ISBN 978-81-7450-987-1
First Edition August 2009 Bhadrapada 1931
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The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) – 2005, recommends that children’s life at school must be linked to their life outside school. This recommendation has been implemented in the new textbooks published since 2006, in all major subjects. In the context of environment-related awareness, NCF–2005’s vision implies an approach which cuts across the traditional boundaries separating one subject from another. According to this approach, knowledge of environmental concerns and the activities, which might deepen this knowledge and develop a positive attitude, need to be infused in the subject matter of all areas of the school curriculum at different stages. The National Focus Group on Habitat and Learning, which amplifies the NCF–2005 perspective, says: “The human habitat displays tremendous variability in space and time and its understanding has to be locale specific albeit in the context of a global vision. A great deal of the knowledge of the environment lies with India’s barefoot ecologists, the people at the grassroots…” NCF–2005 perceives school children as ecologists in their own right who need to be nurtured by a flexible school routine and teachers who engage with children in the construction of knowledge. In addition to the environment-related subject matter and activities incorporated in the syllabus and textbooks of all the major subjects, the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has now decided to bring out project books for students of Classes VI to X. The books comprising this series attempt to build capacity for critical and multi-disciplinary thinking and a positive and problem-solving attitude. They aim at exposing students to the real-life world around them, both in nature and society, in order to enable them to examine, assess and interpret the problems and concerns related to the environment. The ultimate goal is to promote a socio-cultural ethos which facilitates India’s attempt to pursue the path of ethically sound and sustainable development. The activities included in this series of books require extensive and continuous observation and


documentation which would enable students and teachers to notice patterns in phenomena. Uploading of the results of such projects on publicly accessible websites will gradually help the nation to create a transparent and comprehensive database on the environment. The success of this effort crucially depends on the interest and enthusiasm that school principals, teachers, parents and civil society in general show in encouraging children to carry out the projects and activities outlined in the present series. It is extremely important that students’ project work is assessed in a holistic manner, giving due regard to the motivation and enthusiasm of each student rather than through the conventional system of evaluation which ignores individuality and originality. NCERT appreciates the hard work put in by the Project Book Development Committee in preparing this series and we are especially grateful to Professor Madhav Gadgil for guiding the work of this Committee. Several teachers contributed to the development of this book; we are grateful to their principals for making this possible. We are indebted to the institutions and organisations which have generously permitted us to draw upon their resources, material and personnel. NCERT is thankful to Professor Mrinal Miri and Professor G.P. Deshpande who co-chaired the National Monitoring Committee appointed by the Ministry of Human Resource Development to oversee the implementation of NCF–2005. We thank Dr Kiran Chhokar, Programme Director, Centre for Environmental Education, Delhi, for her invaluable inputs during the meeting of the National Monitoring Committee. As an organisation committed to systemic reforms and continuous improvement in the quality of its products, NCERT welcomes comments and suggestions which will enable us to undertake further revision and refinement of this important series.

New Delhi 9 January 2009 National Council of Educational Research and Training


Environmental issues have become a topic of discussion and debate in every nook and corner of the world. The print as well as the electronic media have been giving special focus to these issues. At this very crucial juncture, it is but our responsibility to contribute every possible bit to safeguard our environment. We already have enough knowledge about environmental issues pertaining to our locality, state or country. Let us now become active participants in these issues so that we ourselves work on the problems, find out the causes, and also come out with certain solutions and share our findings with our society. You must be familiar with some of the environment related concerns having read about them in various textbooks. You have also been carrying out projects since Class VI on some of the related issues. In continuation of the important role that you have been playing through your projects towards conserving the environment, we recommend that you carry out projects this year too. This project book contains a set of twenty projects of which you are expected to carry out a minimum of two. With the experience that you have had in the previous classes, we hope that you will be more meticulous while working on the projects. As in the previous classes, select appropriate projects on which you will be able to work without going too far from your locality. Modify the methodologies suggested wherever you feel it is necessary but in consultation with the concerned teachers. As you work on the projects, some of which could be group projects, give maximum cooperation to your friends. Follow official procedure whenever you


offices. The efforts that you have made and will make in the future. will contribute towards building a better world to live in. vi . Earnestly work towards completing your projects successfully. Whenever you encounter problems in the course of your project.need to visit institutes. etc. Be the one who cleans up the river and not the one who says the river is dirty. we advise you to consult your teachers. Be humble and soft spoken while taking an interview or obtaining information and do not hurt the sentiments of others.

However. An attempt has been made to make the projects workable in different corners of the country. students may not be very enthusiastic to work on the projects. from Class VI to Class IX. For this. This project book has also been prepared with the same objective — to further students’ involvement and active participation in environmental issues. By the time the students reach Class X they have gained expertise to work on the projects and may not have much difficulty executing the projects by themselves. It is at this stage that the teachers should make extra efforts to give them the much-needed encouragement. This book contains twenty projects with background. work on them to obtain first-hand information. modifications in the methodology or in the title itself may be made to meet the diverse localspecific environmental concerns of different regions. But with the Board examination round the corner.NOTE TO THE TEACHERS The textbooks of different stages. teachers would be required to assign appropriate projects to each student. methodology. and come out with their own solutions. Ample opportunities have been provided to students in the textbooks to actively engage themselves in activities pertaining to environmental concerns. The topics have been chosen keeping in view the environmental concerns that have been discussed in various textbooks for the class. keep track of the developments and also help vii . have been carefully and adequately infused with environmental issues and concerns wherever relevant. The role of the teacher as a facilitator and a guide will still be instrumental in the successful completion of the projects. This will enable them to understand the environmental problems in their vicinity. modify and fine-tune the methodologies. conclusion and suggestions for follow-up actions. irrespective of the subjects.

but not the least. this attempt of introducing a project book is to bring about an attitudinal change in the students towards environmental concerns and to nurture them to become concerned and responsible citizens. There should be no pass or fail grading. the marks or grades should be shown in the students’ report cards. Last.the students wherever necessary to complete the task smoothly. Whatever pattern the teacher or school employs for evaluation. Whether marks or grades are to be allotted is left to the discretion of the teacher or the school authorities. viii . Evaluation strategy can be prepared independently by the teacher concerned to evaluate the projects. Teachers are expected to ensure that students take up as many projects as possible with the minimum being two projects each. Every student should have completed a minimum of two projects at the end of the academic session. The teacher concerned will decide whether evaluation should be done for every step of the project or on completion of each project.

Joshi. Varte. New Delhi Sunita L. Department of Education in Science and Mathematics. Department of Education in Science and Mathematics. Lecturer. Emeritus Professor. Pune MEMBERS Jaishree Sharma. NCERT. New Delhi ix . NCERT. Lecturer. New Delhi MEMBER – COORDINATOR Chochong Vareichung Shimray. NCERT.PROJECT BOOK DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE CHAIRPERSON. Department of Education in Science and Mathematics. Department of Education in Science and Mathematics. New Delhi R. Lecturer (SG). NCERT. Professor. Agharkar Research Institute. ADVISORY GROUP IN ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION Madhav Gadgil.

Meganathan. New Delhi. Mother’s International School. Anjni Koul. Sri Venkateswara College.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The National Council of Educational Research and Training acknowledges the contributions of the following faculty in the development of the projects: Mily Roy Anand. New Delhi. Jawaharlal Nehru University. DOL.V. members of the Sub-committee of the National Monitoring Committee. Vandana Saxena. Kumar. NCERT is thankful to Albon Ada von Stockhausen. NCERT. Delhi University and Chief Advisor of Science textbooks for Classes VII and VIII published by NCERT. Snehlata Prasad. Saroj Sharma. Sardar Patel Vidyalaya. New Delhi. Aparna Pandey. Kalyani Krishna. New Delhi. Chhawla.B. Professor. Varada M. New Delhi. The guidance of Professor Hukum Singh. Delhi Cantt. Lalita S. Springdales School. Professor (Retd). NCERT also sincerely acknowledges the contributions of D. DESM. Prabuddh Kumar Mishra. Bhatia. NCERT sincerely acknowledges the valuable contributions of the following academics in reviewing and refining the manuscript of this book: V. Jaya Singh. Nikalje. M. Lahiri. David Buhril and Achan Mungleng for letting us use their invaluable photographs. Reader. Kendriya Vidyalaya BSF. Naresh Kohli. BGVS. x . New Delhi. Suchi Bajaj. Anuradha. Lecturers. New Delhi. New Delhi throughout the development of this project book. Head. NCERT gratefully acknowledges the suggestions received from Neeladri Bhattacharya. Lecturers. DESSH. Indira Gandhi National Open University. Srinivasan. New Delhi. DESM. Kirti Kapur. NCERT. Reader. NCERT. R. Kendriya Vidyalaya No. Nutan Punj. New Delhi and Vinod Raina. 3. administration of DESM. Delhi University. New Delhi. the Publication Department and the Secretariat of NCERT. Ashita Raveendran. New Delhi. Sanjay Kumar Suman. Lodi Estate. Reader. NCERT. at different stages of the development of the project book is also acknowledged. and The Times of India for the clippings. Tannu Malik. New Delhi. Research Scholar. The contributions of the APC office. DESM. are duly acknowledged. NCERT. Lecturer. Professor (Retd). DOL. Reader. New Delhi. New Delhi. Pusa Road.

culture. 7. 3.CONTENTS Foreword Note to the Students Note to the Teachers iii v vii 1. 4. 6. 9. 2. 8. people and their relationships Household wastes 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 xi . Pollination: an interaction of plants and insects Observing the 3 ‘R’s Conserving natural resources Optimum use of groundwater Impact of low-cost imports on our economy and environment Employment in semi-rural areas Lots of water and yet no water! Do we need zoos? Landscape. 5. 10.

19. 20. 16. 15. 18.11. 12. 17. 14. The plight of rag-pickers Water bodies in the neighbourhood Impact assessment of developmental projects Insect sting and its home remedies Oral health and hygiene Awareness about common ailments Disaster management Education for all Healthy domestic environment Depletion and degradation of natural resources 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 xii . 13.

Project Book in Environmental Education The activist is not the man who says the river is dirty. The activist is the man who cleans up the river. ~ Ross Perot 1 .

agricultural fields. parks. water. orchards. insects and other living organisms around us. etc. Each life form has a definite role to play. Observe the surroundings. and in turn. .1. For example. We observe different kinds of plants. It is carried out by agents like wind. Pollination – an interaction of plants and insects Background Objective To understand the interrelationship between plants and insects through pollination Plenty of variations exist in life forms even in small ecosystems like gardens. benefit the plant by facilitating pollen transfer. Methodology 2 1. Pollination is one such phenomenon where we can observe interaction between plants and animals wherein both the organisms are benefited. Pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of plants facilitating fertilisation. Visit a nearby park/agricultural field/plantation/garden and spend at least two weeks there. animals. All life forms are interrelated to one another facilitating each other’s existence. insects and birds. insects visit plants to suck the nectar.

then make a poster of them. Observe the variety of plants and insects. Also note the duration of visit by a particular insect to a flower. notice the insects that visit the flowers and prepare a list of both. 5. Also. 6. 3 . To validate that pollination occurs with the help of insects. If you have made sketches or taken pictures. Follow-up Find out other types of interactions that exist between plants and animals.2. Make sketches of the insects on the flowers. 4. Note if one type of flower is visited by only one type of insect or by different types of insects. Project Book in Environmental Education Conclusion Present your study by giving a five-minute lecture or making a chart and displaying it in the class. take photographs if possible. 3. observe closely to see if pollens are attached on the body parts of the insects. Also see if a single insect visits a single flower or different flowers. Further.

2. Assimilating the 3 ‘R’s. Human activities have led to depletion of resources and addition of waste. consumption of materials and resources too has risen. Observing the 3 ‘R’s Background Objectives (i) To respect the value of materials and resources (ii) To understand the value of the 3 ‘R’s – Reduce. Make a note of the materials and resources that you use in your everyday life. i. the rate of environmental degradation. 2. Study the list and find out the materials/resources of which consumption can be reduced. if not curbing. 4 . Methodology 1. it is our duty to protect and conserve the environment by developing sustainable practices. Therefore. Reuse and Recycle in our way of life will definitely help in controlling. Reduce.. Reuse and Recycle With the increasing level of the population and the changing lifestyle.e. This creates pressure on the environment.

2. from waste. 5. etc. Think of other useful items that can be made. Reuse. Make a few craft items with waste materials. Recycle. calendars. show pieces. 3. Make a chart of the different groups of materials by using pictures or sketches and display it in your home/classroom/school display board so that practice of the 3 ‘R’s can be adopted by your family and friends. e. segregate the materials into three groups/categories — Reduce. 1. 5 . write a paragraph/poem on how one can practise the 3 ‘R’s.3. Find out the materials/resources that can be recycled or reused.g. Follow-up You can organise an eco-week where you can hold the following activities and many more. Project Book in Environmental Education Conclusion Based on your study. Organise an exhibition on topics like ‘Make the Best out of Waste’ wherein students can make different items like souvenirs. etc. Skits/street plays spreading awareness about ways of practising the 3 ‘R’s and their benefits. 4. Based on your study. paper bags with old newspapers.

We need to take constructive steps to conserve them lest we find ourselves in a situation which is beyond our control. etc. 3. e.3. 5. Find out how these resources are being utilised by people. SACRED GROVE. Conserving natural resources Background Our natural resources are depleting at a fast rate. Observe how extraction of these resources affects flora and fauna. metals. 2.). any mineral resource. 4. Make a list of these resources and list them as renewable and non-renewable resources. sand (river sand). e. ALWAR Methodology 1.g. 6.g. Objective To be sensitised about the importance of conserving natural resources MARBLE MINES. Find out if any steps have been taken by the people of the locality to conserve these resources. stones. etc. Find out more about the ways and means to check the overuse/indiscriminate use of these resources. deciduous. types of vegetation (coniferous. coal. MEGHALAYA 6 . Find out the resources available in and around your village/ town.

prepare a report and present it in the school assembly/class. Project Book in Environmental Education out 42. ab d about 90. 000 plant species an ported to occur species of fauna were re of the world’s in India. 000 47. Prepare charts on the conservation of natural resources and display them. 2. Suggest methods to spread awareness in the community about conservation of natural resources. Follow-up 1. 000 As recently as 2000. world’s reported animal 7 .Conclusion Based on the information collected by you. representing 11% tle over 7% of the known flora and a lit diversity.

What is the approximate consumption of groundwater in your house? 4. Optimum use of groundwater Background Objectives (i) To realise that water should not be wasted (ii) To be sensitised about the decreasing level of ground water A COMMUNITY POND IN MANIPUR FED BY Many studies on water suggest that groundwater is under serious threat because of overuse in many parts of the country.4. GROUND WATER AND RAIN Methodology Explore and find out in detail about the following. More than 300 districts in our country have reported a groundwater level decline of over four metres during the past two decades. What are the sources of water in your neighbourhood? 2. It has been noticed that nearly two-thirds of the country is overusing groundwater resources. Are you using groundwater directly or indirectly? 3. What are the reasons for the changes in the pattern of water consumption? 8 . 1.

Suggest measures to recycle water in your locality/colony. Project Book in Environmental Education Follow-up 1. 2. Can there be development without overuse of water? Conclusion Based on your survey list the reasons for the decline in the level of groundwater. Why is groundwater overused? 6. Find out the methods that should be adopted to improve the quality and increase the quantity of groundwater.5. 9 .

its attractive finish and novel and unusual features or uses. 10 . leads to generation of larger amount of wastes due to their shorter life span/shelf life. what is often overlooked is the durability. buyers in India now have a wide variety of choices in procuring consumable as well as durable items. on our environment With the opening up of the Indian economy and liberalisation of import. reliability and overall quality of the products selected for purchase. However. Impact of low-cost imports on our economy and environment Background Objective To study the impact of low-cost imported goods like toys.. the low cost of such items increases the volume of their consumption which. It is particularly true for certain types of imported products that are available at comparatively lower price than those produced indigenously. electronic gadgets. etc. electrical fittings. in turn. batteries. Some of the low-cost imported items could also be hazardous to the health of individuals and the environment.5. Moreover. The criteria for selecting a particular brand often include the cost of the item.

and if possible. (c) Factors that usually compel buyers to go after cheaper imported products. Collect information from shopkeepers/ vendors of imported/ locally produced items regarding the following: (a) Price of a given item. etc. duration for which it worked properly. 3. Select two to three imported items such as toys. calendars. Contact as many buyers as you can of cheap imported items selected for the study to collect information with respect to the following. week or a month. decoration items/lights. which are available at a lower price as compared to indigenously (locally) produced items. extent to which they were satisfied with the quality of the product (c) Method of disposing of the product after it became unusable/unserviceable (d) Their plans for purchasing imported cheaper items in future Project Book in Environmental Education Conclusion Based on the information collected. (a) The factors that affected their decision to purchase the imported product instead of the locally produced item of the same type (b) Proper functioning of the product purchased by them. from different locations. (b) Number of pieces of each type sold in a day. 11 . Follow-up Find out how electronic waste is disposed of by the municipality. conclude whether the decision for buying cheaper goods/ products is economically and environmentally correct. electrical fittings. Also conclude whether the low quality cheaper products tend to produce more waste due to their short life. dry cells.Methodology 1. The above information may be collected from 5–10 shopkeepers. 2.

. Several self-employment schemes and cottage industries like transport services. etc. in your area and find out the following: 1. have good scope for generating employment opportunities. small quarry. 2. The encouragement given to such local industries will help to draw the labour from the agricultural sector and lessen the burden on the primary sector. Some of these require proper planning and support from the government.6. etc. honeycollection centre. Do these industries have the potential to grow and employ more people? 12 . Methodology Visit any local industry such as a rice mill. brick kiln. tailoring. Find out how many people are employed. pot-making industry. Employment in semi-rural areas Background Objective To learn about the employment generated through local industries A ROAD UNDER CONSTRUCTION Every state or region has potential for increasing the income and employment of the people in that area. leather works.

Talk to some employees of such local industries and find out: (a) their income (b) whether their income is sufficient to support their family (c) their working conditions 4. RUBBER HARVESTING 13 . Follow-up Find out the possible effects of some other local small-scale industries on the environment. Is there any scope for self-employment? Conclusion Conclude your study by writing a report on your findings. Is there any provision for environment safety measures in their workplace? 5.Project Book in Environmental Education A BRICK KILN IN TRIPURA 3. Suggest ways and means of improving the working conditions and employability.

Methodology 1. The world today is debating a lot about water conservation and the need to protect water resources. property and livestock in the region. 14 .7. In 2006. Lots of water and yet no water! Background Objective To be sensitised about the monsoon and its relevance in our lives Water is essential for existence of life in any form. the desert region of India. Some regions get more rainfall during monsoon which affects normal life and also the existence of people and livestock. the Thar. experienced unusual rainfall that caused damage to people. Discuss with your elders or visit the meteorological office and collect information about the rainfall pattern in your area during the last ten years. Water resources are depleting slowly and this is a major threat to living beings. Imbalance caused by excessive human activities in forest reserves and unprecedented development in terms of infrastructure and other activities affect the pattern of rainfall.

4. Find out how it affected the lives of the people. Follow-up Find out the reasons for floods in a city or big town. Suggest measures to check it. TREES DYING IN THE ABSENCE OF RAIN One-fifth of In dia’s population (2 00 million people) does n ot have access to safe drinking water and 60 . Project Book in Environmental Education Conclusion Write a report on your study using pictures. 3. 0 million lack basic san itation . 15 . Analyse the rainfall patterns and the possible causes of excess or scanty rainfall during a particular year.2. Find out whether there were floods or drought during that period.

2. In most cases. In some other cases. many of us assume that the zoo is meant for the entertainment and amusement of people. Methodology 1. particularly children. Collect necessary information about zoos and how the idea of setting up zoos emerged. the animals are not found in our state/country. research and creating awareness amongst people about the animals kept there. Do we need zoos? Background Objective To become aware of the need to conserve animals Zoological gardens or zoos are places for conservation of animals.8. A zoo gives us an opportunity to see and learn about animals found in different places in the world. it is not possible for us to go and see animals in their natural habitats due to the dangers associated with it and prohibitions by the government. However. 16 . Identify some famous zoos in our country and find out why they are famous.

4. 000 to 7. Follow-up 1. Conduct a debate in your school about animal rights from the point of view of zoos and national parks. the s fallen wild tiger population ha 000. 2. Find out about the problems of keeping animals in a zoo from the caretaker/authorities of the zoo.3. 000 in ’s Earth nineteenth century. Conduct an opinionnaire survey on whether or not we need zoos and analyse it. 6. to around 5. 5. Conduct a debate in school on whether or not there should be zoos. Get the opinion of at least 50 people. Visit a zoo and observe the behaviour pattern of animals and the conditions in which they are kept. From a population of an the estimated 1. 17 . Project Book in Environmental Education Conclusion Write a report on the ideas gathered during the visit to the zoo and the opinions collected. and try to understand their problems. and share them with the class. 00. Also find out the various research activities taken up in zoos.

their practices and beliefs to create a citizenry who learns to live together. Landscape. 2. etc. the Internet. Collect views of people on man–nature relationship and beliefs/practices specific to your locality by using a structured interview technique. about similar practices in other places/ cultures. interact with nature in different ways. 18 . culture. practice or value is inherited from generation to generation. people and their relationships Background Objective To develop respect for different cultures and traditions Educational aims include understanding of different cultures and people. This in turn has an impact on their culture and traditions.9. television. People regard nature as divine and live harmoniously with it. Also collect information from other sources such as newspapers. Methodology 1. This legacy. But due to the diversity in topography people in different places. magazines.

A VILLAGE GIRL IN ARUNACHAL PRADESH CLAD IN THE TRADITIONAL ATTIRE OF THE TANGSA TRIBE 19 . etc. legends. practices.A COSTUME COMMONLY WORN BY OLDER MEN IN RURAL PARTS OF RAJASTHAN Project Book in Environmental Education A WOMAN ENGAGED IN BACKSTRAP LOOMING Conclusion Write a report highlighting how certain practices help in preserving the landscape/plants/animals. stories. etc. 2. Collect information on the festivals. in different parts of our country. festivals. of the diverse people of India. beliefs. Follow-up 1. Discuss in your class the diversity of cultures.

Non-biodegradable substances may be inert and simply persist in the environment for a long time. it is not a common practice to segregate the wastes. Though the quantity of such wastes produced by households may not be evident. their potential to adversely affect the environment cannot be underestimated. at the household level. 20 . in turn. may pollute soil and/or water bodies. Some of these wastes could be a source of toxic compounds which. Due to development. Many municipal and civic agencies have already initiated steps for separation of biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes at their source so that these may be disposed of safely.10. However. the quantity of nonbiodegradable materials produced has increased substantially. Household Wastes Background Objectives (i) To differentiate between biodegradable and nonbiodegradable substances (ii) To understand the need of separating household wastes appropriately Substances that are broken down by biological processes are said to be biodegradable and those which are not broken down in this manner are said to be non-biodegradable.

Keep the soil moist and observe the material underneath after fifteen days. milk packets. List the materials that have remained unchanged over that period. broken footwear. 2. 21 . Project Book in Environmental Education Conclusion Based on your study. of biodegradable and non-biodegradable 3. used tea leaves. These days. they do or do not harm the environment. torn clothes. Collect waste materials from your home and make a list of them. 2.Methodology 1. Also list the materials which have changed their form and structure. Find to provide separate bins. Use the library or the Internet to find out how 4. which are substances. Find out in your locality whether there long various non-biodegradable substances are separate dustbins for the disposal are expected to last in our environment. are available. Make compost for your own kitchen garden out more about such materials and whether from the wastes produced in your home. vegetable peels. empty medicine bottles and strips. This could include kitchen waste. Follow-up 1. empty cartons. suggest to the authorities said to be biodegradable. waste paper. 5. prepare a report. new types of plastics. Bury these materials in a pit or collect them in an old bucket/flowerpot and cover with at least 15 cm of soil. If not. spoilt food. etc. 4. 3. bottle packs.

etc. (b) The area they cover each day. schools. Garbage dumps are mostly overflowing and infested by flies. is usually collected at garbage dumps and the municipality transports them to landfills or other appropriate places. rats. Often they get injured by broken glass or dumped explosives. 2. Interview some ragpickers at a roadside disposal area. etc.11. which lead to spread of diseases. The plight of ragpickers Background Objective To develop concern for the health of ragpickers One of the urban and rural environmental problems is improper disposal of garbage in dumping areas. Prepare a survey sheet and find out the following. The ragpickers who collect materials from these dumps are therefore more vulnerable and prone to different diseases. 22 . (a) Their names and age. cockroaches. markets. Methodology 1. The garbage generated at homes.

try to find out the reasons. gloves. shoes. (i) Whether they visit a doctor when they have any ailment. masks. Help the ragpickers by providing them with your used long boots. masks. etc. 2. (e) Whether they take any protective measure such as wearing gloves.(c) Hours they spend in a day collecting waste. includes automotive fl il polish beauty products (like na oducts remover). (d) Types of waste they collect. Follow-up 1. etc. (f) The problems they face while collecting waste. thermometers and tube 23 . If not. Hazardous waste also uids. (h) Whether they are suffering from any problem/ ailment. Project Book in Environmental Education ironmental Education Conclusion Based on the information collected by you prepare a report about the waste collected by the ragpickers and the condition of their health. (g) What they do with the waste they collect. Initiate proper disposal of wastes in local markets. garden care pr s such as and mercury-based item lights.

etc. Even today it is so in many places. Objectives (i) To realise the importance of water bodies for human beings and animals (ii) To be sensitised to the causes and effects of water pollution Methodology 1. rivers. due to the increase in population and development in industrial and agricultural sectors. water bodies are increasingly getting polluted rendering the water unsuitable for human consumption and other use. Water bodies in the neighbourhood Background In earlier times. ponds. Besides human beings. (a) Is there any garbage dumped on the bank? 24 . But for the past few decades. Document the name of the lake/river/tank/pond in your neighbourhood and find out the following. human settlements were always located near water bodies such as lakes.12. aquatic animals and other animals are also affected.

try to find out the reasons. (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Project Book in Environmental Education A STREAM FLOWING NEAR A VILLAGE Conclusion Based on the information collected and tests done. Suggest an action plan to reduce the level of pollution in the water body in and around your neighbourhood. Also observe whether the water is turbid. Mark them on a map of India and try to find out the reasons for their pollution. 3. observing the water sample under a microscope for the presence of micro-organisms. etc. e. prepare a report on the water bodies in your neighbourhood. Find out India’s three most polluted rivers/lakes.g. 2. Ask your elders whether the consumption pattern from the water bodies has changed over the years.Are there any industrial units near the site? Do the industries discharge their waste water into the site? Is this waste water treated or untreated? What is its colour and odour? Are there any sources of water contamination from adjacent agricultural land on which fertilisers and pesticides are used? 2. If there are fishermen near your locality. If yes. 4. Follow-up 1. A LAKE DENSELY POPULATED BY AQUATIC PLANTS 25 . ask them if their income has been affected with time. Observe if the lake/river/tank in your neighbourhood is unpolluted/ slightly polluted/severely polluted by looking at the water and doing some simple tests. to find the pH of water.

economic and environmental impact. 2. (c) Local (endemic) flora/fauna that could be endangered due to habitat destruction. If yes. (a) Proposed site/location of the dam. 26 . If we look back. there are clear examples in human history of the tremendous impact of industrialisation on society and the environment. (b) Estimated forest area to be cleared and fertile agricultural land to be destroyed. collect the following information from various sources. This will ensure that development progresses/proceeds in a sustainable manner with minimal impact both on the environment and the society.13. Objectives (i) To become aware that developmental activities come with certain hazards besides many positive impacts (ii) To understand the need of impact assessment prior to implementation of developmental projects (iii) To develop a holistic approach towards any study Methodology 1. So it is always desirable that there be a clear idea of the possible impact of any developmental plan through proper assessment. Impact assessment of developmental projects Background Development in various fields is essential for a nation to progress. But it is also true that most of the developmental activities do have an adverse social. Find out if there is any proposal to build a dam in your district/ state.

(g) Cost-effectiveness of the proposed work. Project Book in Environmental Education A MALL UNDER CONSTRUCTION. putting their lives at ri 27 . flyovers. (e) Amount of electrical energy expected to be generated by the dam and other benefits to be received by the local people from the construction of the dam. etc. SEZs (Special Economic Zones). ram The proposed Sethusamud coast shipping canal off the pel of Tamil Nadu will com Olive thousands of endangered come to Ridley sea turtles that nest. (f) Earthquake zone of the proposed site. (h) Similar kind of projects can be done on other proposed developmental projects such as construction of shopping malls. change their migratory sk. tourist spots. NEW DELHI Conclusion Draw your own conclusion based on the information you have collected and find out if the pros of the proposed project outweigh the cons or vice versa. hotels. to Orrisa every winter to path . Give your own suggestions in the report about possible solutions/alternatives that can be taken up for any possible harmful impact. Follow-up Hold debates on how development activities lead to environment degradation and why people protest against it.(d) Estimated number of people to be displaced and governmental plans for their rehabilitation.

These practices help in finding quick solutions in times of emergency. 5. 4. List down the remedies suggested by them. Record your observations and categorise the materials in order of preference of their usage in your area. Insect sting and its home remedies Background Various home remedies are still used as first-aid for wounds/common ailments. Understanding these practices helps in deriving the science involved in it and also keeps the traditional knowledge of medicine alive. Find out whether they are acidic or alkaline and the range of acidity/alkalinity.14. 3. Collect the materials used. 2. Objectives (i) To become aware of the various home remedies available for treatment of bee sting (ii) To appreciate and uphold practice of traditional knowledge for treatment of various ailments Methodology 1. Bee/wasp sting is one such wound for which cost-effective home remedies are available. Test the pH of each by making a paste or solution whichever is appropriate. 28 . Consult the elders in your family or neighbourhood and find out how a bee sting can be treated.

Conclusion From your study find out the desired pH of materials for treatment of bee/wasp sting. Also try to guess the pH of the chemical in the sting. Follow-up 1. Share the information with your classmates by presenting your study in the form of a chart. Find out the diseases/ailments which are to this day treated through traditional knowledge. ANT NEST ON A TREE 29 . 2. 3. Find out the first-aid treatment for dog/cat bite or scratch. Project Book in Environmental Education WASP FEEDING ON MANGOES Medicinal plan ts are very important beca use more than 60% of the w orld’s people d epend directly on pla nts for their medicines.

If no local 30 . Oral health and hygiene Background Maintaining good oral hygiene is one of the basic steps towards leading a healthy life. It is known that subjecting the teeth to a low or high pH for a long period of time may cause adverse side effects in the form of enamel erosion. tooth powder. Find out the desired pH for any cleaning agents of teeth from the local dentist or any other reliable source. whitening agent from the local market and also the local preparations that are used in your locality.15. Various cleaning agents — toothpastes. Procure several cleaning agents of teeth which could be different brands of toothpaste. Objectives (i) To understand the essentiality of maintaining good oral health (ii) To become aware of the desired pH for the product to be used for cleaning the teeth Methodology 1. 2. tooth powders. whitening agents are available in the market besides the local preparations used in some rural areas for cleaning the teeth.

Record and tabulate your observation.preparation is in use. Project Book in Environmental Education Conclusion Find out from your study which of the material that you have studied has the desired pH to be used for cleaning teeth. 3. Make a paste/solution of each of the materials that you have procured and test their pH with pH paper. THE TIP OF WHICH IS CHEWED TO FORM BRISTLES 31 . Write out the information on a chart paper and display it in an appropriate place in your home/school. Follow-up 1. Share your observations with your family and classmates. 2. BRUSHING THE TEETH WITH DATUN – A NEEM TWIG. 4. find out from the elders in your family or locality about such materials. Collect information about maintaining good oral health from dentists.

16. Find out whether a certain disease is more prevalent during a particular season. 4. Compare your data with the previous year’s disease trend. Select any season of the current year for your study. Awareness about common ailments Background Some diseases are common during a certain period or season. It is essential to understand the causes and symptoms of these diseases so that necessary preventive measures can be taken up to avoid contracting them. if any. Collect data from about twenty families in your locality about the diseases they suffer from. Collect information from reliable sources about the outbreaks of different diseases during different seasons in the previous two years. 32 . 2. Objectives (i) To become aware of the common ailments and diseases prevalent during certain periods of the year (ii) To understand the need to maintain community health Methodology 1. 3.

Health conditions that can get worse Prevention Asthma Arthritis Chest Infection Drink boiled water Don’t eat food sold along the roadside Wash your hands and feet after returning from outdoors 33 .5. prepare a report on the prevalence of certain diseases in a particular season.Gastroenteritis (diarrhoea and vomitting) . Find out the preventive measures to be taken for different seasonal diseases. That time of year again Raining Ailments .Cholera .Jaundice .Fungal infection of the skin . cold and cough Conclusion From your study. chikungunya.Pneumonia . Project Book in Environmental Education Follow-up Share your observations at home and in the class.Influenza .Viral fever.Conjunctivitis . malaria) .Vector-borne diseases (dengue.

2. food. Collect information on the causes and effects of the disasters. There is loss of life and property. Countries throughout the world are ravaged by different kinds of natural disasters. Human awareness and preparedness are essential to face and deal with such disasters. Rescue measures. Disaster management Background Natural disasters such as earthquakes. Collect information about different kinds of natural disasters that have occurred in India in the last 10 years. floods. etc. clothing. first aid. Objectives (i) To become alert about the causes and effects of natural disasters (ii) To be able to proactively contribute to rescue. relief and rehabilitation programmes Methodology 1. 34 . tsunamis. medicines and rehabilitation are some of the key issues that we all must be aware of. shelter. cyclones. are phenomena that are beyond human control.17.

highlighting the activities where children in the age group of 15 to 18 can participate in the mitigation efforts. Collect stories and experiences related to natural disasters and share them with your classmates. Gather information on people’s participation in these measures and the assistance provided by the government and NGOs after the disaster. 4. Organise mock drills about any disaster in your school. Project Book in Environmental Education Conclusion Prepare a report about your study. Find out about the awareness and preparedness of the people and the authorities. Follow-up 1. mangrove forests along 35 .3. cyclone that hit The impact of the super the lives of over 10. Find out the rescue. relief and rehabilitation measures taken up after the disaster. 000 Orissa in 1999 claimed pread devastation which people and caused wides e-scale deforestation of as worsened by the larg w the coastline. 2.

Visit a marketplace like a weekly bazaar. Besides enhancing opportunities for employment.18. education makes people aware of their surroundings. haat. Objectives (i) To become aware of the need and importance of education for all sections of the society (ii) To become involved in spreading awareness about Education for All Methodology 1. Talk to around twenty children up to the age of 14 –15 years. Find out how many of them are literate or go to school. If they do. 36 . which is frequented by different kinds of people. etc. The contribution of every individual in this direction is valuable. vegetable market. Education for all Background Education is the right of every child. It also gives them confidence and empowers them. and their rights as well as their duties as citizens of the country. as it would help remove discriminations and contribute to the growth of the nation. find out which class/grade they are in. It is our duty to make sure that every one gets basic education. 3. 2.

Project Book in Environmental Education Follow-up 1. 2.4. If there is any child who does not go to school find out the reason why. Teach the children of any domestic help or people around you who are illiterate to read and write. computer. As a play activity you can also teach how to use a cellular phone. 37 . to those who do not know how to use them. Conclusion Based on your study. write a report highlighting the reasons why education is not available to all. etc. or read a thermometer.

Also ask them whether they suffer from permanent cough. (b) Do any of them use smokeless chulha? (c) Ask the occupants/customers whether they feel any discomfort. coal. 38 . running nose. Healthy domestic environment Background There are large numbers of households where firewood. etc. These are harmful to the eyes and the respiratory tract. asthma or any other disorder/disease.19. Such areas are mostly congested and are without proper ventilation leading to accumulation of smoke and fumes. (a) The types of fuel used for cooking. Make a survey of some households/tea stalls/small eateries in/near your locality and find out the following. Objectives (i) To develop understanding about domestic air pollution and its impact on health (ii) To identify measures through which the issue can be addressed Methodology 1. are used as fuel in kitchens/ cooking area.

possibly due to continuous exposure to smoke or fume. COMMONLY USED CHULHA 39 . SMOKELESS CHULHA One mil lion peop le die in India ea ch year f rom air water pol and lution . Conclusion Project Book in Environmental Education Based on your study. prepare a report.2. Follow-up Campaign in your locality for proper ventilation and the use of smokeless chulha. Find out from the doctor of the locality how many cases of disease/disorder of the eye or the respiratory tract he/she normally comes across in a year.

Depletion and degradation of natural resources Background Objective To study the impact of changing population on the depletion and degradation of the local natural resources Every human settlement is sustained by certain economic activities like agriculture. various trades and services. agricultural land. for their sustenance. Human beings also require the supply of essential resources such as water. Choose a convenient human settlement (village/town) for your study. Methodology 1. etc. clean air. 40 . Due to changes in human population and other developments. industry. 2. energy.20. Collect information from elders/Panchayat/Block Development Office about the state of the population in the chosen area and find out the rate of growth/decline in the last ten years (rough estimation). the situation of local resources also changes — some are depleted and others degraded. preferably where you live.

etc. Project Book in Environmental Education Conclusion Write a report on your findings and try to relate the availability of resources with changing human population.) 5. Gather information on whether there is any frequent scarcity of the resources noted above and whether the quality of these resources have improved or deteriorated. transport. etc. RESOURCE BY DEFORESTATION 41 . 6. List the main sources of water (tank/well/surface and groundwater). labour or different trades such as tailoring. 4. Find out the source of income — farming (agriculture/ livestock rearing). Find out if there is any air pollution due to industries located in and around the settlement area.3. Follow-up DEPLETION OF A NATURAL Spread awareness about the importance of conservation of natural resources. Find out the changes in the state of local resources. fuel (firewood/coal. food supply.

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