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Solution:

The left side is equal to (x2 y 2 )2 + 2x2 y 2 + z 4 4xyz. The presence of 2x2 y 2 and 4xyz suggests

the possibility of adding a 2z 2 and then completing one more square. So the equation can be rewritten

as (x2 y 2 )2 + (z 2 1)2 + 2(xy z)2 = 0. This equality can hold only if all three squares are equal to

zero. From z 2 1 = 0 we have z = 1, and after a quick analysis we conclude that the solutions are

(1, 1, 1), (1, 1, 1), (1, 1, 1).

(x + y)3 = z

(y + z)3 = x

(z + x)3 = y

Solution:

(x z)((x + y)2 + (x + y)(y + z) + (y + z)2 ) = z x

Since (x + y)2 + (x + y)(y + z) + (y + z)2 > 0, we obtain x = z. By symmetry y = z,and we are left with

1

solving the equation 8x3 = x. This equation has the solutions x = 0 and x = 2 2

. It follows that the

1 1

solutions to the given system of equations are x = y = z = 0, x = y = z =

2 2

and x = y = z = 2 2

.

1

x4 + 2y 3 x = + 3 3

4

4 3 1

y + 2x y = 3 3

4

Solution:

1 1

x4 + 2x3 x + + y 4 + 2y 3 y + = 0,

4 4

1

or equivalently,

2 2

2 1 2 1

x +x + y +y = 0.

2 2

Also, from

theequations

of the systemwe have

x 6=y.Testing the two candidates

1 3 1+ 3 1+ 3 1 3

(x, y) = 2 , 2 and (x, y) = 2 , 2 we see that only the first satisfies the equations of

the system.

3(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 1

x2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x2 = xyz(x + y + z)3

Solution:

We have that

(x + y + z)2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2(xy + yz + zx)

2(x2 y 2 +y 2 z 2 +z 2 x2 ) = 2xyz(x+y +z)3 = [(xy +yz +zx)2 x2 y 2 y 2 z 2 z 2 x2 ][x2 +y 2 +z 2 +2(xy +yz +zx)]

Let

x2 y 2 + y 2 z 2 + z 2 x2 = a

xy + yz + zx = b

Yields

2 1

2a = (b a) + 2b

3

Solving for a we have

6b3 + b2

a=

6b + 7

But note that

2

b2

Hence a 3. So

6b3 + b2 b2

6b + 7 3

but 13 + 2b = (x + y + z)2 0 6b + 1 0 6b + 7 > 0, it follows that 18b3 + 3b2 6b3 + 7b2

4b2 (3b 1) 0 so if b 6= 0 then b 13 . This implies xy + yz + zx x2 + y 2 + z 2 but it is well-known

that x2 + y 2 + z 2 xy + yz + zx, hence x2 + y 2 + z 2 = xy + yz + zx and x = y = z. Substituying in

the first equation of the system we obtain the solutions (x, y, z) = ( 31 , 13 , 13 ) and (x, y, z) = ( 31 , 31 , 13 ).

3

Note that b = 0 a = 0 xy = 0, yz = 0, zx = 0, so we have (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 3 ), (x, y, z) =

3 3

(0, 3 , 0), (x, y, z) = ( 3 , 0, 0).

x+y+z = 2

p p p

2x + yz + 2y + zx + 2z + xy = 4

Hint: AM - QM inequality.

Solution:

r

2x + yz +

2y + zx + 2z + xy 2(x + y + z) + xy + yz + zx

3 3

by AM-QM inequality. Using the equations of our system we obtain

4

xy + yz + zx (1)

3

at the other hand

4 = (x + y + z)2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 + 2(xy + yz + zx)

so by (1) we have

4

x2 + y 2 + z 2

3

and by transitivity

xy + yz + zx x2 + y 2 + z 2

but it is well-known that

x2 + y 2 + z 2 xy + yz + zx

hence

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = xy + yz + zx

3

that is to say

(x y)2 + (y z)2 + (z x)2 = 0

and finally the solution is x = y = z = 23 .

Problem 6. Find all real numbers a for which there exist nonnegative real numbers x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5

satisfying the system

5

X

kxk = a

k=1

5

X

k 3 xk = a2

k=1

5

X

k 5 xk = a3

k=1

Solution:

Note that (0, 0, 0, 0, 0) is a solution. Let us assume that x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 , x5 is a nontrivial solution. From the

equations of the system it follows that

5

!2 5

! 5 !

X X X

3 5

k xk = kxk k xk

k=1 k=1 k=1

np o

On the other hand, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality applied to the sequences kxk k=1,...,5

and k 5 xk

k=1,...,5

gives

5

!2 5

! 5

!

X X X

3 5

k xk kxk k xk

k=1 k=1 k=1

So we have equality

in the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, and hence the two sequences are proportional. For

k5 x

xk 6= 0 we have kx k = k 2 , and since all these values are distinct, it follows that xk 6= 0 for exactly one

k

k. We conclude that the only possible values for a are 0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25.

bobbydrg@gmail.com

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