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23 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

CHAPTER 2: ALGEBRA
Example:
2.1 INDICES 2
2 3 35 ( 7 2 ) 32 9
LAW OF EXPONENT = =
7 4 2 4 33 2 2
Law Example Example:
m
a a =an m+n
3 3 = 32 + 4 = 36
2 4

am 34 32 55 + 33 53
= a mn = 34 2 = 32
an 32 34 5 4
m n 4 2
(a ) = a mn (3 ) = 342 = 38
n 4
( ab ) = a nb n ( xy ) = x4 y4
n 2
a an 3 32 9
= = 2
=
b bn 4 4 16
n n 2
a b 3 32 16
= = =
b a 4 4 2 9
an bm 3 3 4 2 16
m = n 2 = 3 =
b a 4 3 27
m 3
a n = n am 2 = 4 23
4
Example:
a0 = 1 x
0

y =1
92 74
1 5 34 7 4 + 33 7 2
a 1 = 5 x 3 = 3
a x

Example:

Determine the value of 7 2 7 4 7 73 b

7 2 7 4 7 7 3 = 7 2 + 4 +1+3 = 710

Example:

2 3 2 3
(9 3 ) =
(3 3 ) 2

2 3 2
( 3 27 ) ( 3 3 )
4 3

=
(3 ) = 3 4
Example:
4 2
(3 ) If 3 p + 4 = 9 p 2 find the value of p

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24 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

2.2 LOGARITHMS AND EXPONENTIAL Common Logarithm


FUNCTION The logarithm with base 10 is called common
logarithm and is denoted by omitting the base
DEFINITION
Let a be a positive number with a 1. The lg x = log x = log10 x
logarithmic function with base a, denoted by
loga is defined by Natural Logarithm

log a x = y a y = x The logarithm with base e is called the


natural logarithm and is denoted by ln
When we use the definition of logarithms to
switch back and forth between the ln x = loge x
logarithmic form log a x = y and the The natural logarithmic function y = ln x is
exponential form a y = x , its helpful to notice the inverse function of the exponential
x
function y = e
that, in both form, the base is the same:
By the definition of inverse function we have
Logarithmic form: ln x = y e x = x
exponent

PROPERTIES OF NATURAL LOGARITHMS


log a x = y
Property Reason
base ln1 = 0 We must raise e to the
power 0 to get 1.
Exponential form: ln e = 1 We must raise e to the
exponent power 1 to get e
ln e x = x We must raise e to the
ay = x power x to get e x
eln x = x ln x is the power to
which e must be raised
base to get x.

PROPERTIES OF LOGARITHMS Example:


Evaluate the following:
Property Reason
We must raise a to x = log 3 9 x = log10 0.001
log a 1 = 0
the power 0 to get 1. 3x = 9 10 x = 0.001
log a a = 1 We must raise a to
the power 1 to get a
3x = 32 10 x = 103
log a a x = x We must raise a to x = 2 x = 3
the power x to get
ax x = ln e 1
x = log 3
a log a x
=x loga x is the power x = log e e 81
to which a must be x =1 1
3x =
raised to get x. 81
3 = 34
x

x = 4

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25 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Solve the following equations: 2. Simplify

log 2 x = 3 log 5 x = 2 log 64 log128 + log 32 = log 26 log 27 + log 25


x = 23 x = 52 = 6 log 2 7 log 2 + 5log 2
x = 8 1 = 4 log 2
x =
25

3. Evaluate
LAWS OF LOGARITHMS 1
log 25 log125 + log 625
2
Let a be a positive number, with a 1. 3log 5
Let A > 0, B > 0, and C be any real numbers. 1
log 52 log 53 + log 54
= 2
3log 5
Law
4
log a ( AB ) = log a A + log a B 2 log 5 3log 5 + log 5
= 2
A 3log 5
log a = log a A log a B
B 1log 5 1
= =
log a ( AC ) = C log a A 3log 5 3

Example: 4. Solve the equation:


log ( x 1) + log ( x + 1) = 2 log ( x + 2 )
1. Write the following in terms of
log 2,log 3 and log 5 LHS : log ( x 1) + log ( x + 1) = log ( x 1)( x + 1)
= log ( x 2 1)
log 30 = log ( 2 3 5 ) 2
RHS : 2 log ( x + 2 ) = log ( x + 2 )
= log 2 + log 3 + log 5
= log ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 )
log 450 = log ( 2 3 3 5 5 )
log ( x 2 1) = log ( x 2 + 4 x + 4 )
= log ( 2 3 5
2 2
) x2 1 = x2 + 4 x + 4
= log 2 + 2 log 3 + 2 log 5 1 = 4x + 4
5
x=
8 4 5 4 4
log = log 8 + log 5 log 81
81
1
= log 23 + log 5 4 log 34
1
= 3log 2 + log 5 4 log 3
4

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26 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

BASE CONVERSION So as the base of the logarithm increases its


Suppose we are given loga x and want to find graph lies closer to the x axis. Note, however,
logb x that the graph never becomes parallel to the x
axis, it steadily increases.
Let y = logb x , Both graphs cross at x = 1. This is because
We write this in exponential form and take the every nonzero base raised to the exponent 0
logarithm, with base a, of each side. equals 1. At x = 10, log(x) = 1 and at x = 2.74,
ln(x) = 1. This makes sense since any base with
by = x Exponential form
the exponent 1 is that base.
log a ( b y ) = log a x Take loga of each side
y log a b = log a x Law 3 Next is a closer look at the interval 0< x < 1.
log a x Divide by loga b
y=
log a b
So,

log a x Base conversion


logb x =
log a b formula

2.3 LOGARITHMS AND EXPONENTIAL


EQUATION

GRAPH OF EXPONENTIAL / LOG FUNCTION


The graphs are asymptotic to the Y axis, they
cross at x=1 and are always increasing for
positive x.

Here the larger base 10 requires a smaller


exponent (in magnitude) for a given number
than the smaller base does.
For example, for x = 0.4, 10 needs the power
-0.4 while 2.72 requires -0.9. Comparing the
magnitudes these exponents we see that 10
has smaller exponent. As before, as the base
of the logarithm increases the graph of the
logarithm flattens toward the x axis.

Notice how the graphs become asymptotic to


the negative y axis rather quickly. A very small
Notice log(x) is flatter than ln(x). For two change in x near zero results in a very large
exponentials of different bases the larger base change in y. This means from a practical point
requires a smaller exponent while the smaller of view a large number of significant digits in
base requires a larger exponent for both the logarithm are required to distinguish one
exponentials to equal the same number. x value form another from another in this
range.
From the graph we read the common log of 7
is about 0.8. The natural log of 7 is about 2.0.

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27 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

These two graphs cannot cross the y axis. LOGARITHMIC EQUATION


There is no exponent of a base that will cause
A logarithmic equation is one in which a
that exponential to be zero
logarithm of the variable occurs. For example,
EXPONENTIAL EQUATION log 2 ( x + 2 ) = 5
An exponential equation is one in which the To solve for x we write the equation in
variable occurs in the exponent. For example, exponential form.

2x = 7 x + 2 = 25
The variable x presents a difficulty because it x = 32 2
is in the exponent. To deal with this difficulty x = 30
we take the logarithm of each side and then
use the Laws of Logarithms to bring down x
from the exponent. Example:
Solve the following equation for x
2x = 7
ln 2 x = ln 7 ln x = 8 ln x = 8
Take ln of each side
8
x ln 2 = ln 7 Law 3 (bring down the x=e OR eln x = e8
exponent) x 2981 x 2981
ln 7
x=
ln 2 Solve for x. Use a calculator
2.807 log 2 ( 25 x ) = 3
25 x = 23
Example:
25 x = 8
Solve the exponential equation
x = 17
8e2 x = 20 4 + 3log ( 2 x ) = 16
20
e2 x = 3log ( 2 x ) = 12
8
2x
ln e = ln 2.5 log ( 2 x ) = 4
ln 2.5 2 x = 104
x=
2 x = 5000
0.458

2. 4 TRANSPOSITION OF FORMULA
2x x
e e 6= 0
When a symbol other than the subject is
x 2
(e ) e 6 = 0
x
required to be calculated it is usual to
rearrange the formula to make a new subject.
( e 3)( e + 2 ) = 0
x x

This rearranging process is called transposing


e x 3 = 0 or e x + 2 = 0 the formula or transposition.
ex = 3 e x = 2 (ignore)
The formula y = ax + b has y as the subject. By
x = ln 3
rearranging this formula we could make x the
subject.

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28 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

The rules for transforming the formula are: l


2. Rearrange the formula R = to make
a
 Remove square roots or other roots
 Get rid of brackets a) a the subject b) l the subject
 Clear brackets
 Collect together the terms containing l aR
a) a = b) l =
the required subject R
 Factorise if necessary
 Isolate the required subject.
3. The final length, l 2 of a piece of wire heated
These steps should be performed in the order through C is given by the formula
given. l2 = l1 (1 + )

Example: Make the coefficient of expansion , , the


subject
2R
1. Transpose the formula V = to make
Rr l2 = l1 + l1
R the subject.
l1 = l2 l1
Step 1: Since there are no roots get rid of the l2 l1
=
fraction by multiplying both sides of the l1
equation by ( R r )
l
t = 2
V (R r) = 2R g , find g.
4. Given

Step 2: Clear the bracket l


t = 2
g
VR Vr = 2 R
l
t 2 = 4 2
Step 3: Collect the terms containing R on the g
2
LHS 4 l
g= 2
t
VR 2 R = Vr
CONSTRUCTION OF EQUATIONS FROM
Step 4: Factorise the LHS
VERBAL DATA
R (V 2 ) = Vr
To solve word problems:

Step 5: Isolate R by dividing both sides of the Read the problem carefully
equation by (V 2) If possible draw a diagram to assist in
interpreting the given information
Vr Translate the English phrases into
R=
(V 2 ) mathematical phrases and choose a
variable for the unknown quantity
Although we used five steps to obtain the
Write the equation using all of the
required subject, in very many cases far fewer
above information
steps are needed. Nevertheless, you should
Solve the equation
work through the steps in order given.

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29 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Check the solution to determine 2.5 SIMULTANEOUS EQUATION


whether it satisfies the original
A linear function is a first degree equation in x
problem
and y (with two variables). That is, there are
Mathematical translations of common English no exponents greater than one or negative
phrases are listed below: exponents in a linear equation. A first degree
equation, when solved for y, expresses y as a
English Mathematical linear function of x:
phrase phrase
y=mx+c
4 more than a number x+4
where, m is the slope (measure of the
A number increased by y+5
steepness of the line) and the constant c is
5
+ The sum of x and y x+y the y-intercept (value of y where the line
A number added to 3 3+n crosses the y-axis)
x plus y x+y The graph of a linear function is a straight line.
A number decreased by y5
5
5 less than a number n5
The difference between xy
x and y
x minus y xy
The product of a and b a.b
x multiplied by a a.x
x Twice a number 2.n
of y .y These equations are called linear systems and
32 percent of z (0.32).z must be solved simultaneously (at the same
x times y x.y time). There are several methods of solution
The quotient of x and y x/y that can be used:
The quotient of y and x y/x Graphical method
The ratio of x and y x/y Algebraic method (substitution or
x divided by y x/y elimination)

GRAPH OF LINEAR EQUATION


Example:
The problem of solving a system of two linear
equations with two variables can be viewed as
a geometry problem. The graph of each
equation is a line, thus, a system of two
equations containing two variables represents
a pair of lines. The lines intersect, are parallel
or are coincident.

(a) If the lines intersect, then the system


of equations has one solution, given
by the point of intersection. The
system is consistent and the
equations are independent.
(b) If the lines are parallel, then the
system of equations has no solution,
because the lines never intersect. The
system is inconsistent.

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30 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

(c) If the lines are coincident, then the SOLVING SYSTEMS OF TWO LINEAR
system of equations has infinitely EQUATIONS BY:
many solutions, represented by the
totality of points on the line. The GRAPHICALLY
system is consistent and the
equations are dependent. 1. Solve:
3 x 2 y = 4 equaJon 1
Figure illustrates these conclusions: 6 x + y = 13 equaJon 2
by using graphical method (intercept method)

(a) intersecting lines


system has one solution

The two lines intersect; the system has one


(b) parallel lines
solution which is given by the point of
system has no solution
intersection; (2, 1)

2. Solve:
4 x + 2 y = 8 equaJon 1
2 x + y = 5 equaJon 2
by using graphical method (intercept method)

(c) coincident lines


system has infinitely many solutions

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31 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

4 x + 8 y = 4.................(3)

Subtracting eq (3) from eq (2) gives:


4 x 3 y = 18
- 4 x + 8 y = 4
0 x 11 y = 22
y = 2

Substituting y = 2 into eq (1) gives:


x + 2 ( 2 ) = 1
The two lines are parallel, the system has no x=3
solution.

ALGEBRAICALLY
Solve the following equations for x and y
Two methods of solving simultaneous
equations analytically are: x 5
+ = y..............................(1)
8 2
a) By substitution y
b) By elimination 13 = 3x...........................(2)
3
Example: Multiplying eq (1) by 8 gives:
Solve the following equations for x and y
x 5
8 + 8 = 8y
x + 2 y = 1..............................(1) 8 2
4 x 3 y = 18............................(2) x + 20 = 8 y.........................(3)

Multiplying eq (2) by 3 gives


By Substitution
39 y = 9 x.........................(4)
From eq (1): x = 1 2 y
Substituting this expression for x into eq (2) gives: Rearranging eq (3) and (4) gives:
4 ( 1 2 y ) 3 y = 18 x 8 y = 20.......................(5)
4 8 y 3 y = 18 9 x + y = 39.........................(6)
11 y = 18 + 4
y = 2
By Substitution
Substituting y = 2 into eq (1) gives:
x + 2 ( 2 ) = 1 From eq (1): x = 20 + 8 y
x=3 Substituting this expression for x into eq (2)
gives:
By Elimination 9 ( 20 + 8 y ) + y = 39
180 + 72 y + y = 39
If eq (1) I multiplied throughout by 4 the
73 y = 219
coefficient of x will be the same as in eq (2),
giving: y =3

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32 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Substituting y = 3 into eq (1) gives: Therefore, we need to adjust this formula for
x = 20 + 8 ( 3) consideration of head winds and tail winds as
follows:
x=4

By Elimination
Head wind Tail wind
Multiplying eq (6) by 8 gives: d = (ground speed) x t d = (ground speed) x t
d = ( air speed wind d = ( air speed + wind
72 x + 8 y = 312.................(7) speed ) x t speed ) x t

Adding eq (5) from eq (7) gives: We will now substitute a variable for air speed (x)
x 8 y = 20 and a variable for wind speed (y)
+72 x + 8 y = 312 d = (x - y) x t d = (x + y) x t
73x + 0 y = 292
x = 4

Substituting x = 4 into eq (5) gives:


4 8 y = 20
4 + 20 = 8 y
24 = 8 y
y =3

Word Problems: Distance

It is important to understand the terminology


used in the aviation problem.

Head wind - the plane is flying against the


wind, which causes the plane fly more slowly.

Tail wind the plane is flying with the wind


and can go at a faster rate of speed.

Air speed the speed of the plane without


consideration of the effect of the wind

Ground speed is the resultant, or the sum of


the wind speed and air speed.

Cross wind the wind is blowing at an


arbitrary angle with respect to the planes
direction.

We need to set up a system of two equations.


Remember that:

Distance (d) = rate (r) x time (t)


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33 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Example: 2.6 SECOND DEGREE EQUATION

Suppose it takes a small airplane flying with a Three methods of solving second degree or
head wind 16 hours to travel 1800 miles. quadratic equations:
However, when flying with a tail wind, the
airplane can travel the same distance in only 9 a) Factorisation (where possible)
hours. Find the rate of speed of the wind and b) Completing the squares
the air speed of the airplane.
c) Quadratic formula
Let x = air speed and y = wind speed
FACTORISATION
1800 = (x y) 16
The technique of factoring is often one of
1800 = 16x 16y . (1) trial and error. The method of complete
factorization is applicable only if we can
1800 = (x + y) 9
convert the quadratic expression
1800 = 9x + 9y .(2) ax 2 + bx + c into two factors. Each factor
when equated to zero gives the value of the
16200 = 144 x 144 y
root. We check our answer by using
28800 = 144 x + 144 y calculator.
45000 = 288 x
Example:
x = 156.25

We have determined that the air speed for


x 2 + 4 x 12 = 0
the small airplane is 156.25 miles per hour. ( x + 6)( x 2 ) = 0
Substituting into the second equation, we
( x + 6) = 0 or ( x 2 ) = 0
obtain the following: x = 6 or x = 2

1800 = 9 (156.25) = 9 y 2 x 2 + 5x 3 = 0
y = 43.75 ( 2 x 1)( x + 3) = 0
We have now determined that the speed of
( 2 x 1) = 0 or ( x + 3) = 0
the wind is 43.75 miles per hour. 1
x = or x = 3
2
Therefore, we have determined that the
average rate of speed of the airplane for the
1800 mile trip is 156.25 miles per hour and
the rate of speed of the wind is 43.75 miles
per hour

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34 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

COMPLETING THE SQUARE Solve the simple 5 7


equation x=
4 4
When the method of factorization fails, we
5 7 1
may try to solve the equation using x= + =
completing the square method. 4 4 2
5 7
x = = 3
Example: 4 4

Solve 2 x 2 + 5 x = 3 by completing the squares


QUADRATIC EQUATION
The procedure is as follows:

Make the coefficient 2 x2 5x 3 b b 2 4 ac


+ = x=
of the x 2 term unity. 2 2 2 2a
In this case this is 5x 3
achieved by dividing x2 + = Example:
throughout by 2 2 2
a)
Add to both sides of x2 + 2x 8 = 0
the equation (half the 5x 5
2

2 x2 + + a = 1, b = 2, c = 8
coefficient of x ) In 2 4
this case the
3 5
2 Substitute this values into the quadratic
5 = + formula
coefficient of x is .
2 2 4
2 2 2 4 (1)( 8 )
Half the coefficient x=
2 2 (1)
5
squared is
4 2 4 + 32
x=
2
The LHS is now a 2 2 2 6
5 3 5 x=
perfect square x+ = + 2
4 2 4
x = 2 or x = 4
Evaluate the RHS 5 3 25
2

x+ = + b)
4 2 16
3 x 2 4 11x = 0
2
5 49 a = 3, b = 11, c = 4
x+ =
4 16
Substitute this values into the quadratic
Taking the square root 5 49 formula
of both sides of the x+ = 2
4 16 ( 11) ( 11) 4 ( 3 )( 4 )
equation x=
(remembering that the 5 7 2 (3)
x+ =
square root of a 4 4
11 121 + 48
number gives a x=
answer) 6
11 13
x=
6
1
x = 4 or x =
3

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35 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

GRAPH OF QUADRATIC EQUATION INEQUALITIES

A quadratic equation is an equation that can The following table provides several
be written on the standard form commonly used mathematical inequalities
and their respective meanings
ax2 + bx + c = 0
Phrase Mathematic
The other method to solve quadratic equation Inequality
is to solve it graphically. The roots of a a is less than b a<b
quadratic equation are the x-intercepts of the
graph a is greater than b a>b
a exceeds b
Example:
a is less than or equal ab
Solve x2 - 3x - 10 = 0 by using graphical to b
method a is at most b
a is not more than b

a is greater than or ab
equal to b
a is at least b
a is not less than b

Relationship between Inequalities, Intervals


and Coordinate Line

The parabola cross the x-axis at x = -2 and x =


5. These are the roots of the quadratic
equation.

A quadratic equation has two roots if its graph


has two x-intercepts
A quadratic equation has one root it its graph
has one x-intercept
A quadratic equation has no real solutions if
its graph has no x-intercepts

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36 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Example: 2 3 x < x + 10
3 x x < 10 2
Complete the table below:
4x < 8
Inequalities Coordinate line Interval 8
x>
2 < x <5 4
x>2
Solution set: { x : x > 2}
-2 4
( ,3] Interval notation: ( 2, )
(6, ) Graph:
2
-2
5 x + 25 > 0
5>x
5 x > 25
25
x<
5
Solving Linear Inequalities x<5
If both sides of an inequality are multiplied or Solution set: { x : x < 5}
divided by a negative quantity, the inequality Interval notation: ( , 5 ]
sign must be reversed.
Graph:
Example:
5
Solve the following inequalities and graph the
4 < x 3 < 5
solution set
4 + 3 < x < 5 + 3
3x + 4 x 5 1 < x < 8
3 x x 5 4 Solution set: { x : 1 < x < 8}
2 x 9
Interval notation: ( 1,8 )
9
x
2 Graph:
9
Solution set: x : x
2
9
Interval notation: 2 ,
8
1
Graph:
Hence, its graph representation is as below:
9

2
1 8

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37 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

x + 4 Example:
2 9
2
Solve the following inequalities using real
4 x + 4 18
number line method
x + 4 4 and x + 4 18
2 x 2 + 3x 5
x 8 x 14 2 x2 + 3x 5 0
x8 x 14
( 2 x + 5 )( x 1) 0
5
If ( 2 x + 5 ) 0, then x
2
Solution set: { x : 14 x 8} If ( x 1) 0, then x 1
Interval notation: [ 14, 8 ] - + +
Graph:
- - +

+ 5 - +
1
2
14 8 5
The solution set is: ,1
2
Hence, its graph representation is as below:
* The original inequality is less than 0,
choose the negative interval

14 8

x2 < x 2
x2 + x + 2 < 0
Solving Quadratic Inequalities
( x + 2 )( x + 1) < 0
A quadratic inequality is an inequality of the If ( x + 2 ) > 0, then x < 2
form ax 2 + bx + c > 0 where a,b, and c are If ( x + 1) > 0, then x > 1
real numbers with a 0 . There are 2
- + +
methods to solve quadratic inequalities.
+ + -
a) Real number line method
b) Table of sign - 1 + 2 -

The solution set is: ( , 1) ( 2, )

* The original inequality is less than 0,


choose the negative interval

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38 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Example: Solving Rational Inequalities

Solve the following inequalities using a table Strategy for solving rational inequalities
of signs
1. Rewrite the inequality with 0 on the
2
2 x + 7 x < 3 right
2 x 2 + 7 x 3 < 0 2. Use only addition or subtraction to
( 2 x + 1)( x 3 ) < 0 get an equivalent inequality. Do not
cross-multiply variable terms.
1 3. Factorize the numerator and
3 denominator
2
4. Use the real number line method or
( 2 x + 1) + - -
table of signs method to determine
( x 3) - - + the intervals that satisfy the original
( 2 x + 1)( x 3 ) - + - inequality
5. Write the solution set using interval
notation

1 Example:
The solution set is: , ( 3, )
2
Solve the following inequalities using the real
number line method

y 2 ( y + 1) 20 2x 1
>1
x +1
y 2 + y 20 0
2x 1
( y + 5 )( y 4 ) 0 1 > 0
x +1
( 2 x 1) ( x + 1) > 0
5 4
x +1
( y + 5) - + +
x2
>0
( y 4) - - + x +1
( y + 5 )( y 4 ) + - + If ( x 2 ) > 0, then x > 2
If ( x + 1) > 0, then x > 1

- + +
- - +
The solution set is: ( , 5 ] [ 4, )
+ 1 - 2 +

The solution set is: ( , 1) ( 2, )

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39 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

x
3 0 3 2
x2
x 3( x 2) x + 2 x 1
0 3 2
x2 0
x 3x + 6 x + 2 x 1
0 3 ( x 1) 2 ( x + 2 )
x2 0
2 x + 6 ( x + 2 )( x 1)
0
x2 3x 3 2 x 4
0
If ( 2 x + 6 ) 0, then x 3 ( x + 2 )( x 1)
If ( x 2 ) > 0, then x > 2 x7
0
+ + - ( x + 2 )( x 1)
- + +
2 1 7
2 + 3 -
- (x 7) - - - +
The solution set is: ( , 2 ) [3, )
( x + 2) - + + +
( x 1) - - + +
x7 - + - +
Example: ( x + 2 )( x 1)
Solve the following inequalities using the
table of sign method
The solution set is: ( 2,1) [ 7, )

3 1 * -2 and 1 are not in the solution because


0
x+2 x+3 the quotient is undefined if x = -2 or 1
3 ( x + 3 ) ( x + 1)
0
( x + 3 )( x + 1)
2x + 8
0
( x + 3 )( x + 1)
4 3 1
(2 x + 8) - + + +

( x + 3) - - + +
( x + 1) - - - +
2x + 8 - + - +
( x + 3)( x + 1)

The solution set is: [ 4, 3 ) ( 1, )

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40 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

2.7 POLYNOMIAL Products / Multiplication

STANDARD FORM OF POLYNOMIAL Example:

A polynomial function of degree n in the


variable x is a function defined by:

Example:
where
a1 = the constant coefficient of x in the
polynomial
an = the leading coefficient in the
polynomial and an 0
an xn = the leading term in the polynomial

Polynomial function of degree 1, 2, 3 and 4


occurs so often that we give them special Division
names, as shown in the chart below:
To divide one polynomial by another
polynomial, we will use the long division
method.

OPERATIONS OF POLYNOMIAL

To add or subtract two or more polynomials,


Steps to perform long division:
first remove the parentheses and then
combine like or similar terms. The resulting 1. Write the terms on both polynomials in
expression is written in order of decreasing order. Leave gaps for missing terms.
degree from left to right. This is called the 2. Divide the first term in the DIVIDEND by
standard form of a polynomial. the first term in the DIVISOR
3. Write the result in the correct column
Addition and Subtraction over the division line that is in the
QUOTIENT
Example:
4. Multiply all the terms in the DIVISOR by
this result and subtract the answer from
the DIVIDEND.
5. A new dividend is now left. Repeat this
process until the dividend that is left is of
Example: a lower degree than the divisor.

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41 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Example: FACTOR THEOREM AND REMAINDER


THEOREM

Factor Theorem

If (x-a) is a factor of a polynomial f(x), then

f(a) = 0.

Conversely, if, for a given polynomial function


f(x), f(a) = 0, then x-a is a factor of f(x)

Note: The Factor Theorem is very useful when


factorizing polynomials of degree greater than
2.

Example:

The function f is given by f(x) = 2x3 x2 - 18x +


Example: 9. Show that ( x - 3 ) is a factor of f(x).
Find the quotient and the remainder for Let x = 3
f(3) = 2(3)3 - (3)2 - 18(3) + 9
= 54 - 9 - 54 + 9
=0

Since f(3) = 0 then it is shown that ( x - 3 ) is a


factor of f(x).

The expression x3 + 8x2 + kx + 10 has a factor


(x + 2).Find the value of k.
Let x = -2
Since (x + 2) is a factor, then f(-2) = 0
Thus, (-2)3 + 8(-2)2 + k(-2) + 10 = 0
-8 + 32 - 2k + 10 = 0
-2k = -34
k = 17
Therefore, the quotient is x2 + 4x +11 and the
remainder is 35x - 39 Show that (x + 3) is a factor of x3 + 2x2 + x + 12.
Let x = -3
Example: Suppose f(x) = x3 + 2x2 + x + 12
Solve f(-3) = (-3)3 + 2(-3)2 + (-3) + 12
= -27 + 18 - 3 + 12
=0
Since f(-3) = 0 then it is shown that ( x + 3 ) is a
factor of f(x)

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42 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

Remainder Theorem b = -5
Substitute b = -5 in (1),
If a polynomial f(x) is divided by ( x - a ) , then
the remainder is f (a). 2a - (-5) = 7
2a = 2
Note : f (a) is the value of f (x) when x = a
a=1
Thus, f(x) = 2x3 + x2 - 5x + 2
The remainder of a polynomial when divided
by a linear function can be obtained from
a) Long division
b) The Remainder Theorem.

HOWEVER, THE REMAINDER THEOREM


GIVES A (SIMPLE) METHOD FOR EVALUATING
THE REMAINDER ONLY. IF THE QUOTIENT IS
REQUIRED IN A QUESTION, LONG DIVISION
MUST BE USED.

Example:

Determine the remainder when 3x5 x2 + 1 is


divided by ( x + 2 ).
Let x = -2
f(-2) = 3(-2)5 - (-2)2 + 1
= -96 - 4 + 1
= -99
The remainder is -99

The expression 2x3 + ax2 + bx + 2 is exactly


divisible by ( x + 2 ). The same expression
leaves a remainder of 12 on division by (x - 2 ).
Calculate the values of a and b.
Let f(x) = 2x3 + ax2 + bx + 2

f(-2) = 0
2(-2)3 + a(-2)2 + b(-2) + 2 = 0
-16 + 4a - 2b + 2 = 0
4a - 2b = 14
2a - b = 7 ---------------------------(1)

f(2) = 12
2(2)3 + a(2)2 + b(2) + 2 = 12
16 + 4a + 2b + 2 = 12
4a + 2b = -6
2a + b = -3 ---------------------------(2)

Eq (1) - Eq (2)

-2b = 10

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43 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

EXERCISE 5. Evaluate

INDICES 1 1
log16 log 8
1. Simplify the following expressions: a) 2 3
log 4
33 a0 52
a) b) 1
3 53 t 0 log 9 log 3 + log 81
2
(3 )(3 )(3 )
4 2 5
b) 2log 3
c)
(3 )(3 )
2 3

6. Solve the given equations


23 2 6 2 6 2 7
d) 4 3
a) log x log x = log5x log 2 x
2 4 2 5 2 0
3
e) 16ab 4 c 8 d b) log 2t log t = log16 + log t

2
f) (36x )(9xy 4 ) c) 2log b 3log b = log8b log 4b

7. Given that log 2 = 0.3010,


LOGARITHM log 3 = 0.4771 and log 5 = 0.6990 .
Without using calculator, evaluate the
2. Solve the equations:
following logarithmic functions.
a) log10 x = 4 lg x = 5 75
b) a) log 45 b) log 4

1 4
8. Solve the following for x:
c) log 4 x = 2 2 log 8 x =
3
d)
2x x
a) 4 5 4 + 6 = 0
3. Write the given expression in terms of 2x x
log 2,log 3 and log 5 b) 3 5 14 5 + 8 = 0
16 4 5
a) log 300 b) log
27
125 4 16
log
c)
4
813

4. Simplify the expression given

a) log 27 log 9 + log 81

b) log 64 + log 32 log128

c) log 8 log 4 + log 32

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44 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

TRANSPOSITION OF FORMULA CONSTRUCTION OF EQUATIONS FROM


VERBAL DATA
9. Make the symbols indicated the subject of
each of the formula shown and express 12. A rectangle and a square have the same
each in its simplest form area. If the rectangle is 4 cm longer and 3
cm narrower than the square, find the
a2 b2 lengths of the sides of the rectangle.
a) + =1 ( x)
x2 y2
13. Two rectangles of equal area have widths
2 of 10cm and 12 cm. The difference in
b) Z = R 2 + ( 2 fL ) ( L) their lengths is 3 cm. Find their areas.

x y 14. A box contains an unknown number of


a= (b )
c) bd be screws. Five screws are removed from the
box. The screws remaining in the box are
D f +p counted and it is found that there are 12.
= ( p) Write an equation to illustrate this
d) d f p
information. Solve the equation to find
how many screws were originally in the
p a + 2b
= (b ) box.
e)
q a 2b
15. For a hydraulic lift, the ratio of the applied
10. In an electrical alternating current circuit force F1 to the resulting force F2 is equal
the impedance Z is given by: to the ratio of the squares of the
2 diameters of the pistons:
1
Z= R2 + L
C
Transpose the formula L to be the subject
of the formula

11. The sag,S at the center of a wire is given What applied force is necessary to lift a
by the formula: 1440 kg automobile if D1 = 10cm and D2 =
3d ( l d ) 80cm?
S=
8
16. Three more than a certain number is 10.
Make l the subject of the formula and
Find the number.
evaluate l when d = 1.75, S = 0.80
17. Four more than twice a certain number is
8. Find the number.

18. Sarah is 4 years older than Hakim and the


sum of their ages is 46. How old is each?

19. The sum of one-half of a number and 6 is


14. Find the number.

20. The width of a rectangle is 3 meters less


than its length. If the perimeter of the

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45 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

rectangle is 50 meters, find the 26. The distance s meters from a fixed point
dimensions of the rectangle. of a vehicle travelling in a straight line
with constant acceleration. a m / s 2 is
21. One number is 20 more than another. If
1 2
the greater number is increased by 4, the given by s = ut + at , where u is the
result is five times the smaller. Find the 2
initial velocity in m/s and t the time in
two numbers.
seconds. Determine the initial velocity
22. A square and an equilateral triangle have and the acceleration given that s = 42 m
the same perimeter. Each side of the when t = 2 s and s = 144 m when t = 4 s .
triangle is 8 meters, find the length of Determine also the distance travelled
each side of the square. after 3s.

23. Seventy-seven mathematics students are 27. An airplane flying with a head wind
separated into two groups. The first group travelled 1000 miles from one city to
is 4 less than twice the second group. another in 2 hours and 12 minutes. On
How many students are in each group? the return flight, flying with a tail wind,
the total time was only 2 hours. Find the
air speed of the plane and the speed of
SIMULTANEOUS EQUATION the wind.

24. Solve the following equations


SECOND DEGREE EQUATION
simultaneously.
28. Solve the following equation by using
a) b)
completing the square method.
x 2 y 49
+ =
1.5 x 2.2 y = 18 5 3 15 2
a) 2 x + 9 x + 8 = 0
2.4 x + 0.6 y = 33 3x y 5
+ =0
7 2 7 2
b) 4.6 y + 3.5 x 1.75 = 0

2
c) d)
c) 3 x x 5 = 0
1 4 3r + 2 2 s 1 11
= =
x + y 27 5 4 5 2
d) 4 x 11x + 3 = 0
1 4 3 + 2r 5 s 15
= + = 29. Calculate the diameter of a solid cylinder
2 x y 33 4 3 4
which has a height of 82.0cm and a total
25. The equation of a straight line, a gradient surface area 2.0m 2
m and intercept on the y-axis c is
y = mx + c Total surface area of cylinder = 2 rh + 2 r 2
If the straight line passes through the
30. If the total surface area of a solid cone is
point where x = 1 and y = -2. And also
1 486.2cm 2 and its slant height is 15.3cm,
through the point where x = 3 and determine the base diameter.
2
1
y = 10 , determine the value of the [Total surface area of solid cone = rl + r 2 ]
2
gradient and y-axis intercept

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46 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

l = slant height POLYNOMIAL


r = base radius
34. Simplify the following polynomial:
31. The angle a rotating shaft turns through in
t seconds is given by:

1
= t + t 2
2

Determine the time taken to complete 4


radians if = 3.0 rad / s and
= 0.60 rad / s 2

32. The power P developed in an electrical


circuit is given by:
35.
2
P = 10 I 8 I

Where I is the current in amperes.


Determine the current necessary to
produce a power of 2.5 watts in the
circuit

33. Solve each inequality

a) 3 x 2 x + 3

1 x 1 36. Simplify each product


b) <2
3 2

x2 + 4x 0
c)

(
2
d) 6 x 1 5 x )
( x + 2 )( x 3 ) 0
e) x

m 3
>
f) 2 m 1 m +2

37. Simplify the resulting expressions

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47 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

38. Find quotient and remainder for each 3x3 2 x 2 16 x + 20


division
d) ( x + 2 )( x 2 )
4x 3
2
e) ( x + 1)
39. Simplify the following by using long
division method. x2 + 7 x + 3
x 2 ( x + 3)
f)

5 x 2 30 x + 44
3
g) ( x 2)

40. Three factors of x 4 + ax 3 + bx 2 + x + c 18 + 21x x 2


2
are x , ( x + 1) , ( x 1) . Determine a, b and h)
( x 5)( x + 2 )
c.
x 2 x 13
41. Determine the values of a and b if
i)
( x2 + 7 ) ( x 2)
ax 4 + bx 3 8 x 2 + 6 has remainder
2 x + 1 when divided by x 2 1 6x 5

j)
( x 4 ) ( x 2 + 3)
42. Given that ( 2 x 1) is a factor of

8 x 3 + 4 x 2 + kx + 15 . Determine the 15 + 5 x + 5 x 2 4 x 3
value of k x 2 ( x 2 + 5)
k)
43. The expression ax 2 + bx + c is divisible by
x 1 , has remainder 2 when divided by x3 + 4 x 2 + 20 x 7
2
x + 1 and has remainder 8 when divided l)
( x 1) (x 2
+ 8)
by x 2 . Determine the values of a, b
and c.

44. Resolve the following into partial


fractions:

12
a) 2
x 9

3 ( 2 x 2 8 x 1)
b) ( x + 4 )( x + 1)( 2 x 1)

x 2 x 14
x2 2 x 3
c)

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48 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

ANSWER C Z 2 R 2 + 1
L=
1 1 2C
1. a) 9 b) c) 10.
5 9
8S 2
d)
1
e) 4b 2 c 4 ad f) 18xy 2 l= + d ; 2.725
8 11. 3d

2. a) 10000 b) 100000 c) 1/32 d) 1/16 12. L = 16 cm, W = 9 cm

3. a) 2 log 2 + 2 log 5 + log 3 13. A = 180 cm2

1 14. Equation: x 5 =12


b) 4 log 2 + 4 log 5 3 log 3 x = 17

3 log 5 + log 2 3 log 3 15. F1 = 22.5 kg


c)
16. 7
4. a) 5 log 3 b) 4 log 2 c) 6 log 2
17. 2
5. a) 1/2 b) 3/2
18. Sarah = 25, Hakim = 21
5
6. a) x = b) t = 8 c) b = 2 19. 16
2

7. a) 1.6532 b) 1.2731 20. L = 14 m, W = 11 m

1 21. S = 6, G = 26
8. a) x = 0.792 @
2
22. 6m
x = 0.252 @ 0.861
b) 23. G1 = 50, G2 = 27

ay
x= 24. a) x = 10, y = 15
y 2 b2
9. a)
b) x = 3, y = 4
Z 2 R2
L=
2 f 3
b) c) x = 5, y = 1 4
2

b=
(x y) 1
a2 (d e) r = 3, s =
c) d) 2

f (D2 d 2 ) m = 5, c = 7
p= 25.
d) (d 2
+D 2
)
2

a(p q 26. u = 6 m / s , a = 15 m / s , s = 85.5 m


b=
2 2
)
2( p + q 2 2
)
e)

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49 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

27. Air speed = 477.27 mph 35.

Speed of the wind = 22.73 mph

28. a) 1.22, 3.28

0.344, 1.105
b)

1.468, 1.135
c)

2.443, 0.307 36.


d)

57.5cm
29.

30. 13.82cm

31. 1.191s

32. 0.345 A or 0.905 A

5 5
33. a) , ,5
4 b) 3 37.

2 3
[ 4, 0 ] d)
, ,
c) 3 2

[ 2, 0 ) [3, )
e)
38.

( , 2 )
1
,1 ( 3, )
f) 2

34.

39.

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50 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB10102)

40. a = 1, b = 1, c = 0

41. a = 3, b = 2

42. k = 34

43. a = 3, b = 1, c = 2

2 2

( x 3) ( x + 3)
44. a)
7 3 2

b) ( x + 4 ) ( ) ( 1)
x + 1 2 x
2 3
1 +
c) ( x 3 ) ( x + 1)
1 5
3x 2 +
d) ( x 2) ( x + 2)
4 7
e)
( x + 1) ( x + 1)2
1 2 1
2
+
x x ( x + 3)

f)
5 10 4
2
+ 3
x 2 ( x 2) ( x 2)
g)
2 3 4
+
h)
( x 5) ( x + 2 ) ( x + 2 )2
2x + 3 1

i)
( x + 7) ( x 2)
2

1 2 x
+ 2
j)
( x 4 ) ( x + 3)
1 3 2 5x
+ 2+ 2
x x ( x + 5)
k)
3 2 2 x + 1
+ + 2
( x 1) ( x 1) ( x + 8)
2

l)

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