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# UNIVERSITY OF ABUJA

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

## FIRST SEMESTER EXAMINATION 2009/2010 SESSION

COURSE TITLE: THEORY OF MACHINES II
COURSE CODE: MEE 411 CREDIT UNITS: 2
INSTRUCTIONS:
This paper contains six (6) questions. Answer any four (4) questions only
All questions carry equal marks Time allowed: 2hrs 15 min.

1 (a) Explain briefly with neat sketches the longitudinal, transverse and torsional free
vibrations.

(b) A flywheel is mounted on a vertical shaft as shown in Fig. Q1. Both ends of the shaft are
fixed. Its diameter is 70mm. The flywheel has a mass of 560kg. Find the natural frequencies
of longitudinal and transverse vibrations. Take E= 200GN/m 2.

2(a) A shaft of 150mm diameter and 1 metre long has one of its end fixed and the other end
carries a disc of mass 500kg at a radius of gyration of 500mm. The modulus of rigidity for the
shaft material is 80GN/m2. Determine the frequency of torsional vibration.

(b) Calculate the whirling speed of a shaft 20mm diameter and 0.6m long carrying a mass of 1kg
at its mid-point. The density of the shaft material is 40Mg/m 3 and Youngs modulus is
200GN/m2. Assume the shaft to be freely supported.

## 3.a ( i) In what way does a flywheel differ from a governor?

(ii) What are the various types of stresses induced in a flywheel rim.

(b) The turning moment diagram for a petrol engine is drawn to the following scales: Turning
moment, 1mm = 5N-m; crank angle, 1mm = 1 o.The turning moment diagram repeats itself at
every half revolution of the engine and the areas above and below the mean turning
moment line, taken in order are 350, 740, 95, 395, 1015, 325mm 2. Determine the mass of
340mm diameter flywheel rim when the coefficient of fluctuation of speed is 0.3% and the
engine runs at 1800rpm. Also determine the cross-section of the rim when the width of the
rim is twice its thickness. Assume density of rim material as 7250kg/m 3.
4. a .(i) What is the main difference between a Watt governor and a Porter governor?

(ii) Explain what you understand by a controlling force diagram in an engine governor
analysis.

(b) In a porter governor, the length of each arm is 300mm and all the arms are pivoted on
the axis of rotation. The mass of each ball is 7.5kg and the mass of the sleeve 52kg. The
extreme radii of rotation are 150mm and 225mm. Draw the controlling force curve and set-
off a speed scale along the ordinate corresponding to a radius of 250mm.

## 5. a( i) Why is balancing of rotating parts necessary for high speed engines?

(ii) Explain clearly the term static balancing and state the necessary condition to achieve it.

(b) Four masses m1, m2, m3, and m4 are 200kg, 300kg, 240kg and 260kg respectively. The
corresponding radii of rotation are 0.2m, 0.15m, 0.25m and 0.3m respectively and the angles
between successive masses are 45 0, 750, and 1350, find the position and magnitude of the
balance mass required, if its radius of rotation is 0.2m. (Use analytical method)

## (ii) List four major types of gear trains.

(iii) The numbers of teeth on each of the two equal spur gears in mesh are 40. The teeth
have 200 involute profile and the module is 6mm. If the arc contact is 1.75 times the circular

(b) Two parallel shafts are to be connected by a spur gearing. The approximate distance
between the shafts is 600mm. If one shaft runs at 120rpm and the other at 360rpm, find the
number of teeth on each wheel, if the module is 8mm. Also, determine the exact distance
apart of the shaft.
UNIVERSITY OF ABUJA
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

## FIRST SEMESTER EXAMINATION 2009/2010 SESSION

COURSE TITLE: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN I

## COURSE CODE: MEE 413 CREDIT UNITS: 2

INSTRUCTIONS:
This paper contains six (6) questions. Answer any four(4) questions
All questions carry equal marks Time allowed: 2hrs

## 1 (a) What is engineering design?

(b) Briefly outline the general overview of steps in Engineering design process.

(c) Explain the importance and the essential components of Preliminary Design in process
equipment and plant design work.

2(a) An entrepreneur is planning to commence the production of a motor car spare parts, advice
him/her on the factors which are pertinent to materials selection.

(b) Gavva furniture designers Nig. Ltd, conceived an idea to make a light weight table of daring
simplicity: A flat sheet of toughened glass supported on slender, un-braced, cylindrical legs (Fig. Q2).
The legs must be solid (to make them thin) and as light as possible (to make the table easier to
move). They must support the table top and whatever is placed upon it without buckling (Table Q2).
What materials could one recommend? Discuss.

## Function Column (supporting compressive loads)

Constraints Length L specified
Must not buckle under design loads
Must not fracture if accidentally struck
Objective Minimize the mass, m
Maximize slenderness
Free variables Diameter of legs, 2r
Choice of material
3 (a) A rectangular base plate is fixed at its four corners by a 200mm diameter bolt and nut. The plate
rests on washers of 22mm internal diameter and 50mm external diameter. Copper washers which
are placed between the nut and the plate are of 22mm internal diameter and 44mm external
diameter. If the base plate carries a load of 120kN (including self-weight, which is equally distributed
on the four corners), calculate the stress on the lower washers before the nuts are tightened.

What could be the stress in the upper and lower washers, when the nuts are tightened so as to
produce a tension of 5kN on each bolt?

(b) The piston rod of a steam engine is 50mm in diameter and 600mm long. The diameter of the
piston is 400mm and the maximum steam pressure is 0.9N/mm 2. Find the compression of the piston
rod if the Youngs modulus for the material of the piston rod is 210kN/mm 2.

4 (a) Explain the various ways through which a designer can reduce the overall product cost.

## (ii) Explain the principles of Design for Environment.

5 a(i) What is failure? Briefly explain the causes of failure of engineering components.

(ii) Compare and contrast codes and standards as used in engineering design.

(b) Explain the various types of standards used in mechanical engineering design. State the cost
advantages of using standard parts in design.

## 6a (i) List four common decision-making techniques.

(ii) ADZ Nig. Ltd is a manufacturing company engaged in the production of water pump for village
water supply and it is contemplating on the type of power source to be used. Based on the
information provided in Table Q6, use the category weighting decision making technique to
determine the best power source for the water pump.

Assume that the weight (W) indicated in the Table is the higher the value the more costly the source
of power supply.
Table Q6. Category weighting chart

## Factors W Diesel generator PV modules Wind-mill

(Measure
of value)
Associated Associated Associated
cost (N) cost (N) cost (N)

Maintenance 1 50 12 20

Space 2 20 35 25
requirement

Noise 4 45 1 5
control

Air pollution 8 35 1 1

control

(b) In a food processing system, food materials are placed on flat plates which are attached to and
moved continuously by a conveyor belt. The food is subjected to gas heating at the bottom of the
plate for a given amount of time. As a design engineer, select a suitable material for the plates.