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# Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals

## Pre vious Conve nt iona l Que st ions w it h Answ e rs

Conventional Question ESE-2001, ESE 2000
Question: Differentiate between strut and column. What is the general expression used
for determining of their critical load?
Answer: Strut: A member of structure which carries an axial compressive load.
Column: If the strut is vertical it is known as column.
Compressive force
For strut failure due to compression or c =
Area
If c > yc it fails.

2 EI
Euler's formula for column ( PC ) =
2e

## Conventional Question ESE-2009

Q. Two long columns are made of identical lengths l and flexural rigidities EI.
Column 1 is hinged at both ends whereas for column 2 one end is fixed and the
other end is free.
(i) Write the expression for Eulers buckling load for column 1.
(ii) What is the ratio of Eulers buckling load of column 1 to that column 2? [ 2 Marks]

Ans. (i)
2EI 2EI
P1 = ( right )
; P2 =
L2 4L2
For column l, both end hinged l e = L
P1
(ii) =4
P2

## Conventional Question ESE-2010

Q. The piston rod of diameter 20 mm and length 700 mm in a hydraulic cylinder is
subjected to a compressive force of 10 kN due to internal pressure. The piston end
of the rod is guided along the cylinder and the other end of the rod is hinged at the
cross-head. The modulus of elasticity for piston rod material is 200 GPa. Estimate
the factor of safety taken for the piston rod design. [2 Marks]
Ans.

P 20mm P

P PL 2 EI
= ; = ; e = ; Pe = (considering one end of the column is fixed and
A AE 2 2e
other end is hinged)
Compressive load, Pc = c Area = 10 kN

( ) (
22 200 109 0.0204 / 64 ) = 63.278 kN
2
(0.7)
F.S =
63.278
F.S = = 6.3
10

## For- 2016 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 418 of 472 Rev.1

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals

## Conventional Question ESE-1999

Question: State the limitation of Euler's formula for calculating critical load on
columns
(i) The column is perfectly straight and of uniform cross-section
(ii) The material is homogenous and isotropic
(iii) The material behaves elastically
(iv) The load is perfectly axial and passes through the centroid of the column section.
(v) The weight of the column is neglected.

## Conventional Question ESE-2007

Question: What is the value of Euler's buckling load for an axially loaded pin-ended
(hinged at both ends) strut of length 'l' and flexural rigidity 'EI'? What would
be order of Euler's buckling load carrying capacity of a similar strut but
fixed at both ends in terms of the load carrying capacity of the earlier one?
2EI
Critical load (PC ) = 2
e
Equivalent length ( e ) = for both end hinged = for both end fixed.
2
2EI
So for both end hinged (Pc )beh =
2
2EI 4 2EI
and for both fixed (Pc )bef = =
( 2)
2
2

## Conventional Question ESE-1996

Question: Euler's critical load for a column with both ends hinged is found as 40 kN.
What would be the change in the critical load if both ends are fixed?
Answer: We know that Euler's critical laod,
2 EI
PEuler= [Where E = modulus of elasticity, I = least moment of inertia
2e
e = equivalent length ]
For both end hinged ( e) =
And For both end fixed ( e) = /2
2EI
(PEuler )b.e.h. = =40 kN(Given)
2
2EI 2EI
and (PEuler )b.e.F . = = 4 = 4 40 = 160 kN
( / 2)2 2

## Conventional Question ESE-1999

Question: A hollow cast iron column of 300 mm external diameter and 220 mm internal
diameter is used as a column 4 m long with both ends hinged. Determine the
safe compressive load the column can carry without buckling using Euler's
formula and Rankine's formula
E = 0.7105 N/mm2, FOS = 4, Rankine constant (a) = 1/1600
Crushing Stress ( c ) =567 N/mm2
Answer: Given outer diameter of column (D) = 300 mm = 0.3 m.
Inner diameter of the column (d) = 220 mm = 0.22 m.
Length of the column ( ) = 4 m
End conditions is both ends hinged. Therefore equivalent length ( e ) = = 4 m.
Yield crushing stress ( c ) = 567 MPa = 567106 N/m2
Rankine constant (a) = 1 / 1600 and E = 0.7105 N/mm2 = 70 x 109 N/m2

## For- 2016 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 419 of 472 Rev.1

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals
0.3 4 0.224 = 2.826 104 m 4
Moment of Inertia(I) = (D 4 d 4 ) =
64 64

I 64
(D 4 d 4 ) D 2 + d 2 0.32 + 0.222
= = = = 0.093m
A 2 2 16 16
(D d )
4

Area(A) = (D 2 d 2 ) = (0.32 0.222 ) = 0.03267 m 2
4 4
2EI 2 (70 109 ) (2.826 104 )
PEuler = = = 12.2MN
2e 42
PEuler 12.2
Safe load = = = 3.05 MN
fos 4
c .A (56710 ) 0.03267
6

PRankine = 2
= 2
= 8.59 MN
1 4
1 + a. e 1+
k 1600 0.093
PRankine 8.59
Safe load = = = 2.148 MN
fos 4

## Conventional Question ESE-2008

Question: A both ends hinged cast iron hollow cylindrical column 3 m in length has a
critical buckling load of P kN. When the column is fixed at both the ends, its
critical buckling load raise by 300 kN more. If ratio of external diameter to
internal diameter is 1.25 and E = 100 GPa determine the external diameter of
column.
2 EI
I e2
For both end hinged column
2EI
P= (i )
L2
For both end fixed column
2EI 4 2EI
P+300= = ( ii )
(L 2)
2
L2

## Dividing (ii) by (i) we get

P+300
= 4 or P=100kN
P
Moment of inertia of a hollow cylinder c/s is
PL2
I=
64
(D d ) = 2E
4 4

64 (100 10 ) 3
3 2
4 4
orD d = = 1.8577 105
2 100 109

## For- 2016 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 420 of 472 Rev.1

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals
D D
given = 1.25 or d =
d 1.25-5
1 4

or D4 1 = 1.8577 105
1.25

or D=0.0749 m = 74.9 mm

## Conventional Question AMIE-1996

Question: A piston rod of steam engine 80 cm long in subjected to a maximum load of 60
kN. Determine the diameter of the rod using Rankine's formula with
permissible compressive stress of 100 N/mm2. Take constant in Rankine's
1
formula as for hinged ends. The rod may be assumed partially fixed
7500
with length coefficient of 06.
Answer: Given: l = 80 cm = 800 mm ;P = 60 kN = 60 103 N, c = 100N / mm 2 ;
1
a= for hinged ends; length coefficient = 0.6
7500
To find diameter of the rod, d:
Use Rankines formula
cA
P= 2
l
1+ a e
k
Here le = 0.6l = 0.6 800 = 480 mm [length coefficient = 0.6]

d4
I 64 d
k= = =
A 4
d2
4

100 d2
60 103 = 4
2
1 480
1+
7500 d / 4
Solving the above equation we get the value of d
Note: Unit of d comes out from the equation will be mm as we put the equivalent
length in mm.
or d = 33.23 mm

## Conventional Question ESE-2005

Question: A hollow cylinder CI column, 3 m long its internal and external diameters as
80 mm and 100 mm respectively. Calculate the safe load using Rankine
formula: if
(i) Both ends are hinged and
(ii) Both ends are fixed.
2
Take crushing strength of material as 600 N / mm , Rankine constant 1/1600
and factor of safety = 3.

Answer: Moment of Inertia (I)= (0.14 0.08 4 ) m 4 = 2.898 106 m 4
64

## For- 2016 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 421 of 472 Rev.1

C
Chapter-13 Theorie
es of Colum
mn S K Mo
ondals

Area( A) =
4
(0.12 0.082 ) = 2 03 m 2
2.8274 10

I 2.898 106
Radius off gyration (k) ( = = = 0.032 m
A 2.8274 103
c .A
PRankine = 2
; [ e = equ
uivalent len
ngth]
e
1+ a
k

(60010 )(2.82774 10 )
6 3

(i) = 2
; [ e = l = 3 m for both
h end hing
ged]
1 3
1+
1600 0.0
032
=2 261.026kN N
P 26126
Safe load d (P)= Rankine = = 87.09 kN
FOS S 3
(ii) For bo oth end fixxed, e = = 1.5 m
2
(600 10 )(2.8274 103 )
6

PRankinee = 2
= 714.8 kN
k
1 1.5
1+
1600 0.032
0
P 714.88
Safe load d (P)= Rankkine = = 238.277 kN
FOS S 3

C
Convention
nal Questiion AMIE--1997
Q
Question: A slender column is built-in att one end and
a an ecceentric load is applied at the
free end. Working from the first prin nciples fin
nd the exp pression foor the
maximum m length off column su uch that th
he deflectio
on of the fr
ree end dooes not
exceed th
ding.

A
Answer: Above figuure shows a slender coluumn of lengtth I. The coolumn is built in at one
e end B
and eccentric load P is applied at the
t free end A.
Let y be th n at any secttion XX disttant x from the fixed en
he deflection nd B. Let be the
deflection at
a A.
The bendinng moment ata the section XX is giveen by

## For- 2016 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 422 of 472 Rev.1

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals
2
dy
EI = P ( + e y ) (i)
dx 2
d2 y d2 y P P
EI 2 + Py = P ( + e ) or + y = ( + e )
dx dx 2 EI EI
The solution to the above differential equation is
P P
y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x + ( + e ) ( ii)
EI EI
Where C1 and C2 are the cons tan ts.
At the end B, x = 0 and y = 0
0 = C1 cos 0 + C2 sin 0 + ( + e )
or C1 = ( + e )
Differentiating equation (ii ) we get
dy P P P P
= C1 sin x + C2 cos x
dx EI EI EI EI
Again,at the fixed end B,
dy
When x = 0, =0
dx
P P
0 = ( + e ) 0 + C2 cos 0
EI EI
or C2 = 0
At the free end A,x = ,y =
Substituting for x and y in equation (ii ) ,we have
P
= ( + e ) cos = ( + e )
EI
P e
cos = (iii )
EI + e
It is mentioned in the problem that the deflection of the free end does not exceed the
eccentricity. It means that = e
Substituting this value in equation (iii), we have
P e 1
cos = =
EI + e 2
P 1
= cos 1 =
EI 2 3
EI
=
3 P

## Conventional Question ESE-2005

Question: A long strut AB of length ' ' is of uniform section throughout. A thrust P is
applied at the ends eccentrically on the same side of the centre line with
eccentricity at the end B twice than that at the end A. Show that the
maximum bending moment occurs at a distance x from the end A,
2 cos k P
Where,tan(kx)= and k=
sin k EI

## For- 2016 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 423 of 472 Rev.1

C
Chapter-13 Theorie
es of Colum
mn S K Mo
ondals
An
nswer: Let at a distance 'x' from
L m end A defllection of the
b
beam is y
d 2y
EI = P.y
dx 2
d 2y P
o
or 2
+ y =0
dx EI
E
d 2y
o
or + k 2y = 0 k = P giiven
dx 2 EI

C.F of this diifferential equation
C
y = A cos kx + B sin kx, Where
W A & B constant.
I is clear at x = 0, y = e
It
A at x = , y= 2e
And

e = A..................( i )
2e e cos k
2e = A cos
s k + B sin k or B =
sin k
2e e cos k
y = e coos kx + sin kx
s k
sin
Where be ending mom ment is maximum,
dy
the deflection will be maximum so s =0
dx
dy 2e e coss k
e sin kx + k .
= ek cos kx = 0
dx sin k
2 cos k
or tan kx =
sin k

C
Convention
nal Questiion ESE-1996
Q
o a mecha anism is su ubjected to axial com
mpressive fo orce. It has
s solid
circular cross-sectio
c on with dia ameter 9 mm
m and len ngth 200 mm m. The two o ends
m of stee
el having yield
y strength = 400 N/mm
N 2

## and elastic moduluss = 200 kN N/mm . Calc

2 culate the critical lo
can carryy. Use Johnnon's equatiion.
A
t Johnson'ss equation
y 2

Pcr = y .A 1
4 n 2
E k

d2
Hear A=arrea of crosss section= = 63.62 2 mm 2
4
d 4

I 64 d
us of gyratio
on (k) = = = = 2.25 m
mm
A d 2 4

4
For both end
e hinged n=1
400 200
2

## Pcr = 400 63.62 1 =15.262kN

N
4 1 2 (200 103 ) 2.25

C
Convention
nal Questiion GATE--1995
Q
Question: Find the shortest
s length of a hinged
h stee
el column having
h ectangular cross-
a re
section 60
00 mm 10 00 mm, forr which the
e elastic Euler formuula applies. Take

## For- 2016 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 424 of 472 Rev.1

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals
yield strength and modulus of elasticity value for steel as 250 MPa and 200
GPa respectively.
Answer: Given: Cross-section, (= b x d) = 600 mm x 100 mm = 0.6 m x 0.1 m = 0.06 m 2;
P
Yield strength = = 250MPa = 250MN / m2 ; E = 200 GPa = 200 1012 N / m2
A
Length of the column, L :
bd 3 0.6 0.13
Least area moment of Inertia, I = = = 5 105 m4
12 12
I 5 105
Also, k2 = = = 8.333 104 m 2
A 0.6 0.1
[ I = AK ( where A = area of cross-section, k = radius of gyration)]
2

## From Euler's formula for column, we have

2EI 2EI
Crushing load , Pcr = = 2
L2e L
For both endhinged type of column, Le = L
2EAk 2
or Pcr =
L2
P 2EI
or Yield stress cr = 2
A L
2Ek 2
or L2 =
(Pcr / A)
Substituting the value, we get
2 200 109 0.0008333
L2 = = 6.58
250 106
L = 2.565 m

## Conventional Question GATE-1993

Question: Determine the temperature rise necessary to induce buckling in a lm long
circular rod of diameter 40 mm shown in the Figure below. Assume the rod to
be pinned at its ends and the coefficient of thermal expansion as 20 106 / 0 C
. Assume uniform heating of the bar.

## For- 2016 (IES,GATE & PSUs) Page 425 of 472 Rev.1

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals
L = L. .t , Where t is the temperature rise.
L
or t =
L.
PL L.AE
Also, L = or P=
AE L
2EI
Pcr = 2 ( where L e =equivalent length)
Le
2EI L.A.E
or = [QLe =L For both endhinged]
L2 L
2I
or L =
LA
L 2I 2I
t = = = 2
L. LA.L. L A.
Substituting the values, we get
4
2 (0.040)
Temperature rise t = 64 = 49.350 C
2 2
(1) (0.040) 20 10 6

4
So the rod will buckle when the temperature rises more than 49.35C.