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Chapter 5


5.1 Introduction
Source: Penetrat~ radiation: x-ray, gamma-rays, neutrons.

Modification: Intensity of transmitted radia.tion is affected by changes in
density, composition a.nd discontinuity.

Detection: Tha.nsmitted radia.tion is detected by a film or radia.tion detec-

5.2 Basic Physics and Modification
D~ mainly with x- a.nd gamma-rays.

• X-raY8 and gamma-raY8 are electromagnetic radiation, with wave-
length less tha.n that of ultraviolet raY8.

• Electromagnetic radia.tion travels at the speed of light (c = 2.997925 x
lOS ~ 3 x lOSm/s
• Photons are pa.ckets· of radiation, ca.rryiDg a.n energy, E = hv,
where h is P1a.nck's consta.nt (6.6256 X 10-34 Js) a.nd / is radiation

• E is usually expressed in electron-volts, eV, 1 eV = 1.6021 x 1O- 19J,
a.nd is the range of 1 meV to 10 MeV.



• Wa.velength, >. = c/ /I ca.n be expressed a.s:
>.( ) _ 12,400 (5.1)
JLm - E(eV)

• Intensity of ra.dia.tion, I, is the number of photons per unit time, while
the energy is the energy of a. single photon.

• Ra.dia.tion 1Iux, t/J, is the number of photons per unit a.rea. per unit
time, or more rigorously the number of photon tracks per unit volume
per unit time.

• Ra.dia.tion 1Iuence, t/J is the time integra.ted 1Iux, with units of photons
per unit a.rea..

• La.w of Divergence: 411" R2 X t/J = consta.nt, where R is dista.nce of tra.vel.
• Therefore ra.dia.tion intensity, 1Iux a.nd 1Iuence follow the 1/R 2 la.w, Le.,


• In ma.tter, the intensity of a. narrow beam of ra.dia.tion expo-
nentially, such tha.t:
1= 10 exp[-JLz] (5.3)
where Z is dista.nce of tra.vel, 10 is intensity a.t Z = 0 a.nd JL is caJ1ed
the linea.r a.ttenua.tion coefficient.

• Value of JL depends on density and na.ture of materia.l, as well as radi-
ation energy.

• p/p is caJ1ed the attenua.tion coefficient, where p is the materia.l
density, JL/P is not too sensitive to cha.nges in ma.teria.l.

• The intensity of a ra.dia.tion beam tra.nsmitted though a materia.l of
thickness Z will cha.nge from 10 exp[-JLz] to 10exp[-JL(z - 6) - 61"],
a.s the radiation passes through a discontinuity of thickness 6, and
attenua.tion coefficient I"j note that if I" < JL, a.s in the of cracks,
the transmitted beam intensity will, while if I" > JL, a.s in the of dense inclusions, the tra.nsmitted beam intensity will

scattering of radiation can contribute to the measured transmitted signal.Entire photon energy is given to the inner electrons of the atom.2.Photon is disintegra.Photon interacts with free-electrons in an elastic-like manner.Photon emerges with a lower energy and at a different direc- tion.4) where B is called the buildup factor. uncollided component. is the scattered component and Iv is the direct. • If buildup is not reduced.1 Iv. fast elec- trons cause ionization. .5. • Note that also radiation divergence affects the intensity of the trans- mitted signal and consequently influences the interpretation process. . and remaining energy is shared be- tween the two particles.Electron and positron cause ionization. as it affects the value of the transmitted radiation.lXI (5.Pair formation consumes 1. where I. BASIC PHYSICS AND MODIFICATION 101 • Buildup Effect: for a wide beam. .022 MeV of the reaction (2x rest mass of each particle). . .Electron may be ejected from their orbits (excited) and if fast may subsequently cause ionization of atoms. B is function also of material density and photon energy. . mainly above 4 MeV or so: .3) to: 1= BIoexp[-J. (5. it can affect the interpreta- tion of the signal.022 MeV. Compton scattering: dominates at moderate photon energies: . .Part of photon energy is given to the electron. • The attenuation of photons in matter is governed by the following three main interactions: Photo-absorption: (photoelectric effect) dominant at low photon energies: .ted and an electron and a positron emerge in opposite directions. B = 1 + 1.Reaction responsible for the buildup effect Pair Production: occurs only for E > 1. or accounted for. electron es- capes from atoms leading to ion-pair formations. modifying Eq.

• The photon energy spectrum contains peaks (called the line spectra) corresponding to electron transitions between the shells of the target atom.cuum chamber to allow x-rays to exit. • The continuous energy spectrum is due to the deflection of electrons by the strong electromagnetic fields surrounding the nuclei of the atoms of the target (bremsstra.tion).2 Pa) by a high voltage elec- tric field.y ma.hlung radia.102 CHAPTER 5. where e is the electronic charge and Vp is the applied voltage (20 kV to 20 MV). • Photon energy can vary contniously any where from zero to the max- imum possible energy of eV. each with 0. . eVp . • Average photon energy is about leVp • .pplied voltage Vp .cuum (10. the x- rays.Positron annihilates with an electron creating two photons.toms.One of these photons may reach the transmission detector. when upon returning to a. called peak voltage as it corresponds to the pea.Reaction is not likely to occur with the source commonly used in radiography. travelling in opposite directions. RADIOGRAPHY . or film.. • Incident neutrons excite the innermost electrons in the target a. • X-ra. .511 MeV energy.1 X-Rays • Produced by high-energy electrons bombarding an electron-rich target (usually made of tungsten). 5. • Electrons are produced by a hot filament.3 Sources 5.3. • Electrons are a.k energy.ccelerated in va.. affecting the value of the transmitted radiation. or simply the a. more stable state releases photons.chines are related by the peak energy. giving each electron an energy of ev. • A window of aluminum or beryllium (low absorption) is provided in the va.

5) where 1 and 2 refer to the reference material and the other material. photons with higher frequency (Le. wood. is the linear a. where Z is the atomic num- ber of target nucleus. sources up to 10 Ci have been used.2 Gamma-Rays • Emit discrete photon energies.7 X 1010 Bq). . • Conversion to other materials can be performed using the a.3.3. • 100 kV: light metals. but not its energy distribution. • 1 MeV to 2 MeV: thick sections of metals. energy). 5.y machine. • 50 kV machines are used for low density materials. • Efficiency of x-ray production = ZVp /10 7 .2t2 (5. • Strength is determined by source activity: Activity = AN (5. measured in mA. etc.verage energy of the x-ra. leather.6) where A here refers to the decay constant (1/s) and N is the number of radioactive nuclei. 3% at 300 kV for a tungsten target (effective cooling is required to remove remaining heat energy). affects the intensity of radiation emitted. • 250 kV: heavier sections of steel and copper.lt1 = P. • Machine's penetrating depth is typically expressed in terms of thick- ness of steel that will produce an acceptable indication at the rated voltage and current. • Current intensity. Activity measured in disintegration per second (Becquerel) or Curies (1 Ci = 3. • 150 kV: thick sections of light metals and thin sections of steel or copper. SOURCES 103 • Increasing in Vp adds to the spectrum. plastics. t is thickness and P.ttenuation coefIicient evaluated at the a.ttenuation coefIicients such that: P.5.

note that I can be increased by increas- ing x-ray machine current.3 years. in effect total number of emitted photons. t i = 5. 1. covered on both sides by & thin sheet of polyester (film base) to protect against exposure by light.60 MeV. exposed grains darken. ti = 30. 5. useful in steel thicknesses of 12 to 100 mID or equivalent. thickness of objects and types of film used must be taken into account. • Upon processing. source-to-film distance.31.0.8) • hidium-192: 0. • In calculating time of exposure of film to radiation.7) where No is the number of nuclei at time.33. useful in steel thick- nesses of 6 to 75 mID or equivalent. • Film exposure: e=Ixu (5.4 Film Radiography Films axe made of radiation sensitive emulsion material. I to radiation intensity at film. • Cesium-137: 0. initial source activity. • The Grains of the emulsion undergo & chemical reaction upon exposure to radiation. t = O. • A number of source storage-manipulation mechanisms are available. • Half-life: 1n2 0. (5.1 years. and t is time of film exposure. • Cobalt-60: 1. .9) e where refers to radiation exposure.0. ti = 74 days. Le.47.104 CHAPTER 5.669 ti = T= -A. useful in steel thicknesses of 18 to 225 mID or equivalent.17 MeV.66 MeV. RADIOGRAPHY • Source decays: N = Noexp(-At) (5. unexposed stay light. decay time and half- life of source. silver halide crystals in & binding agent (gelatin).

• Log relative exposure.10) Jt where Jo is the intensity of light incident on the film and It is the light transmitted light intensity. RE. ( • Faster films have a larger value of D for a given RE. the light transmission density. D = log. Uf' produced by lack of definition due to film re- sponse characteristics. INDICATION 105 • When the developed film is exposed to light. as grains in film begin reaction sooner.5. note that D = 0 means 100 % transmission of light through the film. determined by mear suring the distance observed on a developed film to change D in from one value to another in response to a step change in object geometry.5. loss of resolution is caused by geometric effects. E log(RE) = log E. .12) The higher the value of GD. D. • Each type of film has its won characteristic logarithmic exposure curve (D v.e. conveniently taken as unity. (5. i. log E) that defines its response rate. light seen by a viewer at the other side looking at the unexposed side of the film.5 Indication 5. • Film unsharpness. as well as film unsharpness. sharp edges may blur. the better is the film contrast.11) where Eo is some reference exposure.s. but higher speed films tend to have larger grains and may not produce the required deta. is expressed as: J. also called optical density or darkness. 5.1 Unsharpness Unsharpness. • Film contrast at a density D is defined by the slope of the film char- acteristic curve: dD GD = dlog(E) (5.

• Made of a step-wedge shape plate (plaque) with drilled holes of differ- ent sizes. F.DB (5.106 CHAPTER 5. which is the effective width of the source. Penetrameters are used to measure this in practice. • Produced by radiation divergence.36.z = 2. is measured by the detectable 6. film. also called spatial resolution.z in a thickness z: 6. exposure time. distances). . RADIOGRAPHY • Penumbra is the inability to reproduce faithfully the boundary of a given object.5.15) z pGDz with the usual definition of the above parameters used. as: U. note that 6. • An x-ray sources is not a point source and has a finite size.-_ Fl Lo (5. Penetrameters • These are image quality indicators placed on top or alongside of object to check ability of setup (selected source energy.2 SHeJ1Sitivi~ Ability of system to produce a detailed image of object.z can be +ve or -ve.14) 5. thickness sensitivity or contrast sensitivity. current. • F results in a penumbra and the corresponding Geometric Unsharp- ness (lack of resolution) us defined by U. • Total image unsharpness. Ut : (5. • Made of same material as test object or with an equivalent material.13) where I is the film-to-object distance and L o is the source-to-object distance. called the focal spot size. or a series of wires of different diameters.

• For 0. Operate x-ray machine for a time and milliampere setting that equals the exposure.e.27 to 0. 5. 100 kV. . has thickness. 25 mA for a minute. 120 kV.5 mA for two minutes. • One type of Penetrameters is defined by an identification. Obtain milliampere-minute exposure from working curve.6. . about 100 kV. • Graph relating kV to thickness of steel gives: . 3.4.e. 2% corresponds to the desired sensitivity (Ax/ x) and the smallest observed hole size will indicate the minimum observable size of flaw.27 inches. Select voltage.4 inches. or 10 mA for two minutes. on the thickest part of object to verify that radiation is able to penetrate that part and to evaluate the sensitivity and quality of the radiographic technique.27 inches. at 100 kV. about 110 kV.minute.minute. or 12. • For 0. or lead num- ber. 2.5. i.4 inches. 2T and 4T. given thickness to be inspected.For 0. • ExPosure graphs available for 100 kV and 120 kV. on the source side.6 Calculation of X-ray Exposures 1. which gives the maximum thickness of the object to be radio- graphed. T. therefore these two voltages will be used. 20 mA for a minute.For 0. Example Design an x-ray radiography system for examining a steel plate varying in thickness from 7 to 10 mm. • With the above pentameter. which is typically 2% of the object thick- ness. • Thickness range in inches is 0. but either will do. E 1'::$ EI mA. E 1'::$ EV mA. i. at 120 kV. and includes holes of diameters 1T. CALCULATION OF X-RAY EXPOSURES 107 • Typically placed.

diation absorbed dose is expressed in units of Gray (Gy). 5. or the old units "rad".7 Safety and Protection • ROntgen (Roentgen) is an old unit of ra. or in the old units "rem". designated as Rand is the quantity of x. • Ra. source-to.diation Workers are (jurisdic- tion dependant) limited to 1. • Occupational exposures for Atomic Ra.3 mJ in gram of air. • To protect against ra. RADIOGRAPHY • Milliampere-minute exposure will typically specify the type of film to be used. TLD). or the equivalent of 8.diation exposure. This quality factor multiplied by the absorbed dose gives the Sievert.diation dose to as low as reasonably achiev- distance and development time and process. and use shielding material. 5 rem per year (100 mrem per week). at standard pressure and temperature. • Ra.diation-type de- pendant "quality factor". the film density.25 rem per calendar quarter.and gamma- ra. maximize distance (1/ R2 effect).diation: minimize time of exposure. pocket dosimeters.diation. and 1 Gy represents 1 J of energy deposited in kg of medium. • The biological effect of ra.diation exposure is monitored by personal film badges (thermolu- minescent dosimeters.or gammara. • ALARA principle: keep ra. and lifetime limit (above age 18) of 5 rems.diation is defined by a ra.108 CHAPTER 5. or survey meters. • Exposure to a member of the public is typically limited to 2 mrem in any hour. 1 Sv=100 rem. ions carrying one electrostatic unit of electricity in one cm3 of air.diation that produces in dry air. with 1 Gy=100 rad. which is equal to unity for x. . 500 mrem per year. 1 rad deposits 10 mJ (1 erg) in gram of material. roentgen equivalent man or mammal.

3.8 Work Problems 1. Prepare a suitable test plan for this inspection using: (a) An x-ray machine. For each also estimate the-ray energy level at which the x.8. (d) What is the effect of using a smaller source. (b) An isotopic source. with a focal spot point if 5 mm. (a) Sketch this inspection arrangement. indicating the image size on the film and the penumbra. 440 and 160 kVp . calculate the maxi- mum and average x-ray energy levels. 2. A 25 mm diameter flaw is located 5 mm below the plate surface.5. (c) Repeat the calculations for a flaw located 23 mm below the plate surface with and compare the results. on the centre line from the source. on the geometric unsharpness. WORK PROBLEMS 109 5. For x-ray tubes voltages of 650. The distance from the source to the front of the plate is 600 mm. 5.ray intensity is highest. (b) Calculate the geometric unsharpness for these conditions. A 19 mm source is used to inspect a 30 mm thick steel plate.9 Graphs . A weld in an aluminum pipe (20 mm ID and 2.39 mm thick) is to be radiographs.

110 CHAPTER 5....~-'DARKER AREAS ' . I \ \ I~I I \\ II I II I \ II I \ II I \ / I I \ I I I \ I I I \ I I \ // \ \ SPECIMEN / I I \ I I I \ I I I \ I I . (WHEN PROCESSED) Figure 5. RADIOGRAPHY RADIATION SOURCE ----7\\ II " ... \ I I \ VOID / / I/ \I \\ FILM / I I \ / I I \ / I I \ / I \ I \ I .-..1: Radiography .





5.. ° 100 200 500 1000 10..000 APPLIED VOLTAGE (KILOVOLTS) Figure 5. GRAPHS 115 TYPICAL PENETRATING CAPABILITY (NCHES OF STEEL 3 .6: Effect of Voltage on Penetra.bility . 2 1 .. .9.

RADIOGRAPHY KILOVOLTS 200 180 / V 160 .00 1.50 . 116 CHAPTER 5./ 140 120 V 100 / / .25 1.7: Voltage Required for Steel . " '" '" 80 / 60 o 0.25 0.75 1.50 0. INCHES OF STEEL FJgUre 5.

GRAPHS 117 80 kV 120 kV 160 kV 200 kV 240 kV 100 kV 140 kV 180 kV 220 kV 260 kV270 kV 100M 80M 60M 50M 40M 30M 20M 10M 8M ..0 3.010 lead screen back 600 Density 2.8: Exposure for Steel . 5.0 500 TFD (target-ta-film 400 distance) 36 in 300 Film Type II Film processing 200 Date Prepared by: 0.9..0 2.0 Thickness steel (in) Figure 5.005 lead screen front 0.5 1. ~ « 6M E 5M 4M 3M 2M X-ray machine 1M Serial 1234 800 0.

5 4.5 1.78 0.0 2.5 2.0 4.5 5 Thickness aluminum (in) Figure 5.0 3.9: Exposure for Aluminium .0 1.000 8000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 800 600 Portable x-ray machine 500 Serial 56.5 3. 118 CHAPTER 5.0 300 TFD (target-ta-film distance) 36 in Film Type II 200 Film processing Date Prepared by: 0.005 lead screen front 400 0. RADIOGRAPHY 10.010 lead screen back Density 2.

Figure 5.:~ .t--"'~SOURCE I (EXTENDABLE FOR CONTROL ROD L:::============:=:I PANORAMIC SHOTS) 0. 5.. ~--:--. r-n:=:b====.. GRAPHS 119 TYPE A LEAD SHIELD 7. .9.10: A Gamma-Ray Devices .

0 1. S 6 5 T time (min) for density 2.l 8 -- 0 ~ 6 .0' = 4 EF = exposure factor 3 D = source-to-film distance (ft) S = source strength (Ci) 2 "." u 5 4 '"&.43 0.-_ _L.0 2 Correction factor 0.11: h-192 Exposure for Steel . RADIOGRAPHY Iridium 192 exposure factors for 1000 8 T _ EF X D' .62 1'---'--J. Multiply the exposure calcu- 5 lated from the formula by the cor- 4 rection factor indicated for the 3 desired density. Uj 3 2 10 8 "Densities other than 2.5 2.71 1.-_-J..._ _-'--_---'_ _--l.0 can be ob- tained by applying the factors given 6 below.. l.0 1.30 1.&. Density 1..0 2.5 3._ _ 1 2 3 Steel (in) Figure 5. 100 . 120 CHAPTER 5..

0 a ::> .5 o o 0.12: Film Chara.0 El ~ ~ 3.2 a ""- a: 0 2.cteristic Curve .5 2.9.0 - 2 1.0 1. GRAPHS 121 MANUAL PROCESSING DENSITY 8 MINUTE DEVELOPMENT 4.0 2.0 LOG RELATIVE EXPOSURE Figure 5.5 3.5 1.0 0.5 G) IE ~ a 2.5 1.5 G) d () IE Cf) w -1 ::> m 3. 5.

\ \ "" \" \ " : I \ " t-.. . " Figure 5.-----. RADIOGRAPHY '~.13: Effect of Exposure Direction on Geometry .0. 122 CHAPTER 5.POINT / \ I I \ \ SOURCE I \' \'. FILM FILM IN TILTED PLANE . \ " AXIS NORMAL TO FILM PLANE I \ \ ' ". ~ \ \ \ "- " \\ SPECIMEN--. . V I I ' \ " ..

FILM DISTANCE .14: Penumbra ..9..I I • " II TRUE IMAGE " . 5. 1\ I .1\ SOURCE TO SPECIMEN I' II SPECIMEN "1/ IIII (FRONT) DISTANCE " II ~ ~ ..' TO . 1\ II SPECIMEN (FRONl) '-I_I.1.I . .1/. I I . I I I '" Figure 5. ... r I ~ . . GRAPHS 123 . -"_.\\ -'\ I I \ I nI ..

t ID NO. 124 CHAPTER 5..020"D .15: Penetrameter . RADIOGRAPHY STANDARD PENETRAMETER FOR 1" MATERIAL 4T 1T 2T .O~"D . o t 6 T .020" Figure 5...040"D o .