PARADIGM: NURSING

PART I: NURSING Nursing: NUTRIX - to nourish (Latin). FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE Nursing - The act of utilizing the environment of the patient to assists him in his/her recovery VIRGINIA HENDERSON Nursing - The unique function of the nurse is to assists the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he will perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge, and to this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible NURSING AS AN ART ART - The application of knowledge and skill to bring about desired results - Individualized action NURSING ART Carried out by the nurse in one-to-one relationship with the patient, and constitutes the nurse s conscious responses to specifics in the patient s immediate situation. ART OF CLINICAL NURSING - Understanding of the patient and his/her condition, situation, and need - Enhancement of the patient s capability - Improvement of his condition or situation within the framework of the medical plan for his care - Prevention of the recurrence of his problem or development of a new one which may cause anxiety, disability, or distress NURSING AS A SCIENCE AS A SCIENCE - It is a systematic and well-defined body of knowledge which utilizes scientific measures and procedures, and applies nursing processes, or uses nursing care plans in caring, diagnosing and treating human responses to actual or potential health problems. AS A SOCIAL SCIENCE - Its primordial interest is man, whether well or sick, within the context of his life and environment NURSING AS A PROFESSION PROFESSION - An occupation that requires extensive education or a calling that requires special knowledge, skills and preparation. PROFESSION - An organization of an occupational group based on the application of special knowledge which establishes its own rules and standards for the protection of the public and the professionals. - Implies that the quality of work done by its members is of greater importance in its own eyes and the society than the economic rewards they earn. - Serves all of society and not the specific interest of a group. - Its aim is altruistic rather than materialistic. CRITERIA OF A PROFESSION o Specialized education o Service-Orientation o On-going research o A code of ethics o Autonomy o A professional organization o Body of Knowledge

PROFESSIONALISM - Professional character, spirit, or methods and implies respectability and commitment PROFESSIONALIZATION - Process of becoming professional, of acquiring characteristics considered to be professional. DIFFERENCE OF PROFESSION TO OTHER OCCUPATION SPECIALIZED EDUCATION - Prolonged specialized training to acquire a body of knowledge pertinent to the role to be performed. - Specialized Education is an important aspect of professional status: Bachelor¶s degree, Masters degree, doctoral degree - Body of Knowledge - Nursingµs conceptual frameworks contribute to the knowledge base of nursing. - Give direction to nursing practice, education and ongoing research. SERVICE-ORIENTED - An orientation of an individual towards service either to community or an organization. - A service orientation differentiates nursing from an occupation pursued primarily for profit. - Altruism (selfless concern for others) is the hallmark of a profession. ONGOING RESEARCH CODE OF ETHICS - Nurses are expected to do what is considered right regardless of the personal cost. - Nursing can develop its own code of ethics and set up means to monitor the professional behavior of its members. AUTONOMY - A profession is autonomous if it regulates itself and sets standards for its member. - It should have legal authority to delineate scope of its practice, describe functions and roles and determine goals and responsibilities. - There is independence at work, responsibility and accountability to one¶s actions. LEGAL BASIS FOR THE PRACTICE OF NSX IN THE PHIL - Philippine Nursing Act of 1991 (RA 7164) has been repealed by the Philippine Nursing Act of 2002 (R.A. 9173) known as the Nursing Law. SCOPE OF NURSING PRACTICE BASED ON RA 9173 - Sec. 28. Scope of Nursing Practice ± As independent practitioners, nurses is primarily responsible for the promotion of health and prevention of illness. As members of the health team, nurses shall collaborate with other health care givers for the curative, prevention, and rehabilitative aspects of care, restoration of health, alleviation of suffering, and when recovery is not possible, towards a peaceful death. - A nurse while in practice of nursing in all settings is duty-bound/ required to: - Observe the Code of Ethics for Nurses - Uphold standards for safe nursing practice - Maintain competence by continual learning through CPE to be provided by the APO (PNA) or any recognized professional nursing organization. Resolution No. 2004-179 s. 2004 A PROFESSIONAL NURSE - A person who has completed a basic nursing education program and is licensed in his/her country or state to practice professional nursing

PROFESSIONAL QUALITIES OF A NURSE - Interest and willingness to work and learn with individuals/groups in a variety of setting. - Warm personality and concern for people. - Resourcefulness and creativity as well as well-balanced emotional condition - Capacity and ability to work cooperatively with others - Initiative to improve self and service - Competence in performing work through the use of nursing process - Skill in decision making, communicating and relating with others and being research oriented - Active participation in issues confronting nurses and nursing. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A PROFESSIONAL NURSE CAREGIVER - Assist the client physically and psychologically while preserving the clients¶ dignity. - Full care for the completely dependent client, partial care for the partially dependent client, and supportive-educative care to assists clients in attaining their highest possible level of health and wellness. - The nurse addresses the holistic health care needs of the clients, including measures to restore emotional, spiritual and social well-being. COMMUNICATOR - The nurse identifies client problems and then communicates this verbally or in writing to other members of the health team. - The quality of communication is critical factor in meeting the needs of individuals, families, and communities. TEACHER / EDUCATOR - The nurse explains to client¶s concepts and facts about health, demonstrates procedures such as self-care activities, determines that the client fully understands, reinforces learning or client behavior, and evaluates the clients¶ progress in learning. - Nurses also teach unlicensed assistive personnel to whom they delegate care, and they share their expertise with other nurses and health professionals. CLIENT ADVOCATE - The nurse may represent the client¶s needs and wishes to other health professionals, assists the clients in exercising their rights and help them speak for themselves. - The nurse protects the client¶s human and legal rights, keeping in mind the client¶s religion and culture. COUNSELOR - The nurse helps the clients to recognize and cope with stressful psychological or social problem, to develop improved interpersonal relationships, and to promote personal growth. LEADER - Nurses influences others to work together to accomplish a specific goal. - The leader role can be employed at different levels: individual client, family, and groups of client¶s, colleagues, or the community. MANAGER - The nurse manages the nursing care of individuals, families, and communities. - Also delegates nursing activities to ancillary workers and other nurses, and supervises and evaluates their performance. CASE MANAGER - They work with the multidisciplinary health care team to measure the effectiveness of the case management plan and to monitor outcomes. RESEARCH CONSUMER - The use of research improves the client care. The nurses need to: - have some awareness of the process and language of research - be sensitive to issues related to protecting the rights of human subjects - participate in the identification of significant researchable problems - be a discriminating consumer of research findings

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