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1 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

CHAPTER 1: NUMBERS AND ARITHMETIC Classification of Real Numbers


Numbers Example
1.1 TYPE OF NUMBERS - POSITIVE AND Natural Numbers (N) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
NEGATIVE INTEGER counting numbers

REAL NUMBERS (R) Whole Numbers (W) 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,


a set of zero together with
Numbers that can be expressed as the natural numbers
decimals
Real Number System: Rational Numbers (Q) 8 0 5
any number that can be , , ,7
Consist of positive and 4 9 3
negative natural numbers a
written in the form of
including 0 b
Example: where a and b are integers
with b 0
, -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
All numbers including natural a) Terminates: end in an 3
numbers, whole numbers, infinite string 0 = 0.75
4
integers, rational numbers 65
and irrational numbers are = 65
1
real numbers
Example: 10
b) Repeats: end with a block = 3.3333...
of digits that repeat over 3
4 = 4.0000...
and over 5
= 0.8333...
5 6
= 0.8333...
6
Irrational Numbers (I)
- the decimal represented of 0.1010010000100001...
1 irrational numbers do not
= 0.5000... 3 = 1.7320508075...
2 repeat in cycles (pattern)
log10 5 = 0.698970004336...
3 = 1.37050...
Prime Numbers
- any natural number, 2,3, 5, 7,11,13,...
Real Numbers can be greater than 1, only divisible
represented geometrically as by itself and 1
points on a number line called
Integers (Z)
Real Line
any positive and negative ..., 3, 2, 1, 0,1, 2, 3,...
Example natural number including 0

Zero
the number zero 0
represents none or
nothing

Even Numbers
any number that is 2, 4, 6,8,10,...
divisible by 2

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Odd Numbers LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLY (LCM)


any number that is not 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,...
divisible by 2 The LCM of a set of integers is the smallest
Composite Numbers integer that they will all divide into.
natural numbers but not a 1, 4, 6,8, 9,10,12,...
prime number To find LCM:

Do a prime factorization of each


1.2 FACTORS, MULTIPLES, HIGHEST integer
COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST List them in column
COMMON MULTIPLY For each column, write down the
value of the factor
Some natural numbers can be produced by Multiply the values together to get
multiplying smaller natural numbers together. the LCM
These smaller numbers are called factors.
Example:
Example:
Find the LCM of 10, 15, 45 and 75
12 = 3 x 4 = 6 x 2 = 12 x 1
LCM
The number 12 above has been factorized in 3 10 2 5
different ways. The numbers 12 is known as a 15 3 5
multiple of 3 or 4 or 2 or 6, etc 45 3 3 5
75 3 5 5
HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR (HCF) 2 3 3 5 5 450

The HCF of a set of integers is the largest


integer which is a factor of each of them. 1.3 ARITHMETIC OPERATION (BEDMAS)

To find HCF: FUNDAMENTAL PROCESSES

Do a prime factorization of each The 4 fundamental processes of arithmetic


integer are:
List them in column + Addition
Find the full columns (these are the
common factors) - Subtraction
Multiply all the common factors to x Multiplication
get the HCF
Division
Example:

Find the HCF of 24, 28 and 40


ORDER OF OPERATIONS
HCF
When a calculation involves more than one
24 2 2 2 3
28 2 2 7 operation, the order in which the numbers
40 2 2 2 5 are combined is important. The sequence in
2 2 4 which operations are preformed is called
BEDMAS

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B Bracket - the contents of any brackets Operation of Fractions


must be evaluated before
performing any other In order to add/subtract fractions, the
operation denominators must be the same number but
E Exponent - the power of the number if the fractions do not have the same
D Division or denominator, then one or all of the
M Multiplication - whichever appears first denominators must be changed so that every
from left to right
fraction has a common denominator.
A Addition or
S Subtraction - whichever appears first Example:
from left to right
1 2 7 + 6 13
+ = =
Note: The correct answer to a calculation is 3 7 21 21
obtained only if the precedence is right.
Example:
Example:
Find the total thickness of a panel made from
Calculate 3
inch thick aluminum, which has a paint
32
23 3 (8 6)
1
coating that is inch thick.
64

[( 9) ( 5) 2(4 6)] [3 5(7 4) ( 2)]

1.4 FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS Example:

FRACTIONS The cargo area behind the rear seat of a small


3
A fraction is a number written in the form N/D airplane can handle solids that are 4 feet
4
where N is called the numerator and D is 1
called the denominator. long. If the rear seats are removed, then 2
3
The denominator of a fraction cannot be a feet are added to the cargo area. What is the
zero. For example, the fraction 2/0 is not total length of the cargo area when the rear
allowed. seats are removed?

Fraction Special Name


2 Proper fraction
3
7 Improper fraction
3
2 Mixed number
1
3

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Example: Example:

The tolerance for rigging the aileron droop of 1 1


2 1 1 =
7 1 2 3
an airplane is inch inch. What is the
8 5
minimum droop to which the aileron can be
rigged?

Divisions of fractions does not require a


common denominator. To divide fractions,
first change the division symbol to
Example:
multiplication. Next, invert the second
What is the length of the grip of the bolt fraction. Then, multiply the fractions.
shown in figure below?
Example:

7 4 7 3 21
= =
8 3 8 4 32

Example:

2 3 9
1
3 5 10
1
The overall length of the bolt is 3 inches,
2
1
the shank length is 3 inches, and the
8 DECIMALS
5
threaded portion is 1 inches long. The number system that we use every day is
16
called the decimal system. Like whole
numbers, decimal numbers also have place
value. The place values are based on power
10, as shown in figure below.

Multiplication of fractions does not require a


common denominator. To multiply fractions,
first multiply the numerators. Then, multiply
the denominators

Example:

3 7 1 3 7 1 21
= =
5 8 2 5 8 2 80

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Type of Decimals Example:

Decimal Special Name Using the formula Watts = Amperes x Voltage,


3 Terminating decimal what is the wattage of an electric drill that
= 1.5
2 uses 9.45 amperes from a 120 volt source?
4 Non-terminating decimals
= 1.3333... Significant figures
3
Ex: 7.6183 (3 s.f) = 7.62

Decimal places
Ex: 7.6183 (3 d.p) =
7.618 Example:

The wing area of an airplane is 262.6 square


Operation of Decimals
feet and its span is 40.4 feet. Find the mean
Example: chord of its wing using the formula:

A series circuit containing two resistors has a Area span = mean chord
total resistance (RT) of 37.272 ohms. One of
the resistors (R1) has a value of 14.88 ohms.
What is the value of the other resistor (R2)?

R2 = RT R1 = 37.272 14.88 = 22.392 ohms

Example: Rounding Off Decimal Numbers

Find the total resistance for the circuit In some cases it is desirable to express a
diagram shown in figure below. The total decimal to fewer places. This type of
resistance of a series circuit is equal to the approximation is called rounding off. There
sum of the individual resistances are four commonly used rules for rounding off
decimals:

 Rule 1: If the first of the digits to be


dropped is less than 5, then the last
retained digit is unchanged.
Ex: Round off 3.1416 to two decimal
places 3.14

 Rule 2: If the first of the digits to be


dropped is greater than 5, then the
last retained digit is increased by 1.
Ex: Round off 0.4536 to three decimal
places 0.454

 Rule 3: If the first digit to be dropped


is 5 followed by zeros, then the last
retained digit kept unchanged if it is

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even. If the last digit to be kept is odd, Example:


then it is increased by 1.
Ex: Round off 16.450 to one decimal An actuator shaft is 2.1938 inches in
place 16.4 diameter. Round to the nearest tenth.
Ex: Round off 193.73500 to two The digit in the tenths column is a 1. The
decimal places 193.74 digit to the right of the 1 is 9. Since 9 is
greater than or equal to 5, round up the
 Rule 4: If the first digit to be dropped 1 to a 2. Therefore, 2.1938 rounded to the
is 5 followed by a nonzero digit, then nearest tenth is 2.2
the last retained digit is increased by
1 Example:
Ex: Round off 2.8530 to one decimal
The outside diameter of a bearing is
place 2.9
2.1938 inches. Round to the nearest
Reading Significant Figures hundredth.

The number of significant figures in a Example:


measurement can be ascertained by the use
The length of a bushing is 2.1938 inches.
of the following rules:
Round to the nearest thousandth.
 The first s.f in measurement is the
first digit other than zero, counting
from left to right. In the measurement 1.5 AVERAGE AND PERCENTAGES
29.84 ml, the first s.f is 2
 Zeros to the left of the first nonzero AVERAGE
digit are not significant. In the
To find the average of a set of quantities, add
measurement 0.002335 g/cm3, the
the quantities together and divide by the
zeros to the left of 2 are not
number of quantities in the set. Thus,
significant. There are four s.f in this
measurement. sum of the quantities
 Zeros which occur between 2 Average = number of quantities
significant digits are significant since
they are part of the measurement. In Example:
the measurement 30.0809 g, the
A student falls asleep in every lesson, the
zeros are significant figures because
following number of times: 8, 20, 3, 0, 5, 9,
they occur between the digit 3 and 9.
15 and 12. What is his average per lesson?
There are 6 s.f in this measurement.
 Final zeros in measurements Average score
containing decimal fractions are 8 + 20 + 3 + 0 + 5 + 9 + 15 + 12
= 8
significant. Thus is the measurement
7.0 sec the final zero is significant; it 72
= 8
indicates that the measurement was
=9
precise to one-tenth of a second and
has 2 s.f. The measurement 7.00 sec is
more precise and has 3 s.f.

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Example: Average age of all the people in the faculty:


7750
Find the average age of a team of boys given = 500 = 15.5 years
that four of them are each 15 years 4 months
old and the other three boys are each 14 Average Speed
years 9 months old.
The average speed is defined as total distance
Total age of 4 boys at 15 years 4 months travelled divided by the total time taken.
= 61 years 4 months. The unit of speed depends on the unit of
distance and the unit of time. For instance, if
Total age of 3 boys at 14 years 9 months the distance travelled is in kilometers (km)
= 44 years 3 months. and the time taken is in hours (h) then the
speed will be stated in kilometers per hour
Total age of all 7 boys (km/h). If the distance is given in meter (m)
= 105 years 7 months. and the time in seconds (s) then the speed is
in meters per second (m/s).
105 years 7 months
Average age = 7 Example:
= 15 years 1 month.
A car travels a total distance of 200 km in 4
Example: hours. What is its average speed?
distance travelled
Average speed = time taken
The average age of the lecturers in the faculty
is 39 years and their total age is 1170 years, 200
= 4
whereas the pupils whose average age is 14
years have a total age 6580 years. Find the = 50 km/h
average age of all the people in the faculty.
Example:
The first step is to find the number of
teachers: An aircraft travels a total distance of 750 km
in a time of 3 hours 45 minutes. What is the
Number of teachers: average speed in km/hr?
total age of the teachers
= average age of the teachers
750
1170 Average speed = = 200km / hr
3.75
= 39 = 30
Example:
We now find the number of pupils:
6580 An aircraft uses 300 gallons of fuel for a flight
= 14 = 470
of duration 4 hours. What is the average fuel
consumption?
We can now find the average age of people in
the faculty. Average Fuel Consumption =

Total age of all the people in the faculty: 300


= 75 gallons / hour
= 1170 + 6580 = 7750 years 4

Total number of people in the faculty:


= 30 + 470 = 500

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Example: Example:

A train travels for 4 hours at an average speed 22% of a certain length is 55 cm. What is the
of 64 km/h. For the first 2 hours its average complete length?
speed is 50 km/h. What is its average speed
for the last 2 hours? 1% of the length = 55/22 cm = 2.5 cm
Complete length = 100 x 2.5 cm = 250 cm
Total distance travelled in 4 hours
= average speed time taken Example:
= 64 4
= 256 km What percentage is 37 of 264? Give the
answer correct to 5 s.f
Distance travelled in first two hours
= 50 2 = 100 km Percentage = 37/264 x 100 = 14.015%

Example:
Distance travelled in last two hours
= 256 - 100 = 156 km A small engine rated at 12 horsepower is
found to be delivering only 10.75 horsepower.
Average speed for the last two hours What is the motor efficiency expressed as a
distance travelled 156 percent?
= time taken = 2 = 78 km/h

PERCENTAGE

Fraction with a denominator 100 is called


percentage. The sign % is usually used
Example:
instead the words per cent.
Eighty ohms represents 52% of a
Example:
microphones total resistance. Find the total
Express the following decimal numbers as a resistance of this microphone.
percent:

a) 0.90 = 90% b) 0.5 = 50%

c) 0.335 = 33.5% d) 1.25 = 125%

Example:

In a shipment of 80 wingtip lights, 15% of the


lights were defective. How many of the lights
were defective?

Let N = number of defective lights


15% of 80 lights = N
N = 0.15 x 80 = 12

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1.6 RATIO AND PROPORTION pinion gear has 8 teeth and a spur gear has
28 teeth. The gear ration is 8:28 or 2:7.
A ratio is the comparison of two numbers or
quantities. A ratio may be expressed in three
ways: as a fraction, with a colon, or with the
word to

Example:

A gear ratio of 5:7 can be expressed as any of


the following: Speed ratio. When two gears are used in an
aircraft component, the rotational speed of
5/7 or 5:7 or 5 to 7
each gear is represented as a speed ratio. As
Ratios have widespread application in the the number of teeth in a gear decreases, the
field of aviation. For example: rotational speed of that gear increases, and
vice versa. Therefore, the speed ratio of two
Compression ratio on a reciprocating engine is gears is the inverse (or opposite) of the gear
the ratio of the volume of a cylinder with the ratio. If two gears have a gear ratio of 2:9,
piston at the bottom of its stroke to the then their speed ratio is 9:2
volume of the cylinder with the piston at the
top of its stroke. For example, a typical Example:
compression ratio might be 10:1
1
Express the ratio 4 : in its lowest terms
Aspect ratio is the ratio of the length (or 4
span) of an airfoil to its width (or chord). A
typical aspect ratio for a commercial airliner 1 1 4
4: = 4 = 4 = 16
might be 7:1 4 4 1
1
Air-fuel ratio is the ratio of the weight of the 4 : = 16 :1
4
air to the weight of fuel in the mixture being
fed into the cylinders of a reciprocating Example:
engine. For example, a typical air-fuel ratio
Two lengths are in the ratio 8:5. If the first
might be 14.3:1
length is 120 meters, what is the second
Glide ratio is the ratio of the forward length?
distance traveled to the vertical distance
descended when an aircraft is operating
5
The second length = of the first length
without power. For example, if an aircraft 8
descends 1,000 feet while it travels through
5
the air for a distance of two liners miles = 120 = 75 meters
8
(10,560 feet), it has a glide ratio of
10,560:1,000 which can be reduce to 10.56:1 Example:

Gear ratio is the number of teeth each gear A pinion gear with 10 teeth is driving a spur
represents when two gears are used in an gear with 40 teeth. The spur gear is rotating at
aircraft component. In figure below, the 160 rpm. Determine the speed of the pinion
gear.

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PROPORTION Since this is an example of inverse proportion


the number of days required must be
A proportion is a statement of equality
4
between two or more ratios. For example,
increased in the ratio 3
3 6
= or 3 : 4 = 6 : 8 Number of days required
4 8

This proportion is read as, 4


= 12 = 16 days
3
3 is to4 as 6 is to 8
Example:
Extremes and Means
An aircraft carries 2880 liters of fuel
The first and last terms of the proportion (the distributed in three tanks in the ratio 3 : 5: 4.
Find the quantity in each tank.
3 and 8 in this example) are called the
extremes. The second and third terms (the 4
and 6 in this example) are called the means. In
any proportion, the product of the extremes
is equal to the product of the means.

In the proportion 2:3 = 4:6, the product of the Example:


extremes, 2 x 6 is 12; the product of the
An airplane flying a distance of 300 miles used
means, 3 x 4 is also 12. An inspection of any
24 gallons of gasoline. How many gallons will
proportion will show this to be true. it need to travel 750 miles?
Example:

Solve for X in the proportion given below

65 X
=
80 100
1.7 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
65 100
X = = 81.25 DECIMAL POINT RELOCATION
80
Scientific notation is used as a type of
Example:
shorthand to express very large or very small
20 men working at BA, Filton produce 3000 numbers. It is a way to write numbers so that
components in 12 working days. How long will they do not take up as much space on the
it take 15 men to produce the 3000 page. The format of a number written in
components? scientific notation is the decimal point is
always placed to the right of the first digit.
The number of men is reduced in the ratio
Notice that very large numbers always have a
15 3 positive power of 10 and very small numbers
=
20 4 always have a negative power of 10.

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5.817 x 103

mantissa exponent

Example:
ARITHMETIC OPERATION IN SCIENTIFIC
The velocity of the speed of light is over NOTATION
186,000,000 mph. this can be expressed as
1.86 x 108 mph in scientific notation. To add, subtract, multiply or divide numbers
in scientific notation, change the scientific
Example: notation number back to standard notation.
Then, add, subtract, multiply or divide the
The mass of an electron is approximately
standard notation numbers. After the
0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,911
computation, change the final standard
grams. This can be expressed in scientific
notation number back to scientific notation.
notation as 9.11 x 10-28
Example:
Example:

Convert 0.000000457 from standard notation 2.3 104 + 3.7 104


to scientific notation = ( 2.3 + 3.7 ) 104
= 6.0 104
Remember that small numbers (those less
than one) will have a negative exponent. Numbers having the same exponent can be
Therefore, 0.000000457 = 4.57 x 10-7 added or subtracted in standard notation by
adding or subtracting the mantissae and
Example:
keeping the exponent the same.
Convert 3.68 x 107 from scientific notation to
Example:
standard notation
When the numbers have different exponents,
Example:
one way of adding or subtracting the numbers
Convert 7.1543 x 10-10 from scientific notation is to express one of the numbers in non-
to standard notation standard notation, so that both numbers have
the same exponent.

2.3 104 + 3.7 103


When converting always remember that large
= 2.3 104 + 0.37 104
numbers always have positive powers of ten
= ( 2.3 + 0.37 ) 104
and small numbers always have negative
powers of ten. Refer to table below to = 2.67 104
OR
determine which direction to move the
decimal point

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2.3 104 + 3.7 103 slug, which is rarely used. The mass center of
= 23000 + 3700 an object is where the balance point is.
= 26700
WEIGHT is a force, which arises when a mass
= 2.67 104
is acted on by gravity. The metric unit of
weight should technically be the Newton (N),
Example: which is the unit of force, but commonly it is
the kilogram of mass that is used to measure
The laws of indices are used when multiplying
weight in the metric system because gravity is
or dividing numbers given in scientific
about the same everywhere on the Earth. The
notation
English unit of weight is the pound (lb.)

( 2.5 10 ) ( 5 10 )
3 2
LENGTH in the metric system is measured by
= ( 2.5 5 ) (10 ) 3+ 2
meters (m) and in the English system by feet
(ft.). A mile is 5280 feet or 1609 meters (1.6
= 12.5 105 or 1.25 106
kilometers).

6 10 4
CONVERSION TABLE
1.5 10 2
6 An easier way of converting a given measure
= (10 4 2 )
1.5 (the existing measure) to an equivalent
= 4 10 2 measure (the desired measure) in the metric
system is by means of a conversion factor.
The value of this factor is obtained by dividing
the multiplying factor of the existing measure
1.8 MEASUREMENT AND CONVERSION
by the multiplying factor of the desired
FACTOR
measure. The number of desired units is
BASIC CONCEPTS obtained by multiplying the existing units by
the conversion factor.
To measure a physical quantity means to
compare it in size (magnitude) with a similar Example:
standard quantity called unit.
Express 0.235 meters in millimeters
A measurement is the ratio of the magnitude
1 mm = 10-3 m 1 m = 103 mm
of any physical quantity to that of a standard.
Therefore, 0.235 m = 103 x 0.235 mm
Mensuration is the process of making a
= 235 mm
measurement. Mensuration involves counting
either whole units or their fraction. The Example:
choice of units depends on convenience,
tradition or law. Convert 3.5 milligrams (mg) to kilograms.

The existing measure is 3.5 milligrams. The


MASS is the quantity of matter in the thing
multiplying factor of milligrams is 10-3. Since
you are studying. The metric unit of
we want to convert milligrams to kilograms
measurement of mass is the kilogram (kg),
(the desired measure), the multiplying factor
which is 1000 grams. The English unit is the
of this desired measure is 103. Dividing these

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multiplying factors according to the rule Conversion of Binary to Decimal


stated above, we have
Example:
3 3 3 ( 3 ) 6
10 10 = 10 = 10
Convert from binary number to decimal
-6
The conversion factor is 10
1101.12
-6
Therefore, 3.5 milligrams x (10 = 1 23 + 1 22 + 0 21 + 1 20 + 1 21
-6
kilogram/milligram) = 3.5 x 10 kilograms. 1
= 8 + 4 + 0 +1+
2
= 13.5
1.9 BASE NUMBER 1101.12 = 13.510
BINARY NUMBER 101.01012
The most popular of these systems is the = 1 2 2 + 0 21 + 1 20 + 0 2 1 + 1 2 2
Binary (Bi means two), which operates with + 0 2 3 + 1 2 4
the powers of 2 instead of 10 as in the 1 1
decimal system. = 4 + 0 +1+ 0 + + 0 +
4 16
It will be noticed in the decimal system that = 5.312510
the greatest digit used is 9 which is one less 101.01012 = 5.312510
than 10. Thus, in the binary system the
Conversion of Decimal to Binary
greatest digit that can be used is 1 which is
one less than 2. Example:
A number written in binary consists only at 1. For round number
the digits 0 and 1.

Denary or Decimal Binary


- The system of - Digits 0 and
number that we 1
use everyday - Radix 2
- 10 different digits
(0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9)
- Radix or base 10

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2. For fractional number OCTAL NUMBER

- This system has radix 8


- Digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7

Conversion of Decimal to Binary, via


Octal

Example:

Convert the decimal numbers given to binary


number, via octal

The binary system is used on computers and


other calculating machines. Since only the
digits 0 and 1 re used in the system this is
equivalent to two-state system. For instance if
a device is off it represents as 0 and if it is
on a 1 is represented. The figure below
shows how the number 10110 can be
represented by 5 electric light bulbs.

Numbers expressed to the base 2 are useful


for electronic counting systems because
electronic circuits which can be set to one of Example:
two states are made very simple, whereas
Convert the given decimal number given to
circuits with more than two states, although
binary numbers, via octal
possible, are much more complex and less
reliable.
371410

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Conversion of Octal to Binary 2. 1BF16 = 1 16 2 + B 161 + F 160

An octal number can be converted to a binary = 1 16 2 + 11 161 + 15 160


number by writing down the three bit (binary = 256 + 176 + 15
digit) corresponding to the octal digit. = 447
1BF16 = 44710
Octal Digit Natural Binary
3. 1A4 E16
Number
0 000 = 1 163 + A 162 + 4 161 + E 160
1 001
= 1 163 + 10 162 + 4 161 + 14 160
2 010
3 011 = 4096 + 2560 + 64 + 14
4 100 = 6734
5 101
1A4 E16 = 673410
6 110
7 111
Conversion of Decimal to
Hexadecimal
Example:
Example:

1.

HEXADECIMAL NUMBER

- This system has radix 16


- 16 distinct digits:
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E
and F
- A corresponds to 10 in the denary 2.
system, B to 11 and so on

Conversion of Hexadecimal to
Decimal

Example:

1A16 = 1 161 + A 160


1. = 1 161 + 10 160
= 16 + 10 = 26
1A16 = 2610

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Conversion of Binary to Hexadecimal

Example:

Convert the following Binary numbers to


Hexadecimal by using table in Figure 1.8

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Conversion of Hexadecimal to Binary 1 1 (the carry) + 0 = 1


01010 This 1 + 1 = 2
Example: + 10111
Write 0 and carry 1
001
1 1 (the carry) + 1 = 2
01010 This 2 + 0 = 2
+ 10111
Write 0 and carry 1
0001
1 1 (the carry) + 0 = 1
01010 This 1 + 1 = 2
+ 10111
Write 0 and carry 1
100001

Example:

Subtract 111 from 10001

10001
111
0
1-1=0
"10" Since we cannot subtract 1
ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF BINARY 10001 from 0, we borrow 1 unit
NUMBERS 111 from the next higher unit.
This is equivalent to 2
When adding or subtracting binary numbers, 10
write 1 since 1 1 = 0
we can follow a process similar to the one 1 The next 0 becomes 1
used for adding or subtracting decimal 10001
numbers but using the rules of addition 111
shown in table below write 0 since 1 1 = 0
010
1 The next 0 also becomes 1
Addition of Binary Numbers 10001
0+0=0 111
0+1=1 write 0 since 1 1 = 0
1+0=1 1010
1 + 1 = 0 with a carry of 1 0 1 (the carry) + 0 = 1
10001 This 1 + 1 = 2
111
Example: Write 0 and carry 1
0 1010
Add the binary numbers 01010 and 10111

01010
+ 10111
1
0+1=1
01010 1+1=2
+ 10111 Two is written as 10 in
01
binary.
write 0 and carry 1

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18 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION OF BINARY 5 1 2


c) 4 3 +1
NUMBERS 8 4 5
5 1
Multiplication and division of binary numbers d) 3 + 2 1
7 5
are carried out in the same way that both
operations are carried out in decimal. A
3 1 3
e) 1 2 3
multiplication, like A x B, is equivalent to the 5 3 7
addition of A to itself B times. Therefore, we 3 1
f) 5 7
can multiply two numbers successive 5 3
additions. Likewise, a division such as A/B can 1 2 1 3 1
g) +
be carried out by successive subtraction. Since 3 5 4 8 3
the computers have special hardware to do 2 1 2 1 3
additions and subtraction rapidly, any h) 1 + + 1
3 4 3 4 5
multiplication or division is carried out as an
addition or subtraction, respectively.
5. Solve the following problems
a) 46.32 97.17 0.01258 ,
EXERCISE correct to 4 d.p
1
FACTORS AND MULTIPLES b) ( 62.49 0.0172 ) , correct to 4
2
1. Find the HCF of the following sets of d.p
integers: 1
c) correct to 3 d.p
a) 270, 450, 1260 52.73
b) 8, 10, 12, 16 1 1
c) 35, 140, 420 d) + , correct to 3 d.p
4.92 1.97
2
2. Find the LCM of the following sets of ( 2.37 )
integers: e) correct to 3 d.p
0.0526
a) 3, 4, 5, 6
b) 7, 9, 10, 12 15
f) , correct to 3 d.p
c) 10, 33, 65, 169 7.6 4.8 2
2

g) 52.91 31.76 correct to 3 d.p


3. Two lighthouses can be seen from the top
of a hill. h) 76.212 29.10 2 , correct to 4
The first flashes once every 8 seconds, s.f
and the other flashes once every 15
seconds. 6.092
i) correct to 3 s.f
25.2 7

FRACTION AND DECIMAL j) 6.9212 + 4.816 3 2.1614 ,


correct to 4 s.f
4. Simplify the following without using
calculator. 6. In an electrical circuit the voltage V is
1 2 given by Ohms law : V = IR .
a) +
3 7
2 1 Determine correct to 4 s.f the voltage
b) 3 2
3 6 when I = 5.36 A and R = 14.76

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19 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

7. The time of swing t seconds, of a simple b) In school of 650 students, 20 are


l absent
pendulum is given by t = 2 .
g
15. A student scores 36 marks out of 100 in
Determine the time, correct to 3 d.p,
an examination. What is her percentage
given that l = 12.0 and g = 9.81
mark? If the percentage needed to pass
the examination is 75%, how many marks
8. Resistance R2 is given by
are needed to pass?
R2 = R1 (1 + t ) determine R2 correct to
4 s.f, when 16. The current in a circuit increases from
0.80 A to 0.84 A when the voltage is
R1 = 220, = 0.00027, t = 75.6
increased from 12.0 V to a higher value.
a) What is the percent increase in
AVERAGE AND PERCENTAGE
the current?
b) If the percent increase in the
9. For the first 1 hours of a 91 km journey
voltage is same as that in the
the average speed was 30 km/h. If the
current, what is the new voltage?
average speed for the remainder of the
journey was 23 km/h, calculate the
17. The input power to a transformer is 46 W.
average speed for the entire journey.
The power delivered to the secondary is
42 W. What percent, to the nearer tenth,
10. A train travels between two towns 135
of the power is lost?
km apart in 4 hours. If on the return
journey the average speed is reduced by 3
18. A new drilling machine is safer to operate
km/h, calculate the time taken for the
but the time to drill one hole is increased
return journey.
by 18%. If drilling previously took 35s,
how long does it take with the new drill?
11. When 1,600 bolts are manufactured, 36
are unsatisfactory. Determine the RATIO AND PROPORTION
percentage unsatisfactory
19. What is the ratio of the rpm for the motor
12. Two kilograms of compound contains 30% to the rpm of the compressor in figure
of element A, 45% of element B and 25% below.
of element C. Determine the masses of
the three elements present.

13. It takes 50 minutes to machine a certain


part. Using a new type of tool, the time
can be reduced by 15%. Calculate the new
time taken. 20. Figure below shows a transformer with 3
turns in the primary coil and 6 turns in the
14. Express the following statements in the secondary coil. The turns ratio is 2:1. The
form of a percentage. ratio of output voltage to input voltage
a) 3 light bulbs are broken in a box the same as the turns ratio. If the input
containing 144 light bulbs

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20 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

voltage is 120V AC, what is the output 26. Express the number given as decimal
voltage (ignoring losses)? numbers/fractions/mixed numbers
2
a) 1.725 10
6.25 10 2
b)
4
c) 5.41 10

BASE NUMBERS

27. Convert the binary numbers given to


decimal numbers
a) 1110
21. A recipe of Beef Stroganoff quotes the 101101
b)
following amounts to serve four people:
0.01011
450 grams of rump steak, 3 tablespoons c)
flour, 4 tablespoons butter, 50 grams of 0.11001
d)
onion, 75 grams of mushrooms, 140 110101.0111
e)
grams of sour cream. What amounts
11010101.10111
should be used for six people? f)

22. 10 men produce 500 composite panels in 28. Convert the decimal numbers given to
5 working days. How long would it take 15 binary numbers
men to produce the same amount? a) 47.40625
30.8125
b)
23. MIAT Flying Centre employs 12 builders to 53.90625
c)
extend the hanger. They take 9 days to do
61.65625
the job. If they had employed 8 men how d)
long would it have taken them?
29. Convert the given decimal numbers
24. With a mechanical jack, the effort given to binary numbers, via octal
required to lift a given load is in the ratio a) 247.09375
3 : 35. What effort is needed to lift a load 1 716.78125
b)
of 15kN?

30. Convert the given hexadecimal numbers


SCIENTIFIC NOTATION into their decimal equivalents
a)
25. Express in scientific notation 2C16
a) The density of aluminium is
b)
2710kgm3 2 F116
b) The electron rest energy is 0.511MeV
c)
c) Proton charge-mass ratio is E 716
95789700Ckg 1

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21 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

31. Convert the given decimal numbers into ANSWER


their hexadecimal equivalents
FACTORS AND MULTIPLES
a)
5410
20010 1. a) 90 b) 2 c) 35
b) 2. a) 60 b) 1260 c)55770
9110 3. 120 seconds
c)
FRACTION AND DECIMAL
32. Convert the given binary numbers into
their hexadecimal equivalents 4.

110101112 13 1
a) a) b) 1
21 2
100010112
b)
31 18
c) 2 d) 4
40 35
33. Convert the given hexadecimal numbers 4 42
12
into their binary equivalents e) 5 f) 55
37 A2116 13 28
a) 16 4 2
b) 15 55
g) h)
34. What is the result of the following binary
addition?
5.
a) 101011 + 011010
a) 56.6215 b) 0.5374
b) 10101111 + 11111010
c) 0101011 + 0010001
c) 0.019 d) 0.711
d) 00100011 + 11000111 e)
106.785 f)
0.432
e) 00100001 + 11101011
1.638 70.44
g) h)
35. What is the result of the following binary 0.746 11.74
i) j)
subtraction?
a) 10010110 100101
6. 79.11V
b) 10000000 1
7. t = 6.950 s
c) 1001000 0110000
8. 224.5
d) 01110001 01000101
e) 01111110 00110000 AVERAGE AND PERCENTAGE

9. 26 km/h
10. 5 hours
11. 2.25%
12. (a) 0.6kg ,(b) 0.9kg (c) 0.5kg
13. 42.5 min
14. a) 2.08% b) 3.08%
15. a) 36% b) 75 marks
16. a) 5% b) 12.6 V
17. 8.7%
18. 41.3s

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22 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

RATIO AND PROPORTION 3616 C 816 5B16


31. a) b) c)
19. 4:11
D716 8B16
20. 240V 32. a) b)
21. Amount of rump steak = 675 g
Amount of flour = 4.5 tablespoons 33. a)
1101112
Amount of butter = 6 tablespoons
Amount of onion = 75 g 1010001000012
b)
Amount of mushrooms = 112.5 g
Amount of sour cream = 210 g 34. a) 1000101 b) 110101001
22. 3.33 days
c) 0111100 d) 11101010
23. 13.5 days
24. 9/7 e) 100001100

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION 35. a) 01110001 b) 01111111

25. c) 0011000 d) 00101100

a) 2.710 x 103 kgm-3 e) 01001110


b) 5.11 x 10-1 MeV
c) 9.57897 x 107 Ckg-1

26.

a) 0.01725
b) 1/16
c) 54100

BASE NUMBERS

27. a) 1410 4510


b)

c)
0.3437510 d)
0.7812510

e)
53.437510 f)
213.7187510

28. a) 101111.011012 11110.11012


b)

110101.111012 111101.101012
c) d)

29. a) 111101 11.000 112

11010110100.110 012
b)

30. a) 4410 75310 23110


b) c)

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