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Numbers Example

1.1 TYPE OF NUMBERS - POSITIVE AND Natural Numbers (N) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

NEGATIVE INTEGER counting numbers

a set of zero together with

Numbers that can be expressed as the natural numbers

decimals

Real Number System: Rational Numbers (Q) 8 0 5

any number that can be , , ,7

Consist of positive and 4 9 3

negative natural numbers a

written in the form of

including 0 b

Example: where a and b are integers

with b 0

, -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

All numbers including natural a) Terminates: end in an 3

numbers, whole numbers, infinite string 0 = 0.75

4

integers, rational numbers 65

and irrational numbers are = 65

1

real numbers

Example: 10

b) Repeats: end with a block = 3.3333...

of digits that repeat over 3

4 = 4.0000...

and over 5

= 0.8333...

5 6

= 0.8333...

6

Irrational Numbers (I)

- the decimal represented of 0.1010010000100001...

1 irrational numbers do not

= 0.5000... 3 = 1.7320508075...

2 repeat in cycles (pattern)

log10 5 = 0.698970004336...

3 = 1.37050...

Prime Numbers

- any natural number, 2,3, 5, 7,11,13,...

Real Numbers can be greater than 1, only divisible

represented geometrically as by itself and 1

points on a number line called

Integers (Z)

Real Line

any positive and negative ..., 3, 2, 1, 0,1, 2, 3,...

Example natural number including 0

Zero

the number zero 0

represents none or

nothing

Even Numbers

any number that is 2, 4, 6,8,10,...

divisible by 2

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2 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

any number that is not 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,...

divisible by 2 The LCM of a set of integers is the smallest

Composite Numbers integer that they will all divide into.

natural numbers but not a 1, 4, 6,8, 9,10,12,...

prime number To find LCM:

1.2 FACTORS, MULTIPLES, HIGHEST integer

COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST List them in column

COMMON MULTIPLY For each column, write down the

value of the factor

Some natural numbers can be produced by Multiply the values together to get

multiplying smaller natural numbers together. the LCM

These smaller numbers are called factors.

Example:

Example:

Find the LCM of 10, 15, 45 and 75

12 = 3 x 4 = 6 x 2 = 12 x 1

LCM

The number 12 above has been factorized in 3 10 2 5

different ways. The numbers 12 is known as a 15 3 5

multiple of 3 or 4 or 2 or 6, etc 45 3 3 5

75 3 5 5

HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR (HCF) 2 3 3 5 5 450

integer which is a factor of each of them. 1.3 ARITHMETIC OPERATION (BEDMAS)

integer are:

List them in column + Addition

Find the full columns (these are the

common factors) - Subtraction

Multiply all the common factors to x Multiplication

get the HCF

Division

Example:

ORDER OF OPERATIONS

HCF

When a calculation involves more than one

24 2 2 2 3

28 2 2 7 operation, the order in which the numbers

40 2 2 2 5 are combined is important. The sequence in

2 2 4 which operations are preformed is called

BEDMAS

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3 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

must be evaluated before

performing any other In order to add/subtract fractions, the

operation denominators must be the same number but

E Exponent - the power of the number if the fractions do not have the same

D Division or denominator, then one or all of the

M Multiplication - whichever appears first denominators must be changed so that every

from left to right

fraction has a common denominator.

A Addition or

S Subtraction - whichever appears first Example:

from left to right

1 2 7 + 6 13

+ = =

Note: The correct answer to a calculation is 3 7 21 21

obtained only if the precedence is right.

Example:

Example:

Find the total thickness of a panel made from

Calculate 3

inch thick aluminum, which has a paint

32

23 3 (8 6)

1

coating that is inch thick.

64

3

A fraction is a number written in the form N/D airplane can handle solids that are 4 feet

4

where N is called the numerator and D is 1

called the denominator. long. If the rear seats are removed, then 2

3

The denominator of a fraction cannot be a feet are added to the cargo area. What is the

zero. For example, the fraction 2/0 is not total length of the cargo area when the rear

allowed. seats are removed?

2 Proper fraction

3

7 Improper fraction

3

2 Mixed number

1

3

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4 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Example: Example:

2 1 1 =

7 1 2 3

an airplane is inch inch. What is the

8 5

minimum droop to which the aileron can be

rigged?

common denominator. To divide fractions,

first change the division symbol to

Example:

multiplication. Next, invert the second

What is the length of the grip of the bolt fraction. Then, multiply the fractions.

shown in figure below?

Example:

7 4 7 3 21

= =

8 3 8 4 32

Example:

2 3 9

1

3 5 10

1

The overall length of the bolt is 3 inches,

2

1

the shank length is 3 inches, and the

8 DECIMALS

5

threaded portion is 1 inches long. The number system that we use every day is

16

called the decimal system. Like whole

numbers, decimal numbers also have place

value. The place values are based on power

10, as shown in figure below.

common denominator. To multiply fractions,

first multiply the numerators. Then, multiply

the denominators

Example:

3 7 1 3 7 1 21

= =

5 8 2 5 8 2 80

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5 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

3 Terminating decimal what is the wattage of an electric drill that

= 1.5

2 uses 9.45 amperes from a 120 volt source?

4 Non-terminating decimals

= 1.3333... Significant figures

3

Ex: 7.6183 (3 s.f) = 7.62

Decimal places

Ex: 7.6183 (3 d.p) =

7.618 Example:

Operation of Decimals

feet and its span is 40.4 feet. Find the mean

Example: chord of its wing using the formula:

A series circuit containing two resistors has a Area span = mean chord

total resistance (RT) of 37.272 ohms. One of

the resistors (R1) has a value of 14.88 ohms.

What is the value of the other resistor (R2)?

Find the total resistance for the circuit In some cases it is desirable to express a

diagram shown in figure below. The total decimal to fewer places. This type of

resistance of a series circuit is equal to the approximation is called rounding off. There

sum of the individual resistances are four commonly used rules for rounding off

decimals:

dropped is less than 5, then the last

retained digit is unchanged.

Ex: Round off 3.1416 to two decimal

places 3.14

dropped is greater than 5, then the

last retained digit is increased by 1.

Ex: Round off 0.4536 to three decimal

places 0.454

is 5 followed by zeros, then the last

retained digit kept unchanged if it is

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6 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

then it is increased by 1.

Ex: Round off 16.450 to one decimal An actuator shaft is 2.1938 inches in

place 16.4 diameter. Round to the nearest tenth.

Ex: Round off 193.73500 to two The digit in the tenths column is a 1. The

decimal places 193.74 digit to the right of the 1 is 9. Since 9 is

greater than or equal to 5, round up the

Rule 4: If the first digit to be dropped 1 to a 2. Therefore, 2.1938 rounded to the

is 5 followed by a nonzero digit, then nearest tenth is 2.2

the last retained digit is increased by

1 Example:

Ex: Round off 2.8530 to one decimal

The outside diameter of a bearing is

place 2.9

2.1938 inches. Round to the nearest

Reading Significant Figures hundredth.

measurement can be ascertained by the use

The length of a bushing is 2.1938 inches.

of the following rules:

Round to the nearest thousandth.

The first s.f in measurement is the

first digit other than zero, counting

from left to right. In the measurement 1.5 AVERAGE AND PERCENTAGES

29.84 ml, the first s.f is 2

Zeros to the left of the first nonzero AVERAGE

digit are not significant. In the

To find the average of a set of quantities, add

measurement 0.002335 g/cm3, the

the quantities together and divide by the

zeros to the left of 2 are not

number of quantities in the set. Thus,

significant. There are four s.f in this

measurement. sum of the quantities

Zeros which occur between 2 Average = number of quantities

significant digits are significant since

they are part of the measurement. In Example:

the measurement 30.0809 g, the

A student falls asleep in every lesson, the

zeros are significant figures because

following number of times: 8, 20, 3, 0, 5, 9,

they occur between the digit 3 and 9.

15 and 12. What is his average per lesson?

There are 6 s.f in this measurement.

Final zeros in measurements Average score

containing decimal fractions are 8 + 20 + 3 + 0 + 5 + 9 + 15 + 12

= 8

significant. Thus is the measurement

7.0 sec the final zero is significant; it 72

= 8

indicates that the measurement was

=9

precise to one-tenth of a second and

has 2 s.f. The measurement 7.00 sec is

more precise and has 3 s.f.

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7 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

7750

Find the average age of a team of boys given = 500 = 15.5 years

that four of them are each 15 years 4 months

old and the other three boys are each 14 Average Speed

years 9 months old.

The average speed is defined as total distance

Total age of 4 boys at 15 years 4 months travelled divided by the total time taken.

= 61 years 4 months. The unit of speed depends on the unit of

distance and the unit of time. For instance, if

Total age of 3 boys at 14 years 9 months the distance travelled is in kilometers (km)

= 44 years 3 months. and the time taken is in hours (h) then the

speed will be stated in kilometers per hour

Total age of all 7 boys (km/h). If the distance is given in meter (m)

= 105 years 7 months. and the time in seconds (s) then the speed is

in meters per second (m/s).

105 years 7 months

Average age = 7 Example:

= 15 years 1 month.

A car travels a total distance of 200 km in 4

Example: hours. What is its average speed?

distance travelled

Average speed = time taken

The average age of the lecturers in the faculty

is 39 years and their total age is 1170 years, 200

= 4

whereas the pupils whose average age is 14

years have a total age 6580 years. Find the = 50 km/h

average age of all the people in the faculty.

Example:

The first step is to find the number of

teachers: An aircraft travels a total distance of 750 km

in a time of 3 hours 45 minutes. What is the

Number of teachers: average speed in km/hr?

total age of the teachers

= average age of the teachers

750

1170 Average speed = = 200km / hr

3.75

= 39 = 30

Example:

We now find the number of pupils:

6580 An aircraft uses 300 gallons of fuel for a flight

= 14 = 470

of duration 4 hours. What is the average fuel

consumption?

We can now find the average age of people in

the faculty. Average Fuel Consumption =

= 75 gallons / hour

= 1170 + 6580 = 7750 years 4

= 30 + 470 = 500

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8 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Example: Example:

A train travels for 4 hours at an average speed 22% of a certain length is 55 cm. What is the

of 64 km/h. For the first 2 hours its average complete length?

speed is 50 km/h. What is its average speed

for the last 2 hours? 1% of the length = 55/22 cm = 2.5 cm

Complete length = 100 x 2.5 cm = 250 cm

Total distance travelled in 4 hours

= average speed time taken Example:

= 64 4

= 256 km What percentage is 37 of 264? Give the

answer correct to 5 s.f

Distance travelled in first two hours

= 50 2 = 100 km Percentage = 37/264 x 100 = 14.015%

Example:

Distance travelled in last two hours

= 256 - 100 = 156 km A small engine rated at 12 horsepower is

found to be delivering only 10.75 horsepower.

Average speed for the last two hours What is the motor efficiency expressed as a

distance travelled 156 percent?

= time taken = 2 = 78 km/h

PERCENTAGE

percentage. The sign % is usually used

Example:

instead the words per cent.

Eighty ohms represents 52% of a

Example:

microphones total resistance. Find the total

Express the following decimal numbers as a resistance of this microphone.

percent:

Example:

lights were defective. How many of the lights

were defective?

15% of 80 lights = N

N = 0.15 x 80 = 12

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9 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

1.6 RATIO AND PROPORTION pinion gear has 8 teeth and a spur gear has

28 teeth. The gear ration is 8:28 or 2:7.

A ratio is the comparison of two numbers or

quantities. A ratio may be expressed in three

ways: as a fraction, with a colon, or with the

word to

Example:

the following: Speed ratio. When two gears are used in an

aircraft component, the rotational speed of

5/7 or 5:7 or 5 to 7

each gear is represented as a speed ratio. As

Ratios have widespread application in the the number of teeth in a gear decreases, the

field of aviation. For example: rotational speed of that gear increases, and

vice versa. Therefore, the speed ratio of two

Compression ratio on a reciprocating engine is gears is the inverse (or opposite) of the gear

the ratio of the volume of a cylinder with the ratio. If two gears have a gear ratio of 2:9,

piston at the bottom of its stroke to the then their speed ratio is 9:2

volume of the cylinder with the piston at the

top of its stroke. For example, a typical Example:

compression ratio might be 10:1

1

Express the ratio 4 : in its lowest terms

Aspect ratio is the ratio of the length (or 4

span) of an airfoil to its width (or chord). A

typical aspect ratio for a commercial airliner 1 1 4

4: = 4 = 4 = 16

might be 7:1 4 4 1

1

Air-fuel ratio is the ratio of the weight of the 4 : = 16 :1

4

air to the weight of fuel in the mixture being

fed into the cylinders of a reciprocating Example:

engine. For example, a typical air-fuel ratio

Two lengths are in the ratio 8:5. If the first

might be 14.3:1

length is 120 meters, what is the second

Glide ratio is the ratio of the forward length?

distance traveled to the vertical distance

descended when an aircraft is operating

5

The second length = of the first length

without power. For example, if an aircraft 8

descends 1,000 feet while it travels through

5

the air for a distance of two liners miles = 120 = 75 meters

8

(10,560 feet), it has a glide ratio of

10,560:1,000 which can be reduce to 10.56:1 Example:

Gear ratio is the number of teeth each gear A pinion gear with 10 teeth is driving a spur

represents when two gears are used in an gear with 40 teeth. The spur gear is rotating at

aircraft component. In figure below, the 160 rpm. Determine the speed of the pinion

gear.

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10 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

the number of days required must be

A proportion is a statement of equality

4

between two or more ratios. For example,

increased in the ratio 3

3 6

= or 3 : 4 = 6 : 8 Number of days required

4 8

= 12 = 16 days

3

3 is to4 as 6 is to 8

Example:

Extremes and Means

An aircraft carries 2880 liters of fuel

The first and last terms of the proportion (the distributed in three tanks in the ratio 3 : 5: 4.

Find the quantity in each tank.

3 and 8 in this example) are called the

extremes. The second and third terms (the 4

and 6 in this example) are called the means. In

any proportion, the product of the extremes

is equal to the product of the means.

extremes, 2 x 6 is 12; the product of the

An airplane flying a distance of 300 miles used

means, 3 x 4 is also 12. An inspection of any

24 gallons of gasoline. How many gallons will

proportion will show this to be true. it need to travel 750 miles?

Example:

65 X

=

80 100

1.7 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION

65 100

X = = 81.25 DECIMAL POINT RELOCATION

80

Scientific notation is used as a type of

Example:

shorthand to express very large or very small

20 men working at BA, Filton produce 3000 numbers. It is a way to write numbers so that

components in 12 working days. How long will they do not take up as much space on the

it take 15 men to produce the 3000 page. The format of a number written in

components? scientific notation is the decimal point is

always placed to the right of the first digit.

The number of men is reduced in the ratio

Notice that very large numbers always have a

15 3 positive power of 10 and very small numbers

=

20 4 always have a negative power of 10.

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11 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

5.817 x 103

mantissa exponent

Example:

ARITHMETIC OPERATION IN SCIENTIFIC

The velocity of the speed of light is over NOTATION

186,000,000 mph. this can be expressed as

1.86 x 108 mph in scientific notation. To add, subtract, multiply or divide numbers

in scientific notation, change the scientific

Example: notation number back to standard notation.

Then, add, subtract, multiply or divide the

The mass of an electron is approximately

standard notation numbers. After the

0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,911

computation, change the final standard

grams. This can be expressed in scientific

notation number back to scientific notation.

notation as 9.11 x 10-28

Example:

Example:

to scientific notation = ( 2.3 + 3.7 ) 104

= 6.0 104

Remember that small numbers (those less

than one) will have a negative exponent. Numbers having the same exponent can be

Therefore, 0.000000457 = 4.57 x 10-7 added or subtracted in standard notation by

adding or subtracting the mantissae and

Example:

keeping the exponent the same.

Convert 3.68 x 107 from scientific notation to

Example:

standard notation

When the numbers have different exponents,

Example:

one way of adding or subtracting the numbers

Convert 7.1543 x 10-10 from scientific notation is to express one of the numbers in non-

to standard notation standard notation, so that both numbers have

the same exponent.

When converting always remember that large

= 2.3 104 + 0.37 104

numbers always have positive powers of ten

= ( 2.3 + 0.37 ) 104

and small numbers always have negative

powers of ten. Refer to table below to = 2.67 104

OR

determine which direction to move the

decimal point

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12 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

2.3 104 + 3.7 103 slug, which is rarely used. The mass center of

= 23000 + 3700 an object is where the balance point is.

= 26700

WEIGHT is a force, which arises when a mass

= 2.67 104

is acted on by gravity. The metric unit of

weight should technically be the Newton (N),

Example: which is the unit of force, but commonly it is

the kilogram of mass that is used to measure

The laws of indices are used when multiplying

weight in the metric system because gravity is

or dividing numbers given in scientific

about the same everywhere on the Earth. The

notation

English unit of weight is the pound (lb.)

( 2.5 10 ) ( 5 10 )

3 2

LENGTH in the metric system is measured by

= ( 2.5 5 ) (10 ) 3+ 2

meters (m) and in the English system by feet

(ft.). A mile is 5280 feet or 1609 meters (1.6

= 12.5 105 or 1.25 106

kilometers).

6 10 4

CONVERSION TABLE

1.5 10 2

6 An easier way of converting a given measure

= (10 4 2 )

1.5 (the existing measure) to an equivalent

= 4 10 2 measure (the desired measure) in the metric

system is by means of a conversion factor.

The value of this factor is obtained by dividing

the multiplying factor of the existing measure

1.8 MEASUREMENT AND CONVERSION

by the multiplying factor of the desired

FACTOR

measure. The number of desired units is

BASIC CONCEPTS obtained by multiplying the existing units by

the conversion factor.

To measure a physical quantity means to

compare it in size (magnitude) with a similar Example:

standard quantity called unit.

Express 0.235 meters in millimeters

A measurement is the ratio of the magnitude

1 mm = 10-3 m 1 m = 103 mm

of any physical quantity to that of a standard.

Therefore, 0.235 m = 103 x 0.235 mm

Mensuration is the process of making a

= 235 mm

measurement. Mensuration involves counting

either whole units or their fraction. The Example:

choice of units depends on convenience,

tradition or law. Convert 3.5 milligrams (mg) to kilograms.

MASS is the quantity of matter in the thing

multiplying factor of milligrams is 10-3. Since

you are studying. The metric unit of

we want to convert milligrams to kilograms

measurement of mass is the kilogram (kg),

(the desired measure), the multiplying factor

which is 1000 grams. The English unit is the

of this desired measure is 103. Dividing these

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13 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

stated above, we have

Example:

3 3 3 ( 3 ) 6

10 10 = 10 = 10

Convert from binary number to decimal

-6

The conversion factor is 10

1101.12

-6

Therefore, 3.5 milligrams x (10 = 1 23 + 1 22 + 0 21 + 1 20 + 1 21

-6

kilogram/milligram) = 3.5 x 10 kilograms. 1

= 8 + 4 + 0 +1+

2

= 13.5

1.9 BASE NUMBER 1101.12 = 13.510

BINARY NUMBER 101.01012

The most popular of these systems is the = 1 2 2 + 0 21 + 1 20 + 0 2 1 + 1 2 2

Binary (Bi means two), which operates with + 0 2 3 + 1 2 4

the powers of 2 instead of 10 as in the 1 1

decimal system. = 4 + 0 +1+ 0 + + 0 +

4 16

It will be noticed in the decimal system that = 5.312510

the greatest digit used is 9 which is one less 101.01012 = 5.312510

than 10. Thus, in the binary system the

Conversion of Decimal to Binary

greatest digit that can be used is 1 which is

one less than 2. Example:

A number written in binary consists only at 1. For round number

the digits 0 and 1.

- The system of - Digits 0 and

number that we 1

use everyday - Radix 2

- 10 different digits

(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)

- Radix or base 10

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14 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

- Digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7

Octal

Example:

number, via octal

other calculating machines. Since only the

digits 0 and 1 re used in the system this is

equivalent to two-state system. For instance if

a device is off it represents as 0 and if it is

on a 1 is represented. The figure below

shows how the number 10110 can be

represented by 5 electric light bulbs.

for electronic counting systems because

electronic circuits which can be set to one of Example:

two states are made very simple, whereas

Convert the given decimal number given to

circuits with more than two states, although

binary numbers, via octal

possible, are much more complex and less

reliable.

371410

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15 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

number by writing down the three bit (binary = 256 + 176 + 15

digit) corresponding to the octal digit. = 447

1BF16 = 44710

Octal Digit Natural Binary

3. 1A4 E16

Number

0 000 = 1 163 + A 162 + 4 161 + E 160

1 001

= 1 163 + 10 162 + 4 161 + 14 160

2 010

3 011 = 4096 + 2560 + 64 + 14

4 100 = 6734

5 101

1A4 E16 = 673410

6 110

7 111

Conversion of Decimal to

Hexadecimal

Example:

Example:

1.

HEXADECIMAL NUMBER

- 16 distinct digits:

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E

and F

- A corresponds to 10 in the denary 2.

system, B to 11 and so on

Conversion of Hexadecimal to

Decimal

Example:

1. = 1 161 + 10 160

= 16 + 10 = 26

1A16 = 2610

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16 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Example:

Hexadecimal by using table in Figure 1.8

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17 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

01010 This 1 + 1 = 2

Example: + 10111

Write 0 and carry 1

001

1 1 (the carry) + 1 = 2

01010 This 2 + 0 = 2

+ 10111

Write 0 and carry 1

0001

1 1 (the carry) + 0 = 1

01010 This 1 + 1 = 2

+ 10111

Write 0 and carry 1

100001

Example:

10001

111

0

1-1=0

"10" Since we cannot subtract 1

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF BINARY 10001 from 0, we borrow 1 unit

NUMBERS 111 from the next higher unit.

This is equivalent to 2

When adding or subtracting binary numbers, 10

write 1 since 1 1 = 0

we can follow a process similar to the one 1 The next 0 becomes 1

used for adding or subtracting decimal 10001

numbers but using the rules of addition 111

shown in table below write 0 since 1 1 = 0

010

1 The next 0 also becomes 1

Addition of Binary Numbers 10001

0+0=0 111

0+1=1 write 0 since 1 1 = 0

1+0=1 1010

1 + 1 = 0 with a carry of 1 0 1 (the carry) + 0 = 1

10001 This 1 + 1 = 2

111

Example: Write 0 and carry 1

0 1010

Add the binary numbers 01010 and 10111

01010

+ 10111

1

0+1=1

01010 1+1=2

+ 10111 Two is written as 10 in

01

binary.

write 0 and carry 1

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18 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

c) 4 3 +1

NUMBERS 8 4 5

5 1

Multiplication and division of binary numbers d) 3 + 2 1

7 5

are carried out in the same way that both

operations are carried out in decimal. A

3 1 3

e) 1 2 3

multiplication, like A x B, is equivalent to the 5 3 7

addition of A to itself B times. Therefore, we 3 1

f) 5 7

can multiply two numbers successive 5 3

additions. Likewise, a division such as A/B can 1 2 1 3 1

g) +

be carried out by successive subtraction. Since 3 5 4 8 3

the computers have special hardware to do 2 1 2 1 3

additions and subtraction rapidly, any h) 1 + + 1

3 4 3 4 5

multiplication or division is carried out as an

addition or subtraction, respectively.

5. Solve the following problems

a) 46.32 97.17 0.01258 ,

EXERCISE correct to 4 d.p

1

FACTORS AND MULTIPLES b) ( 62.49 0.0172 ) , correct to 4

2

1. Find the HCF of the following sets of d.p

integers: 1

c) correct to 3 d.p

a) 270, 450, 1260 52.73

b) 8, 10, 12, 16 1 1

c) 35, 140, 420 d) + , correct to 3 d.p

4.92 1.97

2

2. Find the LCM of the following sets of ( 2.37 )

integers: e) correct to 3 d.p

0.0526

a) 3, 4, 5, 6

b) 7, 9, 10, 12 15

f) , correct to 3 d.p

c) 10, 33, 65, 169 7.6 4.8 2

2

3. Two lighthouses can be seen from the top

of a hill. h) 76.212 29.10 2 , correct to 4

The first flashes once every 8 seconds, s.f

and the other flashes once every 15

seconds. 6.092

i) correct to 3 s.f

25.2 7

correct to 4 s.f

4. Simplify the following without using

calculator. 6. In an electrical circuit the voltage V is

1 2 given by Ohms law : V = IR .

a) +

3 7

2 1 Determine correct to 4 s.f the voltage

b) 3 2

3 6 when I = 5.36 A and R = 14.76

SES

19 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

l absent

pendulum is given by t = 2 .

g

15. A student scores 36 marks out of 100 in

Determine the time, correct to 3 d.p,

an examination. What is her percentage

given that l = 12.0 and g = 9.81

mark? If the percentage needed to pass

the examination is 75%, how many marks

8. Resistance R2 is given by

are needed to pass?

R2 = R1 (1 + t ) determine R2 correct to

4 s.f, when 16. The current in a circuit increases from

0.80 A to 0.84 A when the voltage is

R1 = 220, = 0.00027, t = 75.6

increased from 12.0 V to a higher value.

a) What is the percent increase in

AVERAGE AND PERCENTAGE

the current?

b) If the percent increase in the

9. For the first 1 hours of a 91 km journey

voltage is same as that in the

the average speed was 30 km/h. If the

current, what is the new voltage?

average speed for the remainder of the

journey was 23 km/h, calculate the

17. The input power to a transformer is 46 W.

average speed for the entire journey.

The power delivered to the secondary is

42 W. What percent, to the nearer tenth,

10. A train travels between two towns 135

of the power is lost?

km apart in 4 hours. If on the return

journey the average speed is reduced by 3

18. A new drilling machine is safer to operate

km/h, calculate the time taken for the

but the time to drill one hole is increased

return journey.

by 18%. If drilling previously took 35s,

how long does it take with the new drill?

11. When 1,600 bolts are manufactured, 36

are unsatisfactory. Determine the RATIO AND PROPORTION

percentage unsatisfactory

19. What is the ratio of the rpm for the motor

12. Two kilograms of compound contains 30% to the rpm of the compressor in figure

of element A, 45% of element B and 25% below.

of element C. Determine the masses of

the three elements present.

part. Using a new type of tool, the time

can be reduced by 15%. Calculate the new

time taken. 20. Figure below shows a transformer with 3

turns in the primary coil and 6 turns in the

14. Express the following statements in the secondary coil. The turns ratio is 2:1. The

form of a percentage. ratio of output voltage to input voltage

a) 3 light bulbs are broken in a box the same as the turns ratio. If the input

containing 144 light bulbs

SES

20 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

voltage is 120V AC, what is the output 26. Express the number given as decimal

voltage (ignoring losses)? numbers/fractions/mixed numbers

2

a) 1.725 10

6.25 10 2

b)

4

c) 5.41 10

BASE NUMBERS

decimal numbers

a) 1110

21. A recipe of Beef Stroganoff quotes the 101101

b)

following amounts to serve four people:

0.01011

450 grams of rump steak, 3 tablespoons c)

flour, 4 tablespoons butter, 50 grams of 0.11001

d)

onion, 75 grams of mushrooms, 140 110101.0111

e)

grams of sour cream. What amounts

11010101.10111

should be used for six people? f)

22. 10 men produce 500 composite panels in 28. Convert the decimal numbers given to

5 working days. How long would it take 15 binary numbers

men to produce the same amount? a) 47.40625

30.8125

b)

23. MIAT Flying Centre employs 12 builders to 53.90625

c)

extend the hanger. They take 9 days to do

61.65625

the job. If they had employed 8 men how d)

long would it have taken them?

29. Convert the given decimal numbers

24. With a mechanical jack, the effort given to binary numbers, via octal

required to lift a given load is in the ratio a) 247.09375

3 : 35. What effort is needed to lift a load 1 716.78125

b)

of 15kN?

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION into their decimal equivalents

a)

25. Express in scientific notation 2C16

a) The density of aluminium is

b)

2710kgm3 2 F116

b) The electron rest energy is 0.511MeV

c)

c) Proton charge-mass ratio is E 716

95789700Ckg 1

SES

21 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

their hexadecimal equivalents

FACTORS AND MULTIPLES

a)

5410

20010 1. a) 90 b) 2 c) 35

b) 2. a) 60 b) 1260 c)55770

9110 3. 120 seconds

c)

FRACTION AND DECIMAL

32. Convert the given binary numbers into

their hexadecimal equivalents 4.

110101112 13 1

a) a) b) 1

21 2

100010112

b)

31 18

c) 2 d) 4

40 35

33. Convert the given hexadecimal numbers 4 42

12

into their binary equivalents e) 5 f) 55

37 A2116 13 28

a) 16 4 2

b) 15 55

g) h)

34. What is the result of the following binary

addition?

5.

a) 101011 + 011010

a) 56.6215 b) 0.5374

b) 10101111 + 11111010

c) 0101011 + 0010001

c) 0.019 d) 0.711

d) 00100011 + 11000111 e)

106.785 f)

0.432

e) 00100001 + 11101011

1.638 70.44

g) h)

35. What is the result of the following binary 0.746 11.74

i) j)

subtraction?

a) 10010110 100101

6. 79.11V

b) 10000000 1

7. t = 6.950 s

c) 1001000 0110000

8. 224.5

d) 01110001 01000101

e) 01111110 00110000 AVERAGE AND PERCENTAGE

9. 26 km/h

10. 5 hours

11. 2.25%

12. (a) 0.6kg ,(b) 0.9kg (c) 0.5kg

13. 42.5 min

14. a) 2.08% b) 3.08%

15. a) 36% b) 75 marks

16. a) 5% b) 12.6 V

17. 8.7%

18. 41.3s

SES

22 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

31. a) b) c)

19. 4:11

D716 8B16

20. 240V 32. a) b)

21. Amount of rump steak = 675 g

Amount of flour = 4.5 tablespoons 33. a)

1101112

Amount of butter = 6 tablespoons

Amount of onion = 75 g 1010001000012

b)

Amount of mushrooms = 112.5 g

Amount of sour cream = 210 g 34. a) 1000101 b) 110101001

22. 3.33 days

c) 0111100 d) 11101010

23. 13.5 days

24. 9/7 e) 100001100

b) 5.11 x 10-1 MeV

c) 9.57897 x 107 Ckg-1

26.

a) 0.01725

b) 1/16

c) 54100

BASE NUMBERS

b)

c)

0.3437510 d)

0.7812510

e)

53.437510 f)

213.7187510

b)

110101.111012 111101.101012

c) d)

11010110100.110 012

b)

b) c)

SES

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