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# Quantum Mechanics II PHY-312

## 1. Given the density operator,

3 1
= | + z+z| + | zz|,
4 4
Construct the density matrix. Show that this is the density operator for a mixed state.
Determine Sx , Sy and Sz for this state.

2. Show that,
1 1 1 1
= | + n+n| + | nn| = | + z+z| + | zz|,
2 2 2 2
where,
( ) ( )

| + n = cos | + z + e sin
i
| z,
2 2
( ) ( )

| n = sin | + z e cos
i
| z.
2 2

3. The density matrix for an ensemble of spin- 12 particles in the Sz basis is,

1
n
4
Sz basis
.

n p
The asterisk represents complex conjugation.

## (a) What value must p have? Why?

(b) What value(s) must n have for the density matrix to represent a pure state?

(c) What pure state is represented when n takes its maximum possible real value?
Express your answer in terms of the state | + n given in problem 2.

## 4. An attempt to perform a Bell-state measurement on two photons produces a mixed

state, one in which the two photons are in the entangled state,
1 1
|+, + + |, ,
2 2
with probability p and with probability (1 p)/2 in each of the states |+, + and
|, . Here |+ and | represent photons linearly polarized at 45 and 45 respec-
tively. Determine the density matrix for this ensemble using the linear (horizontal and
vertical) polarization states of the photons as basis states.