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Pressure Transients During a Drawdown Test in a Finite Reservoir

Pressure Transients During a Drawdown Test in a Finite Reservoir Figure 6

Figure 6

Pressure Transients During a Drawdown Test in a

Finite Reservoir

Pressure Transients During a Drawdown Test in a Finite Reservoir Figure 7

Figure 7

Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown- Buildup Test Sequence

  • Because it is often difficult to maintain a constant production rate during a drawdown test and because the mathematics involved are easy to interpret, we normally allow a well to produce for a period of time, then shut it in (production goes to zero) and observe the buildup in pressure at the wellbore. This constitutes a pressure buildup test, which is the most common type of well test.

Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown-

Buildup Test Sequence

The pressure distribution in the reservoir is shown in Figure 8 . Note that the

well is shut in at t = t4 and

that the pressure builds up

thereafter.

In

buildup

tests, except for the early

influence of decaying well

rates

on pressure

response, the majority of

test

data

relate

to

a

condition where the rate is

zero and thus not changing.

Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown- Buildup Test Sequence The pressure distribution in the reservoir is

Figure 8

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Each region is identified schematically in Figure 1 . For our purposes we shall use the mathematical terminology because it is normally used in the literature, but you should keep in mind the physical definitions of each region as we proceed.

Figure 1
Figure 1

The Inner Boundary Conditions (The Wellbore and Near-Wellbore Regions)

The inner boundary conditions are those that exist at or near the wellbore. There are three that are most commonly found in practice:

  • Wellbore storage

  • Skin effect

  • Induced fractures

We should spend a little time developing and understanding of each of these.

Wellbore Storage

When a wellbore is opened to

flow, it is opened at the surface (Figure 2). The early

production comes from the

decompression of fluids in the wellbore and other wellbore

effects, and not from fluids in

the reservoir. This

effect

is

referred to as unloading, a form of wellbore storage.

Figure 2

Wellbore Storage

Figure 3 shows the difference that

exists in the flow rate at the surface and the flow rate at the sandface, or perforations. There is a time delay

before the flow rate from the

reservoir equals the flow rate at the surface. Essentially, this wellbore storage effect causes the reservoir flow rate to gradually, rather than instantaneously, reach the surface flow rate. It is important that we incorporate or account for the wellbore unloading when we interpret the pressure/flow data collected during a well test.

Wellbore Storage Figure 3 shows the difference that exists in the flow rate at the surface

Figure 3

Quiz: Wellbore Storage

  • Just as there is a delay in flow-rate response during the opening of a well for a drawdown test, there is also a delay when a well is shut in at the surface to begin a buildup test ( Figure 4 ).

In this case the surface flow stops instantaneously, while the sandface flow gradually drops to zero. This condition is a second wellbore storage effect that is often referred to as after flow.

After-flow must also be incorporated into the interpretation of buildup

test data.

Wellbore Storage

Figure 4
Figure 4

Skin Effect

  • It is well known that the properties of the reservoir near the wellbore are usually altered during drilling, completion, and stimulation procedures. The invasion of drilling fluids, the presence of mudcakes and cement, partial penetration of the formation, and insufficient perforation density are some of the factors that cause "damage" to the formation, and, more important, cause an additional, localized pressure drop during flow (see Figure 5 , The near-wellbore skin effect and Figure 6 , The positive and negative skin effects).

Skin Effect

Figure 5
Figure 5

Skin Effect

Figure 6
Figure 6

Skin Effect

  • Skin is the term used to refer to the alteration of permeability that exists near the wellbore.

  • The skin factor, s, is used to quantify the skin. If the well has been damaged, there is an additional pressure drop at the wellbore for a given flow rate and the skin factor is positive. If the well has been stimulated and the pressure drop at the wellbore has been decreased, the skin factor is negative.

  • We should point out that, unlike well-bore storage, which has an effect only on the early data, the skin effect is constant throughout a well test (unless the skin is a function of flow rate). A supplemental positive or negative pressure drop caused by the skin remains throughout the test. Its magnitude will change as the flow rate changes.

Induced Fractures

  • The flow patterns around a well will be different for a well that has undergone an induced fracture treatment compared to one that has not been so stimulated. For an induced fracture, it is often assumed that the fracture consists of a vertical plane passing through the wellbore.

Within the general vicinity of the fracture the flow behavior is considered to be bilinear; linear into the fracture and linear within the fracture (see Figure 7 , Schematic of bilinear flow both into and within an induced fracture).

Induced Fractures

Figure 7
Figure 7

Induced Fractures

  • Soon after a well is opened to flow, then, the pressure transient takes on the shape of an ellipse (plan view) around the fracture (bilinear flow period).

  • In time, as the pressure transient moves outward, the fracture length has less influence on the shape of the transient and, assuming the reservoir boundaries do not influence the pressure behavior, the flow begins to converge to radial flow.

  • The ellipses, expanding outward, become circles (pseudoradial flow period). The characteristics of these fracture flow periods are dependent upon the fracture length and fracture conductivity.

The Basic Model (The Reservoir Beyond the Wellbore)

  • Moving outward from the wellbore and near-wellbore region we enter Region 2, known mathematically as the basic well test model. Most basic models within the oil industry have impermeable upper and lower boundaries, which are of infinite lateral extent.

  • These same conditions apply to the ideal model. Within the reservoir itself we may have either a homogeneous- or a heterogeneous-acting porous medium.

Homogeneous Reservoirs

A homogeneous-acting reservoir is one that, with respect to flow, acts as though it has identical properties throughout.

This condition may exist either because the reservoir has identical properties throughout or because it is so randomly heterogeneous that it acts as though it is a single homogeneous reservoir.

Many petroleum reservoirs have been found to be homogeneous and, in early years, all reservoirs were considered to be homogeneous- acting for purposes of well test analysis.

Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Heterogeneous-acting reservoirs have been the subject of many recent developments in well-testing analysis. These reservoirs include dual

porosity, dual permeability, triple porosity, layered systems (with or

without crossflow) and composite systems.

The dual-porosity reservoir, for example, consists of two homogeneous porous media of distinct porosity and permeability that interact.

They

may

be

uniformly

distributed

or segregated but only

one medium can produce fluid to the well; the other acts as a source. Examples of dual-porosity reservoirs are the fissured reservoir and the multi-layer reservoir with high permeability contrast between the layers

(Gringarten, 1982).

Heterogeneous Reservoirs

  • In the fissured reservoir ( Figure 8 and Figure 9 ) a high permeability fissure system delivers fluids to the well; low permeability "matrix" blocks "bleed" fluid into the fissure system, where it is subsequently delivered to the wellbore.

  • In the multilayer system ( Figure 10 ), only one layer delivers fluids to the wellbore. The other layers act as sources of fluids. In Figure 10 the fluids move vertically to the layer that communicates with the wellbore and then horizontally to the wellbore. Both of these double- porosity systems exhibit the same double-porosity behavior during well tests.

  • The term dual-permeability heterogeneous reservoir refers to two distinct porous media, as in a double-porosity system, but, in this case, each medium can produce into the wellbore.

Heterogeneous Reservoirs

Heterogeneous Reservoirs Figure 8

Figure 8

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Characteristic Pressure Response to the

Various Elements of the Reservoir Model

Each of the elements in a reservoir model--those relating to the inner

boundary conditions, the basic model and the outer boundary conditions- - will cause a different pressure response during a well test. The differences will be reflected in the magnitude of recorded pressure level,

the time when it is measured, or both. We need to understand what effect will be observed at what time during the test. To characterize these changes graphically, we need to plot the recorded

pressure versus time in some form. Because we may have pressures

decreasing (drawdown) or increasing (buildup) during a test, we may

characterize both tests by plotting the change in sandface pressure ∆p

that occurs between the beginning of the test and the time of

measurement versus the elapsed test time ∆t. To avoid distortion of scale,

we plot these variables on a log-log scale. The appropriate axes are shown in Figure 1 .

Figure 1
Figure 1

Intuitively, we know that the earliest recorded pressure information during our well test will be in response to wellbore storage. We shall refer to this time period as Period 1.

Next in time will be the pressure response at the wellbore shortly after production begins to flow from the reservoir. The pressure response characteristics during this period, Period 2, will depend upon the presence of induced fractures, partial penetration, and the presence of fissures and/or multilayers.

After some period of transitory flow behavior, the pressure response will begin to exhibit the properties of infinite-acting radial homogeneous flow (Period 3), which will continue if the reservoir is infinite-acting, or begin to change again for a finite reservoir (Period 4).

The four periods characterizing the reservoir model are shown in

Figure 2 . We should now take a closer look at the characteristics of each

period.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Period 1: Characteristic Pressure Response to Wellbore Storage

In most practical cases the effect of inner and outer boundary conditions on the pressure behavior of a reservoir model is independent of the nature of the basic model (homogeneous or heterogeneous). This is so because each condition dominates at different times and each exhibits a specific behavior. This behavior has a characteristic shape when ∆p is plotted versus ∆t on log-log scale.

Period 1: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Wellbore Storage

Wellbore storage has been found to exhibit its own characteristic shape ( Figure 3 ). It yields a log-log straight line of unit slope at early times. This means that if the pressure data recorded during a well test has a unit slope log-log straight line passing through early time data it is indicative of wellbore storage. However, it should be kept in mind that the

appearance of a straight line is not proof of wellbore storage; it may not

be the straight line that is desired for the reservoir system being tested.

Because ∆p is proportional to ∆t, the same data points will plot as a

straight line on Cartesian coordinates ( Figure 4 ). This is often referred to as a specialized plot.

Period 1: Characteristic Pressure Response to Wellbore Storage

Period 1: Characteristic Pressure Response to Wellbore Storage Figure 3

Figure 3

Period 1: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Wellbore Storage

Period 1: Characteristic Pressure Response to Wellbore Storage Figure 4

Figure 4

Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to

an Induced Fracture

The pressure response to a hydraulically induced fracture occurs during

Period 2 and has two characteristic shapes; one is for a high-conductivity

fracture, the other for a low-conductivity fracture.

A high-conductivity fracture communicating with the wellbore yields a

log-log straight line with half-unit slope ( Figure 5 ). Because this means

that ∆p is proportional to

Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to an Induced Fracture The pressure response to a hydraulically induced

t

a specialized plot of ∆p versus

 t
 t

yields a straight line through the same points ( Figure 6 ).

Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to

an Induced Fracture

Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to an Induced Fracture Figure 5

Figure 5

Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to

an Induced Fracture

Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to an Induced Fracture Figure 6

Figure 6

Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to

an Induced Fracture

The characteristic plot of a low-conductivity fracture communicating with the wellbore will yield a log-log straight line with a slope less than 0.5 ( Figure 7 ).

Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to an Induced Fracture The characteristic plot of a low-conductivity fracture

Figure 7

Period 2: Characteristic Pressure Response to

an Induced Fracture

It is important to recognize that during a well test the pressure response

to an induced fracture will come later in time than that of wellbore

storage. Thus, the characteristic plot may initially have a unit slope (wellbore storage) followed by a transition to half-slope (high- conductivity factor).

The above comments may imply that the period following wellbore

storage is always linear flow and should be analyzed as such. The inexperienced interpreter may analyze transition as half slope and draw

incorrect conclusions. Beware of this pitfall! The data must go from

Period 1 to Period 3 pressure response and the transition need not yield a log-log straight line.

Exercise:

Open
Open

Answer:

1.The time to that unit slope straight line ends is on 0.08.

  • 2. It shows the end of wellbore effect.

  • 3. In Semilog scale the start of straight line is on 2 hr.

4.It shows that the wellbore storage effect is finished and we are getting the pure reservoir response.

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Infinite-Acting Radial Flow

There is a point in time during a well test when the early pressure response to wellbore storage, fractures, and other near-wellbore effects gives way to infinite-acting radial flow.

There is a 1.5 log cycles between the end of the unit slope straight line representing of wellbore storage and the start of purely reservoir response.

This means that the leading edge of the pressure transient at the radius of investigation moves outward radially and as though the reservoir were infinite in extent. This period and other periods are shown graphically in Figure 8 .

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Infinite-Acting Radial Flow

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to Infinite-Acting Radial Flow Figure 8

Figure 8

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Infinite-Acting Radial Flow

We note that the well is fractured and that a sealing fault exists some

distance from the well. At the onset of a drawdown test, wellbore storage

takes place and there is no pressure change in the reservoir. Once flow from the reservoir begins, the presence of an induced fracture causes

flow to be linear and normal to the fracture. As production continues and

the area of drainage expands, the an isotropy caused by the fracture disappears and infinite-acting radial flow is established.

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Infinite-Acting Radial Flow

The outer edge of the pressure transient is, in effect, a circle that has the wellbore as its center. During infinite-acting radial flow, the specialized

plot is one where ∆p is a linear function of log ∆t ( Figure 9 ) (semi-log straight line). This, in turn, yields characteristic log-log behaviors for

the homogeneous ( Figure 10 ) and heterogeneous ( Figure 11 ) basic models.

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Infinite-Acting Radial Flow

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to Infinite-Acting Radial Flow Figure 9

Figure 9

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Infinite-Acting Radial Flow

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to Infinite-Acting Radial Flow Figure 10

Figure 10

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Infinite-Acting Radial Flow

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to Infinite-Acting Radial Flow Figure 11

Figure 11

Period 3: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Infinite-Acting Radial Flow

There are various methods for approximating the time when infinite- acting radial flow or, in terms of the specialized plot, the semilog straight line begins. The "one and one-half cycle" rule is reasonably good for

damaged wells. That rule states that radial flow begins, on a log-log plot, one and one-half cycles after the end of the unit slope straight line

characteristic of wellbore storage (Gringarten et al., 1979).

Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions

In the event that the reservoir is finite with either no-flow or constant pressure outer boundary conditions, infinite-acting radial flow conditions will come to an end when the effect of the outer boundary is "felt" at the wellbore. Thus, in Figure 8 , we note that the pressure transient is eventually reflected back from the sealing fault, causing an additional pressure drop at the wellbore. For a no-flow boundary (closed system) we see in the characteristic plot that p begins to increase ( Figure 12 ) and becomes asymptotic to a unit-slope straight line at later times; its specialized plot of ∆p versus ∆t ( Figure 13 ) approaches a straight line.

For a constant pressure outer boundary condition, the reservoir pressure ultimately stabilizes at the pressure of the outer boundary ( Figure 14 ).

Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions

Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions Figure 12

Figure 12

Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions

Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions Figure 13

Figure 13

Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to

Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions

Period 4: Characteristic Pressure Response to Finite Reservoir Outer Boundary Conditions Figure 14

Figure 14

Examples of Characteristic Curves for

Various Reservoir Systems

We have synthesized in Figure 15 (The characteristic shape of the pressure response of a total reservoir system during a well test) what we learned about the reservoir system. Note that each region has its own characteristic shape. In effect, the log-log behavior of a complete model is simply obtained as the superposition of the log-log behavior of each

individual component of the model.

In Figures 16, 17 and 18 we see three characteristic curves obtained from drawdown test data on different reservoirs. In Figure 16 we see the

characteristic curve for a well with wellbore storage in a closed

homogeneous system; in Figure 17 , a fracture is added to the system; and in Figure 18 we see a well with wellbore storage producing from an infinite-acting heterogenous reservoir.

Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various

Reservoir Systems

Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various Reservoir Systems Figure 15

Figure 15

Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various

Reservoir Systems

Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various Reservoir Systems Figure 16

Figure 16

Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various

Reservoir Systems

Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various Reservoir Systems Figure 17

Figure 17

Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various Reservoir Systems

Examples of Characteristic Curves for Various Reservoir Systems Figure 18

Figure 18