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Conventional Question ESE-2001, ESE 2000

Question: Differentiate between strut and column. What is the general expression used

for determining of their critical load?

Answer: Strut: A member of structure which carries an axial compressive load.

Column: If the strut is vertical it is known as column.

Compressive force

For strut failure due to compression or c =

Area

If c > yc it fails.

2 EI

Euler's formula for column ( PC ) =

2e

Q. Two long columns are made of identical lengths l and flexural rigidities EI.

Column 1 is hinged at both ends whereas for column 2 one end is fixed and the

other end is free.

(i) Write the expression for Eulers buckling load for column 1.

(ii) What is the ratio of Eulers buckling load of column 1 to that column 2? [ 2 Marks]

Ans. (i)

2EI 2EI

P1 = ( right )

; P2 =

L2 4L2

For column l, both end hinged l e = L

P1

(ii) =4

P2

Q. The piston rod of diameter 20 mm and length 700 mm in a hydraulic cylinder is

subjected to a compressive force of 10 kN due to internal pressure. The piston end

of the rod is guided along the cylinder and the other end of the rod is hinged at the

cross-head. The modulus of elasticity for piston rod material is 200 GPa. Estimate

the factor of safety taken for the piston rod design. [2 Marks]

Ans.

P 20mm P

P PL 2 EI

= ; = ; e = ; Pe = (considering one end of the column is fixed and

A AE 2 2e

other end is hinged)

Pe = Euler Crippling load

Compressive load, Pc = c Area = 10 kN

Eulers load, Pe =

( ) (

22 200 109 0.0204 / 64 ) = 63.278 kN

2

(0.7)

Euler 's load

F.S =

Compressive load

63.278

F.S = = 6.3

10

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals

Question: State the limitation of Euler's formula for calculating critical load on

columns

Answer: Assumptions:

(i) The column is perfectly straight and of uniform cross-section

(ii) The material is homogenous and isotropic

(iii) The material behaves elastically

(iv) The load is perfectly axial and passes through the centroid of the column section.

(v) The weight of the column is neglected.

Question: What is the value of Euler's buckling load for an axially loaded pin-ended

(hinged at both ends) strut of length 'l' and flexural rigidity 'EI'? What would

be order of Euler's buckling load carrying capacity of a similar strut but

fixed at both ends in terms of the load carrying capacity of the earlier one?

Answer: From Euler's buckling load formula,

2EI

Critical load (PC ) = 2

e

Equivalent length ( e ) = for both end hinged = for both end fixed.

2

2EI

So for both end hinged (Pc )beh =

2

2EI 4 2EI

and for both fixed (Pc )bef = =

( 2)

2

2

Question: Euler's critical load for a column with both ends hinged is found as 40 kN.

What would be the change in the critical load if both ends are fixed?

Answer: We know that Euler's critical laod,

2 EI

PEuler= [Where E = modulus of elasticity, I = least moment of inertia

2e

e = equivalent length ]

For both end hinged ( e) =

And For both end fixed ( e) = /2

2EI

(PEuler )b.e.h. = =40 kN(Given)

2

2EI 2EI

and (PEuler )b.e.F . = = 4 = 4 40 = 160 kN

( / 2)2 2

Question: A hollow cast iron column of 300 mm external diameter and 220 mm internal

diameter is used as a column 4 m long with both ends hinged. Determine the

safe compressive load the column can carry without buckling using Euler's

formula and Rankine's formula

E = 0.7105 N/mm2, FOS = 4, Rankine constant (a) = 1/1600

Crushing Stress ( c ) =567 N/mm2

Answer: Given outer diameter of column (D) = 300 mm = 0.3 m.

Inner diameter of the column (d) = 220 mm = 0.22 m.

Length of the column ( ) = 4 m

End conditions is both ends hinged. Therefore equivalent length ( e ) = = 4 m.

Yield crushing stress ( c ) = 567 MPa = 567106 N/m2

Rankine constant (a) = 1 / 1600 and E = 0.7105 N/mm2 = 70 x 109 N/m2

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals

0.3 4 0.224 = 2.826 104 m 4

Moment of Inertia(I) = (D 4 d 4 ) =

64 64

I 64

(D 4 d 4 ) D 2 + d 2 0.32 + 0.222

= = = = 0.093m

A 2 2 16 16

(D d )

4

Area(A) = (D 2 d 2 ) = (0.32 0.222 ) = 0.03267 m 2

4 4

(i) Euler's buckling load, PEuler

2EI 2 (70 109 ) (2.826 104 )

PEuler = = = 12.2MN

2e 42

PEuler 12.2

Safe load = = = 3.05 MN

fos 4

(ii)Rankine's buckling load, PRankine

c .A (56710 ) 0.03267

6

PRankine = 2

= 2

= 8.59 MN

1 4

1 + a. e 1+

k 1600 0.093

PRankine 8.59

Safe load = = = 2.148 MN

fos 4

Question: A both ends hinged cast iron hollow cylindrical column 3 m in length has a

critical buckling load of P kN. When the column is fixed at both the ends, its

critical buckling load raise by 300 kN more. If ratio of external diameter to

internal diameter is 1.25 and E = 100 GPa determine the external diameter of

column.

2 EI

Answer: Pc =

I e2

For both end hinged column

2EI

P= (i )

L2

For both end fixed column

2EI 4 2EI

P+300= = ( ii )

(L 2)

2

L2

P+300

= 4 or P=100kN

P

Moment of inertia of a hollow cylinder c/s is

PL2

I=

64

(D d ) = 2E

4 4

64 (100 10 ) 3

3 2

4 4

orD d = = 1.8577 105

2 100 109

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals

D D

given = 1.25 or d =

d 1.25-5

1 4

or D4 1 = 1.8577 105

1.25

or D=0.0749 m = 74.9 mm

Question: A piston rod of steam engine 80 cm long in subjected to a maximum load of 60

kN. Determine the diameter of the rod using Rankine's formula with

permissible compressive stress of 100 N/mm2. Take constant in Rankine's

1

formula as for hinged ends. The rod may be assumed partially fixed

7500

with length coefficient of 06.

Answer: Given: l = 80 cm = 800 mm ;P = 60 kN = 60 103 N, c = 100N / mm 2 ;

1

a= for hinged ends; length coefficient = 0.6

7500

To find diameter of the rod, d:

Use Rankines formula

cA

P= 2

l

1+ a e

k

Here le = 0.6l = 0.6 800 = 480 mm [length coefficient = 0.6]

d4

I 64 d

k= = =

A 4

d2

4

100 d2

60 103 = 4

2

1 480

1+

7500 d / 4

Solving the above equation we get the value of d

Note: Unit of d comes out from the equation will be mm as we put the equivalent

length in mm.

or d = 33.23 mm

Question: A hollow cylinder CI column, 3 m long its internal and external diameters as

80 mm and 100 mm respectively. Calculate the safe load using Rankine

formula: if

(i) Both ends are hinged and

(ii) Both ends are fixed.

2

Take crushing strength of material as 600 N / mm , Rankine constant 1/1600

and factor of safety = 3.

Answer: Moment of Inertia (I)= (0.14 0.08 4 ) m 4 = 2.898 106 m 4

64

C

Chapter-13 Theorie

es of Colum

mn S K Mo

ondals

Area( A) =

4

(0.12 0.082 ) = 2 03 m 2

2.8274 10

I 2.898 106

Radius off gyration (k) ( = = = 0.032 m

A 2.8274 103

c .A

PRankine = 2

; [ e = equ

uivalent len

ngth]

e

1+ a

k

(60010 )(2.82774 10 )

6 3

(i) = 2

; [ e = l = 3 m for both

h end hing

ged]

1 3

1+

1600 0.0

032

=2 261.026kN N

P 26126

Safe load d (P)= Rankine = = 87.09 kN

FOS S 3

(ii) For bo oth end fixxed, e = = 1.5 m

2

(600 10 )(2.8274 103 )

6

PRankinee = 2

= 714.8 kN

k

1 1.5

1+

1600 0.032

0

P 714.88

Safe load d (P)= Rankkine = = 238.277 kN

FOS S 3

C

Convention

nal Questiion AMIE--1997

Q

Question: A slender column is built-in att one end and

a an ecceentric load is applied at the

free end. Working from the first prin nciples fin

nd the exp pression foor the

maximum m length off column su uch that th

he deflectio

on of the fr

ree end dooes not

exceed th

he eccentriccity of load

ding.

A

Answer: Above figuure shows a slender coluumn of lengtth I. The coolumn is built in at one

e end B

and eccentric load P is applied at the

t free end A.

Let y be th n at any secttion XX disttant x from the fixed en

he deflection nd B. Let be the

deflection at

a A.

The bendinng moment ata the section XX is giveen by

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals

2

dy

EI = P ( + e y ) (i)

dx 2

d2 y d2 y P P

EI 2 + Py = P ( + e ) or + y = ( + e )

dx dx 2 EI EI

The solution to the above differential equation is

P P

y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x + ( + e ) ( ii)

EI EI

Where C1 and C2 are the cons tan ts.

At the end B, x = 0 and y = 0

0 = C1 cos 0 + C2 sin 0 + ( + e )

or C1 = ( + e )

Differentiating equation (ii ) we get

dy P P P P

= C1 sin x + C2 cos x

dx EI EI EI EI

Again,at the fixed end B,

dy

When x = 0, =0

dx

P P

0 = ( + e ) 0 + C2 cos 0

EI EI

or C2 = 0

At the free end A,x = ,y =

Substituting for x and y in equation (ii ) ,we have

P

= ( + e ) cos = ( + e )

EI

P e

cos = (iii )

EI + e

It is mentioned in the problem that the deflection of the free end does not exceed the

eccentricity. It means that = e

Substituting this value in equation (iii), we have

P e 1

cos = =

EI + e 2

P 1

= cos 1 =

EI 2 3

EI

=

3 P

Question: A long strut AB of length ' ' is of uniform section throughout. A thrust P is

applied at the ends eccentrically on the same side of the centre line with

eccentricity at the end B twice than that at the end A. Show that the

maximum bending moment occurs at a distance x from the end A,

2 cos k P

Where,tan(kx)= and k=

sin k EI

C

Chapter-13 Theorie

es of Colum

mn S K Mo

ondals

An

nswer: Let at a distance 'x' from

L m end A defllection of the

b

beam is y

d 2y

EI = P.y

dx 2

d 2y P

o

or 2

+ y =0

dx EI

E

d 2y

o

or + k 2y = 0 k = P giiven

dx 2 EI

C.F of this diifferential equation

C

y = A cos kx + B sin kx, Where

W A & B constant.

I is clear at x = 0, y = e

It

A at x = , y= 2e

And

e = A..................( i )

2e e cos k

2e = A cos

s k + B sin k or B =

sin k

2e e cos k

y = e coos kx + sin kx

s k

sin

Where be ending mom ment is maximum,

dy

the deflection will be maximum so s =0

dx

dy 2e e coss k

e sin kx + k .

= ek cos kx = 0

dx sin k

2 cos k

or tan kx =

sin k

C

Convention

nal Questiion ESE-1996

Q

Question: The link of

o a mecha anism is su ubjected to axial com

mpressive fo orce. It has

s solid

circular cross-sectio

c on with dia ameter 9 mm

m and len ngth 200 mm m. The two o ends

of the linkk are hing

ged. It is made

m of stee

el having yield

y strength = 400 N/mm

N 2

2 culate the critical lo

oad that thhe link

can carryy. Use Johnnon's equatiion.

A

Answer: According to

t Johnson'ss equation

y 2

Pcr = y .A 1

4 n 2

E k

d2

Hear A=arrea of crosss section= = 63.62 2 mm 2

4

d 4

I 64 d

least radiu

us of gyratio

on (k) = = = = 2.25 m

mm

A d 2 4

4

For both end

e hinged n=1

400 200

2

N

4 1 2 (200 103 ) 2.25

C

Convention

nal Questiion GATE--1995

Q

Question: Find the shortest

s length of a hinged

h stee

el column having

h ectangular cross-

a re

section 60

00 mm 10 00 mm, forr which the

e elastic Euler formuula applies. Take

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals

yield strength and modulus of elasticity value for steel as 250 MPa and 200

GPa respectively.

Answer: Given: Cross-section, (= b x d) = 600 mm x 100 mm = 0.6 m x 0.1 m = 0.06 m 2;

P

Yield strength = = 250MPa = 250MN / m2 ; E = 200 GPa = 200 1012 N / m2

A

Length of the column, L :

bd 3 0.6 0.13

Least area moment of Inertia, I = = = 5 105 m4

12 12

I 5 105

Also, k2 = = = 8.333 104 m 2

A 0.6 0.1

[ I = AK ( where A = area of cross-section, k = radius of gyration)]

2

2EI 2EI

Crushing load , Pcr = = 2

L2e L

For both endhinged type of column, Le = L

2EAk 2

or Pcr =

L2

P 2EI

or Yield stress cr = 2

A L

2Ek 2

or L2 =

(Pcr / A)

Substituting the value, we get

2 200 109 0.0008333

L2 = = 6.58

250 106

L = 2.565 m

Question: Determine the temperature rise necessary to induce buckling in a lm long

circular rod of diameter 40 mm shown in the Figure below. Assume the rod to

be pinned at its ends and the coefficient of thermal expansion as 20 106 / 0 C

. Assume uniform heating of the bar.

Chapter-13 Theories of Column S K Mondals

L = L. .t , Where t is the temperature rise.

L

or t =

L.

PL L.AE

Also, L = or P=

AE L

2EI

Pcr = 2 ( where L e =equivalent length)

Le

2EI L.A.E

or = [QLe =L For both endhinged]

L2 L

2I

or L =

LA

L 2I 2I

t = = = 2

L. LA.L. L A.

Substituting the values, we get

4

2 (0.040)

Temperature rise t = 64 = 49.350 C

2 2

(1) (0.040) 20 10 6

4

So the rod will buckle when the temperature rises more than 49.35C.

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