and farmers
3. Demonstration of Solar Pump Operated Micro-Irrigation System in field crops

III. On-farm transfer, evaluation and refinement of farming systems for


improving the profitability and livelihood of farmers in Telangana State

Based on available resources especially soil type, water, marketing facilities, infra structure,
available technologies etc., farming system models have to be advocated to farmers in 3 Agro-
Climatic Zones of Telangana state for sustainable livelihoods. Integration of two or more appropriate
combination of enterprises like crop, dairy, goat rearing, piggery, fishery, poultry, mushroom, vermin-
composting, bee keeping etc., for each farm is essential to sustain crop production , attain food and
nutritional security and ultimately for upliftment of farmers. Hence a project to demonstrate the most
remunerative and sustainable integrated farming systems in Telangana state is proposed.

IV. Development, modifications and popularization of farm implements and machinery for
seed to seed mechanization of selected crops in Telangana state
24
Most of the major operations involved in cultivation of the major crops such as land
preparation, sowing, weeding and inter-cultivation, transplanting, fertilizer application, spraying,
harvesting, threshing and cleaning are mainly done by agriculture labour which includes both man
and women. All these operations are laborious, time consuming and become economically not viable
to the farmers due to shortage of labour and increased labour wages for the past 5 to 10 years.
Hence the project is proposed to demonstrate and popularize machinery for maize, groundnut and
turmeric cultivation.

V. Establishment of Agri-Toursim Centre at Rajendranagar, Professor Jyashankar Telangana


State Agricultural University

In order to Increase the productivity of land the farmers need to convince themselves by
seeing the farm innovations through their visits to the places demonstrations. Both Central and State
Governments are encouraging the exposure visits to the farmers and providing funds to the State
Departments. With more diversity in institutional base, farmers are not able to see the farm
innovations to their expectations and are not satisfying. In this context, there is need to establish a
single window platform for facility who can coordinate with all the institutions and farm innovations in
and around the city of Hyderabad and also in the state of Telangana to take the farmers and to satisfy
their urge Seeing is believing and motivate the farmers to adopt the farm innovations in agriculture
and allied areas. In this context, Agri-Tourism centre will act as a single window platform to provide
this service to the farmers and other visitors. It provides education and entertainment.

VII. Capacity building of farmers and students:

Majority of rural youth is leaving the agriculture as a profession and migrating to urban areas
in search of non-agriculture employment opportunities. In this context there is an urgent need to
attract and retain the rural youth in agriculture and allied sectors by involving under graduate students
of Agriculture, Horticulture and Home Science, which enables easier and effective communication.

To attract the youth towards agriculture, the identified rural youth need to be provided with
applied agricultural knowledge and skills through formal system of education by offering certificate
course with three months duration.

Innovation and creativity are two words heard frequently in higher education today. They are
inbuilt in students and are to be rightly encouraged and utilized. Creating an environment of trust is a
critical component of promoting innovation and creativity. Faculty can create a classroom climate
where everyones voice matters. Better yet, get involved in the community with students.

Hence the following programmes are proposed

1. Certificate Course in Agriculture for rural youth

2. Chenu Kabarlu: Student managed Radio

25
ABSTRACT
(Rs. in lakhs)

Budget for
S. Budget for Budget for Budget for Budget for
Name of the project 2015-16 to
No 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19
2018-19
I. Breeder seed production of major crops in Telangana State 1525.8 131.8 136.8 155.8 1950.2
II. Higher Water Use Efficiency and productivity
1) Scaling up Water Productivity in Rice through Demonstration of 35 37.5 21 21 114.5
Water Saving Technologies
2) Micro-Irrigation and Fertigation in field and Horticulture Crops - 65.5 54 50.5 48.5 218.5
Capacity Building of field level staff and farmers
3) Demonstration of Solar Pump Operated Micro-Irrigation System in 29 57.5 31.25 32.25 150
field crops
III. On -farm transfer, evaluation and refinement of farming systems for 175.5 115.5 291
improving the profitability and livelihood of farmers in Telangana state
IV. Development, modifications and popularization of farm implements and 83 96 60 35 274
machinery for seed to seed mechanization of selected crops in Telangana
state
V. ICT in Agriculture
1) Applied agriculture skills for better farming through e-Learning 50 20 20 90
2) Promotion of Interactive Information Dissemination System (IIDS) 10 6 6 5 27
services to meet the information needs of the farmers
3) Blending mobile technologies with traditional extension for 40 24 13 5 82
impacting the lives of farmers
4) Strengthening of Extension centers with ICT gadgets 90 15 15 15 135
5) Climate Information Centres (CLICs) for profitable and resilient 105 50 50 205
agriculture
6) eKisan Saathi: A Location-specific IT-based Agro-Advisory System 63.92 45.52 109.44
to Improve Food Security and Livelihood: A Technology
Demonstration of Scalability and Replicability
VI. Agri tourism Centre 141.8 130.4 53.4 56.4 382
VII. Capacity building of farmers and students
1) Certificate Course in Agriculture for rural youth 166 31 30 227
2) Chenu Kabarlu: Student managed Radio 225 25 15.5 15.5 281
Total: 2805.52 839.22 502.45 389.45 4536.64

26
SRI P V NARSIMHA RAO TELANGANA STATE UNIVERSITY FOR VETERINARY, ANIMAL AND
FISHERY SCIENCES:
Research interventions proposed:
Sri P.V. Narsimha Rao Telangana State University for Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries
Sciences, Hyderabad is a major stake holder in the development of livestock and allied sectors in the
state of Telangana. It aims to improve the livestock sector and thereby contribute to the economy of
the state by producing quality man power to handle/manage different livestock development
programs; increasing the productivity and health of livestock, creation of locally suitable and climate
resilient strains/varieties of livestock, by creating technologies to tide over the feed and fodder
shortages keeping in view the availability of non conventional or agro industrial by products; transfers
the technologies developed to the farmers through its extension machinery and also with the help of
line Departments of the State Government.
1. Genetic improvement of livestock:

a) Cattle and Buffaloes: The production potentials of native livestock are low. Rapid
dissemination of superior germplasm can be achieved by Artificial Insemination (AI). There
is an urgent need to establish a bull mother farm of at least 5000 cattle so as to impose
high level of selection intensity and produce elite bulls for production of semen to meet the
needs of all the breedable cattle of the state. Further, the AI network need to be
strengthened by infusing quality infrastructure and man power for successful and rapid
genetic improvement.

b) Sheep and Goats: Deccani, the native sheep breed is hardy and thrives well under low
input situations. However, chronic inbreeding, lack of selection and underfeeding has
resulted in poor production. There is an urgent need to establish a large nucleus herd
where selective breeding can be taken up. The elite rams thus reared can be supplied to
farmers as breeding rams which will disseminate the genetic superiority to the sheep with
the farmers. The Mahabubnagar goats are highly prolific and need to be developed,
characterized and popularized.

c) Poultry: Commercial broiler and layer poultry industry is at an advanced level. The native
birds are less productive and are thus not favored by rural people currently. There is an
urgent need to develop birds suitable to backyard farming, with enhanced production
levels. The University has already developed a bird called Rajasri which is accepted by
the farmers. Some more varieties are in advanced stage of development. However, the
facilities for large scale multiplication and supply are inadequate, and need to be
strengthened.

d) Pigs: Pigs are efficient converters of garbage in to quality animal protein. Popularization of
Large White Yorkshire crossbred pigs would go a long way in augmenting protein
supplies, providing employment for urban/rural poor. The University can take up the
responsibility of supplying the required germ plasm and technical guidance.

Apart from selective breeding, there is an urgent need to utilize the latest molecular genetics
and bioinformatics tools to enhance the production levels of different livestock species. Establishment
of state of the art molecular genetics laboratory for livestock would go a long way in exploiting animal
genetic resources of the State.

27
2. Feed and Fodder
There is an acute shortage of feed and fodder resources, which is one of the major causes for
low production levels of our livestock. There is an urgent need to conduct research in to the suitability
of different agricultural by products for livestock feeding. Further, research interventions at rumen
microbiology level need to be explored for efficient utilization of available feed and fodder resources
and emission of green house gases production.
3. Livestock Health
In view of the globalization and highly intensive livestock production systems, there is an
emergence and re emergence of certain diseases such as swine flu, avian flu etc. Climate change
has caused shift in the epidemiological pattern of certain vector borne diseases leading to severe
economic losses.
Keeping these essential interventions for the overall development of livestock sector in
Telangana State in view, Sri P V Narsimha Rao Telangana State University for Veterinary, Animal
and Fisheries Sciences has proposed to take up the activities.

The financial requirement of different schemes of Veterinary University comes to Rs. 223.00
crores up to 2018-19 as indicated in the Annexure I.

EXTENSION:
In various fora it was brought out that the extension in the state is not performing to the
expected level and requires strengthening. Agril. Research is one of the primary engines of
Agriculture Economic Growth and is central for boosting farm productivity and moving to yield
revolution. A strong Agri Extension System, is the main vehicle to carry the fruits of research to the
farmers and strengthen the Lab to Land process. Extension has two dimensions:
a) Communication and
b) Education
It assists the farmers to acquire the knowledge to use the new Agricultural Technologies and
to boost crop productivities.
As per standard norms for effective extension coverage one Extension officer is required for
every one thousand farm families (1000). Accordingly, the state of Telangana requires 5554
extension officers to cover 55.54 lakh farm holdings, The present strength of AEOs is 1112 where as
only 823 Agricultural Extension Officers are working in the State of Telangana. Therefore it is
proposed to have a strong net work of Assistant Agricultural Extension Officers with minimum
qualification of Diploma in Agriculture. They may be taken on consolidated pay basis @ Rs. 10,000/-
per month. the cost of deploying 4,442 posts (5554 1112) of Assistant Agricultural Extension
Officers per Annum @ Rs. 10,000/- per month. The cost per annum comes to Rs 53.53 crores.

Hence it is proposed that:


Creating 4,442 posts of Assistant Agricultural Extension officers with minimum qualification
of Diploma in Agriculture / Horticulture costing Rs. 53.30 crores annually.
The additional cost would be Rs. 3309 lakhs annually. (Rs.53.30 crores-Rs.20.21 crores).

28
Fill up all the 529 existing vacancies in the department i.e. from Additional Director of
Agriculture to AEO level. This will establish close and effective contact with farmers at field
level and enable a vibrant Agri Extension network in Telangana state. An amount of Rs.
30.00 crores is earmarked for strengthening of extension personnel.

Training to Attract and Retaining of Young Farmers in Agriculture:


Presently sons of farmers are not attracted to the farming as the remuneration is poor and the
standard of living of farmers especially with a holding of 1.12 ha. It is difficult to make a good living.
Therefore it is proposed to organize training programmes to the young farmers for attracting them
towards farming. The training will be organized by the FTCs which are located @ one in each district.
It is proposed that 4 trainings per month by each FTC for 30 participants. The total cost per annum
comes to Rs. 64.80 lakhs or say Rs. 65.00 lakhs per annum. PJTSAU has formulated a separate
course for the purpose.
10. Training of farmers on Integrated Farming
Intensive training programmes are proposed on integrated farming to be organized by each
FTC. 444 training programmes are planned in a year @ one training per mandal. The cost per
participant works out to Rs. 500/-. Thus the total cost is estimated at Rs. 66.60 lakhs or say Rs. 67.00
lakhs per annum.
3.5 Credit and Finance:

Crop Loan Waiver Scheme: Government of Telangana is convinced that a onetime crop loan waiver
will enable the farmers to make fresh investments in Agriculture. The scheme covers only institutional
loans up to Rs. One Lakhs including interest as on 31.03.2014. the farmer family is defined as the
head of the family, spouse and dependent children. Government of Telangana has launched the crop
loan waiver scheme and issued GORT.No.69 dated 13.08.2014. The achievements made are as
follows:
An amount of about Rs 17,050.00 Crores was outstanding as on 31-03-2014 in the Banks
pertaining to crop loans of farmers.
Government have released 25% of the outstanding amount i.e. Rs. 4250.00 Crores (Rupees
Four Thousand Two Hundred and Fifty Crores Only) to the farmers accounts through banks
throughout the Telangana state.
It is estimated that about 36.32 lakh farmers will be benefitted under the scheme.
An amount of Rs. 4086.00 crores is adjusted to 35.82 lakh farmers accounts.

Item Rs. in crores


credit target as per SLBC (Kharif 2014) 12389.70
As per Annexure E
Amount to be waived 17050.00
No of Farmers / Accounts 3632827
25% of Amount as per Annexure E released to districts 4230.00
Loan Waiver
Amount Credited to the farmers account 4086.00
No. of accounts in which credited. 3581596
Total of Renewals and Fresh Lending & Rescheduling Amount 7816.84
During 2015-16 the next phase of loan waiver is under implementation.

29
3.6. Agricultural Marketing & Trade:

SWOT Analysis of Department of Agricultural Marketing:


Strengths:
More Number of Regulated Markets
Regulation of the sale and purchase of notified commodities through auctions/tenders,
ensuring correct weighment, prompt payment, etc.
Collect, maintain and disseminate information of prices of agricultural produce.
Standardize market charges like commission and labour charges.
Establish check posts to arrest the leakages of market revenue.
Support to MSP operations by providing required equipment and funds.
Implement welfare activities such as
Rythu Bandhu Pathakam
Rythu Bheema Pathakam etc.
Weaknesses:

Lack of Quality based Price Discovery.


Manual Open Auction System/Tender system
Records and Accounts and issue of Manual receipts.
Traditional Licensing System and its Issuance.
Lack of Professional skills in Marketing Aspects.
Certain practices like delay payment, cash cutting for Spot Payment etc are continued.

Opportunity:
Introduction of E-Tender and/or E-auction System to replace manual open auction/tendering -
Short term goals
Computerization of all Records and Accounts and issue of takpatties in the Markets. - Short
Term Goals
Introduction of E-permits to avoid fake permits and receipts - Short term goals
Revolving fund to be created to undertake Minimum Support Price (MSP) operations from the
beginning of the Marketing season and to avoid malpractices and related problems - Medium
Term Goals
Quality based price discovery and timely payment of sale proceeds.
Bringing professionalism in management of existing Markets.

Threats:
Lack of Research on Agril. Marketing Prices, its forecasting, Price discovery mechanism.
Assessment of demand (Volume/Quantity)
Advent of Private Markets and use of Technology based initiative.
Goals & Strategies:
SHORT TERM GOAL - Transparency in Market Operations
Strategy: Transparency can be achieved by using ICT Initiatives
Auction Process
Post Auction Process - Weighing, Settlement of dues to seller etc.,
Price Information to Stake Holders

30
Transparency in auction process:
Capturing arrival information through gate entry/lot entry
Display of lots available for auction through an electronic platform
Present manual auction to be replaced by an electronic auction process increased
participation, competition and improved price discovery
Final bid price to the seller for an informed decision to sell.
Transparency in Post auction process:
Integrating weighing and the auction engine for accurate capture of weight of produce sold
Farmers to get takpattis generated by the auction platform
Option to generate sale bill through the system
Transport permit to be generated by the system, capable of online verification for hassle
free movement of goods.
MEDIUM TERM GOALS - Commodity Grading & Information Dissemination Strategy for
Commodity Grading:
Draw up quality specifications for traded commodities to facilitate testing
Establish testing labs in all markets for testing of the arrived produce
Testing of produce through professional third party entities
Promote quality based auction by displaying quality parameters in the screen
Strategy for Information Dissemination:
Timely, Accurate and wider information dissemination to all the market participants will help in
involving a Perfect Market. This will include Following:
Provision of data by way of SMS to all the market participants
The SMS will be sent to all the market participants at every stage of the movement of the
Goods till the completion of the Trade.
he SMS facility will also be used to get timely payment of cess and Fair Reconciliation.
he Basis of sending SMS will be the Participants who register themselves with the AMC.
Weather Updates can be provided by AMC to all the market participants to avoid any
commodity damage at the AMC in times of Peak seasons
LONG TERM GOAL - Integrating Markets:
Strategy:
Next level will involve Integrating Markets, Developing of Remote markets with Quality
Assayed Labs and Provision of Bank Pledge Loan
It will Involve developing Mini warehouses at Farm Gate with state of art of quality Labs,
equipped with Electronic accounting of Stock and real time updation of warehouse transfers
through " Com Live"
Connecting smaller markets with Nearby Bigger Markets
Finally all the AMC will be integrated to Provide a large Market to all the Participants

ISSUES:

Quality based price discovery:


The current market structure lacks the quality testing facilities, this leads buyers to physically
inspect the commodity before deciding the price that can be offered. Apart from necessitating
physical presence of buyers in the market, finer aspects of quality of the produce is not appreciated
and hence there is little encouragement for the seller to improve the quality of his produce by
cleaning and sorting at the farm gate.
31
Quality based price discovery is intended to address this shortcoming in the market structure.

Testing all arrivals in the market would call for infrastructure (like laboratories, facilities for
sampling, etc.), well publicized standards for each commodity and testing processes, arrangements
for dispute resolution, etc.

While implementing Marketing Reforms in markets, initiating preparatory steps for setting up
assaying laboratories in all markets are required. If, infrastructural facilities already in place, it would
be easier to commence testing of commodities in the markets.

Test parameters for every commodity and the testing process should be decided in
consultation with all participants and well publicized. Existing standards like BIS can be guide posts
for drawing up standards, but cannot be adopted as they are. The department has to examine if the
standards and test process published can be brought under the Act and Rules, which would make
enforcement simpler.

Private companies with adequate experience in sampling and assaying may be invited
through a transparent process to establish test facilities in the markets in the state. The terms of
inviting competitive offers may be finalized independently. While the agency selected for establishing
testing infrastructure would bring in the professional expertise needed, the Directorate of Agricultural
Marketing should prescribe necessary control procedures for participants to develop confidence in
the system.

Farm gate cleaning and sorting, appropriate packing, advantages of testing of the produce
before putting up for sale and related aspects have to be sufficiently publicized.
Key Performance Indicators:
1. Collection of Market Fee
2. Introduction of E-bidding in Market yards and using of E-permits
3. Creation of Storage Space
4. Price Dissemination
5. Completion of Assessments/Audit Objections
6. Quality Based sales
7. Inspections of Trader premises and Weighments
8. Inspections of Check Posts
9. Pledge Loans to Farmers under RBP

FOUR YEAR PLAN:

1. Creations of Additional Storage in Regulated Market yards in Telangana State: The


Department of Agriculture Marketing planned to create an additional storage space of
405000 MTs in AMCs in a phased manner for the next five years plan 2015-19
under this scheme an amount of Rs. 112600/-lakhs is required (Godowns Rs. 55800/-,
Ripening Chambers - Rs.2500/-, Cold Storages Rs. 3700/- and Covered Sheds Rs.
50600/-).
2. Construction of Drying Plat forms and Godowns at Decentralized Procurement
Centers: For creating Marketing infrastructure outside the Market Yards i.e. in Cluster
Villages and Sub Market Yards which are close access to the farmers for Marketing their
produce for which construction of Drying platforms and storage space at decentralized Agril.
Marketing at the Cluster villages and sub yards by engaging the IKP/Govt. Agencies for
procuring the produce from directly farmers without a middleman. For which 2.5 Lakh MTs of
32
storage space is planned to create for the benefit of the farmers and an amount of Rs. 600/-
crores is required and same is proposed in the next five years plan i.e. 2015-19.
3. Computerization of Market Yards and Online Trading(Short term): To provide more
competitive price to the Agril. produce brought by the farmers to the Market Yards. The
Department is planning to replace the existing manual bidding system in all regulated
markets Yards to monitor closely the transactions and the produce arriving at the market
yards to provide better facilities. It is proposed to computerization of all the market yards in
the state of Telangana in phased manner at a total cost of Rs18000 /- lakhs is proposed in
next five years plan i.e. 2015-19. The same is proposed in Budget.
Time Line: For E-tendering in 42 major markets 12 Months and for remaining other
Markets 6- 8 months of time is required. Coming to Quality Based Price Discovery, 38
months of time is required.
4. Creating Basic Facilities (Purified Drinking Water, Electricity, Sanitation, Rythu rest
house etc.,) (Short term): Most of the regulated market yards are required to create a basic
facilities in the interest of the Market Users. To provide such facilities, the Department is
planning to create a basic facility in all regulated Markets in phased manner in the next five
years plan i.e. 2014-19. For which an amount of Rs. 4500/- lakhs is required. The Same is
proposed in Budget.

5. HRD (Trainings to the farmers on post harvesting techniques, Stake holders of the
Market yard and staff - Capacity Building Programmes(Long term): Lack of proper
knowledge on the Post harvesting techniques to prevent the losses after harvesting. The
farmers as well as the Marketing officials are required to trained and Training to the Stake
holders is planned in next five years i.e. 2015-19 to prevent post harvesting losses and
enhance the income of the growers. For which an amount of Rs.200/- lakhs is required. The
Same is proposed in Budget.
6. Creating Awareness of Market Intelligence (Forecasting of Market trends on Arrivals,
Prices of Agril. Commodities and Prediction of Future prices and Price
disseminations at Village level and Mandal head quarters(Medium term):
o Lack of proper information on price trends of Agirl. Commodities in different markets in
different places, the farmers are forced to sale at Village brokers at a distress sale. To
overcome this problem there is a need to establish a Market intelligence and Demand
forecasting cell at Directorate, Hyderabad to forecast the demand, supply and price of
seeds of various crops and their varieties, reliable price discovery mechanism. To give the
accurate information of the price trends to the farmers day by day.

o Research and Development (Long term): It is proposed to give financial assistance to


the Telangana State Agricultural University to undertake the research studies on different
aspects/problems of agriculture marketing and for suggest better agricultural marketing
system in the State to improve sale, storage or processing of agricultural produces, the
objective is to provide remunerative prices to the farmer-producers and make Agril.
Produce available at affordable prices.

The Dept planned to take up the above said programmes in the next four years plan i.e 2015-
19, an amount of Rs. 1200/- lakhs is proposed.

33
7. Establishment of New Rythu Bazars and its Maintenance of Existing and Newly
created Rythu Bazars:

The Rythu Bazars were functioning to the alternative marketing facilities to the Vegetables
growers where they can sell their produce directly to the consumer without any middlemen and
getting the full Rupee of the value paid by the consumer. At present there are 27 Rythu bazaars are
functioning Telangana State. There is a dire need to create more such farmers markets for the
Vegetables growers. The Dept of Agriculture Marketing is planning to create New Rythu Bazars and
uplifting the face value of the Existing Rythu Bazars and its maintenance for providing better services
to the stake holders. For which an amount of Rs. 2200.00 lakhs is required and the same is proposed
in the budget.

Funds Required for Four Years:


(Rs. in crores)

S. 4 Year Plan
Name of the Scheme Capacity Amount
No.
2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19
1 Storage Scheme
4.05
502.20 125.55 125.55 125.55 125.55
a)Godowns LMTs
b) Ripening Chambers - 23.00 5.75 5.75 5.75 5.75
c) Cold Storages - 35.00 8.75 8.75 8.75 8.75
0.581
456.00 114.00 114.00 114.00 114.00
d) Covered Sheds L.Sft
2 Construction of Drying Platforms and
Godowns at De-centralized 2.5 LMTs 500.00 125.00 125.00 125.00 125.00
procurement centers
3 Computerization of Market Yards and 80.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
Online Trading
3.1 Additional Infrastructures - (Drinking - 40.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
water, Electrification, Sanitary, Rythu
Rest Houses etc.,)
4 HRD(Trainings to the farmers on post 1.80 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
harvesting techniques, Stake Holders of
the Market Yard and staff of the AMCs)
5 Agril. Marketing Extension(Forecasting 10.00 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
of Market Trends arrivals, prices
Marketing Information and Price
Dissemination centres at Mandal Head
Quarters)
6 Revolving Fund 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 Establishment of New Rythu Bazars 22.00 5.50 5.50 5.50 5.50
and its Maintenance
Total 1670.00 417.50 417.50 417.50 417.50
Note: Providing subsidy for construction of Cold Storages, Ripening Chambers to encourage the Private
Entrepreneurs for creation of Scientific Storage and Ripening Chambers, Subject to Govt. Approval

34
3.7 Link to Industry-Food Processing:
Promotion of Public Private Partnership for Processing & Export:
Establishment of spice parks for Turmeric , Chillies and Ginger and Turmeric Board,
Processing Industries for fruits and vegetables
Encourage Contract Farming.
Establishment of retail markets under control conditions (Farm to Fork)
Post Harvest Management:
Establishing Pack Houses, Cold Storages, Ripening chambers and supply of Plastic Crates

Establishment of Centres of Excellence for fruits, vegetables and flowers and provide
demonstrations on latest technologies to farmers & supply of quality plant material.

3.9 Crop Insurance:

The following Crop Insurance schemes are under implementation in Telangana state.

1. National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS)


2. Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) under NCIP

National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS) was introduced in the State from Kharif 2000
season onwards with involvement of Agriculture Department, Agriculture Insurance Co.
(Implementing Agency) and Directorate of Economics and Statistics.

Objectives:-

To provide a measure of financial support to the farmers in the event of yield loss recorded by
conducting Crop Cutting Experiments.
To restore the credit eligibility of a farmer after a crop failure for the next season.
To encourage the farmers to adopt progressive farming practices, high value in-puts and
higher technology in Agriculture.
To help stabilize farm incomes, particularly in disaster years.

Crops Covered: 19 crops covered during the Kharif and 10 crops in Rabi season.

Premium Subsidy: 10 % of premium subsidy is allowed to small and marginal farmers only under
National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS).

Village Insurance Unit Scheme:

In addition to the Mandal Insurance Unit Scheme, the Government has started Village Made
as Insurance Unit Scheme for the first time in the country on pilot basis during Kharif 2005 and 2006
in the selected five districts and extended to all the Districts in the State from Kharif 2008 season.

35
Farmers Covered:

Loanee Farmers: All farmers irrespective of category, who are borrowing crop loans for the Notified
Crops from any Bank including PACS are compulsorily covered under Crop Insurance.

Non Loanee Farmers: It is optional for Non-loanee, Tenant farmers and share croppers.

Predominant crop of the each district is notified under Village made as insurance unit scheme
and all the other crops are under Mandal insurance unit scheme.

District wise Crops Notified vide G.O.Rt. No.268, Dated.03.06.2015 of A&C (Agri.II) Dept.
under Village Insurance Unit Scheme under National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS) during
Kharif 2015 season:

Sl.No. District Crop Sl. No. District Crop


1 Nalgonda Rice 6 Nizamabad Maize
2 Khammam Rice 7 Mahabubnagar Maize
3 Karimnagar Rice 8 Medak Maize
4 Warangal Rice 9 Adilabad Soybean
5 Rangareddy Maize

Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS):

For the benefit of farming community, apart from the National Agricultural Insurance Scheme
(NAIS) for the first time in the State, the Government have implementing the Weather Based Crop
Insurance Scheme during Kharif 2009 season. The Scheme aims to mitigate the hardship of the
insured farmers due to the financial loss on account of anticipated crop loss resulting from incidence
of adverse deviations of weather parameters like Rainfall, Temperature, Relative humidity etc.

Perils under the WBCIS

Excess Rainfall
Less Rainfall
Excess Temperature
Less Temperature
Deviations in relative humidity
Wind velocity etc

Automatic Weather Stations (AWS)

To measure the Weather parameters Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) are established in
all the Mandals of the State @ one per each Mandal. Around 900 AWS are working in the State.

Premium Subsidy:- 25% to 50% premium subsidy to all the farmers irrespective of
their category.

36
Crops and Districts Notified under Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS) during
Kharif 2015 Season.
Crops Districts
Adilabad, Warangal, Khammam, Karimnagar, Nalgonda and
Cotton
Mahabubnagar
Redchilly Warangal and Khammam
Oil Palm Khammam
Sweet Lime Nalgonda

3.10. Farm Mechanization:

Objectives:
i) Increasing the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and to the regions
where availability of farm power is low.
ii) Promoting Custom Hiring Centers to offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to
small landholding and high cost of individual ownership. Also employment will be generated in
addition to farm power enhancement.
iii) Establishing Implement Hiring Stations to serve as the nodal points to rent commonly used
equipment to farmers on nominal hiring charges fixed by Gram sabha. This will reduce the
financial burden on farmers for buying farm equipment which is used only for a few days in a
year.
iv) Creating awareness among stakeholders through demonstration and capacity building
activities
Strategies: To achieve the above objectives, the following strategies will be adopted:
i) Promote farm mechanization among stakeholders by way of on-field and off-field training and
demonstrations.
ii) Provide financial assistance to farmers for procurement of farm machinery and implements
iii) Establish custom hiring centres of location and crop specific farm machinery and implements
iv) Provide financial assistance to small and marginal farmers for hiring machinery and
implements in low mechanized regions.
Custom Hiring Centers:
Due to scarcity of labour the cost of cultivation has gone up and has become un-remunerative
to the farmers, therefore it is proposed to promote farm mechanization in a big way by establishing
900 custom hiring centers @ 100 per district. The cost of each unit is estimated at Rs. 5.00 lakhs.
Thus the total cost comes to Rs. 4500.00 lakhs.
Mechanization will help in increasing the productivity of crops while reducing the cost of
cultivation. It will also enable the farmer to complete farming operations in time. Depending upon the
types of crops grown, soil conditions, local situations and requirements in the districts, the
Department is contemplating to distribute various farm machinery and implement on subsidy basis.

37
Presently, there is increased demand for Farm Mechanization due to rural workers migration
to urban areas and increase in the cost of farm labour. Therefore, it is proposed to enhance the
allocation for Farm Mechanization under NSP by Rs. 100.00 crores so that there is Rs. 200.00 crores
under Farm Mechanization programme during the current year to cope up the demand from the
farmers. The subsidy pattern will be 50% as provided under RKVY.
The additional funds requested under NSP will be utilized for establishment of 740 units of
CHC- Land Preparatory equipment @ Rs 10.00 lakhs per unit on 50% subsidy.
The additional funds requested under SMAM will be utilized for supply of various farm
implements on subsidy.
1. COOPERATION:
Cooperative structure provides an alternative frame work for optimum utilization of resources by
laying emphasis on collectivism. It provides for collective ownership, collective management and
collective bargaining. It is a link between public sector and private sector. It possess best of
both the private sector and public sector.
Cooperative system is the best vehicle for protecting the interests of weaker sections particularly
in providing access to resources in Agriculture and allied sectors and is also the best bet for
appropriate benefit sharing.
Cooperative Societies in the Agriculture and Allied Sector facilitate:

Collective ownership of land, fish ponds, processing units etc.,


Provision of credit and other vital inputs like fertilizers, seeds etc.,
Provision of infrastructure like Warehouses.
Processing of produce.
Collective bargaining strength in marketing the produce.
Modernization of Agriculture sector by providing common facilities for use of Modern
Agriculture implements.
Cooperatives in Agriculture and allied sectors such as Dairy, Fisheries, Sericulture, Animal
Husbandry and Horticulture facilitate enhanced livelihoods improving production and
quality of produce.
Problems:
Low capital base
Lack of awareness of Cooperative spirit on the part of Managing Committees
Undue Politicization of Cooperatives
Absence of network among Cooperatives
Low incidence of IT Technology
Credit facilities offered by the Societies to the farmers are inadequate. Processes are tardy.
Share of Cooperatives in Agriculture Credit is low and still declining.
In majority of the societies, Non-Credit services to the farmers are either marginal or absent.

38
PACS(Primary Agriculture Coop Credit Societies) are being viewed as lending institutions
supported by Government rather than as structures owned by them. They are not being
viewed as Business entities for collective benefit.
Lack of member involvement and participation.
Lack of member confidence in the societies. Members not willing to keep deposits with the
society rather prefer Banks for it.
Poor quality of Human Resources.
PACS could not develop into sustainable business entities in spite of the restructuring
package.
Best practices:
Agriculture credit societies diversifying their services and providing end to end services to the
farmers. e.g., Mulkanoor Society in Karimnagar District providing everything required to the
farmers family.
Primary Agriculture Cooperative Societies (PACS) operating on professional and business
lines and competing with the private sector units. e.g., PACS operating Petrol Bunks, RO
Plants, Rice Mills etc.,
PACS supporting the Government in grain procurement.
PACS preventing distress sale by providing warehousing capacity.
PACS catering to the financial needs of the farmers by providing Gold Loans and other
banking services and thus helping in Financial inclusion (functioning like Rural Banks).
Provision of necessary Training and extension services.
Welfare of the members of the society.
Innovations:
1) Conversion of PACS into Multi Service Centres (MSCs)
New initiative of NABARD introduced during 2012-13 aimed at transforming PACS into One
Stop Shop for all the services
Separate line of refinance from NABARD
Grant assistance for establishment of PDCs (PACS Development Cells)
PDCs established in Mahabubnagar, Nizamabad and Khammam DCCBs
Establishment of Farmer Literacy Centres for PACS.
2) Accreditation of Godowns/Warehouses:
NABARDs initiative for facilitating post harvest credit
Provide for meeting immediate cash requirement to farmers and enable them avoiding
distress sale
Financing against Negotiable Warehouse receipts was launched first time in the country in
Pothangal PACS of Nizamabad district
So far 82 eligible societies have applied for Accreditation out of which 29 PACS have been
issued accreditation certificates in the State.

39
3. Greater Role to PACS in grain procurement:
Recommendations:

% of LT loan lending should be increased for higher investment in agriculture sector.

Scale of finance in SAO Loans to be increased.

Infusion of share capital contribution and substantial working capital immediately for taking up
diversified activities.

Identifying the Primary Agriculture Coop. Societiesas exclusive nodal agencies at Mandal
level for supply of all types of agricultural inputs and for activities of Agros Corporation, Seeds
Corporation & Horticulture Schemes.

Identifying the Primary Agriculture Coop. Societiesas nodal agency for MSP operation and
supporting with funds and other facilities.

Establishing localized seed processing/production infrastructure at identified PACS.

PACS to be identified as Nodal Agency for Agri- extension activities for Education & Training.

To notify all PACS as Fair Price Shops outlets.

Earmarking of at least 10 Acres of land to each PACS in the Jurisdiction of the Society and at
least 1 Acre in the Head Quarters of the Society by the Government, so that necessary
infrastructure can be built for converting them into Multi Services Centres (MSC)

Strengthening of infrastructure in the societies. Construction of godowns in Primary


Agriculture Coop. Societies for storage of agricultural produce, procurement.

Extending the HR support to the societies

Making the PACS fully computerized and networked.

Rationalization and Re-organisation of PACS so that they are accessible as well as viable.

Establishment of soil testing labs along with technical man power at identified PACS.

Rationalization of 3-tier credit system.

Strengthening Cooperative Education & Training

PACS should also mobilize own resources like Share Capital for taking up non credit activities

Provision of Soft Loan and Grants to encourage the Agricultural Societies

Activities of PACS to be made visible by targeted publicity.

40
Financial Requirement:
(Rs. in Crores)
Sl. Nature of Institution to be
2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 Total
No assistance financed
1 2 4 6 7 8 9 10
Primary Agriculture
Share Capital
Coop. Societies &
1 Contribution 22.91 22.91 22.93 22.91 95.70
Dist. Coop.
refundable
Marketing Societies
Primary Agriculture
Working Capital Coop. Societies &
2 167.00 167.00 167.00 0.00 501.00
as one time grant Dist. Coop.
Marketing Societies
Grant-in-Aid for Primary Agriculture
creation of Coop. Societies &
3 69.31 76.24 83.88 93.11 322.54
storage Dist. Coop.
infrastructure Marketing Societies
Grant in Aid (50%
Primary Agriculture
as HR Grant)
Coop. Societies &
4 provisioning for 18.60 18.60 18.60 18.60 74.40
Dist. Coop.
hiring skilled
Marketing Societies
manpower
Grant-in-Aid
Primary Agriculture
(Provision of IT
Coop. Societies &
5 Infrastructure) for 13.81 13.81 13.81 13.83 55.26
Dist. Coop.
creation of IT
Marketing Societies
infrastructure
Cooperative
Grant-in-Aid to be
Marketing
6 used as Working 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 400.00
Federation
Capital
(MARKFED)
Grant-in-Aid to Cooperative
7 be used as Housing Federation 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00 100.00
Working Capital (HOUSEFED)
Grant-in-Aid
towards
conducting State Cooperative
8 10.61 10.40 11.44 12.58 45.03
training programs Union
for MC Members
and Employees
Grant-in-Aid for
creation of other
Primary Agriculture
9 infrastructure like 45.00 45.00 45.00 45.00 180.00
Coop. Societies
Agro Processing
units & Rice mills
Grant-in-Aid for Telangana State
10 onward lending to Cooperative Apex 200.00 200.00 200.00 200.00 800.00
PACS Bank Ltd., (TSCAB)
Total 672.24 678.96 687.66 531.03 2573.93

41
2. FISHERIES:
The Fisheries Department is having vast fishery potential under reservoirs, tank and ponds.
There are 78 reservoirs having water spread area of 1.89 Lakh Ha, 35031 tanks having water spread
area of 4.02 Lakh Ha., and 474 ponds having water spread area of 781 Ha., In addition to this 5573
Kms of rivers and canals. The fishermen population of the state is 19.04 Lakh and there are 3732
Fishers Coop. Societies with a membership of 2,39,365.
Vision:
Optimal utilization of natural resources for fish production, promote freshwater aquaculture,
supported by infrastructure and trained manpower.
Mission:
Holistic development of the sector, with focus on enhancement of productivity and production,
self sufficiency in fish seed demand, supply of fish at an affordable price in hygienic condition and
render welfare schemes to fishers.
Resources

Water resources
Total Number of reservoirs 78
Water spread area ( ha ) 1.89 Lakh ha. ,
Large > 5000 ha 8 (1.36 Lakh Ha.)
Medium 1000-5000 Ha 17 (0.28 Lakh Ha.)
Small < 1000 ha 53 (0.22 Lakh Ha.)
Total Number of tanks 35031(4.02 Lakh Ha.)
PERENNIAL 438(0.38 Lakh Ha.)
LONG SEASONAL 3212(1.20 Lakh Ha)
Short Seasonal Tanks 31381(2.43) Lakh Ha. ,
Total Number of Aquaculture ponds 474
Area under culture in ponds 781 ha. ,
Productivity 3-4 Tons/ Ha/ year
Govt. Fish seed farms 28 Nos
Private Fish Seed farms 2
Fish Seed production (fry) 1585.00 Lakh
Rivers and Canals 5573 Kms
Fishermen population 19.04 Lakh
Source District Fisheries Officers
District wise requirement of fish seed
Total
Total Effective Present
Water Fish seed
S.N no. of Water fish seed
District spread requireme Gap
o water Spread production
area in nt (Fry)
bodies area in Ha in the Dist.
Ha.
1 Adilabad 6667 76971.00 28545.00 1410.41 75.00 1335.41
2 Hyderabad 1 40.00 20.00 1.00 10.00 -9.00
3 Karimnagar 1843 46584.00 27001.50 1348.9575 625.00 723.96
4 Khammam 2156 40311.29 16732.41 774.4175 66.00 708.42
5 Medak 6082 92575.58 48234.39 955.60 75.00 880.60

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6 Mahabubnagar 5987 110562.00 41983.75 2099.18 95.00 2004.18
7 Nalgonda 4629 71798.00 38529.00 1799.50 14.00 1785.50
8 Nizamabad 2797 62768.23 39206.61 1160.00 165.00 995.00
9 Ranga reddy 1412 11467.80 5735.40 286.77 50.00 236.77
10 Warangal 3535 78412.47 30706.54 1535.33 410.00 1125.33
Total 35109 591490.4 276694.6 11371.16 1585.00 9786.16

Strategies to meet the fish seed demand in next four years:


Strengthening of existing Govt. Fish Seed Farms
Construction of New Large Scale Fish Seed Farms
Establishment of State Fish Brood Bank
Encouraging the entrepreneurs/fish farmers for construction of Fish Seed Farms in private
sector
Broad areas of improvements
There is a dire need to improve the productivity of water bodies through stocking of fish seed
(advanced fingerlings of 80-100 mm)
There is a need to improve the existing fish seed farms and establish new fish seed farm in
both government and private sectors
To introduce new technologies like Pen and cage culture to increase fish production
To concentrate on modernization of fish markets and establishment of new markets
To encourage mobile fish markets
To take up capacity building of fishers in a big way
Enactment of Telangana State Fisheries Act.
(4) year Action Plan for implementation
It is proposed to strengthen all the existing Govt. Fish seed farm- 28
Establish new fish seed farms in Government and private sector- 20
Establishment of rearing ponds in 100 Ha.,
Establishment of State Fresh Water Fish Brood Bank- One
Introduce new technologies like Pen and Cage culture in reservoirs to increase production-20
Establishment of wholesale markets-10
Establishment of retail markets -100
Establishment of mobile markets 5000
Capacity building to fishers -10,000
Empowerment of fisherwomen both technically and financially with the help of MS
Swaminathan Research foundation, Chennai
Implementation of welfare schemes such as Group Accident insurance scheme, Savings-cum-
Relief, housing, community halls etc.

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Targets for fish and prawn production for next (4) years
In tons
Prawn
Year Fish production Total
production
2013-14 Achievement 243037 6596 249633
2015-16 Target 288751 7765 296516
2016-17 Target 311851 8386 320237
2017-18 Target 336799 9056 345855
2018-19 Target 363742 9780 373522
Ongoing and New schemes:
Budget projection for 4 years -2015-16-2018-19 under different schemes:

(Rs.. in lakhs)

Name of the scheme 2015-16 2015-17 2017-18 2018-19 Total


Centrally Sponsored schemes 0.00 1368.00 1468.00 1468.00 4304.00
Normal State Plan schemes 5057.63 7704.17 7749.17 7749.17 28260.14
Total of Plan schemes 5057.63 9072.17 9217.17 9217.17 32564.14
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana(RKVY) 400.61 532.10 602.80 618.00 2153.51
National Fisheries Development Board
(NFDB) 1110.90 1160.90 1160.90 1160.90 4593.60
GRAND TOTAL 6569.14 10765.17 10980.87 10996.07 39311.25

3. SERICULTURE:

Sericulture in Telangana State is a sustainable farm based economic enterprise positively


favouring the rural poor in the unorganized sector because of its relatively low requirement of fixed
capital, and higher returns at frequent intervals on the investment. It yields regular returns of 4 to 5
times totaling to Rs. 1.00 lakh to Rs. 1.25 lakh, from one acre of mulberry in a year. The soils and
weather is very much suitable for the development of Sericulture. Telangana State has the privilege
of producing (2) types of silk called Mulberry & Tasar.
Vision:
To place Telangana State as one of the leading states in silk production, by meeting domestic
requirements first and catering to exports of silk and silk garments later.
To promote sericulture as an alternate and viable option (cash crop) to meet the challenges of
agrarian crisis.
To promote as rural livelihoods for employment creation and poverty alleviation through
Sericulture and Vanya silk sector.
Mission:
Prioritize production of Bi-Voltine silk.
Improve productivity slowly to 70 kgs per 100 dfls
Improve quality and quantity of Mulberry and Tasar silks.
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Focus on creation of 8 to10 Clusters and integrate farm and non-farm activities within the
Cluster / District for production of Bivoltine Silk.
Leaf to cloth approach for development of Bivoltine silk production in Nalgonda &
Mahabubnagar Districts.
The Department adopts Life cycle approach for balanced growth of farmers, reelers and silk
weavers.
Eco-friendly production process in Mulberry cultivation to help reduce Climate change.
Strategy:
Sericulture Department is striving to achieve higher productivity through
Area expansion of Mulberry crop
Increased investments
Strengthening of extension efforts through continuous trainings and vigorous publicity.
Technology adoption and adaptations
Cluster approach in pre & post cocoon sectors (i.e. Mulberry cultivation, Silkworm rearing, Silk
reeling, Twisting, Weaving sectors)
Providing production incentives and subsidies in pre & post cocoon sectors
Convergence approach for maximizing the results. Linking with MG-NREGS, APMIP,
NABARD, RKVY, ATMA, and other schemes.

BROAD AREAS OF IMPROVEMENT:


Sericulture department is striving to achieve higher productivity through:
Area expansion of mulberry crop
Increased investments
Strengthening extension efforts through training and publicity
Technology adoption and adaptations
a. Supply of saplings for all the mulberry plantations
b. Supply of chawkie worms to all sericulture farmers to reduce period and to get higher returns
Establishment of reeling and twisting units to create market
Production incentives and subsidies in pre & post cocoon sectors
Convergence approach for maximizing results. Linking with NABARD, RKVY, ATMA, MG-
NREGS, APMIP and other schemes
Formation of community based organizations for development of sericulture
ISSUES AND FOCUS AREAS:
Area expansion with High Yielding variety.
Cluster approach in pre & post cocoon sectors (i.e. Mulberry cultivation, Silk worm rearing,
Silk reeling, Twisting, Weaving sectors)
Promotion of Drip Irrigation to all the mulberry fields.
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Production of quality Bivoltine silk.
Development of integrated reeling, twisting & weaving sectors.
Formation of community based organizations to increase productivity and to strengthen
reeling, twisting and weaving etc., (soil to silk).
Development of Vanya silks, in the field of T.Arjuna plantations, seed organisation, post
cocoon sector and modernization of looms.
Ensuring market tie-up to the produce.
GAPS FOR THE GROWTH OF SERICULTURE:
1. Indiscriminate import of raw silk from China leading to severe fluctuations in cocoon / raw silk
prices, need to be curbed.
2. Region specific and season specific high yielding silkworm races suitable for climatic
conditions of Telangana State are not evolved.
3. For construction of separate silkworm rearing shed, when material cost was low, subsidy was
up to 50%. Now, the material cost is high and subsidy is reduced to 30% from 50%. The
subsidy needs to be enhanced.
4. Shortage of technical staff due to large scale retirements in the department since two years.
5. No provision for construction of rearing sheds under MG-NREGS.

Year wise proposed Action Plan (Physical):

It is proposed to bring additional area of 14500 acres of mulberry plantation by 2019 with
supporting infrastructure. It is envisaged to produce 3480 MTs of B.V. cocoons & 3360 MTs of C.B.
cocoons in the state of Telangana.

Area to be
S. Name of the
covered year 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19
No. Scheme/Sector
wise.
1 Mulberry Plantation 14,5000 2500 3500 4000 4500
acres
2 Non-Mulberry Plantation 500 acres 100 125 125 150

3 Production of Tasar 220 230 250 260


Cocoons (in lakh nos)

Year wise proposed Action Plan (Financial)


(Rs. in Lakh)
S.No. Name of the 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 Total
Scheme/Sector
1 Mulberry Sector 2521.38 3132.70 3631.38 4173.45 13458.91
2 Non-Mulberry Sector 206.86 249.66 292.46 335.26
1084.24
3 Innovative Schemes 161.88 123.58 131.09 246.19
662.74
Total 2890.12 3505.94 4054.93 4754.9 15205.89
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The total financial requirement to implement the proposed schemes is Rs. 22333.23
crores from 2015-16 to 2018-19 as given below.

Sl. Financial Requirements (Rs. in Crores)


Department / Agency
No. 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18 2018-19 Total

1 Agriculture 2204.66 2356.92 2525.17 2711.61 9798.36

2 PJTSA University 28.05 8.39 5.02 3.89 45.35

3 Horticulture 718.80 1079.80 1147.30 1205.80 4151.70

4 Horticulture University 918.86 235.89 193.58 212.69 1561.02

5 Animal Husbandry 405.84 455.01 436.77 471.11 1768.73

6 S.P.V.N.R Veterinary University 69.00 52.00 51.00 51.00 223.00

7 Fisheries 65.69 107.65 109.81 109.96 393.11

8 Sericulture 28.90 35.06 40.55 47.55 152.06

9 Cooperation 672.24 678.96 687.66 531.03 2569.89

10 Agricultural Marketing 417.50 417.50 417.50 417.50 1670.00

Total 5529.54 5427.18 5614.36 5762.14 22333.23

***

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