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# DESIGN

## CRANE BUILDINGS JIB CRANES

MANUAL

I. GENERAL

Figure 1 shows a representation of a typical jib crane. Essentially a jib crane is a boom
mounted to a column with a moveable trolley hoist attached. Jib cranes are used for
lifting and moving objects at individual work stations. The trolley hoist moves along the
length of the boom and the boom swivels allowing the lifted load to be maneuvered
about in a relatively small semi-circular area.

VPC Commentary- VPC software does not currently load or provide design solutions for jib cranes.
Loads must be user applied and solutions manually designed as described in this section.

## There are two different types of jib booms

that we will normally encounter. The
fundamental difference is in the way the
vertical column force will be distributed.
The suspended boom as depicted in Figure
2 is treated as if it delivers 100% of the
vertical load to the column at the top hinge.
The cantilevered boom will distribute the
vertical load equally between the two hinges.
Figure 1

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MANUAL

## II. GLOBAL JIB CRANE LOADS

A. General

Jib cranes exert vertical gravity loads and horizontal thrust loads on the supporting
column. See Figures 2 & 3.

Suspended Boom

FV
E Cantilevered Boom
FV
FH
FH

B B P
F

FH FH
A D
P
D
A
Figure 2
Figure 3

Suspended Boom:

## FV = [W (LIFTED) + W (BOOM) + W (TROLLEY/HOIST)] (A/E)Acting @ top hinge only

FH = [W (LIFTED) + W (BOOM) + W (TROLLEY/HOIST)](A/B)

Cantilevered Boom:

## FV = [W (LIFTED) + W (BOOM) + W (TROLLEY/HOIST)] Acting @ each hinge

FH = [W (LIFTED) + W (BOOM) + W (TROLLEY/HOIST)](A/B)

Notes:
1. Use hinge forces supplied by crane manufacturer if available.
2. If weight of boom and trolley are unknown apply 15% factor to lifted load.
3. Impact factor (10% for pendant operated, 0% for hand-geared trolleys) is required for
jib crane column and connection strength design. Impact need not be included for
serviceability checks.

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MANUAL

## B. Global Loads On Frames

Jib crane loads on frame columns will result in a horizontal thrust at the top and bottom
of the supporting column. This horizontal force will be resisted by the rigid frame action
Thus resulting in horizontal and vertical column reactions as shown in Figure 4.

1 2 3 4

P L2 P P P

Rh
Rv 2

Figure 4

Most often the interior columns at lines 2 and 3 are designed as pinned-pinned end
supports. The horizontal reaction at a pinned interior column at column row i will be:

## Rhi = Piei/Li Eq. (2-1)

VPC Commentary - This same horizontal force will be applied to the frame at the top of the column. When
inputting the jib crane forces in VPC software on a frame column it is important to generate the correct
value for the overall eccentric moment as well as the correct column internal shear values. This is
accomplised by applying the individual concentrated loads FV and FH as shown in Figures 2 & 3 and at
the appropriate elevations above the column base.
This will require that the vertical gravity loads FV be located at a distance from the face of the column
equal to the centerline of the hinge dimension D.

## C. Global Loads On Building Bracing

The global loads on the building bracing are calculated using equation 2-1. At any given
column line the horizontal force at the top of a given column (i) may be introduced into
the roof bracing system. The total jib force to the roof bracing along a given column line
would then be:
n
P e
FH (total ) i i Eq. (2-2)
i 1 Li

## Where: n = Total number of jib cranes along the column line

In equation 2-1 it will be important to keep track of the sign convention for ei. Since jib
cranes can swing through an arc of at least 180 degrees, it is possible that some of the

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MANUAL

jibs will be counteracting the others as shown in Figure 5. This will be discussed further
3[Pe/L] - 1[Pe/L] = 2[Pe/L]

1 2 3 4

P L P P P

Rh
Rv 2
Figure 5
If all jibs loads and eccentricities shown in Figure 5 are equal then the net effect to the
tension bracing will be only that due to two jibs. The strut loads may be influenced by
the pattern selected. This however should seldom control their design or connections.

Note: Alternatively, a separate bracing system could be provided along the column line
to resist these forces in which case the main building bracing would not have to
participate. However, whenever bracing is introduced along an interior column line the
possibility must be considered that other external loads such as wind or seismic may
follow this load path. The potential effects of this contingency must be considered.

## 2. Combinations with multiple jib cranes

For the global structural analysis of main frames with multiple jib cranes, it is not
necessary to assume that all of the jib cranes will be acting in the most severe possible
combination simultaneously. The frames should be loaded with the NET EFFECT of
ANY TWO jib cranes acting to cause the most critical effect at a given cross section of
the frame and/or the largest column reactions. Figure 6 shows a CB-4 frame. This frame
indicates six locations at which bending moments will be influenced by the jib crane

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D E
F

A
Figure 6

Assume that there are ten jib cranes attached to the columns of this frame, one on each
of the sidewall columns and two at each interior column (one either side). Figures 7, 8
and 9 show the arrangements of jib cranes with a net of two jibs acting simultaneously
that will cause critical moments at the six locations indicated in figure six. These three
cases will also result in the critical reactions at the sidewall columns.
E

Figure 7
Causes critical moments at B
&E

C D

Figure 8
Causes critical moments at
A, C & D
and
Critical reactions at left column

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MANUAL

Figure 9
Causes critical moments at
F
and
Critical reactions at right column

The above figures indicate critical loading patterns for moment at six frame locations.
Only the horizontal thrust components of the jib loads were considered. The vertical jib
forces will tend to increase the couple due to the thrust and create downward foundation
loads at the loaded column bases. They will not alter the locations of the critical
moments for the three cases shown. It should be noticed that Figure 9 is representative
of a NET two jib cranes acting in the same direction. The concept of applying only two
jibs does not imply that only two jibs will be active at one time.

## The concept it is based on the probability of occurrence of maximum loads from

independently operated cranes location in the worst case position simultaneously at any
arbitrary point in time. The probability of such a simultaneous occurrence suggests that
not all of the cranes will be acting in the same direction at the same time with maximum
load at maximum extension, even if all cranes are in operation at the same time.

Consider the loading case shown in figure 10 for instance. In this case there are two
more jibs acting than in Figure 9. However, the moments at the six critical locations will
be virtually the same, as will the sidewall column reactions.

Figure 10

This is because the two additional jibs tend to cancel one another resulting in a NET of
two jibs acting in the same direction. (Assuming that they are identical jib cranes and
that the two interior columns are about the same length) There are two main differences

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MANUAL

1. The axial force in the rafter in bay four will be larger in the Figure 10.
2. Interior columns #3 and #4 will be correctly designed for the in-plane loads from the
jibs in figure 10. Also, the Figure 10 loading will generate the critical horizontal
reactions at these interior columns.

accomplish three things with a single load case.

## Combinations with bridge cranes

In many cases buildings with jib cranes will also have overhead bridge cranes in them.
When jibs and overhead cranes are in the same building the following combinations
need be considered in addition to the jib crane combinations given above. This applies
the principle prescribed by MBMA Table 2.5 that combinations need only consider any
two cranes acting simultaneously at full load in the same general influence area of the
building.

## 1. Effects of net two jib cranes only as described above.

2. Effects of bridge cranes only as described MBMA combinations for bridge cranes.
3. Effects of any one jib crane plus any one bridge crane (100% vertical effects W/O
impact) oriented to cause the worst load effect on any support column or on the global
analysis of the frame or bracing.

Figure 12 shows a typical column row for a five bay building consisting of six CB-4
frames (fully expandable end frames) with jib cranes at all columns. The loading shown
would be the most critical NET TWO jib loading condition for both the roof rods and the
strut purlins assuming the roof bracing is in bay two only.

## Bracing this bay only

Figure 12
Maximum forces in
brace rods and struts

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MANUAL

## III. LOCAL JIB CRANE EFFECTS

In addition to global structural analysis considerations there are more localized effects
that must be considered. Of all the building performance problems associated with
jib cranes the vast majority are due to oversights in consideration of the local
effects.

## A. Column Design Considerations

Since jib cranes are designed to rotate about their support columns, their effects will
result in forces acting out of the plane of the frames. These actions create minor axis
bending and torsion in the support columns. Consider the jib crane support column of
Figure 13.

x D D x

P P
L
B

Figure 13

If both jib cranes in Figure 13 are identical then under the loading condition shown there
will be zero bending moment in the column. However, if one of the jibs is rotated about
its hinges a minor axis moment will be produced. If both jib cranes are rotated 90
degrees in the same direction the maximum minor axis moment will be produced with
zero torsion on the column as shown in Figure 14.

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MANUAL

M Y-Y(2)
P P

B
x L

M Y-Y(1)
C

D
dC
Moments M Y-Y
Figure 14
Maximum minor axis moment in MY-Y(1) = 2P(x/L)C
columns with jib crane both sides MY-Y(2) = 2P(x/L)(L B - C)

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P
M X-X(2)

X
B
L

M X-X(1)
C
D

dC

Moments M X-X

MX-X(1) = P[ (x + D + dC/2)/L]C
Figure 15 MX-X (2) = P[ (x + D + dC/2)/L](L B C)

## If only one jib crane is rotated 90 degrees as

shown in Figure 15 it will produce minor axis
bending and torsion in addition to the major
axis bending caused by the other jib crane in
the plane of the frame.

M Y-Y(2)

B MT B

L L

M Y-Y(2)
C
C

Moments M Y-Y
Torsional Moment MT
Torsionally simple supports MY-Y(1) = P(x/L)C
MT = P(x/B)( D + dC/2) MY-Y(2) = P(x/L)(L B - C)

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B MT
L

D
C
dC

Torsional Moment MT
Figure 16 Torsionally simple supports
Maximum torsional moment in
columns with jib crane both sides MT = P(x/B)(2D + dC)

## If both cranes are rotated 90 degrees in opposite

directions the net bending moments will be zero M T(1)
A
but a torsional moment will be produced as shown
in Figure 16. The amount of torsion in the column
depends on the torsional support characteristics at
the ends of the column. The top figure shows the B M T(2)
torsional moment distribution for a column with L
torsionally simple supports. If either end of the
column is free to rotate the column will behave
as if both ends are torsionally simple supports. M T(3)
C
If both ends of the column are torsionally rigid the
torsional moments will be distributed as shown in
the lower figure. For this case the moments are
Torsional Moment MT
calculated as follows: Torsionally fixed supports

## Applied torsion: MT = P(x/B)(2D + dC) MT = Depends on dimensions

A, B & C
B
M T (1) M T (3) MT
>( A  B  C )@

( A  C)
M T ( 2) MT
( A  B  C)

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Given the discussion above it is clear that jib crane support columns must be designed
for the most critical combination of major and minor axis bending, torsion and axial
compression.

1. I-Shaped columns

I shaped columns (i.e.- open sections) are very poor in resisting torsion loads and have
low torsional stiffness. When I shapes are used, provide tension bracing and stuts at
load points if possible (See Direct Bracing section below). If an I shaped column is
used for torsional support of jib cranes the internal column forces caused by torsion will
take two forms. One of these will be pure torsional shear across the column cross
section or Saint-Venants torsion. The other is a normal flexural stress in the cross
section caused by warping of the cross section. The warping component of the torsion
is effectively equivalent to a minor axis bending moment. Therefore, when minor axis
bending and torsion occur to together the torsion must be converted to an equivalent
minor axis moment and added to the actual minor axis moment. A simple conservative
approach to converting the torsion is to simply apply an equivalent lateral flange force
equal to the torsional moment divided by the center-to-center of flange depth as
demonstrated in Figure 17.

## If this method were applied to the example

shown in Figure 15 the resulting minor PH = MT/h
axis bending moment to be considered in
design would be as shown in Figure 18.
It will be noticed that the value of PH has
been doubled. This is to account for the
fact that PH acts on each flange. h = d - tf
Therefore, if the full member section MT
properties are to be used in design, the
values of MY must be doubled.

PH = MT/h

Figure 17

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MANUAL

MT PH

B B
PH
L L
MT

C C

## Torsional Moment MT Equivalent lateral force PH

Torsionally simple supports
MT = P(x/B)( D + dC/2) PH = 2MT/(dC tf)

Figure 18

## The equivalent minor axis moments due to

torsion are superimposed on the actual
MY-Y(2)
minor axis moments caused by the jib
crane thrust. Then the column is evaluated
per AISC chapter H with the critical combination
of major and minor axis bending and axial
B
compression.
L
Sidewall columns and fixed interior columns:
MY-Y(2)
C
For the analysis of out-of-plane
both ends.
Equivalent Moments MY-Y

MY-Y(1) = PH(B/L)C
MY-Y(2) = PH(B/L)(L B - C)

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## Serviceability considerations with I-shaped columns:

Columns supporting jib cranes must possess sufficient stiffness to prevent excessive
deflection at the end of the jib boom when lifting a load. See the Servicability Section for
the recommended maximum vertical deflection at the end of the jib boom due to lifted
load not exceed L/225 in which L is the total boom span S (see Figure 19). The critical
deflection will normally be due to out-of-plane flexural and torsional loads acting on the
minor axis of the column as described above. This deflection can be calculated as
follows:

## 1. Calculate the maximum equivalent

out-of-plane thrust (PH) including A '1
torsion as described above. PH

S
'jib
B
L
PH
2. Calculate '1 and '2 as follows:
C
'2
'1
PH 2
> 2 A
A L  A  C 2 L  C  A
2 2 2
@
3EI Y L

'2
PH 2
> 2 C
C L  C  A 2 L  C  A
2 2 2
@ Figure 19
3EI Y L

## 'jib = (S/B)( '1 + '2 )

2. Tubular columns

When closed sections such as tubes are used as support columns for jib cranes the
design is different. When torsion is applied to a closed section there is no tendency for
warping. Only pure torsional shear stress is produced in the column. Therefore, the
column must be checked for the effects of bi-axial bending and axial compression and
torsional shear + horizontal shear.

Axial compression and bi-axial bending is checked based on AISC chapter H with
bending moments calculated as shown above for I-shaped columns except without the
torsion induced flexure. See Figure 20.

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RH

V1 A
PH

tw
d V2 B
PH
L

b V1
C

RH

PH = P(x + D + dC/2)/B
(See Figure 15)

## -MTi = Torsional moment Figure 20

in section A, B, or C (in-k)
-Vi = Horizontal shear in segment A, B or C (kips)

Select HSS section to resist above loads and appropriate combinations per AISC
allowable resistance.

## Serviceability considerations with tube columns:

The deflection at the end of the jib crane boom when mounted from a tube column is
calculated somewhat differently than for an I-shaped column. There are two
components of deflection.

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1. Flexural deflection:

'1 and '2 are calculated with the equations given for I-shaped columns using lateral
thrust forces PH with no torsion component.

2. Torsional deflection:

## Incremental displacement 'T is calculated by determining the relative torsional rotation

between the upper and lower hinges as follows:

TR = MT(2)(B)/[4JG] (rad) Where: MT(2) = Torsional moment between jib crane hinges (in-k)
B = Distance between jib crane hinges (in)
J = TS polar moment of inertia given in AISC table (in4) *
G = Shear modulus = 11,000 ksi

## This rotation is then converted to an effective relative translation at the hinges as

follows: (Refer to Figures 19 and 21) TR

## The deflection at the end of the boom is:

'T
'jib = (S/B)( '1 + '2 + 'T )
dC/2
B. Column End Connections
D

## Horizontal reactions: Figure 21

Columns supporting jib cranes will exert horizontal forces at both base and top of
column. These forces can either act in the plane of the frame or at 90 degrees to the
plane of the frame. In general the reactions at the base of the column will not present a
problem. If the in-plane loads are properly applied to the frames the anchor bolts will be
designed properly by the computer system (unless significant torsion exists). This also
applies to the bolts at the top of the column. The top of the column is of somewhat more
concern however. Out of plane forces applied to the bottom flange of a rafter beam will
create minor axis bending in the flange for which it has not been designed. This will also
result in an additional component of deflection at the end of the jib boom that is not
considered in the preceding analysis. Therefore, we must always brace the rafter at the
top of a jib crane in order to transfer the out-of-plane reaction directly to the roof bracing
via strut purlins. This can be accomplished in several ways including those shown in
Figures 22 and 23.

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In some cases a more direct and substantial / stiffer brace detail may be called for.

## Roof rods should Flange braces designed to

be broken near transfer thrust to purlins
these column lines

RH

Channel designed to
resist out-of-plane thrust
with minimal deflection
(if required)
*
Figure 22
Roof rods should
Preferred solution
*
be broken near
these column lines

## *Weld parallel to the force

must be designed to resist
maximum out-of-plane
reaction RH

Figure 23

RH

*
*

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Torsional reactions:

As discussed earlier, jib cranes will produce torsion in their supporting columns. The
distribution of torsion along the column length is dependent upon the torsional support
conditions. If at least one end of the column is free to rotate then the column will
behave as if torsionally simply supported on both ends. If both ends have some
degree of torsional restraint then some amount of torsion will be delivered through the
column end connections.

The base of column connection will probably behave as if torsionally rigid. The torsional
rigidity at the top of the column will depend upon the connection detail and the minor
axis stiffness of the rafter inside flange. Consider the details in Figures 22 and 23.

## Figure 22 torsional characteristics:

In figure 22 a channel is added to the bottom flange and connected at its ends near
flange braces that will transfer horizontal reaction from the channel to the purlins. If the
purlin spacing is five feet and the column connects at the center of the channel the
moment in the channel due to a torsional reaction would be as shown in Figure 22-A.
(Assuming that the channel acts independent of the rafter flange as a simple beam)

## The rotation of the channel at the

MT
column connection will be:

2M T 2
30 "
T x dx x
5-0
3600 EI 0
MT

MT
Assuming that the channel is an
8-1/2 x .059 CEE the torsional
Figure 22-A
stiffness of this connection will
be:

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## Figure 23 torsional characteristics:

The detail in Figure 23 will provide much less torsional stiffness to the column end
connection depending on the size of the rafter flange. If we assume that the first flange
braces are 7.5 feet either side of the column, a model similar to the one in figure 22-A is
developed.

## The rotation of the channel at the MT

column connection will be:

2M T 2
90"
T x dx
32,400 EI 0 15-0
x
MT
Assuming that the flange is
6 x 1/4 the torsional stiffness of MT
this connection will be:

## KT = MT/T = 8850 in-k/rad Figure 23-A

From the above comparison it an be seen that the figure 22 model is roughly six times
as rigid as the model for figure 23. If flange braces were added to the figure 23 model
similar to the figure 22 model the torsional stiffness would become:

Therefore, VP Buildings practice will be to flange brace the closest purlins on either side
of the column.

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## How do we use this information?

M T(1)
The equations for the torsional moments in the three A
column segments given above are based on two
assumptions.
B M T(2)
1) The ends of the column are torsionally rigid.
L
2) The column has uniform torsional properties
along its length.
M T(3)
If the end condition does not provide perfect C
torsional rigidity (as it never will) the equations
must be modified. The easiest way to do this
is to substitute a modified equivalent length
into the equations in place of the segment length Figure 24
that isnt fixed at the end (usually segment A).

The equivalent length is determined by calculating the length of column that would
produce an equivalent torsional spring constant as the end support detail and adding
this virtual length to the length of segment A. The equivalent length is calculated as
follows:

## LA = actual segment length (in)

KT = Torsional spring constant of support detail (in-k/rad) i.e. 52451 for detail 22-A
G = Shear modulus = 11,000 ksi
J = Torsional moment of inertia (in4)

## Solving for required virtual column length LV = 4GJ/ KT

Therefore, the equivalent length of segment for use in the equations is:
Le = 4GJ/ KT + LA and:
B
M T (1) M T ( 3) M T
Le  B  C
Le  C
M T (2) MT
Le  B  C

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Example:

Column = TS 10 x 10 x 1/2
Top connection detail is same as in Figure 22 KT = 52451 in-k/rad
Segment lengths: A = B = C = 8 ft.
Applied torsional moments = 300 in-k

## MT(2) = 300[ (38.69 + 8)/(38.69 +8 + 8)] = 256.12 in-k

Had we not taken into account the stiffness of the top support we would have
calculated:
MT(1) = MT(3) = 100 in-k
MT(2) = 200 in-k

What this means is that for columns that are very stiff torsionally, very little torsional
moment will be transferred to the end connections unless the top of column connection
detail is also made very stiff torsionally. On the other hand, torsionally flexible columns
such as I-shaped columns will transfer more torsion to their connections. The
relationship between torsion and rotation for I-shaped columns is much more complex
than for tubes. However, in general I-shaped sections have very low torsional stiffness.
Therefore, assumption of torsionally rigid supports is probably the closest to correct.

Alternative methods:

## In addition to using I-shaped or closed section columns in torsion as discussed above

there are other alternatives that can be employed.

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1. Direct bracing

The most effective and efficient way to eliminate minor axis bending and torsion in jib
crane columns is to place braces at the jib hinge locations that are designed to eliminate
the out-of-plane hinge thrust forces. (See Figure 25). This is particularly true of open
sections such as I shapes.

## Note: This strut

may be eliminated
if a torsional check

See Sec 1
B T
C T

## P L See Sec 1 Figure 25

Bay
R1 = P + R2 R2 = P(L)/Bay

Direct bracing
increases this

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Stiffeners aligned
with jib hinge

Torsional
brace.

C = F(a + b)/b

F = P(L/B)

## Jib hinge Section 1

Detail should be symmetrical if jibs on both
flanges since strut will be centered on column

Tension member:
Rods or angles

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If jib cranes are located on all column lines braces need only be placed in every other
bay. The bracing members must be evaluated to assure that the jib crane boom
deflection will not exceed the specified limit. The calculations are similar to those
described for flexural deflections except the values of '1 and '1 will be based on brace
member strains.

2. Cap channels

In some cases it is possible to reinforce the column flange by welding a cap channel
along its length. An acceptable approach is to simply design the column for 100% the
in-plane effects of the jib crane(s) without the cap channel and then design the cap
channel for 100% of the out-of-plane effects.

The effects of torsion must be properly evaluated (see Figure 26). This evaluation is
somewhat more complicated for tapered columns, therefore VP practice is to make
flanges vertical where jib cranes are involved (See Figure 1).

(PH/h)( h + XCG + D)

## twC (PH/h)( XCG + D)

tf
D

d P
Figure 26

h = dC + twC - tf - XCG XC
G

## 3. Auxiliary tube columns

Tube columns cannot be substituted for sidewall columns in a rigid frame. However,
due to superior torsional load resistance and stiffness, it may be more practical to place
an auxiliary tube column next to the rigid frame column or between frame lines for the
sole purpose of supporting the jib crane. The tube column will required its own base
connection and a foundation will have to accommodate its reactions and location. The
top connection must resist horizontal thrust reactions in orthogonal directions. The
reactions parallel to frame lines will be applied to the main frame. Perpendicular

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reactions must be delivered to the building longitudinal bracing system. Figures 27 and
28 show two possible details for the top connection of an auxiliary tube column.

A A

Tube
column

Figure 27

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MANUAL

Bracing to main
longitudinal bracing
system

Section A - A

Bracing as
required

Cross beam
designed to take
thrust parallel to
frames

1
2

Tube column

Figure 28

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DESIGN
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Brace to main
building bracing

Support beam
may be
attached to
inside flange

Section 1 Section 2

## C. Jib hinge connections to columns

General

Most jib crane manufacturers furnish bolted hinge connections. Different manufacturers
have different hinge types and bolt configurations. Some manufacturers make a C
hinge with a four or six bolt pattern. Others use eight bolt patterns for heavier jib cranes.
The bolts may range in diameter from 5/8 to 1-1/4 and have a gage g dimension up to
7 inches. Therefore, if the jib will be mounted to an I-shaped column it will be important
to make the flange wide enough to accommodate these bolts.

Check local web crippling/yielding/buckling and local flange bending per AISC. Also,
the reduction in net flange width due to the holes will need to be considered for load
cases causing tension across these sections.

## Figure 29 shows some example attachment details used by some manufacturers. It is

very important to ascertain the hinge geometry for the jib crane(s) to be installed.
Without this information the column cannot be designed correctly. There is an order
clarification form designed to help obtain this information.

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pitch

pitch

pitch

pitch

Figure 29

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## The stiffeners shown in Figure 30 and

their welds are designed to share the
thrust force PH equally. Local flange
bending shall be checked per DM Section
3.9 Plate Yield Line Analysis. PH

Figure 30
g

The preferred stiffener location is between the bolts as shown in Figure 30. This will
result in a single stiffener pair for a four-bolt hinge and two pairs of stiffeners for a six
and eight-bolt hinge. In some cases the bolt pitch may not be sufficient to allow a
stiffener between bolts. When this is the case the stiffeners should be located as shown
in figure 31.

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MANUAL

## For stiffeners located as shown in Figure

31 the required column flange thickness
analysis will vary depending on the bolt
pattern.

## See DM Section 3.9 Plate Yield

Line Analysis for procedure for all
Bolt pattern types.
PH

Figure 31
Notes:

1. Column flange holes are always field drilled and any bearing stiffeners fielded
welded unless the customer specifies otherwise. Note this on the drawings.

2. If channel caps are used the local flange bending check must be based on the
column flange thickness only since the channel is not connected to the stiffeners.

## Closed sections with field welded hinges

If tube columns are used the jib hinge connections will most likely have to be field
welded. Most jib crane manufacturers furnish field bolted connections. If the hinge
assembly is to be field welded the requirements must be developed by others. Even if
we do not determine the hinge welding requirements, we will have to evaluate the
effects on the tube column walls.

The appropriate place for field welding of hinge brackets to resist horizontal thrust is
across the bottom and top as shown in Figure 32. The maximum force to this weld Tw is
as follows:

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MANUAL

Tw = PH/2 + PV(D)/h

PH D Tw
The appropriate place for field welding of hinge
brackets to resist vertical force is down the sides. h
The maximum force to this weld: Vw is PV/2.
PV

## This criteria may control when the

width of the hinge bracket bH is
nearly as wide as the tube face.
tH
bH
Tw
tH
w
tT

tT
Figure 32

w + 5 tT bT
Stress in tube wall ft = 0.5 Tw / [tT (w + 5tT)] ksi NOTE: Tube width bT must be at
least equal to bH + 2 w + 2 Ro
Allowable stress = Ft = 0.66FY ksi Where: w = nominal fillet weld size
Criteria # 2: Effective width (tube inside radius + tT)

The out-of-plane stiffness of the tube wall varies across the width of the tube. Near the
orthogonal tube walls the stiffness is very high. Near the center of the tube the stiffness
is reduced. The stiffness at the center of the tube face depends on the width of the tube
and the wall thickness. The outstanding hinge leg spanning laterally across the tube is
stiffer than the tube wall to which it is attached. Therefore, the tensile force in the weld
and the welded hinge will not be uniform across their entire length. There will be higher
stresses near the edges and lower stresses near the center of the tube as depicted in
figure 33.

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be be

Figure 33

## be = [10 / (bT/tT) ] (FYT / FYH) (tT / tH) bH d bH

Therefore, the weld and the outstanding leg of the hinge must be checked for an
effective unit force of:
Feff = T w / be k/in

## Criteria # 3: Punching shear

The shear in the tube wall fVtw due to the out-of-plane force Tw must be checked.

## fVtw = T w / [ (2bep + 2w) tT ] d 0.4 FYtube

bep = [10/(bT/tT)] bH d bH

## NOTE: The above analysis is only considered to be applicable to tube columns

with bT/tT d 30.1

1 st
(Ref. Design Guide for Hollow Structural Section Connections 1 Ed. CISC )

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