You are on page 1of 11

Vastu Purusha Mandala

Before we proceed further, let us briefly discuss the concept of the Vastu Purusha
Mandala. The faith that Earth is a living organism, throbbing with life and energy; is
fundamental to the Vastu Shastra. That living energy is symbolized as a person; he is the
Vastu Purusha. The site for the proposed construction is his field; Vastu Purusha Mandala.
In fact the Vastu Purusha Mandala, the site plan, is his body; and it is treated as such. His
height extends from the South West corner (pitrah) to the North East corner (Agni).The
Vastu Purusha Mandala also depicts the origin of the effects on the human body. All
symbolisms flow from these visualizations.

Purusha means 'person' literally and refers to Universal Man. Purusha is the body of god
incarnated in the ground of existence, divided within the myriad forms. He is also that
fragmented body simultaneously sacrificed for the restoration of unity.

Vastu Purusha is associated with the Earth and its movable and immovable basic elements
of nature, such as the earth, water, fire, air and space; just as a human being does. The
Vastu purusha mandala is in some ways a development of the four pointed or cornered
earth mandala having astronomical reference points. Further, the Vastu Purusha Mandala
is also the cosmos in miniature; and the texts believe what obtains in a microcosm, obtains
in macrocosm too (yatha pinde thatha brahmande).

Similarly, it believes that,"Everything is governed by one law. A human being is a

microcosmos, i.e. the laws prevailing in the cosmos also operate in the minutest space of the
human being." In the end, the nature, the man and his creations are all one.

The vastu-purusha-mandala represents the manifest form of the Cosmic Being; upon
which the temple is built and in whom the temple rests. The temple is situated in Him,
comes from Him, and is a manifestation of Him. The vastu-purusha-mandala is both the
body of the Cosmic Being and a bodily device by which those who have the requisite
knowledge attain the best results in temple building. (Stella Kramrisch,; The Hindu
Temple, Vol. I)
The Vastu Purusha is visualized as lying with his face and stomach touching the ground; to
suggest as if he is carrying the weight of the structure. His head is at North East (ishanya)
and his legs are at the South West corner (nairutya).

The South West corner (nairutya) where the Vastu Purusha has his legs corresponds to the
Muladhara chakra and denotes the earth principle. Just as the legs support the weight of
the body, the base (adhistana) for the muladhara should be stable and strong. Accordingly,
the South West portion of the building is the load bearing area; and should be strong
enough to support heavy weights. Just as the feet are warm, the South West cell represents
warmth and heat; even according to the atmospheric cycles the South West region receives
comparatively more heat.

Svadhistana chakra is in the lower stomach region near the kidneys. It is related to water
principle (apa).On the Vastu Purusha Mandala; it is to the South and to the West
.Therefore the wet areas like bathroom etc are recommended in the south or in the west
portions of the building. It is for sewerage (utsarjana).

Manipura Chakra is at the navel; and relates to energy or fire or tejas. While in the womb
of the mother, the fetus is fed with the essence of food and energy through the umbilical
chord connected with its navel. The Vastu Purusha Mandala shows Brahma at the navel of
the Vastu Purusha. Further, the lotus is the base (Adhistana) of Brahma.Thus navel
connects Brahman with Jiva or panda or life. It is left open and unoccupied. The central
portion of the building is to be kept open. It is believed that Vastu Purusha breaths through
this open area.
Anahata chakra is near the heart. It is related to vayu air regulated by lungs. The lung
region of the Vastu Purusha should be airy.

Vishuddaha chakra is near the throat from where the sounds come out and reverberate in
space. This region represents Space (Akasha).The word OM is uttered through throat. The
echo of that sound vibrates in the hallow of the bone-box of the head and in the space in
brain. The head of Vastu Purusha is in the North East corner (Ishanya). The ajna chakra is
between the eyebrows. .This direction is related to open spaces (akasha). Atmospherically,
North East is cooler; and so should be ones head. The puja room Devagraha is
recommended in the North east portion of the house.

The limbs of Vastu Purusha, other than the above are also related to the construction of the
building. Liver (yakrt) is towards South East. The cooking area is recommended in South
East, because it is related to Agni. The rays of sun reach here first and cleanse the

The North West, vayuvya, is presided over by air vayu. The Organs like spleen, rectum of
the Vastu Purusha fall in this portion. The store room is recommended here; perhaps
because the spleen in the body does the work of storing and restoring blood.
Vastu and directions

These areas are also related to various planets and their position.The vastu purusha
mandala, like the horoscope is another way of illustrating the intersection where the sky
and earth meet at the horizon, at the equinox points; and the zenith and nadir

The Vastu Purusha lies with his back up, .perhaps to suggest that he carries the burden on
his back. Pillars are not recommended on sensitive parts of Vastu Purusha; they are the
inlets and outlets.

The general guidelines are, the South West should be heavier and North East where gods
dwell should not be so .The base should be heavy and the apex be lighter; just as in the case
of a hill or a tree. The sensitive organs like brain, eyes, ears tounge are in the head; and the
head should be lighter and secure. The head of the Vastu Purusha is in the North East and
it should be kept free of pillars. Activities like worship, study are recommended in and
towards east and adjoining directions.-North east and South East.
Sun is at the centre of the solar system; the earth and others rotate around it. The Vastu
follows the same principle. The middle house , the dining hall and work space represent the
sun aspect. After sun set the South West and North West are warmer; bedrooms and store
house are recommended here.

It is said that, although water is everywhere that which cleanses the body is water; and that
which purifies mind is Thirtha. A brick and stone construct is house. A vastu is temple.


The Hindu temple typically involves a multiple set of ideas. Perhaps Hindu traditional
architecture has more symbolic meanings than other cultures. It is highly articulated. The
temple is oriented to face east, the auspicious direction where the sun rises to dispel
darkness. The temple design includes the archetypal image of a Cosmic Person spread out
yogi-like, symmetrically filling the gridded space of the floor plan, his navel in the center,
and it includes the archetype of the cosmic mountain, between earth and heaven, of
fertility, planets, city of the gods, deities, etc.). One encounters these simultaneous
archetypal themes and meanings conveyed (and hidden) in the semi-abstract forms in
many Hindu temples. There are rules of shape and proportion in the authoritative texts of
Hindu tradition (shastras and agamas) which give birth to a variety of complex temple
designs. The Brihat Samhita text (4th century CE) says the temple should reflect cormic
order. To understand the uses of recursive geometrical forms involving self-similarity on
different scales (fractals) in the Hindu temple complex we will need to explore some of these
deep images and their uses

"The form of the temple, all that it is and signifies, stands upon the diagram of the
vastupurusha. It is a 'forecast' of the temple and is drawn on the levelled ground; it is the
fundament from which the building arises. Whatever its actual surroundings... the place
where the temple is built is occupied by the vastupurusha in his diagram, the Vastupurusha
mandala.... It is the place for the meeting and marriage of heaven and earth, where the
whole world is present in terms of measure, and is accessible to man."(25) The cosmic
person became the universe, and to recreate this origin is to construct a cosmos which
offers a return to the transcendent oneness.

The vastupurusha mandala is a microcosm with some fractal qualities. As shown in the
illustration, there are self-similar squares within squares within squares. The geometric
configuration "of central squares with others surrounding it is taken to be a microscopic
image of the universe with its concentrically organized structure." Thus the grid at the
spatial base and temporal beginning of the temple represents the universe, with its
heavenly bodies. It is also more-- it simultaneously symbolizes the pantheon of Vedic gods--
"each square [is] a seat of particular deity." The gods altogether make up the composite
body of the Purusha.

If the temple symbolises the body of god on the macrocosmic plane, it equally symbolises
the body of man on the microcosmic palne. The names of the various parts of the temple
are the very names used to denote the various parts of human body! Look at the following
technical names: paduka, pada, carana, anghri, jangha, uru, gala, griva, kantha, sira.
Sirsa, karna, nasika, sikha. Pada (foot) is the column, jangha (shank) is parts of the
superstructure over the base. Gala ot griva (neck) is the part between moulding which
ressmbles the neck. Nasika (nose) is any noseshaped architectural part and so on. The
garbhagrha represents the head and the image, the antrayamin (the indwelling Lord). This
symbology tries to impress upon us the need to seek the Lord within our heart and not

The temple also represents the subtle body with the seven psychic centres or cakras. The
garbhagrha represents the anahata cakra (the fourth psychic centre in the region of the
heart) and the topmost part of the kalasa point to the sahasrara (seventh and the last centre
situated at the top of the head). The first three centres (muladhara, svadhisthana and
mainpura situated respectively near the anus, sex-organ and navel0 are below the ground
level. The fifth and the sixth (visuddha and ajna cakaras, situated at the root of the throat
and in between the eyebrows) are on the sikhara area.
(Stella Kramrisch, The Hindu Temple, Vol. I)

The expressions Mandala, Chakra and Yantra are synonymous. Mandala is explained as
that which gathers the essential detail (mandam laati).The Chakra and Yantra too perform
similar functions. Like Chakra, the Mandala too denotes visualization, an act of bringing
together all significant details; those details might pertain to the world or the body or the
structure of the building or whatever. It also brings together the outer and the inner
faculties or energies.

Though all the three mean the same, they have somehow seemed to have acquired distinct
forms. For instance, Chakra suggests a circular form, while the Mandala might be a figure
of any shape, but commonly a square. While both Chakra and Mandala are lenier
representations, Yantra is a three-dimensional projection.
In the Vastu Purusha Mandala too, the ground plan and the vertical plan are cast in two
dimensions and in three dimensional representations of the structure.

Whether you call it Chakra or Mandala or Yantra; it represents a sphere of influence and
brings together and energizes all its components.

In a way of speaking the Vastu Purusha and the Chakreshwari of the Sri Chakra represent
the same principles. They embody and preside over all the aspects of their domain, which is
universal. They not merely resolve the internal and external contradictions, but also usher
in complete harmony of existence.

Just as the Sri Chakra is the unfolding of the Bindu at its centre, the temple is the
outpouring or the expansion of the deity residing in Brahmasthana at the centre.

Both the forms employ the imagery of an all enveloping space and time continuum
issuing out of the womb. In the case of Sri Chakra the Bibdu is dimension-less and is the
imperceptible source of energy. The idol, the Vigraha, in the Garbagriha at the
Brahmasthana represents the manifestation of that imperceptible energy or the principle;
and it radiates that energy.

[There is an theory that suggests that the board of chess was inspired by the 64 celled Vastu
Purusha Mandala. It states
The form of the chess-board corresponds to the classical type of Vastu-mandala, the
diagram which also constitutes the basic lay-out of a temple or a city. It has been pointed
out that this diagram symbolizes existence as a field of action of the divine powers. The
combat which takes place in the game of chess thus represents, in its most universal
meaning, the combat of the devas with the asuras, of the gods with the titans, or of the
angels with the demons, all other meanings of the game deriving from this one.

(Please check:
( ]

The Hindu Temple,
By Stella Kramrisch,.
Devalaya Vastu
By Prof.SKR Rao
Vastu -, Astrology and Architecture
A collection of essays by various authors.
Pictures from internet.