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# 82 Engineering Mathematics 1 (AQB 10102)

## 4.1 INTRODUCTION OF TRIGONOMETRY The radian is another basic unit of angle

FUNCTIONS measure. To define a radian we need to
define the concept of a central angle.
MEASUREMENT OF THE ANGLE A central angle of a circle is an angle whose
vertex is the center of the circle
i) Degree Measurement

## The size of an angle can be measured by using

degree unit
The angle formed by a complete
counterclockwise revolution has a measure of
360

1
Thus 1 = of a complete revolution
360
By Definition
In the degree system for angle measurement, One radian is the measure of the central angle
of a circle where the sides of the angle
# each degree is divided into 60 parts called intercept an arc equal in length to the radius
minute 1 = 60 of the circle.
# each minute is divided into 60 parts called
second 1 = 60 is an angle of measure 1 radian

## We can convert the degree-minute-second to The circumference of a circle is given by

decimal form and otherwise. C = 2r
and each arc of length r determines an angle
of one radian and there are 2 r / r = 2
radians in one complete revolution
If 1 = 60 and 1 = 60 then 1 = 3600
Thus:

Example:

## 1. Convert from D-M-S form to decimal form

12 36
7312 '36" = 73 + +
60 3600
= 73 + 0.2 + 0.01 The two basic relationships between degree
and radian measure are:
= 73.21

## 73.21 = 73 + 0.21 ( 60')

= 73 + 12.6'
= 73 + 12'+ 0.6 ( 60")
= 73 + 12'+ 36"
= 7312'36"

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Example:

## 1. Change 150 to radians

150 = 150 x radians
180
5
= radians
6

3
2. Change to degrees
4

3 3 180
radian = x = 135
4 4

## TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS AND INVERSE

TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Example:
Basic Trigonometric Functions
1. Suppose that a 20m ladder is placed against a
The standard position of an angle is obtained by building so that its lower end is 5m from the
taking: base of the building, what angle does the ladder
the vertex at the origin make with the ground?
the initial side coincide with the positive
side of the x-axis

## 2. A tree casts a shadow at 32 ft at the same

time a vertical yardstick (3.0 ft) casts a
shadow of 2.2 ft . How tall is the tree?

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## In the figure below, we indicate some Trigonometric Functions of An Angle

terminology that is commonly used in line of sight
problems. The angles are measured with
reference to a horizontal line

## If the object being sighted is above the

observer, then the angle formed by the
line of sight and the horizontal line is called
an angle of elevation.
If the object being sighted is below the
observer, then the angle formed by the
line of sight and the horizontal line is called
an angle of depression
The table below summarizes the trigonometric
functional values of some special angles

Example:

## A tree is located on the opposite side of a pond

from point A and B. From point B, the angle of Coterminal angles
elevation to the top of the tree is 35o. From point
A, the angle of elevation to the top of the tree is We consider the figure below
25o. If points A and B are 30 meters apart, find the
height of the tree to the nearest tenth of a meter.

## Different angles can have the same initial and

terminal sides (but the amount of rotation is
different)

## Any two such angles are called COTERMINAL

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Example:

Example:

Example:

Example:

## (a) 171 (b) 216

Reference angles
Solution:
The concept of a reference angle can be defined
as follows (a)

Let be any angle in standard position with its sin 171o = sin (180o-171o) = sin 9o = 0.1564
terminal side in one of the quadrants. The
reference angle associated with (we call it ) cos 171o = -cos (180o-171o) = - cos 9o
is acute angle formed by the terminal sides of
and the x-axis. = - 0.9877

(b)

= - 0.5878

## cos 216o = - cos (216o-180o) = - cos 36o

= -0.8090

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## Graph of Trigonometric Functions Changing From Cartesian Into Polar

Coordinates

r 2 = ( x2 + y 2 )

r = x2 + y2

y
tan =
x
y
= tan 1
x

Example:

## 1. Change the Cartesian coordinates (3,4) into

polar coordinates
CARTESIAN / RECTANGULAR AND POLAR
COORDINATES

## There are 2 ways in which the position of a point

in a plane can be represented. These are:

## ii) By polar coordinates

( r , )
where r is the radius from a fixed point and theta
is an angle from a fixed point.

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## x = 3, y = 4 3. Express in polar coordinates the position

r = x2 + y2 (-5, -12)
2 2
= ( 3) + ( 4 )
r = x2 + y 2
=5
2 2
4 = ( 5) + (12 )
tan =
3 = 13
4 12
= tan 1 tan =
3 5
= 53.13 or 0.927 rad 12
= tan 1
Polar coordinates: ( 5,53.13 ) or ( 5, 0.927rad ) 5
= 67.38 or 1.176 rad
2. Express in polar coordinates the position (-4, 3) = 180 + 67.38 = 247.38 or
= + 1.176 = 4.318 rad

(13, 4.318rad )

## 4. Express in polar coordinates the position (2, -5)

r = x2 + y 2 r = x2 + y2
2 2 2
= ( 4) + ( 3) = ( 2) + 52
=5 = 5.385
3 5
tan = tan =
4 2
3 5
= tan 1 = tan 1
4 2
= 36.87 or 0.644 rad = 68.20 or 1.190 rad
= 180 36.87 = 143.13 = 360 68.20 = 291.80 or
or = 2 1.190 = 5.093 rad
= 0.644 = 2.498 rad
Polar coordinates: ( 5.385, 291.80) or
Polar coordinates: ( 5,143.13 ) or ( 5,2.498rad ) ( 5.385,5.093rad )

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Changing From Polar Into Cartesian 4.2 RIGHT TRIANGLES AND OBLIQUE TRIANGLE
Coordinates
SINE AND COSINE LAWS
From the right angled triangle OPQ
Law Of Sine

## In any triangle ABC having sides of length a,

b, c the following relationship are true.

x y
cos = and sin =
r r
x = r cos and y = r sin
Example:
Example:
1. Suppose that in triangle ABC, A = 71, C =
40 and a = 19cm. Find c to the nearest tenth
1. Change (4, 32o) into Cartesian coordinates of a cm.
x = r cos = 4cos 32 = 3.39
y = r sin = 4sin 32 = 2.12
Cartesian coordinates: ( 3.39, 2.12 )

coordinates

## x = r cos = 4.5cos5.16 = 1.948

y = r sin = 4.5sin 5.16 = 4.057
Cartesian coordinates: ( 4.5, 4.057 )

## 2. Refer to the triangle ABC, express measures of

angles to the nearest tenth of a degree and
lengths of sides to the nearest tenth of a unit

## A = 64, C = 47, a = 17 cm. Determine c.

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## 3. A straight road makes an angle of 19o with the Example:

horizontal. At a certain point A on the road, the
angle of elevation of a helicopter hovering in the 1. Use the information given in the figure to find
air is 48o. At this same time, from another point B, the value of c to the nearest tenth of a meter.
150m farther up the road, the angle of elevation
is 55o. Find the distance from point A to the
helicopter

## 2. Refer to the triangle ABC, express measures of

angles to the nearest tenth of a degree and
lengths of sides to the nearest tenth of a unit

## 4.3 TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES AND

EQUATIONS
Law Of Cosine
Trigonometric Identities
In any triangle ABC having sides of length a, b,
Below are the lists of trigonometric identities:
c,the following relationship are true :

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## The usages of trigonometric identities are:

4. Simplify
(1 + tan x ) sin
2 2
x
1) To determine the other functional
= sec 2 x sin 2 x
values from the given values
2) To simplify trigonometric expressions 1
= 2
sin 2 x
3) To verify additional identities cos x
4) To derive other important formulas sin 2 x
5) To aid in solving of trigonometric =
cos 2 x
equations
= tan x

Example:
Trigonometric Equations
1. Verify that sec cot = csc
LHS: ADDITION FORMULAS
sec cot
1 cos sin(A + B ) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
=
cos sin
cos (A + B ) = cos A cos B sin A sin B
1
=
sin tan A + tan B
tan(A + B ) =
= csc 1 tan A tan B

1
SUBTRACTION FORMULAS
2. Simplify 1 sin 2
1 sin(A B ) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
=
( sin 2
+ cos ) sin
2 2
cos (A B ) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
1
= tan A tan B
cos 2 tan(A B ) =
1 + tan A tan B
1
=
cos
= sec
HALF-ANGLE FORMULAS

## 3. Verify the identity sec x cos x = sin x tan x

sec x cos x 1 cos
sin =
2 2
1 cos 2 x
= 1 + cos
cos x cos x cos =
2 2
1 cos 2 x
= 1 cos sin
cos x tan = =
2 sin 1 + cos
sin 2 x
=
cos x
sin x sin x
=
1 cos x
= sin x tan x

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DOUBLE-ANGLE FORMULAS 4
2. Find sin 2 if sin = , 1st quadrant
5
sin 2 = 2 sin cos

## cos 2 = cos 2 sin 2

.......... = 1 2 sin 2
.......... = 2 cos 2 1
2 tan
tan 2 =
1 tan 2

PRODUCT-TO-SUM FORMULAS

1
sin cos = [sin( + ) + sin( )]
2
1
cos sin = [sin( + ) sin( )] 3. Express sin 3 cos 2 as an indicated sum
2
1
cos cos = [cos( + ) + cos( )]
2

SUM-TO-PRODUCT FORMULAS

+
sin + sin = 2 sin cos
2 2
+
sin sin = 2 cos sin
2 2
+
cos + cos = 2 cos cos 4. Express sin 4 sin 2 as an indicated
2 2
difference

Example:

1. Given that

3
sin = , 1st quadrant.
5
7
cos = , 2nd quadrant.
25

## Find cos( ), sin ( ) and tan ( )

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tenth of a meter

## 5. The right circular con in figure b has a radius of

3m and a volume of 50 cubic meter. Find the
6. Express the indicated sum sin 3 + sin as an
measure of angle to the nearest tenth of a
indicated product.
degree. The volume of a right circular cone is
1 2
given by: V = r h
3

## 6. Two points A and B are on opposite sides of a

4.4 TRAINGLE AND SOME PRACTICAL river. Point C is located 350 m from A on the same
APPLICATIONS side of the river as A. In triangle ACB, C = 52o and
1. A diagonal of a rectangle is 17cm long and A = 67o. Find the distance between A and B to the
makes and angle of 27o with a side of the nearest meter.
rectangle. Find the length and the width of the 7. Two people 75m apart are in line with the base
rectangle to the nearest cm. of a tower. The angle of elevation of the top of
2. The length of the three sides of an isosceles the tower from one person is 41.2o and from the
triangle are 18cm, 18cm and 12cm. Find the other person is 32.6o. Find the height of the
measure of each of the three angles to the tower.
nearest tenth of the degree.

## 3. Two buildings A and B are separated by an alley

that is 15m wide. From a second floor window in
building A, it can be determined that the angle of
elevation of the top of the building B is 75o and
the angle of depression of the bottom of building
B if 50o. Find the height to the nearest meter of
building B.

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EXERCISE:

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ANSWER

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