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Separation Columns in Practice Sulzer Chemtech

Nathalie Casas | Lecture ETHZ | 09.03.2017


Content Sulzer Chemtech

Introduction
Mass Transfer Components
Process design Thermodynamics
Column design - Fluiddynamics
Capacity, Pressure Drop,
Efficiency
Column Internals

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 2


How does this column look in real life? Sulzer Chemtech

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 3


Internals for packed separation Columns Sulzer Chemtech

Flanged Column Welded Column


Diameters: Monobloc Type
50 mm 800 mm Diameters:
up to 16,000 mm

Squared columns:
up to 20 m x 25 m

One piece or segmented Segmented internals for


internals for installation installation through
through column flanges manhole

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 4


Inner life of a Separation Column Sulzer Chemtech
Liquid

Structured Packings

Rings

Trays
Gas

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 5


Design of Packed Columns Sulzer Chemtech
Liquid

Distributors

Structured Packings

Collectors

Rings

Supports

Trays
Gas

Gas inlets

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 6


A Broad Range of Innovative and
High-performing Products Sulzer Chemtech

Structured Packings Random Packings Trays


Inventor of Structured Packing Provider of Random Packing Pioneer in Tray Technology

Gas/Liquid Liquid/Liquid
Separators Separators Static Mixers
Driver in G/L Separator Breakthrough L/L Separator Technology Pace-setting Technology
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 7
Mass Transfer Technology Sulzer Chemtech

Efficiency
per Technical Considerations
m height
Pressure
Capacity
drop

Experience of
Cost of
technology When to use what? vessel
licensor

Experience Industrial Cost of


practice internals
Availability
of material Commercial Considerations

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 8


When to use what ? Sulzer Chemtech

Capacities (Trays & Packing)

V g
load factor : (m/s)
g Ac l g

L g
flow parameter : (-)
V l
where Ac: column cross section (m2)
L : liquid flow rate (kg/s)
V : vapour flow rate (kg/s)
g : vapour density (kg/m3)
l : liquid density (kg/m3)
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 9
When to use what ? Sulzer Chemtech

Vapor Capacity
Conventional Equipment - Trays vs. Structured Packing
Maximum capacity of column internals (TS=600 mm)
0.14

0.12

0.1
[m/s] "vapor"

0.08
Mellapak 250.Y
0.06
Conv. trays

0.04

0.02

0
0.01 0.1 1

Vacuum
[-] liquid" High pressure

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 10


When to use what ? Sulzer Chemtech

Vapor Capacity
High Performance Devices - Trays vs. Structured Packing
Maximum capacity of column internals (TS=600 mm)
0.14

0.12

0.1
[m/s] "vapor"

Conv. Packing
0.08
Conv. trays
0.06
High Perf. Packing
High Perf. Tray
0.04

0.02

0
0.01 0.1 1

[-] "liquid" High pressure


Vacuum

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 11


When to use what ? Sulzer Chemtech

Random or Structured Packing


Structured Packing Random Packing
typical when typical when

pressure drop in general is an issue small columns at high liquid loads


thermally coupled columns
heat integrated columns frequently cleaning is an issue
columns with heat pump
plastic or ceramic material
sep. efficiency / pressure drop (TS/mbar) is preferred
is decisive
heat sensitive products specified originally in
pressure dependent rel. volatilities the processes
(vacuum)
undesirable polymerization risk
(5 x of a tray, 2-3 x of random packing)

< 100 mbar: severe capacity advantage


expensive material is required (thin!)
best choice for foaming systems
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 12
Sulzer Chemtech

Flanged Columns
Diameters from 50
Welded Columns
mm
Monobloc Type
Diameters
up to 14,000 mm

One piece or
Segmented internals
segmented
for
internals for
installation through
installation
manhole
through column
flanges

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 13


Structured Packing Sulzer Chemtech

Mellapak MellapakPlus Gauze Packings

Mellapak MellapakPlus in BX gauze packing BXPlus


metals and alloys metals and alloys CY gauze packing in the new gauze
metals and alloys packing
Corrosion resistant
Packings Grids

Mellacarbon for
Mellagrid and
Mellapak AYPlus DC non-oxidizing media
Nutter Grid
in plastic and alkaline solutions
in metals and alloys

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 14


Metal Random Packing Sulzer Chemtech

Nutter Ring

I-Ring, equivalent to IMTP

C-Ring, equivalent to CMR

P-Ring, equivalent to Pall Ring

R-Ring, equivalent to Raschig Ring

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 15


Trays Sulzer Chemtech

Sulzer Technology Sulzer-Shell Alliance

Conventional Chordal Downcomer Multi Downcomer Ultra-System


Trays High Performance Trays High Performance Trays Limit HPT

Float Valves Enhanced Deck Enhanced Deck Shell Calming Section (CS) Shell ConSep
and Downcomer
BDH / BDP MVG Shell CS Plus
Round Valve VGPlus
MMVG Shell HiFi
Fixed Valves
Shell HiFi Plus
SVG / LVG
Shell Swirl Tube
Sieve
Bubble Cap MVG Valve High Performance
Downcomer
Dual Flow

Baffle
Shower Deck
Disc & Donut

Cartridge
Redirecting Devise

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 16


Content Sulzer Chemtech

Introduction
Mass Transfer Components
Process design Thermodynamics
Column design - Fluiddynamics
Capacity, Pressure Drop
Efficiency
Column Internals

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 17


Process Design Sulzer Chemtech

Simulation approach Shortcut models

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 18


NTS x HETP vs NTU x HTU Sulzer Chemtech

NTS x HETP NTU x HTU

Assumptions: Assumptions:
Equilibrium stage model Mass transfer considerations
HETP rather constant for Dependent on loading
different physical properties
and hydraulic behavior

Used: Used:
Vapor side controlled systems Liquid side controlled systems
Mostly Distillation Mostly Absorption
L/V 1 L/V not close to unity
Relative volatility < 2 Relative volatility > 2

=
1
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 19
Content Sulzer Chemtech

Introduction
Mass Transfer Components
Process design Thermodynamics
Column design - Fluiddynamics
Capacity, Pressure Drop
Efficiency
Column Internals

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 20


Column Design Design Criteria Sulzer Chemtech

Many technical and economical considerations have to be taken into


account when design a separation column

Technical design Criteria: Economical design Criteria:


Required number of stages Reduce CAPEX for column
and internals
Allowable pressure drop
Reduce OPEX temperature,
Optimal internal loadings for
pressure, consumables
the specified column internals
Allowable operating
temperature

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 21


Column Design Distillation Column Sulzer Chemtech

Given Data and specifications:


, , ,
, , , ,

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 22


Column Design Distillation Column Sulzer Chemtech

Given Data and specifications:


, , ,
, , , ,

Results from process design:

= 34000 , = 25000

= 34000 , = 60000

= 0.4 , = 930

= 100

= 35
= 6.3

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 23


Column Design Distillation Column Sulzer Chemtech

Results from process design:


= 34000 , = 25000

= 34000 , = 60000

= 0.4 , = 930

= 100
= 35
= 6.3

Column Sizing - Constraints


> 20 2 Beds
: = 12

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 24


Column Design Distillation Column Sulzer Chemtech

Results from process design:


= 34000 , = 25000

= 34000 , = 60000

= 0.4 , = 930
=?

= 100 = 12
= 35
= 6.3

Column Sizing - Constraints =?

> 20 2 Beds
: = 12

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 25


Column Design Distillation Column Sulzer Chemtech

= ( )
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 26
Column Design Distillation Column Sulzer Chemtech

Results from process design:


= 34000 , = 0.4 ,

= 100
= 35
= 6.3

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 27


Column Design Distillation Column Sulzer Chemtech

Results from process design:


= 34000 , = 0.4 ,

= 100
= 35
= 6.3

Column Sizing - Efficiency


= 0.2 /
= =
2 x 3.5 m Bed

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 28


Column Design Distillation Column Sulzer Chemtech

Results from process design:


= 34000 , = 0.4 ,

= 100
= 35
= 6.3

Column Sizing - Efficiency


= 0.2 /
= =
2 x 3.5 m Bed
Column Sizing - Capacity
=?
= ( )

< 0. 9 /
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 29
Column Design Distillation Column Sulzer Chemtech

Results from process design:


= 34000 , = 0.4 ,

= 100
= 35
= 6.3

Column Sizing - Efficiency


= 0.2 /
= =
2 x 3.5 m Bed
Column Sizing - Capacity
= 4.5
= = 0.94
= 0.85 / .
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 30
Exercise 1: Column Design M252.Y Sulzer Chemtech

Results from process design:


= 34000 , = 0.4 ,

= 100
= 35
= 6.3

Column Sizing - Efficiency


=?/
= =?
2 x ? m Bed
Column Sizing - Capacity
=?
= =?
=? / =?
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 31
Solution 1: Column Design M252.Y Sulzer Chemtech

Results from process design:


= 34000 , = 0.4 ,

= 100
= 35
= 6.3

Column Sizing - Efficiency


= 0.4/
= = 14
2 x 7 m Bed

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 32


Solution 1: Column Design M252.Y Sulzer Chemtech

Results from process design:


= 34000 , = 0.4 ,

= 100
= 35
= 6.3

Column Sizing - Efficiency


= 0.4/
= = 14
2 x 7 m Bed
Column Sizing - Capacity
= 3.8
= = 1.32
= 0.4 / = .
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 33
Column Design Absorption Column M250.Y Sulzer Chemtech

Given Data:
= 25000 , = 60000

= 1.4 , = 1000

= 2.5 2
, = 325 2

Results from process design:


y
= ln( in ) =13
yout

=

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 34


Solution Absorption Column M250.Y Sulzer Chemtech

Given Data:
= 25000 , = 60000 Effective Interfacial Area (Separation Efficiency)

275
= 1.4 , = 1000 Test System: Air/NaOH-CO 2
250 F-factor: 1.5 Pa0.5

= 2.5 , = 325

aI [m /m ]
3
2 2 225

2
200
Results from process design:
175
y
= ln( in ) =13
yout 150
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
3 2
Liquid Load [m /(m h)]
=
MellapakCC Mellapak 250.Y Mellapak 2X

Column Sizing - Capacity


= 1.4
= 40

= = 0. 52
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 35
Solution Absorption Column M250.Y Sulzer Chemtech

Given Data:
= 25000 , = 60000 Effective Interfacial Area (Separation Efficiency)

275
= 1.4 , = 1000 Test System: Air/NaOH-CO 2
250 F-factor: 1.5 Pa0.5

= 2.5 , = 325

aI [m /m ]
3
2 2 225

2
200
Results from process design:
175
y
= ln( in ) =13
yout 150
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
3 2
Liquid Load [m /(m h)]
=
MellapakCC Mellapak 250.Y Mellapak 2X

Column Sizing - Capacity


= 1.4
= 40
= = 6.76
= = 0. 52
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 36
Content Sulzer Chemtech

Introduction
Mass Transfer Components
Process design Thermodynamics
Column design - Fluiddynamics
Capacity, Pressure Drop,
Efficiency
Column Internals

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 37


Column Internals Sulzer Chemtech

Column Internals for packed towers


Liquid distributors
Gas distribution devices
Liquid collectors
Mechanical Supports

There is an unbelievable variety of options to do this !

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 38


Phase Distribution - Introduction Sulzer Chemtech

Example Liquid Distribution

Model Basic Model Advanced New Sulzer VEPK


for ultra low load
(50 200 l/m2/h)

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 39


Liquid Distributor Types Sulzer Chemtech

Guess: how many liquid distributor types do we offer


as standard ?
27 types
VEP, VER2, VEPK, VEH, VEG2, VES, VEPA
(element E type)

VKG, VKR2, VKRPW, VKPK, VKH


(channel K type)

VRG-G, VRP, VRG, VRD, VRX, VRS2, VRXD, VRXK


(tube R type)

VSI, VSIR, VST, VSX


(deck S type)

3in1, VFS
(specials)
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 40
Liquid Distributor Types Sulzer Chemtech

Element Distributor (E-Type)


Main channel /
parting box

Support bar

Arm channel

Liquid guide

Distributor VEP Support feet


+ excellent distribution quality requires height
+ no flanges / no leakage no arm communication
+ cost competitive Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 41
Liquid Distributor Types Sulzer Chemtech

Channel Distributor (K Type) Integrated main


trough

Arm channel

Liquid guide
Distributor VKR2

+ excellent distribution quality risk of leaking flanges at low loads


+ narrow height expensive for bigger diameters
+ communicating arms
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 42
Liquid Distributor Types Sulzer Chemtech

Tubular Distributor (R Type)


main tube

Distributor VRGF
Arm tube

+ excellent distribution quality highly sensitive to fouling


+ high drip point densities expensive

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 43


Liquid Distributor Types Sulzer Chemtech

Deck Type Collector / Distributor Combination (S Type)

Collector / Distributor VSIR

Collector / Distributor VSI

+ lowest height requirements very low distribution quality


+ cost competitive requires high liquid flow
sensitive to fouling
Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 44
Liquid Distributor Types Sulzer Chemtech

Outlet Systems with Good Quality

G -Type R -Type P -Type

+ simple & cost competitive + flexible turndown 10:1 + robust against fouling
sensitive to fouling expensive @ high DPD + fast bed wetting
limited turndown 3:1 + cost competitive
limited turndown 3:1

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 45


How to Select the Liquid Distributor Type? Sulzer Chemtech

very high loads Selection Diagram

Mainly decided by
specific liquid load (m 3/m2h)
column diameter

but also by
medium loads plugging risk
turndown requirement
available space

low loads

flanged welded towers


Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 46
Phase Distribution (and Mechanical Supports) Sulzer Chemtech

Vapor Distribution
Definition of distribution quality
Type of vapor distributors
Evaluation of distribution quality with CFD

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 47


Vapour Distribution Sulzer Chemtech

Types of reboiler vapor inlets for vapor / 2 phase feed

H >2 d
ID

d
H >1.5 d

H
Hs

H >1.5 d
For Fv > 60 Pa^0.5 and
Momentum 8000 - 12000 (15000) Pa

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 48


Vapour Distribution Sulzer Chemtech

Rating of CFD-results
Comparison of different inlet configurations
1 2 3

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 49


Examples of Big Size Equipment Sulzer Chemtech

ONE OF THE WORLD'S LARGEST VACUUM COLUMN


Made in India by L&T
Internals supplied by Sulzer
Three sections ID 11000 mm / 14200 mm / 9000 mm

Lecture ETHZ | March 2017 | slide 50