2. WTA-Lesson3

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2. WTA-Lesson3

© All Rights Reserved

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Dr Mostafa Ghasemi

Email: mostafa.baboli@utp.edu.my

Ext:7375

Room: No.8, 2nd floor, Block J3

First Complication: Wellbore Storage

Wellbore Storage

Wellbore Storage

flow, it is opened at the surface

(Figure 2). The early

production comes from the

decompression of fluids in the

wellbore and other wellbore

effects, and not from fluids in

the reservoir. This effect is

referred to as unloading, a

form of wellbore storage.

Figure 2

Wellbore Storage

Figure 3 shows the difference that

exists in the flow rate at the surface

and the flow rate at the sandface, or

perforations. There is a time delay

before the flow rate from the

reservoir equals the flow rate at the

surface. Essentially, this wellbore

storage effect causes the reservoir

flow rate to gradually, rather than

instantaneously, reach the surface

flow rate. It is important that we

incorporate or account for the

wellbore unloading when we

interpret the pressure/flow data Figure 3

collected during a well test.

Quiz: Wellbore Storage

Just as there is a delay in flow-rate response during the opening of a

well for a drawdown test, there is also a delay when a well is shut in

at the surface to begin a buildup test ( Figure 4 ).

In this case the surface flow stops instantaneously, while the sandface

flow gradually drops to zero. This condition is a second wellbore

storage effect that is often referred to as after flow.

test data.

Wellbore Storage

Figure 4

Flow Regime

Dr Mostafa Ghasemi

Email: mostafa.baboli@utp.edu.my

Ext:7375

Room: No.8, 2nd floor, Block J3

Pseudo Steady state

Skin Effect

Skin Effect

Figure 5

Skin Effect

Figure 6

Damage caused by Production

Skin Effect

Skin is the term used to refer to the alteration of permeability that

exists near the wellbore.

The skin factor, s, is used to quantify the skin. If the well has been

damaged, there is an additional pressure drop at the wellbore for a

given flow rate and the skin factor is positive. If the well has been

stimulated and the pressure drop at the wellbore has been decreased,

the skin factor is negative.

We should point out that, unlike well-bore storage, which has an effect

only on the early data, the skin effect is constant throughout a well test

(unless the skin is a function of flow rate). A supplemental positive or

negative pressure drop caused by the skin remains throughout the test.

Its magnitude will change as the flow rate changes.

Drawdown Test- No Damage

Reasons for Positive Skin

Damaged perforations

Gravel Pack

Partial completion

Pre-Acid Treatment Post-Acid Treatment

Perforation Damage Completion Damage

Reasons for Negative Skin

Acidizing

Hydraulic Fracturing

- Hard rock Frac (up to -6)

Natural Fractures

Solution Incorporating Skin

Drawdown Test

Ei function solution

Ei -function solution (line-source solution) is first proposed by Matthews and Russell in

1967. It is based on the following assumptions:

Infinite acting reservoir, i.e., the reservoir is infinite in size.

The well is producing at a constant flow rate.

The reservoir is at a uniform pressure, , when production begins.

The solution has the following form:

70.6 948 2

, = + (1)

t=time, hrs

k=permeability, md

=flow rate,

Q=o STB/D

Logarithmic approximation

For x<0.01, the function has the following

logarithmic approximation:

= ln(1.781) (2)

948 2

where, =

Substituting Eq. 2 into Eq. 1 gives:

(3)

For the bottomhole flowing pressure, i.e., @r= , at any time, Eq. 3

can be rewritten as:

p wf pi

162.6Qo Bo o kt

log

3.23 (4)

o ct rw

2

kh

The skin effect

Skin due to damage Skin due to stimulation

(ks > k)

(ks < k)

The skin effect contd

Where

141.2

= (5)

= additional pressure drop due to skin effect

S= skin factor

Skin factor (S) is a dimensionless variable used to quantify the magnitude of skin effect.

Incorporating skin into the Ei-Function solution

For rw r rs

70.6 948 2

, = + 2

For r > rs

70.6 948 2

, = +

For r=rw

70.6 948 2

= + 2

Log approximation to the Ei-Function

For r=rw

162.6

= 2 3.23 + 0.8686

Skin and permeability

Skin and permeability contd

2 1

=

log 2 log(1 )

Question 1

During the flow period, bottom-hole flowing pressures were

recorded as tabulated below. The following rock and fluid

properties are known:

=4412 psi h= 69 ft

=0.8 cp =3.9%

=0.198 ft = 17e-6 psi-1

B=1.136 bbl/STB

Solution

= = = 7.65

70 69

1

= 1.151 + 3.23

2

= 1.151 + 3.23

3582 psi 70 0.039 0.8 17 106 0.1982

=6.355

Radius of Investigation

Dr Mostafa Ghasemi

Email: mostafa.baboli@utp.edu.my

Ext:7375

Room: No.8, 2nd floor, Block J3

Well Testing and the Ideal Reservoir

Model

by producing from or injecting into a well at a controlled flow rate

for a period of time and measuring the pressure response at the

production or injection well, or at some nearby observation well.

properties beyond the wellbore, is then used to describe the unknown

reservoir system.

The "Ideal" Reservoir Model

by considering the very simplest reservoir model;

with an "outer boundary "that may be considered "infinite," and a

constant flow rate at the wellbore.

The "Ideal" Reservoir Model

impermeable upper and lower reservoir boundaries. The well fully

penetrates the reservoir vertically and is fully perforated.

throughout the reservoir and the fluid properties are assumed to be

independent of pressure.

can compare the actual reservoir response with the ideal case for

equivalency or divergence. We may refer to this model as the ideal

reservoir model and use it to describe the simplest expected pressure

response during well testing.

Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown

Test

With an ideal model, we can

show that if the reservoir

pressure is initially constant

throughout and equal to pi, and

the well is opened to flow at

constant rate along its full

wellbore thickness, a pressure

transient will move out radially

from each point in the wellbore

with time. A specific example,

which we shall refer to as the

base case, is shown in Figure 1

(The Base Case: The pressure

transients in an ideal transient radial

flow from a wellbore during a Figure 1

drawdown test).

Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown

Test

A test that involves opening the well to flow at a constant rate is called

a drawdown test. The pressure response is a form of pressure

transient, and our interpretation of it comprises one aspect of

pressure transient analysis.

If we solve the equations that describe transient radial flow into the

wellbore for our "ideal" reservoir model, it is then possible to specify

the pressure distribution in our reservoir as a function of time.

Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown

Test

Radius of Investigation

pressure disturbance has been propagated. Its approximate position at

any given time can be calculated using the expression

1

kot 2

ri

948 o c t

Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown

Test

response shown in Figure 1 (The

base case), we have plotted the

radius of investigation versus

time in Figure 2 (The effect-of-

mobility ratio: the radius

investigation versus flow time

during a drawdown test).

Figure 2

Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown

Test

There are two important conclusions that can be drawn from this information: first,

we note that if a well test is intended to investigate a certain distance into the

reservoir, the required duration of the test will depend upon the relative values of

permeability, fluid viscosity, porosity, and total compressibility.

Equation 1 implies that if the mobility of one reservoir is five times less than that of

another, the former must be tested 5 times longer if the same radius is to be

investigated in both cases. This assumes, of course, that the porosity and fluid

compressibility are the same in both cases.

Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown Test

The second conclusion we may draw for our ideal reservoir system is

that the radius of investigation does not depend upon the production

rate.

The pressure transient will move outward to the same distance in the

same period of time whether the production rate is high or low. (The

rate affects only the magnitude of the pressure response.)

flow tests at high rates. However, the production rate should be

constant throughout the test and should be such that we can accurately

measure the pressure response with the tools we have available.

guide for well-test design.

Variables That Affect the Shape of the Pressure Transient During a Drawdown

Test

moves outward in the reservoir and see what properties will cause it to

change.

Let us consider the base case ( Figure 1 ) and see what happens as we

change one variable at a time. The results are given in Figure 3 (The

effect of mobility on pressure transients during a drawdown test) and

Figure 4 (The effect of production rate on pressure transients during a

drawdown test).

Reservoir Pressure Response During a

Drawdown Test

Figure 3

Reservoir Pressure Response During a

Drawdown Test

Figure 4

Pressure Transients During a

Drawdown Test in a Finite Reservoir

It is helpful to see how the

pressure profiles change in a

reservoir that is not "infinite." To

do so we must modify our

theoretical model to show a finite

volume reservoir with an

impermeable barrier. Let us use an

enclosing no-flow outer boundary

with an outer radius of re. No flow

takes place across this outer

radius. In Figure 5 (The effect of a

finite reservoir outer boundary on

pressure transients)

Figure 5

Pressure Transients During a Drawdown Test in a

Finite Reservoir

we see that the presence of a finite outer boundary with an outer radius

of re will not affect the pressure profile until the radius of investigation

reaches re, but that thereafter the pressure profile drops more rapidly.

This occurs because, in the finite case, all of the production must

come from the finite reservoir volume.

Pressure Transients During a Drawdown Test in a Finite Reservoir

sealing fault) and Figure 7 (The reflected pressure profile reaches

wellbore) the pressure transient, upon reaching the barrier, is reflected

back toward the wellbore. In Figure 6 the reflection has not reached the

wellbore; in Figure 7 it has.

Prior to the pressure transient reaching the finite outer boundary, we have

what is referred to as transient flow conditions.

Reservoir Pressure Response During a Drawdown-

Buildup Test Sequence

The pressure distribution

in the reservoir is shown

in Figure 8 . Note that the

well is shut in at t = t4 and

that the pressure builds up

thereafter. In buildup

tests, except for the early

influence of decaying well

rates on pressure

response, the majority of

test data relate to a

condition where the rate is

zero and thus not

changing. Figure 8

Injectivity and Fall off Tests

Figure 9

Early, Middle and Late Time

Pressure Behavior

Dr Mostafa Ghasemi

Email: mostafa.baboli@utp.edu.my

Ext:7375

Room: No.8, 2nd floor, Block J3

Early, Middle and Late Time Pressure Behavior

Typical drawdown test pressure behavior

Early time flow is dominated by wellbore storage.

Middle time (transient) flow is a period where the

reservoir act as an infinite. i.e. a semilog plot of

Pwf versus t is a straight line which can be used

to determine permeability.

Late time flow is a flow period where the

pressure data is dominated by boundary effects.

Can be used to calculate the size and shape of

the reservoir.

Early time region (ETR) pressure behavior

During drawdown During buildup

Early time region (ETR) pressure behavior

Falling/rising fluid

level

1/

Falling/risin

g fluid level

Early time region (ETR) pressure behavior

Falling/rising

fluid level

Effect of wellbore storage on pressure

Example 2: Wellbore storage calculation

The well is 2600 ft deep and has 6.625, 24lb/ft casing (5.921 ID). The bottomhole pressure is

1690 psi. If the well is filled with water ( = 4 106 1 ). What is the wellbore storage

coefficient?

Solution:

For fluid filled wellbore

=

=

2 2

2

5.921 1

= = = = 0.191 2

2 2 144

6 3

3

= 497.154 4 10 = 1.989 10

= 3.542 104

Wellbore storage from pressure transient test data

the wellbore is directly proportional to

time during wellbore storage dominated

(psi)

Unit slope

period of the test line

=

24

Where = for drawdown and

= @=0 for buildup

(hrs

versus time, this gives a characteristic )

straight line of unit slope. 170000 0.14 (hr)

= (bbl/psi)

24 =

Example 3: Wellbore storage calculation from PTT

p=pi-pwf, p=pi-pwf,

Determine wellbore storage t, hrs psi t, hrs psi

coefficient (C) from the data and 0.0109 24 0.437 648

0.0164 36 0.491 698

table below, which were obtained 0.0218 47 0.546 744

in a pressure drawdown test on 0.0273 58 1.09 1048

0.0328 70 1.64 1172

an oil well. 0.0382 81 2.18 1232

0.0437 92 2.73 1266

q=500 STB/D rw=0.3 ft 0.0491 103 3.28 1288

0.0546 114 3.82 1304

=0.2 h=56 ft

0.109 215 4.37 1316

=0.8 cp Bo=1.2 RB/STB 0.164 307 4.91 1326

Ct=1e-5 psi-1 Pi=3000 psia 0.218 389 5.46 1335

0.273 464 6.55 1349

0.328 531 8.74 1370

0.382 592 10.9 1386

0.437 648 16.4 1413

0.491 698

Example 3: Wellbore storage calculation from PTT

10000 . .

= =

1000 = . /

p, psi

100

(0.045 hrs, 100

psi)

10

1

0.01 0.1 1 10 100

, hrs

Middle time region (MTR) pressure behavior

During this period, the reservoir is producing fluids, and pressure versus time data contains reservoir

information.

The straight line on semilog graph, whose slope is related to effective permeability of the flowing

phase, usually occurs during this period.

The straight line is called the correct semilog straight line

Late time region (LTR) pressure behavior

boundary.

The semilog curve deviates from the straight line established

during the middle-time region.

The bottomhole flowing pressure for a no-flow boundary can be

estimated using:

0.234 162.6

= 2 log + 0.351 + 0.869

Late time region (LTR) pressure behavior

0.234

=

0.234

= ( 3 )

The time to reach pseudo steady-state in a cylindrical reservoir can

be estimated from:

1190 2

= (hr)

ETR, MTR and LTR pressure behavior

0.234 162.6

= 2 log + 0.351 + 0.869

=

24

162.6

= 3.23 + 0.869

2

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