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Biology Reviewer a.

Bright-field- bright, lighted microscopic field

Cell Theory b. Dark-field- bright image of the specimen against a dark field of
view at an oblique angle
1. All living things are structurally made up of cells. (Matthias Scheliden, Theodor
Schwann) c. Phase-contrast- enhances the density differences in the
organelles causing certain structures to appear brighter or darker
2. The cell is the fundamental unit of life. (Henry Dutrochet) than the others; for observing living cells in their natural
3. Cells come from the division of pre-existing cells. (Rudolf Virchow)
d. Differential-interference-contrast- contrasting brighter or darker
Robert Hooke- coined the term cell; English Father of Microscopy
appearance of various organelles through technical optical
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek- discovered bacteria and other microscopic organisms in methods
rainwater; studied structure of plant and animal cells; Father of Microscopy
e. Immuno-fluorescent- certain type of protein can be determined
Francesco Redi and Lazzaro Spallanzani- disproved Theory of Spontaneous Generation
f. Confocal- use laser beams and special optics for optical
Robert Brown- discovered nuclei within cells sectioning; 3D

Felix Dujardin- noted that all living things contain a thick jelly fluid (sarcode) Electron Microscope- uses a beam of electrons and magnetic or electrostatic fields as
Matthias Schleiden (botanist) and Theodor Schwann (zoologist)- all plants and animals
are made up of cells a. Transmission electron microscope- a beam of electrons is aimed
through a very thin specimen; magnetic fields bend the beam of
Johannes Purkinje- coined the term protoplasm, the living matter of the cell electrons
Rudolf Virchow- omnia cellula e cellula or cells come from pre-existing cells b. Scanning electron microscope- specimen is thinly coated by a
metal and then bombarded with electrons
Louis Pasteur- proof of Virchows Theory of Biogenesis
Fractionation- takes cells to separate major organelles for the study of their individual
Zaccharias Janssen- first compound microscope
Homogenization- disruptions of cells
Light Microscope- image is formed by absorption of light in the specimen and its
Cellular Structure
transmission through a set of lenses
Three Major Parts: d. Nucleolus- suspended in the nucleoplasm; composed of RNA
and protein molecules; site where the subunits of ribosomes are
Cytoplasm- main metabolic life activities; largely water; reservoir for the entry and formed
exit of materials in the cell; consists of:
e. Chromatin- composed of DNA; coils and becomes condensed
a. A thick, semifluid aggregate of chemical compounds (cytosol) into chromosomes
b. Internal membrane (cytomembrane) Organelles in the Cytoplasm:
Protein- most abundant among the organic components of the cytoplasm; Mitochondria- largest organelle in cell; powerhouse of eukaryotic cells; sites of
provides materials for the growth and development of the cell cellular respiration; made up of:
Cell membrane- outer boundary of the cell; consists of a double layer of fats or lipid a. Cristae- folds; provide more surface area for greater cellular
(phospolipid or glycolipid) with scattered proteins; differentially permeable; has three respiratory productivity
major functions:
b. Matrix- inner cavity into which the cristae project
a. Separates the contents of the cell from the external environment
c. Intermembrane space- narrow region between the inner and outer
b. Regulates the passage of materials into and out of the cell membranes
c. Allows communication with other cells Ribosomes- sites of protein synthesis; of two types:
Nucleus- control center of the cell; regulates and coordinates all the activities of the a. Bound- attached to the endoplasmic reticulum; make secretory
cell; consists of: proteins
a. Nucleoplasm- semifluid medium separated from the cytoplasm b. Free- suspended in the cytosol; produce proteins that are
by nuclear membrane; consists of nucleoproteins, granules and localized in the cytosol
Different kinds of protein:
b. Nuclear membrane- a double membrane, each a phospholipid
bilayer, with nuclear pores a. Channel Protein- allows a particular molecule/ion to cross the
cell membrane freely as it enters/exits the cell
c. Nuclear pores- pathways for the exchange of materials between
the nucleus and the cytoplasm Ex. Cystic fibrosis
b. Carrier Protein- selectively interacts with a specific molecule/ion Golgi Apparatus- named after Camillo Golgi; modifying, sorting and
so that it can cross the cell membrane to enter/exit the cell; packaging macromolecules for secretion or for delivery to other organelles
transports sodium ions and potassium ions across the cell
membrane; requires ATP energy Lysosomes- produced by the Golgi apparatus; digestive sacs; destruction or
repair of defective parts of the cell
c. Cell Recognition Protein- a glycoprotein that identifies the cell
Peroxisomes- contain oxidative enzymes; convert fatty acids into sugar in
Ex. MHC (major histocompability complex) seed germination

d. Receptor Protein- a protein that is shaped in such a way that a Vacuoles- large membranos storage sacs in cells (smaller ones are called
specific molecule can bind to it vesicles); storage of water or food; excretion of waste materials; intracellular
digestion; space filling, cell turgor
Ex. Pygmies are short not because they do not produce growth
hormones but because their cell membrane growth hormone Cell Cycle Stages
receptions are faulty and cannot interact with growth hormone.
Mitosis- division of nucleus; 2 diploid cells in one division (46 chromosomes)
e. Enzymatic Protein- a protein that catalyzes a specific reaction
Prophase- no pairing of chromosomes; nuclei and nuclear membrane disappear;
Ex. Adenylate cyclase that is involved in metabolism spindle fibers are formed; homologous chromosomes (synapsis)

mRNA copies code of DNA nucleus cytoplasm tRNA translates message Metaphase- diploid number of dyads; alignment; tetrads at equator
ribosomesamino acids protein
Anaphase- sister chromatids separate; migration
Cytomembrane System- network of pathways through which materials flow to the
Telophase- 2 diploid daughter cells; reverse prophase
different parts of the cytoplasm; passage for the entry and exit of certain substances
in the cell Interphase- stage between two successive divisions
Endoplasmic Reticulum- transport of lipids and membrane proteins; has two Gap 1 or G1 phase- cells increase in size; RNA synthesis
Synthesis or S phase- DNA synthesis; chromosomes are replicated (sister
a. Rough ER- protein synthesis chromatids)
b. Smooth ER- fat metabolism; forms vesicles for transporting Gap 2 or G2 phase- continuation of RNA synthesis and protein synthesis; increase in
large molecules to other cell parts size
Meiosis- 2 haploid daughter cells (23 chromosomes); for male gonads to produce sperm cell Spore Formation- spores (haploid) germinate into new individuals without
Meiosis I
Ex. Bread molds, mosses and ferns
Prophase- pairing of homologous chromosomes; formation of tetrads
Fission- single-celled organisms
Metaphase- tetrads at equator
Ex. Bacteria, some protozoans
Anaphase- homologous chromosomes separate
Fragmentation- parent body breaks up into several pieces that develop into
Telophase- haploid daughter cells new organisms
Meiosis II Ex. Sponges, flatworms
Prophase- dyads are present (one dyad per homologous chromosome) Regeneration- growth of lost body part of an animal
Metaphase- dyads at equator (haploid number) Ex. Sea star
Anaphase- sister chromatids separate (chromosomes) Skeletal System
Telophase- four daughter cells Skeleton
Cell Reproduction Functions of Bones:
Reproduction- ability of an organism to increase in number and produce their own kind; a) Support
process in which living things can perpetuate their species
b) Protection
Sexual Reproduction- involves union of gametes
c) Calcium storage
Asexual Reproduction- offspring is genetically identical with its single parent; results
in the formation of clones d) Blood cell production

Budding- buds or outgrowths from the parent cell/body grow into new e) Serves as body framework
Shapes of Bones:
Ex. Yeast, Hydra
a) Flat- red marrow; scapula, skull, ribs
b) Irregular- vertebra 2. Slightly/Partially movable- ex. Cervical vertebrae

c) Long- yellow marrow (fatty substances) 3. Movable

d) Short a) Ball and socket- one bone is cup-like and the other is rounded; rotation

The human body has 260 bones: Ex. Shoulder, hips

Axial Skeleton b) Hinge- forward and backward movement

Skull- protects the brain Ex. Elbow, knee

Backbone- or vertebral column; protects the spinal cord; gently c) Pivot- rotate 180
curved like a double S; consists of:
Ex. Atlas, axis
24 movable vertebrae7 cervical vertebrae (neck region),
12 thoracic vertebrae (chest region), 5 lumbar vertebrae d) Gliding- bones slide with one another

9 fused vertebraesacrum (5 vertebrae fused into one), Ex. Wrist and ankle
coccyx (4 vertebrae fused into one) Bone Tissue
Rib cage- protects the heart and lungs 1. Periosteum- tough membrane covering of a bone
Appendicular Skeleton 2. Epiphysis- spongy end part of long bones
Bones of the forelimb 3. Compact bones- hard outer part of long bones; gives bone resiliency
Shoulder girdle Calcium phosphate- gives hardness and strength of bones
Bones of the hind limbs 4. Diaphysis- the shaft
Pelvic girdle 5. Spongy bone- or cancellous; softer part of the bone containing small spaces;
Joints makes up most of the volume of bone; contains bone marrow

1. Immovable- no movement, ex. suture 2 Types of Bone Marrow:

a) Red bone marrow- fat and blood-producing cells; 1. Intramembranous Ossification- mainly occurs during formation of the flat bones
produce RBC of the skull; bone is formed from mesenchyma tissue

All the bone marrow during infancy is red. Steps:

b) Yellow bone marrow- fatty tissue; produce WBC a) Development of ossification center

6. Joint- point where two bones meet b) Calcification

7. Haversian system- circular-patterned units in the cross-section of the bone c) Formation of trabeculae

8. Lamellae- rings within the Haverian system d) Development of periosteum

9. Lacunae- small cavities between adjacent lamellae 2. Endochondral Ossification- occurs in long bones, e.g., limbs; bone formed from
10. Canaliculi- small branching canals interconnected to lacunae
11. Haversian canal- interconnecting channels containing nerves and blood vessels
that supply the body cells a) Development of cartilage model

12. Synovial fluid- lubricant secreted by a connective tissue membrane surrounding a b) Growth of cartilage model
c) Development of primary ossification center
13. Bursae- sacs of fluid that cushion a joint against shock
d) Development of secondary ossification center
14. Osteocytes- mature bone cells that secrete the hard bony matrix
e) Formation of articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate
15. Osteoblasts- bone-forming cells (secrete protein matrix of bone)
Ossification- hardening of bones is mainly postnatal, beginning in the first year and
16. Osteoclasts- bone-absorbing cells (removing bony substances) ending during puberty; begins at the ossification center; dependent upon secretion of
a hormone from the thyroid glands
Bone Growth and Development
Importance of Ossification:
Bone development consists of change in number of bones, growth in bone size and
change of composition. a) Because the bones of babies are soft, they can easily be deformed

Osteogenesis or Ossification- process of bone formation

b) Bones in childhood are less subject to fracture or breaks than they will be b) Myosin- thick filament; crosses bridges/heads that holds actin filament
after ossification during muscle contraction

Change in the Number of Bones: At birth the human body has about 350 bones, but 5. Sarcomere- functional unit of myofibril
by the time adulthood rolls around, some of our bones have fused together to give us
a total of 206 bones sarco- jelly-like

Muscular System myo- muscle

Types of Muscles: Digestive System- for energy production

Skeletal Smooth Cardiac Ingestion

Number of Multinucleated One One or two Two Phases of Ingestion

1. Mechanical- physical change in food
Presence of Striated Few striations or Striated
2. Chemical- enzymes (organic catalysts that speed up chemical
striations none
reaction) act on food
Cell shape Cylindrical Spindle Branching
Movement Voluntary Involuntary Involuntary
Elimination or defecation

Structures of Muscles
Teeth (32)
1. Sarcolemma- muscle cell membrane; acts as cover
Tongue- smooth muscle; contains taste buds (detects chemical)
2. Sarcoplasm- muscle cytoplasm; holds organelles
Salivary glands
3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum- muscle endoplasmic reticulum; transport unit
Mucus membrane
4. Myofibrils- muscle filaments; muscle cell contractile subunit
Nasal cavity
a) Actin- thin filaments with troponin and tropomyosin for muscle
contraction Palade
Uvula 1. Food nutrients

Esophagus 2. Respiratory gases

Epidymis 3. Cellular wastes

Dymis Organs of Circulatory System:

Peristalsis- rhythmic movement A. Heart- double pumping organ/machine; right side pumps deoxygenated blood and
left side pumps oxygenated blood
Pericardium- outer covering
Mastecation- constant grinding of food
Septum- structure that separates right side to left side
Sphincter- cardiac/esophoseal bulb at the end of the esophagus; regulates entry and exit
Layers of Heart Wall
Stomach- contains strongest acid- HCl acid; contains gastric acids
1. Epicardium- protects the barriers of the heart
Pepsin enzyme + HCl = peptide bond
2. Myocardium- muscle contraction and propulsion of blood
Three Layers:
3. Endocardium- lines the chambers of the heart where blood passes through
1. Longitudinal
Trabeculae- fiber in muscles found in endocardium
2. Circular
Visceral pericardium- a cavity filled with fluid that avoids friction due to
3. Angled/Oblique contraction

Pericarditis- disease where there is water in the heart

B. Valves
Circulatory System- process in which blood is delivered to the capillaries where exchange 1. Antrioventricular valves- between atria and ventricles
of molecules take place
a. Tricuspid- has three cups/flaps at the right side of the heart
Importance: transport of
b. Bicuspid (or mitral)- has two flaps at the left side of the heart
2. Semilunar valves 2. Antrioventricular node (AV)- signals ventricles to contract by way of a
special fiber, Purkinje fiber
a. Pulmonary semilunar valve- between right ventricle to pulmonary arteries
Purkinje fiber causes ventricles to contract.
b. Aortic semilunar valve- between left ventricle to aorta
Electrocardiogram- electrical recording device to study heartbeat by recording voltage
Cardiac Cycle (lasts .85 seconds) changes occurring during heart contraction
Time Atria Ventricle ECG- record results; has waves:
.15 seconds S D 1. P wave- excitation and contraction of atria
.30 seconds D S
2. QRS wave- ventricular excitation and contraction
.40 seconds D D
3. T wave- recovery of ventricles from contraction

a. Sinus tachycardia- fast heartbeat due to fast pacemaker

S- Systole
b. Ventricular fibrillation- irregular heartbeat due to irregular stimulation of
D- Diastole ventricles

Heart contracts by 70x/min. or heartbeat lasts about .85seconds. c. Mitral stenosis- mitral/bicuspid obstructed

Heart Sounds:

1. Lub- vibration of heart when atrioventricular valves closes The very muscular wall with many elastic fibers allows the
artery to withstand and maintain a high blood pressure.
2. Dupp- vibrations of the heart when the semilunar valves closes

Cardiac Conduction System

Pocket valves close to prevent back flow of blood.
Nodal Tissue- has muscular and nervous characteristics which causes heart to beat This is essential to get blood back to heart.
independently of any nervous stimulation
As capillary is one cell thick, it is very leaky as
1. Sinoatrial node (SA)- initiates heartbeat and automatically send out an substances like oxygen and glucose can pass out and
excitation impulse every .85 seconds to cause atria to contract. It is called carbon dioxide move in.
as the pacemaker because it keeps heartbeat regular.
7. Alveoli- air packets/sacs (300M, with total cross-sectional area of 50-70m 2) where
gasses are exchanged in its one layered squamous epithelium surrounded by blood
capillaries and lipoprotein lining that lowers lung surface tension that prevents them
from closing. Premature babies die when lipoprotein is not present in their lungs
Respiratory System- complete process of getting oxygen to body cells for cellular
(Infant respiratory distress syndrome).
respiration and the reverse process of ridding the body of carbon dioxide by the cells
Lungs- coneshaped organ lying on both sides of the heart within thoracic cavity (ribs,
Air passages:
sternum and muscles) above the dome-shaped horizontal muscle, diaphragm and are
1. Nose- has two nasal cavities separated by a septum; ciliated cells at the upper portion enclosed by the pleural membranes (outer and inner). Normally, intrapleural pressure is
as odor receptors lacrimal (tear gland) duct and communicates with cranial sinuses less than atmospheric pressure that causes air to enter.
during cold or allergic reactions causing inflammation, mucus accumulation and
Lung capacities:
sinus headache. As air entered, it is filtered by cilia, warmed by heat given off by
blood vessels lying close to surface lining of air passages, and moistened by wet 1. Tidal volume- amount of air moved in and out of the lungs (500 ml) that can be
surface of the passages. Its air moves out, if loses moisture. increased by deep breathing
Nasopharynx- passage of air from nose through throat 2. Vital capacity- total volume of air that can be moved in and out during a single
breath. It is the total sum of tidal, inspiratory reserve and expiratory reserve volumes
2. Pharynx- connection point of air and food passages found at the back of the throat
3. Inspiratory reserve volume- increased inspiration (3,100 ml) by contrasting the
Glottis- a slitlike opening between the vocal cords (elastic ligaments) at the top of the
thoracic muscles.
larynx and is covered by a flap of tissue (epiglottis) to prevent the passing of food
4. Expiratory reserve volume- increased expiration by 1, 400 ml of air
3. Larynx (voice box)- sound is produced. Pitch of voice depends upon the length,
thickness, degree of elasticity of vocal cords and the tension at which they are held. 5. Residual volume- remain air in the lungs that is no longer useful for gas exchange
Voice growth of larynx is much rapid and accentuated in males producing Adams purposes
apple. Their voice breaks due to inability to control vocal cords.
Factors Affecting Lung Capacity:
4. Trachea (wind pipe)- has C-shaped cartilaginous rings and ciliated mucus membrane.
If an object blocked this passage, a tube is inserted in an incision on the throat as an 1. Activity
artificial air intake and exhaust duct through the operation called tracheoctomy
2. Health condition
5. Bronchi- two divided tubes from the trachea that are branched into bronchioles
3. Higher altitude
6. Bronchioles- smaller brances with thinner walls and terminates in alveoli
4. Gender
Dead space- air passages that are filled with air that never reaches the lungs. Breathing a. The expanded lungs with stretched alveoli stimulate special receptors in the
through a tube increases the amount of dead space beyond maximal inhaling capacity that alveolar walls to initiate nerve impulses to travel to the breathing center.
can cause death to the individual because the air inhaled never reaches the alveoli.
b. Medulla oblongata inhibits and stops sending signals to the diaphragm and
Components of Respiration: the rib cage causing it to relax and resume its shape. The abdominal organs
press up against the diaphragm, rib cage moves down and inward and the
A. Breathing- entrance and exit of air in and out of lungs lungs recoil as air is pushed out.
Importance: To supply the body with oxygen and the metabolic end product carbon B. External Respiration- exchange of gases between air in the alveoli and blood in the
dioxide must also be eliminated by breathing process pulmonary capillaries through diffusion determined by the pressure or tension
gradient carried as bicarbonate ion (HCO 3).
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2
H+ + HCO-3 H2CO3 H2O + CO2 (CO2 leaves the body)
Normal breathing is 14-20x/min. Person at rest utilizes 250ml of O2/min. and
500ml/min. with mild exercise. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase present in the RBC speeds up the reaction. The
respiratory pigment hemoglobin gives up the H ions it has been carrying causing
Mechanism of Breathing:
HHb to be Hb (hemoglobin). Hemoglobin more readily takes up O2 and becomes
When breathing, there is a continuous column of air from the pharynx to the alveoli oxyhemoglobin (HbO2).
of the lungs because air passages are open.
Hb + O2 HbO2 (O2 is entering the body)
1. Inspiration- active phase of breathing; induced by:
Hemoglobin takes up O2 more readily at the warmer and more acidic pH f the tissues.
a. Concentrated CO2 and H ions in the blood causing the respiratory center in
the medulla oblongata to be stimulated, and C. Internal Respiration- exchange of gases between blood in systematic capillaries and
tissue fluid by reducing hemoglobin from oxyhemoglobin as oxygen diffuses out of
b. Chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies (in carotid arteries) and aortic bodies blood into the tissues.
(in aorta) to respond to H+ ion concentration, CO2 and O2 in blood
HbO2 Hb + O2
c. Nerve impulses causes diaphragm to contract and lowers, rib cage muscles
contract and move upward and outward increasing the size of the thoracic Diffusion of O2 out of blood into the tissues occur because the O 2 concentration of
cavity and lungs to expand. As the lungs expand, air pressure within enlarged tissue fluid is low (the cells continuously use up O2 in the cellular respiration).
alveoli lowers. Diffusion of CO2 into blood from the tissues occur because CO2 concentration of
tissue fluid is high. CO2 enters the blood taken by haemoglobin forming
2. Expiration- happens when:
carbominohemoglobin (HbCO2) which disassociates to H+ ions and bicarbonate ions 1. Medulla sends stimulatory 1. Stretch receptors in lungs send
(HCO3-). messages to the diaphragm and inhibitory messages in medulla.
rib muscles.
Carbonic Anhydrase speeds up the reaction.
2. Diaphragm contracts and 2. Diaphragm relaxes and resumes
CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3- flattens. a dome position.
The globin portion Hb combines with excess H+ ions produced by the reaction, and 3. Rib cage moves up and out. 3. Rib cage moves down and in.
Hb becomes HHb making blood pH fairly constant. The bicarbonate ion diffuses out
of the RBC cells and is carried in the plasma. 4. Lungs expand. 4. Lungs recoil.

D. Cellular respiration- production of ATP in cells 5. Negative pressure builds in lungs 5. Positive pressure builds up in
(air does not force the lungs open lungs.
External Respiration Process: alveoli to blood because lungs are pulled open as
air comes in).
1. H+ HCO3- H2CO3 H2O + CO2
6. Air is pulled in.
2. HbCO2 Hb + CO2

3. Hb + O2 HbO2
Components of Air Inspired Air (% volume) Expired Air (% volume)
Internal Respiration Process: blood to cells/tissues
Nitrogen 79.00 79.60
1. HbO2 Hb + O2 Oxygen 20.96 16.02
2. Hb + CO2 HbCO2 Carbon Dioxide 0.04 4.38

3. HbCO2 H2CO3 H+ + HCO-3 Five Types of Circulation:

Mechanism of Breathing 1. Pulmonary- lungs

Inspiration Expiration 2. Coronary- heart

3. Ephatic portal- pancreas, stomach, digestive system

4. Renal- kidney
5. Systemic- intarbody 1. Ammonia (NH3) amino acid metabolism excreted by kidneys
2. Urea ammonia metabolism excreted by kidneys and skin
Respiratory Infections and Diseases
3. Uric acid nucleotide metabolism created by the kidneys. Excess uric acid
1. Common cold- viral infection; scratchy throat, watery mucus discharge from nasal precipitates out of the plasma. Gout is a painful ailment caused by crystals of uric
cavities acid collected in joints.

2. Influenza (flu)- viral infection; fever, aches and pains in the joints 4. Creatinine creatine phosphate metabolism excreted by the kidneys

5. Bile pigment haemoglobin metabolism excreted by the liver. Jaundice is a skin

3. Bronchitis- viral infection from nasal cavities to sinuses (sinusitis), to middle ears
discolour condition caused by bile pills from a blocked bile duct
(otitis media), to the larynx (laryngitis), and bronchi. Acute bronchitis is caused by
secondary bacterial infection with heavy mucus discharge and coughing and responds 6. Carbon dioxide bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) excreted by the kidneys as end product
to antibiotic therapy. Chronic bronchitis is caused by constant irritation of bronchi of cellular respiration
lining resulting to loss of cilia and normal cleansing action; caused by smoking
7. Ions important to the pH, the osmotic pressure, and the electrolyte balance of blood.
The balance of potassium and sodium ions is important to nerve conduction, calcium
4. Strep throat- bacterium streptococcus pyogenes infection; difficulty swallowing and
ions to muscle contraction, iron ions in haemoglobin metabolism excreted by the
fever; can lead to rheumatic fever if not treated with antibiotics large intestine, magnesium ions help many enzymes to function properly.
5. Pneumonia- bacterial/viral infection; lobes of lungs are filled with mucus and pus 8. Water excreted by the kidneys
6. Tuberculosis- tubercle bacillus infection Organs of excretion:
7. Emphysema- caused by smoking that leads to the destruction of lung tissue with
1. Kidneys primary excretory organ and consistently rid the body of urea. It has
ballooning/inflation of the lungs due to the trapped air. The bronchioles collapse regulatory functions:
causing cutting off of renewed oxygen supply in alveoli. The trapped air makes 1. For the adjustment of blood pH and ion balance (excretion of hydrogen ions
alveolar walls to rupture, thus exchange of gases are reduced and insufficient amount (H+) and ammonia (NH3) and reabsorption of sodium ions and bicarbonate
of oxygen reaches the heart and the brain. ions (HCO3-) if blood is acidic. If blood is basic only, few hydrogen ions are
excreted and few sodium ions and bicarbonate ions are reabsorbed); thus
8. Pulmonary fibrosis- caused by inhalation of silica (sand), coal dust and asbestos making ions balance
leading to building of fibrous connective tissues in the lungs that enables breathing
2. Maintains blood volume under the control of hormones ADH (increases the
capacity to be seriously impaired.
permeability of collecting duct to absorb water)
Excretory System- involves the ridding off of unwanted substances such as the end product
of metabolism Diuresis increased amount of urine, less ADH secretion

Antidiuresis decreased amount of urine, more ADH secretion

And aldosterone (maintains Na+ and K+; increases Na+ in blood causes water to Distal convoluted tubule cells are cuboidal, with mitochondria but no brush border
reabsorb that leads to increase blood volume and blood pressure) at the cortex

2. Skin has sweat glands to excrete sweat (water, salt and urea) to keep body temperature Collecting duct a tube that receives urine from several distal convoluted tubule are
within normal range located at the medulla

3. Liver excretes bile pigments 2. Ureters muscular tubes that convey urine from the kidneys toward the bladder by
peristaltic action
4. Lungs excrete carbon dioxide and water (moisture by blowing onto cool mirror)
3. Urinary bladder hollow, muscular organ that holds 600 mL of urine. In males, it lies
5. Large Intestine excrete salts, iron and calcium directly into its cavity by the epithelial ventral to the rectum, the seminal vesicles, and the vas deferens. In females, it is ventral to
cells lining it the uterus and the upper vagina

Urinary System (Path): 4. Urethra extends from urinary bladder to the external opening. In males, its length
averages 15 cm when penis is relaxed. In females, it is only about 2.5 cm long making
bacterial invasion possible
1. Kidneys 2 bean-shaped reddish brown organ at fist size that forms urine compound
of metabolic waste products. Its external structure features a depression where renal
blood vessels and ureters enter. Internal structure involves: Steps in Urine formation
o Cortex outer granulated layer which dips down in between
1. Pressure filtration blood pressure forces small molecules (water, glucose, amino
o Medulla radially striated or lined layer that contains conical masses of acids, salts, urea, uric acid, creatine) form the glomerulus into Bowmans capsule
tissue called renal pyramids. At the tip of each pyramid there is a tube that 2. Selective absorption diffusion and active transport return molecules (water,
joins with others to form the renal pelvis. glucose, amino acids, salts) to blood at proximal convoluted tubule

o Renal pelvis inner space/cavity that is continuous with the ureter 3. Tubular excretion active transport moves molecules (uric acid, creatine, hydrogen
ions, ammonia, penicillin) from blood into the distal convoluted tubule
Nephron known as the renal/kidney tubules. It is made up of:
4. Reabsorption of water along the length of the nephron and notably at loop of Henle
and collecting duct, water returns by osmosis following active reabsoprtion of salt
Bowmans capsule double-walled cup of specialized cells that allow easy passage
of molecules located at the cortex that contains a capillary tuft called glomerulus. 5. Excretion urine formation rids body of metabolic wastes (water, salts, urea, uric
Proximal convoluted tubule highly coiled region of nephrons cortex with cells that acid, ammonia, creatinine)
are cuboidal with many mitochondria and inner brush border
Problems with kidney functions:
Loop of Henle cells are flat and tubes become narrow making a U-turn located at
the medulla
1. Urethritis infection of the urethra
2. Cystisis infection of the urinary bladder
3. Pyelonephritis infection of the kidney 2. Integration- CNS integrates and formulates appropriate reaction from the
sensory input
4. Glomerulus damage glomerulus blockage no fluid moves into the tubules, or
glomerulus are more permeable even blood cells and albumin is present in urine 3. Motor Output- facilitates the action in the efferent nerves (muscles and
5. Uremia extensive glomerulus damage and waste substances are accumulated in glands)
Parts of the Nervous System
6. Edema fluid concentration in body tissues due to retention of water and salts
I. Central Nervous System- the bodys main control center
7. Loss of consciousness and heart failure imbalance of ionic composition in body
fluids A. Brain- control center of the nervous system; responsible for
Kidney failure replacement/remedies
Parts of the Brain:
1. Kidney transplant survival rate from a relative is 97% and 95% from a non-relative
2. Dialysis utilizing a kidney machine / CAPD (continuous ambulatory a. Forebrain- where major processing centers are found
peritoneal/abdominal dialysis) which diffuses dissolved molecules through a
semipermeable membrane. A fresh amount of dialysate is introduces directly into the a1. Cerebrum- most anterior or most dorsal region of the
abdominal cavity from a bag attached to a permanently implanted plastic tube. nervous system (memory and intelligence)
Wastes and water molecules pass into the dialysate from the surrounding organs
before the fluid is collected 4 or 8 hours later. Individuals can go about his/her a2. Thalamus- sorts out all information from the sense
normal activities during CAPD organs as well as the other parts of the brain before relaying
them to the cerebrum (sends information towards cerebrum)
3. Hemodialysis patients blood is passed through a semipermeable membranous tube
that is in contact with a balanced salt (dialysis) solution (dialysate). In a 6hr a3. Hypothalamus- controls the secretion of many hormones;
hemodialysis, 50-250g of urea are removed from a patient, which greatly exceeds the regulates blood pressure, body temperature, and responses to
urea clearance of normal kidneys. Patient needs to undergo treatment only about satisfy physiological needs; controls emotions
twice a week and cannot do any activities during the treatment.
b. Midbrain- connected to sensory nerves of eyes
Nervous System- accountable for quick reaction to external and internal stimuli
c. Hindbrain
c1. Pons and medulla oblongata
1. Sensory Input- sends signals through sensory receptors to the central nervous
system (CNS) c2. Cerebellum- balance, coordination of movement
c3. Brain stem 10. Vagus (breathing, circulation and digestion)

B. Spinal Cord- pathway towards the brain 11. Spinal Accessory (movement of neck and back muscles)

II. Peripheral Nervous System or PNS- nerves that project from CNS 12. Hypoglossal (tongue movement)

1. Somatic Nervous System- sensory and motor neurons Drugs and the Nervous System:

2. Automatic Nervous System- motor neurons only; involves 1. Stimulants- drugs that exert their action through excitation of the CNS; used to
the: enhance mental alertness and reduce drowsiness and fatigue

b1. Sympathetic Nervous System- controls the internal a. Coffee- If the dosage of caffeine is increased above 200g
organs during stressful situations and increased activity (about two cups of coffee), it does not increase mental
performance but may increase nervousness, irritability,
b2. Parasympathetic Nervous System- controls the internal tremors and headaches
organs during routine conditions
b. Amphetamines- lose weight; increase alertness; elevate
The Twelve Cranial Nerves: mood, reduce feelings of fatigue and hunger, facilitate
powers of concentration , and increase the desire and
1. Olfactory (smell)
capacity to carry out work; induce exhilarating feelings of
2. Optic (vision) power, strength, energy, self-assertion, focus and enhanced
motivation; need to sleep or eat is diminished
3. Oculomotor (eye movements)
c. Cocaine- in nucleus accumbens; local anesthetics
4. Trochlear (eye movements)
2. Sedative- induce sleep
5. Trigeminal (facial sensation and jaw movements)
a. Barbiturates- depress the reticular formation (thus promoting
6. Abducent (eye movements) sleep) and in high doses =, the medulla oblongata (thus
stopping breathing)
7. Facial (facial expression and taste)
3. Opiates- effective painkillers; control coughing, breathing and intestinal motility;
8. Acoustic or Vestibulocochlear (hearing and balance)
exceedingly addictive, quickly producing tolerance and dependence
9. Glossopharyngeal (taste and throat sensation)
a. Morphine- used as painkiller
b. Codeine- used as painkiller and in cough medicine 1. Hypothalamus - regulates internal environment (water level, temperature, blood pressure,
c. Heroin- more effective as a painkiller than morphine and codeine; so
highly addictive that its use is illegal 2. Pituitary Gland- connected to hypothalamus

4. Marijuana- drowsiness, dulling of pain, perception distorting effects of the a) Posterior

Antidiuretic Hormone/Vasopressin (ADH)- promotes H2O reabsorption in
Endocrine System- utilizes chemical messengers that bring about the coordination of body the kidney
Oxytocin- uterine contraction; artificially induce labor; produce milk in
Hormones- chemical messengers that influence the metabolism of the receiving cell mammary glands

Categories of Chemical messengers: b) Anterior - "master gland"; controls secretion of other endocrine glands; produces
hypothalamic-releasing & inhibiting hormones
1. Pheromones - act a distance between individuals
Growth Hormone/Somatotropin (GH)- cell division, protein synthesis, bone
2. Traditional Endocrine Hormones & Secretions of Neurosecretory cells - act a distance growth
within the individual.
Lactogenic Hormone/Prolactin (LTH)- mammary gland development; milk
3. Prostaglandin & Neurotransmitter substances - local messengers production

Types of Hormones Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

1. Peptide/Polypeptide/Protein/Amino acid hormones- coded by genes & synthesized at the Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)- stimulates thyroid gland
ribosomes; activates exciting enzyme in the cell (combines with receptors, produces cAMP,
activates a certain cell and so on); acts on the target cell with a lesser period of effect Adrenocottinocotropic Hormone (ACTH)- stimulates adrenal (cortisol)

2. Steroid Hormones- produced by adrenal cortex, testes, ovaries (combines with receptors, Gonodotropic Hormones- stimulates the gonads
enters the nucleus, binds with chromatin, activates a particular gene and synthesis of certain
enzymes), ex. Anabolic/Synthetic Steroids (1930); prevents muscle atrophy to burn victims Lutinizing Hormone
and surgery patients; prolonged use leads to stunted growth, high blood cholesterol, liver Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
cancer and mood swings.
3. Thyroid Gland - iodine is actively transported
Endocrine Glands and Hormones
Thyroxin- increases metabolic rate 7. Gonads - determines sexual characteristic

Calcitonin- regulates the calcium level in the blood and opposes the action a) Testes - male
of the parathyroid hormone.
Androgen (Testosterone)- develops and maintains male sex characteristics
4. Parathyroid Gland
b) Ovaries - female
Parathyroid Hormone/Parathormone (PTH)-increases calcium level and
decreases phosphate level in blood Estrogen- development and maintains female sex characteristics

5. Adrenal gland Progesterone- stimulate growth of uterine lining

a) Cortex 8. Thymus - active and largest during childhood.

Glucocorticoids/Cortisol- Amino acid to glucose; raises blood glucose level Thymosin- aids in the differentiation of T cells and stimulates immune cells

Mineralocorticoids/Aldosterone- regulates level of sodium & potassium 9. Pineal Gland - receives nerve impulses via eyes (optic tract)

Sex hormones Melatonin- Circadian rhythms in sleep cycle

b) Medulla 10. Other glands

Norepinephrine- responses associated with fight or flight response; blood a) Heart

glucose level and metabolic rate increases.
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone
Epinephrine- responses associated with fight or flight response; blood
glucose level and metabolic rate increases. b) Stomach

6. Pancreas - Islets of Langerhans produces & secretes hormones Gastric juice (HCL & Pepsin )

Insulin- secreted when there is a high level of glucose in the blood c) Small Intestine

Glucagon- stimulates breakdown of stored nutrients; causes blood level to Intestinal Juices
Diseases Related to the Endocrine System
Diabetes Insipidus - inability to produce ADH b) Positive Feedback - last step stimulates the first step

Giantism - associated with GH (too much) Types of Diabetes

Dwarfism - associated with GH (too little) 1. Type I (Juvenile-Onset Diabetes)- not producing insulin

Acromegaly - associated with GH (abnormal growths in the body) 2. Type II (Maturity-Onset Diabetes)- produces insulin but cells don't respond due to faulty
receptor or lack of glucose
Hypothyroidism - low level of thyroxin in the blood
Renin - enzyme from the kidney that converts:
Hyperthyroidism - high level of thyroxin in blood
a) Angiostensinogen to Angiostenin I
Simple Goiter - lack of thyroxin
b) Angiostenin I to Angiostenin II
Cretinism - extreme hypothyroidism during infancy/childhood
- releases Aldosterone to raise Blood Pressure by constricting arteries and absorbing sodium
Myxedema - lethargy, weight gain and H2O

Exopathalmic goiter - too much thyroxin Reproductive System

Tetany - drop in calcium level Importance

1. Production and development of egg cell for possible fertilization

Addison's disease - inability to maintain glucose level in the blood
2. Preparation of the uterus for implantation of embryo
Cushing's Syndrome - high-level hormone secretion
3. Production of progesterone and estrogen
Diabetes Melitus - high level of cortisol, deficiency of insulin
Acidosis - buildup of acids in blood
1. Ovary- main organ; there are two ovaries; contains hundreds of thousands of
Feedback Mechanism- regulates the activities of most endocrine glands in the secretion of follicles, as a girl; puberty is when the first meiotic division occurs; coitus- second
hormones meiotic division

a) Negative Feedback Homeostasis; last step is against the first step

2. Oviduct- of fallopian tube (2); has finger-like projections at the end (fimbrae) that
sweeps the egg cell towards the fallopian tube; sight for fertilization; where egg cell
and sperm cell meets

*Ectopic Pregnancy-fertilization occurs outside the fallopian tube; development of

fetus on abdomen; cuts off nourishment of fetus Primary Follicles Secondary Follicles Graafian Follicles Corpus Luteum

Primary Oocytes Secondary Oocytes -contains mature -produces progesterone

*2 egg cell + 2 sperm cell= fraternal twins
2,000,000 before puberty, mature egg cell; that thickens lining of
3. Uterus- where the embryo develops; most glandular and most vascular organ due to
number of blood vessels; mostly made up of tissue and muscles 300,000- 400,000 will burst when it uterus; disintegrates if

Menstruation- uterine lining (endometrium) thickens with estrogen and progesterone; can no longer hold no fertilization occurs;

without fertilization, it sheds mature egg cell 3-6 months in mother

4. Cervix- vaginal canal; elastic; opens so that the baby may go out Meiosis I Meiosis II

5. Vagina- birth canal; receives the sperm cell; site of ovulation; exit of menstrual flow

6. Vulva- external structure of female 10. Mons Pubis- fatty prominence underlying the pubic hair

7. Labia Majora 11. Clitoris- has erectile tissue homologous to penis and is capped by a pea-shaped glans;
Folds with pubic hair; has sensitive receptors (sexually sensitive organ)
8. Labia Minora protection from dirt
Regulations of Hormone Levels
9. Vestibule- cleft between labia minora which contains the urethra and the vaginal
opening 1. Ovarian Cycle

*Hymen- ring of tissue that partially closes the vagina; indication of virginity; can be a. Follicular Phase (1-13 days)- FSH promotes the development of the
destroyed during childhood follicle and it secretes estrogen

b. Ovulation (day 14)- mature egg cell is released followed by

c. Lutheal Phase (15-28 days)- LH promotes the development of the "Ontogeny Recapitulate Phylogeny"- Latin saying which means the development of the
corpus luteum as it secretes progesterone until it regenerates and embryo retraces the evolution of its species.
menstruation occurs again
2. Uterine Cycle- FSH starts to increase production for maturation of follicle Gill Clefts are developed pharyngeal pouches in advanced vertebration.
1st pair- auditory cavity 3rd pair- thymus
a. Menstruation (1-5 days)- uterine lining disintegrates and blood 2nd pair- tonsils 4th pair- parathyroids
vessel rupture
Developmental Stages
b. Proliferative phase (6-13 days)- increased production of estrogen to
thicken the endometrium and become vascular and glandular A. Embryonic Development

c. Ovulation (day 14) 1st Week- early developmental stages

d. Secretory phase (15-28 days)- increased production of progesterone 1. Cleavage- cell division w/o growth (from fallopian tubes to uterus)
by corpus luteum for endometrium thickness and uterine glands to
2. Morula- solid ball of cells (embryo reacts at 3rd day)
mature producing a thick mucoid secretion. If pregnancy does not
occur, corpus luteum disintegrates 3. Blastula- (5th day) cavity is formed called blastocysts having 2 main parts: tropoblasts
(outer and becomes the chorion) and inner mass (becomes the fetus)
*Within five days, fertilized egg must be in fallopian tube.
4. Gastrula- (2nd week) implantation of the embryo at the uterine wall due to the enzyme
* Females have four hormones: estrogen, progesterone, LH and FSH
secreted by the tropoblast that digest away some of the tissue and blood vessels of the uterine
*Androphose- diminish of progesterone wall & secretion of HCG (Human Chorion Gonadotropin) as basis for pregnancy test that
appears in the urine & maintains the corpus luteum in secreting estrogen and progesterone
that lasts for 3 mos.
Fetal Stages At 5 mos. the placenta begins to secrete estrogen and progesterone in greater amount as
corpus luteum degenerates, formation of the 3 embryonic layers- ectoderm, mesoderm and
Development- concerns with the events and processes that occurs as a single cell becomes a endoderm
complex organism.
5. Neurula
Processes of Development - (3rd Week) appearance of the nerve cord and heart; development of the Nervous System
- (4th-5th weeks) formation of the 4th extraembryonic embrane (allantois) that later becomes
1. Growth- cell divides gets larger and divides again the umbilical cord connecting the developing embryo to the placenta; human features appear
2. Differentiation- when cells become specialized in structure & function (head, arms, legs)
3. Morphogenesis- when body parts are shaped and patterned into a certain form - (6th-8th weeks) brain development; neck formation; NS development for reflex actions; all
organ systems are established; placenta is mature and fully functioning; 1 1/2 inches long and Gerontology- study of aging
weighs like an aspirin tablet
Causes of Aging:
B. Fetal Development
1. Genetic in Origin: life span in species is specific (humans, 110 years). Children of
2-4 mos. long-lived parents tend to live longer than those of short-lived parents. The number
- large head, flat nose, eyes apart and ears distinctively present, sex are determined; heart beat of times a cell divides is specific (50x). Mutation can lead to the production of non-
is felt; skeleton ossified; 6 1/2 inches long and 1/2 lb functional protein thus contributes to the aging process.
2. Whole Body Process: decline in hormonal system as the cell lack receptors that
5-7 mos. enable them to respond.
- movement, eye lids open, pink-colored skin, have lanugs covered with greasy cheese like
substance (vernix caseosa) for protection from amniotic fluid, 12 inches long and 3 lbs. Example: Reproductive System and Immune System.
8-9 mos. Reason: Protein collagen become increasingly cross-linked as people age causing
- fetus rotates so head is towards the cervix- 21 inches long and 7lbs stiffening and loss of elasticity of organs. Researchers now have found that glucose
has the tendency to attach to any type of protein that is the first step in cross-linking
Gestation- period of pregnancy, normally lasts for 38 weeks (266 days) process and ends with the formation of Advanced Glycosylation End products
(AGEs). This explains why cataracts develop, artherosclerosis, diabetes, etc.
Parturition- labor and expulsion of the fetus; contraction of the uterine wall every 15-20
minutes for every 20-30 seconds or 15 minutes for 40 seconds or more.
Solution: Researchers presently are experimenting a drug aminoguanidine which can
prevent development of AGEs.
Stages of Labor:

1.) Dilation of the cervix- expulsion of the mucus plug from the cervical canal which prevents 3. Extrinsic Factors: due to poor health habits; diet and exercise, cigarette smoking,
bacteria and sperm from entering the uterus during pregnancy alcohol, inadequate calcium intake

2.) Expulsion of the baby- epinotony is done or incision to enlarge the vaginal opening; Menopause- sex hormones declined/fall in amount; uterus and cervix reduced in size;
stitched later then healed walls of oviducts and vagina become thin; external genitals become less pronounced

3.) Expulsion of afterbirth- placenta is expelled after 15 minutes of delivery; (uterus) uterine Andropause- in males, androgen falls gradually at 50-90 years but sperm production
muscles contract and uterus shrinks continues

Human Development After Birth *Females have longer lives than males because estrogen offers protection against
circulatory disorders like heart disease and stroke in males at 40s but females only after
Infancy Childhood Adulthood Aging menopause.
Birth Defect Detections 1. Cri-du-chat (deletion 5)-cry of the cat; intellectual disability and delayed
development, destructive facial features, small head size (microcephaly), low
1. Amniocentesis- fetus is tested by getting amniotic fluid in a syringe centrifuge birth weight, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), in infancy, most common in female
cell culture for biochem studies and chromosome analysis (1:20,000-50,000)
2. Chorionic Villi Sampling- embryo is tested by getting cells from chorionic villi
(placenta) using a suction tube and ultrasound scanner 2. Patau Syndrome (trisomy 13)- disrupts normal development and can result to
3. Laparoscopy- obtaining eggs for screening for IVF usinf laparoscope (telescope) and heart and kidney defects, motor and mental retardation, extra digits,
aspirator for biochem studies and chromosome analysis microcephaly, low-set ears, failure of forebrain to divide properly, eye defects,
cleft palate, spinal defects, abnormal genitalia

3. Edwards Syndrome (trisomy 18)- growth deficiency, abnormal skull shape and
Molecular Genetics facial features, clenched hands, Rocker bottom feet and cardio and renal
Mendelian Genetics
4. Philadelphian Sydrome (translocation 9 & 22)- chromosomal abnormality
Mutations associated with chronic mycelogenous leukemia (CML leukemia and unregulated
growth of predominantly myeloid cells in the bone marrow and accumulation of
Types of Mutations:
these cells in the blood
b. Point Mutation- change in very small segment of DNA (single
5. Down Syndrome (trisomy 21)- has mental retardation and other conditions, low
muscle tone which makes difficulty in gross motor and fine motor skills along
c. Gene Mutation- change in chemical nature of DNA with articulating speech

d. Chromosomal Mutation- change in the structure/number of chromosome B. Sex Aberration

Cell Type Mutation: 1. Turner Syndrome (XO)- monosomy 45X, short stature, underdevelop sexual
features, mental retardation
13. Somatic Cell Mutation- produces a mutant phenotype in only a part of the
organism; not a heritable trait 2. Klinefelters Syndrome (XXY)- 47XY, tall male with normal stature but small
testes, sterile, trisomy 23
14. Germ Cell Mutation- producing a heritable change
3. Metafemale (XXX)- trisomy 23, 47X, super female with short stature, mental
A. Chromosomal Aberrations retardation and underdevelop reproductive structures; sterile

Forms of Chromosomal Aberration:

1. Duplication Codominance- alleles that lack dominant and recessive relationships and are both
observed phenotypically; the phenotypic effect of each allele is observable in the
2. Deletion heterozygous condition
3. Inversion Sex-Related Inheritance
4. Translocation- non-homologous chromosomes Sex-linked traits- genes located on the x chromosome only (x-linked genes);
recessive trait, ex. colorblindness, hemophilia
Gene Disorder Detection:
Sex-influenced traits- trait that is dominant in one sex and recessive in the other, ex.
1. Amniocentesis- involves the insertion of a needle through the abdominal wall and
uterus of mother and into the amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus
Sex-limited traits- trait that develops only in the presence of sex chromosomes, ex.
2. Ultrasomography- involves the use of high-frequency sound waves to produce the
Plumages, skin color of animals
image of a fetus on a monitor
DNA Technology
3. Fetoscopy- an instrument, endoscope, is used to view fetus inside the uterus
Evidences of Evolution

Evolution- the process of change by which new species develop from pre-existing species
Non-Mendelian Patterns of Heredity
Multiple Alleles- involves more than two alleles are identified at a gene locus.
Dominant hierarchy should be defined: 1. Convergent evolution- there is an increase in similarities among species
derived from different ancestors and resulting from similar adaptations to
Dominant: capital letter
similar environments
Recessive: lowercase letter
2. Divergent evolution- there is an increase in the differences among
Alleles between two extremes: lowercase letter with suitable superscript descendants of a single ancestral species as time passes

Polygenes- several genes are involved in a given trait, ex. eye color, strand of hair Evidences of Evolution:
e. Fossils- remains and traces of organisms that once lived; imprints of animal
Incomplete Dominance- alleles that lack dominance relationships and result in and plant parts mostly found in sedimentary rocks (strata). Age is determined
heterozygous that have an intermediate phenotype that is distinct from either by using radioactive dating. The time in which half the radioactive atoms of a
homozygous parent
certain kind in rocks or fossils will break down into atoms of another element c) Theory of Inheritance and Acquired Characteristics- all that has been
is called the half-life. acquired or changed in structure of individuals during their life is
transmitted by heredity to the next generation.
f. Comparative anatomy- similarities and differences in structures of living
things. 16. Charles Darwins Natural Selection Theory- involves

Homologous structures- parts of different organisms that are similar in Overproduction- favourable conditions allow a population to
structure but serve different functions. It shows evolutionary descent from a increase in size and pressures can limit the number that can
common ancestor. survive.

Vestigial organs- parts of many animals that serve little or no function at all. Variation- organisms differ in size, behaviour and other
Believed as remnants of organs that were once functional in an ancestral features.
Competition- due to pressures, organisms compete to
Analogous structures- parts that are similar in function but differ in internal survive.
structure. This does not suggest evolution from a common ancestor.
Survival of the fittest- best adapted organism to the
g. Comparative embryology- vertebral embryo have notochord and gill puches
environment survive.
at some time. Embryological development suggests that organisms have
descended from a common ancestor. Reproduction- survivors reproduce and pass their traits to
their offspring.
h. Comparative biochemistry- similarities in the sequences of bases in DNA
result in similarities in the proteins made. The greater the biochemical Speciation- population changes when some traits are not
similarities among different groups of organisms, the closer is the
passed on and differs enough from the original population
evolutionary relationships.
and new species arise. This is brought about by:
Types of Evolution:
a) Geographic isolation- a situation in which
15. Jean-Baptiste Lamarcks interbreeding between two populations of a species
is prevented by a physical barrier.
a) Theory of Need- production of new body part results from a need.
b) Reproductive isolation- a situation in which two
b) Theory of Use and Disuse- organs remain active and strong as long populations can no longer interbreed and produce
as they are used but disappear gradually with disuse. fertile offspring.
Adaptive radiation- a branching out of a population through variation and adaptation to
occupy many environments.

Artificial Selection- changes of organisms with mans intervention (artificial breeding).

Example: use of tissue culture and genetic engineering processes.

Evolution of Man:

Australophitecus africanus- discovered in 1934 and named by Dr. Dart in Africa

Homo habilis- 1964 by Dr. Leaky Pithecanthropus erectus- 1937 in Java Homo
neanderthalensis Homo sapiens (Cro-Magnon man) Homo sapiens (modern

Mechanism of Evolution