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Well Test Analysis
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Pressure Transients During a Drawdown Test in a Finite Reservoir
Figure 6
Pressure Transients During a Drawdown Test in a
Finite Reservoir
Figure 7
Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown Buildup Test Sequence

Because it is often difficult to maintain a constant production rate during a drawdown test and because the mathematics involved are easy to interpret, we normally allow a well to produce for a period of time, then shut it in (production goes to zero) and observe the buildup in pressure at the wellbore. This constitutes a pressure buildup test, which is the most common type of well test.
Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown
Buildup Test Sequence
The pressure distribution in the reservoir is shown in Figure 8 . Note that the
well is shut in at t = t4 and
that the pressure builds up
thereafter.
In
buildup
tests, except for the early
influence of decaying well
rates

on pressure

response, the majority of

test

data

relate

to

a

condition where the rate is
zero and thus not changing.
_{F}_{i}_{g}_{u}_{r}_{e} _{8}
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Each region is identified schematically in Figure 1 . For our purposes we shall use the mathematical terminology because it is normally used in the literature, but you should keep in mind the physical definitions of each region as we proceed.
The Inner Boundary Conditions (The Wellbore and NearWellbore Regions)
The inner boundary conditions are those that exist at or near the wellbore. There are three that are most commonly found in practice:

Wellbore storage

Skin effect

Induced fractures
We should spend a little time developing and understanding of each of these.
Wellbore Storage
When a wellbore is opened to
flow, it is opened at the surface (Figure 2). The early
production comes from the
decompression of fluids in the wellbore and other wellbore
effects, and not from fluids in
the reservoir. This
effect
is
referred to as unloading, a form of wellbore storage.
Figure 2
Wellbore Storage
Figure 3 shows the difference that
exists in the flow rate at the surface and the flow rate at the sandface, or perforations. There is a time delay
before the flow rate from the
reservoir equals the flow rate at the surface. Essentially, this wellbore storage effect causes the reservoir flow rate to gradually, rather than instantaneously, reach the surface flow rate. It is important that we incorporate or account for the wellbore unloading when we interpret the pressure/flow data collected during a well test.
Figure 3
Quiz: Wellbore Storage
In this case the surface flow stops instantaneously, while the sandface flow gradually drops to zero. This condition is a second wellbore storage effect that is often referred to as after flow.
Afterflow must also be incorporated into the interpretation of buildup
test data.
Induced Fractures
Within the general vicinity of the fracture the flow behavior is considered to be bilinear; linear into the fracture and linear within the fracture (see Figure 7 , Schematic of bilinear flow both into and within an induced fracture).
The Basic Model (The Reservoir Beyond the Wellbore)

Moving outward from the wellbore and nearwellbore region we enter Region 2, known mathematically as the basic well test model. Most basic models within the oil industry have impermeable upper and lower boundaries, which are of infinite lateral extent.

These same conditions apply to the ideal model. Within the reservoir itself we may have either a homogeneous or a heterogeneousacting porous medium.
Homogeneous Reservoirs
•
A homogeneousacting reservoir is one that, with respect to flow, acts as though it has identical properties throughout.
• This condition may exist either because the reservoir has identical properties throughout or because it is so randomly heterogeneous that it acts as though it is a single homogeneous reservoir.
• Many petroleum reservoirs have been found to be homogeneous and, in early years, all reservoirs were considered to be homogeneous acting for purposes of well test analysis.
Heterogeneous Reservoirs
Heterogeneousacting reservoirs have been the subject of many recent developments in welltesting analysis. These reservoirs include dual
porosity, dual permeability, triple porosity, layered systems (with or
without crossflow) and composite systems.
The dualporosity reservoir, for example, consists of two homogeneous porous media of distinct porosity and permeability that interact.
They
may
be
uniformly
distributed
or segregated but only
one medium can produce fluid to the well; the other acts as a source. Examples of dualporosity reservoirs are the fissured reservoir and the multilayer reservoir with high permeability contrast between the layers
(Gringarten, 1982).
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Characteristic Pressure Response to the
Various Elements of the Reservoir Model
Each of the elements in a reservoir modelthose relating to the inner
boundary conditions, the basic model and the outer boundary conditions  will cause a different pressure response during a well test. The differences will be reflected in the magnitude of recorded pressure level,
the time when it is measured, or both. We need to understand what effect will be observed at what time during the test. To characterize these changes graphically, we need to plot the recorded
pressure versus time in some form. Because we may have pressures
decreasing (drawdown) or increasing (buildup) during a test, we may
characterize both tests by plotting the change in sandface pressure ∆p
that occurs between the beginning of the test and the time of
measurement versus the elapsed test time ∆t. To avoid distortion of scale,
we plot these variables on a loglog scale. The appropriate axes are shown in Figure 1 .
Intuitively, we know that the earliest recorded pressure information during our well test will be in response to wellbore storage. We shall refer to this time period as Period 1.
Next in time will be the pressure response at the wellbore shortly after production begins to flow from the reservoir. The pressure response characteristics during this period, Period 2, will depend upon the presence of induced fractures, partial penetration, and the presence of fissures and/or multilayers.
After some period of transitory flow behavior, the pressure response will begin to exhibit the properties of infiniteacting radial homogeneous flow (Period 3), which will continue if the reservoir is infiniteacting, or begin to change again for a finite reservoir (Period 4).
The four periods characterizing the reservoir model are shown in
Figure 2 . We should now take a closer look at the characteristics of each
period.
Period 1: Characteristic Pressure Response to Wellbore Storage
In most practical cases the effect of inner and outer boundary conditions on the pressure behavior of a reservoir model is independent of the nature of the basic model (homogeneous or heterogeneous). This is so because each condition dominates at different times and each exhibits a specific behavior. This behavior has a characteristic shape when ∆p is plotted versus ∆t on loglog scale.
Period 1: Characteristic Pressure Response to
Wellbore Storage
Wellbore storage has been found to exhibit its own characteristic shape ( Figure 3 ). It yields a loglog straight line of unit slope at early times. This means that if the pressure data recorded during a well test has a unit slope loglog straight line passing through early time data it is indicative of wellbore storage. However, it should be kept in mind that the
appearance of a straight line is not proof of wellbore storage; it may not
be the straight line that is desired for the reservoir system being tested.
Because ∆p is proportional to ∆t, the same data points will plot as a
straight line on Cartesian coordinates ( Figure 4 ). This is often referred to as a specialized plot.
Period 1: Characteristic Pressure Response to Wellbore Storage
Figure 3
Period 1: Characteristic Pressure Response to
Wellbore Storage
Figure 4
Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to
an Induced Fracture
The pressure response to a hydraulically induced fracture occurs during
Period 2 and has two characteristic shapes; one is for a highconductivity
fracture, the other for a lowconductivity fracture.
A highconductivity fracture communicating with the wellbore yields a
loglog straight line with halfunit slope ( Figure 5 ). Because this means
that ∆p is proportional to
t
a specialized plot of ∆p versus
yields a straight line through the same points ( Figure 6 ).
Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to
an Induced Fracture
Figure 5
Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to
an Induced Fracture
Figure 6
Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to
an Induced Fracture
The characteristic plot of a lowconductivity fracture communicating with the wellbore will yield a loglog straight line with a slope less than 0.5 ( Figure 7 ).
Figure 7
Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to
an Induced Fracture
It is important to recognize that during a well test the pressure response
to an induced fracture will come later in time than that of wellbore
storage. Thus, the characteristic plot may initially have a unit slope (wellbore storage) followed by a transition to halfslope (high conductivity factor).
The above comments may imply that the period following wellbore
storage is always linear flow and should be analyzed as such. The inexperienced interpreter may analyze transition as half slope and draw
incorrect conclusions. Beware of this pitfall! The data must go from
Period 1 to Period 3 pressure response and the transition need not yield a loglog straight line.
Answer:
1.The time to that unit slope straight line ends is on 0.08.
4.It shows that the wellbore storage effect is finished and we are getting the pure reservoir response.
Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to
InfiniteActing Radial Flow
There is a point in time during a well test when the early pressure response to wellbore storage, fractures, and other nearwellbore effects gives way to infiniteacting radial flow.
There is a 1.5 log cycles between the end of the unit slope straight line representing of wellbore storage and the start of purely reservoir response.
This means that the leading edge of the pressure transient at the radius of investigation moves outward radially and as though the reservoir were infinite in extent. This period and other periods are shown graphically in Figure 8 .
Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to
InfiniteActing Radial Flow
Figure 8
Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to
InfiniteActing Radial Flow
We note that the well is fractured and that a sealing fault exists some
distance from the well. At the onset of a drawdown test, wellbore storage
takes place and there is no pressure change in the reservoir. Once flow from the reservoir begins, the presence of an induced fracture causes
flow to be linear and normal to the fracture. As production continues and
the area of drainage expands, the an isotropy caused by the fracture disappears and infiniteacting radial flow is established.
Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to
InfiniteActing Radial Flow
The outer edge of the pressure transient is, in effect, a circle that has the wellbore as its center. During infiniteacting radial flow, the specialized
plot is one where ∆p is a linear function of log ∆t ( Figure 9 ) (semilog straight line). This, in turn, yields characteristic loglog behaviors for
the homogeneous ( Figure 10 ) and heterogeneous ( Figure 11 ) basic models.
Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to
InfiniteActing Radial Flow
Figure 9
Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to
InfiniteActing Radial Flow
Figure 10
Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to
InfiniteActing Radial Flow
Figure 11
Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to
InfiniteActing Radial Flow
There are various methods for approximating the time when infinite acting radial flow or, in terms of the specialized plot, the semilog straight line begins. The "one and onehalf cycle" rule is reasonably good for
damaged wells. That rule states that radial flow begins, on a loglog plot, one and onehalf cycles after the end of the unit slope straight line
characteristic of wellbore storage (Gringarten et al., 1979).
Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to
Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions
In the event that the reservoir is finite with either noflow or constant pressure outer boundary conditions, infiniteacting radial flow conditions will come to an end when the effect of the outer boundary is "felt" at the wellbore. Thus, in Figure 8 , we note that the pressure transient is eventually reflected back from the sealing fault, causing an additional pressure drop at the wellbore. For a noflow boundary (closed system) we see in the characteristic plot that p begins to increase ( Figure 12 ) and becomes asymptotic to a unitslope straight line at later times; its specialized plot of ∆p versus ∆t ( Figure 13 ) approaches a straight line.
For a constant pressure outer boundary condition, the reservoir pressure ultimately stabilizes at the pressure of the outer boundary ( Figure 14 ).
Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to
Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions
Figure 12
Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to
Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions
Figure 13
Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to
Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions
Figure 14
Examples of Characteristic Curves for
Various Reservoir Systems
We have synthesized in Figure 15 (The characteristic shape of the pressure response of a total reservoir system during a well test) what we learned about the reservoir system. Note that each region has its own characteristic shape. In effect, the loglog behavior of a complete model is simply obtained as the superposition of the loglog behavior of each
individual component of the model.
In Figures 16, 17 and 18 we see three characteristic curves obtained from drawdown test data on different reservoirs. In Figure 16 we see the
characteristic curve for a well with wellbore storage in a closed
homogeneous system; in Figure 17 , a fracture is added to the system; and in Figure 18 we see a well with wellbore storage producing from an infiniteacting heterogenous reservoir.
Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various
Reservoir Systems
Figure 15
Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various
Reservoir Systems
Figure 16
Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various
Reservoir Systems
Figure 17
Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various Reservoir Systems
Figure 18