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Fire Services

DI ko. sara-
D. K. Sarraf
AQyaxa evaM P`abanQa
banQa inadoSak
Chairman & Managing Director
Aa^yala eND naocaurla gaOsa ka^rpaorSo ana ila.
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.


Fire safety is one of the most critical factor for safe operations in hydrocarbon industry
anywhere. With its operations spread over the length and breadth of the country, both in
onshore areas and offshore, ONGC has the daunting task of providing fire safety to its
operational Work Centres as well as other administrative establishments and residential
areas. The ONGC Fire Services faces the onerous task of providing fire protection to ONGC
Assets, personnel and operations in all these areas. It is indeed highly appreciable that our
Fire Service personnel have proved their mettle in meeting these challenges creditably.
ONGC Fire Services has highly qualified and well experienced professionals on its rolls and
has developed infrastructure and equipment comparable to the best in the industry. What is
more important in this regard is the process of obtaining the co-operation of all ONGCians
and their family members to be willing partners in this endeavour through efforts to create
awareness among them on all aspects of fire safety in different situations. Making each
ONGCian a willing partner of the Fire Services to make ONGC a fire safe workplace would
require a programme of sensitization to be undertaken enterprisewide.

The Fire Services Hand Book, is an initiative in this direction. Though it is primarily
intended to be a quick guide to the professionals of the Fire Services, the contents are
simple and uncomplicated, appealing to the ordinary reader as well and would be
instrumental in imparting basic information not only on the characteristics of fire, but also
on the strategy of mitigation, the proper use of equipment in fire fighting etc.

I have great pleasure in releasing this Hand Book on the occasion of Fire Service
Week this year. I do hope that all ONGCians would make good use of the book, which in
addition to being published in hard copy is also being published online today for the use of
all ONGCians in their daily life. I commend the efforts of the Fire Services Team which has
been instrumental in bringing out this Hand Book.

(Dinesh Kumar Sarraf)

ko. esa. jaomsaiTna
inadoSak ( maanava saMsaaQana )
inadoSak - p`BaarI byaapar ivakasa evaM jao. vaI.
K. S. Jamestin
Director - Human Resource
Director - I/c Business Development & JV
Aa^yala eND naocaurla gaOsa ka^rpaorSo ana ila.
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.

ONGC Fire Services is a critical support service in the operational activities of ONGC, Indias
highest profit making and highest dividend paying company engaged in the business of
exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons. In the hydrocarbon Industry, the risk of fire is
omnipresent at all levels of activities starting from exploration to drilling, to production, to processing &
distribution and the ONGC Fire Services is entrusted with the responsibility of protecting all the ONGC
Assets, personnel and operations from fire threats. The commitment of the ONGC Fire Services to provide
fire safety to ONGC and thereby ensure energy security of the country is supported by the highly qualified
and well experienced Fire Services personnel comprising 136 Executives and 547 staff members, whose
commitment and dedication to these causes are the cornerstones of the efficiency of the Fire Services
operations. All fire prevention and mitigation facilities located at various onshore as well as offshore
installations are equipped with sophisticated, modern and state of- the- art firefighting equipment to take
care of the fire safety requirements of ONGC Installations. Apart from fire fighting personnel, each member
of the organization also has to contribute his might in preventing a disaster like fire. While timely use and up-
gradation of technology could help in preventing fire, proper training and participation of all the concerned
in the mock drills and other exercises could further hone the capabilities of personnel to extinguish fire at its
incipient stage.

It is in this context that the Corporate Fire Services Cell is bringing out the Fire Services Handbook
on the occasion of Fire Service Week 2014. The Handbook contains basic information on fire hazards,
operational procedures of firefighting equipment, besides general fire safety guidelines, which could further
enhance the knowledge domain of the personnel involved and create a fire free working environment.

I commend the efforts of the Corp. Fire Services Cell in this direction and appeal to all the personnel
working in operational areas as well as offices to draw lessons from this handbook, so as to ensure a safe and
secure work environment. I understand that this handbook is also available on the as well, and all
employees and their family members must make good use of this knowledge repository.
esa. ena. isaMh
S. N. Singh
AiQaSaasaI inadoSak (sausaurxaa)
Executive Director (Security)
Aa^yala eND naocaurla gaOsa ka^rpaorSo ana ila.
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.


ONGC Fire Services has the onus of ensuring the fire safe operations of the company right
from the exploration stage to production and the supply stage to its customers. In view of
importance of energy security to the National economy, the need to recover the last drop of
hydrocarbons from the mother earth has been emphasized time and again and which has
become possible through the rapid advancement in the process technology in the
Hydrocarbon industry. But this has also resulted in increasing hazards and risks to all
computer networked process technologies from the inimical forces many of whom being
tech savvy can resort to manipulations of the control mechanisms through various means.
The threat and vulnerability towards fire & security has thus increased manifold. As a matter
of fact since we work in areas charged with hydrocarbons, there is a greater need for fire
safety awareness and hands on experience of the fire equipment during various
exercises/mock drills not only amongst the ONGCians and the family members but also the
contract workers, vendors, etc. Not only should there be zero tolerance to the fire hazards
but we need to update our knowledge and adopt the best practices. In this regard the effort
of Corporate Fire Services Cell to frame a Fire Services Handbook covering all necessary
fire safety measures to be adopted to safeguard our Assets and personnel from fire, SOPs for
mitigation of various threats and challenges to ensure uninterrupted operations is a laudable
step. I am confident that this Handbook would definitely help the ONGCians to hone their
knowledge on basic fire safety as well as maximizing their skills during the fire incidents. It
would also reinforce the idea that fire prevention is foremost rather than only fighting fire.

I would like to once again take the opportunity to commend the efforts of the Fire Services
Executives in bringing out this Hand Book on the occasion of Fire Service Week 2014. I do
hope that all ONGCians would make good use of this Hand Book in true sense and enhance
their knowledge on fire safety which in turn would create a fire free working environment.

Jai Hind!

The discovery of fire marks the dawn of civilization and since then fire has always remained an
inevitable part of the life of mankind in all periods and cultures. Today fire is an integral part of human
civilization and heart of industrialization. But to get the most out of this much feared, but always universally
worshiped element, we have to contain and control it. When it is kept under control, fire is one of the
greatest boons known to humanity, but when it gets out of control it is a devastating force before which
mankind is left completely helpless. Controlling fire requires awareness about its characteristics and
mitigation methods that can channelize the fire into productive ways rather than spreading into destructive
mode imperiling life and property everywhere.

Fire prevention and control are fundamental in providing protection from the hazards of fire in any
field. Owing to rapid industrialization and modernization in all spheres of human activity, security of life and
property has to be protected to ensure that there is no loss of life or damage to property from uncontrolled
fires. This would be possible only if adequate fire protection measures are adopted in all areas having
inherent fire risks. While, in the earlier stages, fire fighting and fire safety remained a non-organized,
sporadic unitary activity, over a period of time society recognized the need for having organized systems to
fight the menace of fire. Thus was born the idea of Fire Service Organizations mandated with the task of fire
fighting operations. Although Fire Services in India started much earlier than the organized Fire Services of
many Western Countries, in terms of technological capabilities and training facilities, we are lagging far
behind these countries now.

In Oil and Gas Industry fire risk is one of the most dreaded hazards since in all stages of operations in
this sector highly inflammable hydrocarbons are involved in various hazardous processes. The scope of fire
prevention as the most desired option of control over fire is not limited to hazardous industries alone. In
fact, this should be the governing principle of fire safety in all walks of human life where interface with fire is

When fire incidents do take place in spite of all efforts to prevent them, efficient fire fighting
operations are the only means that could save life and property from the ravaging fury of uncontrolled fire.
Fire fighting in itself is a complex activity, requiring knowledge about the characteristics of the fire, effective
extinguishing media and suitable techniques of application of the media to put out the fire with least
collateral damage. Fire fighting, therefore, requires professional skills of a high order. More importantly, the
fire fighter has to be a person with immense courage and dedication, who is willing to sacrifice his life to
save the life and property of others. This sense of dedication and selfless sacrifice is what makes the fire
personnel different from others and gives them pride of place in civilized societies.

The ONGC Fire Services has a glorious history of serving the fire safety causes of ONGC for the last
more than five decades. With highly qualified professionals in executive cadre and well trained staff on its
rolls, the ONGC Fire Services personnel have remained steadfast in their commitment to protect all ONGC
operations and establishments from fire. In this endeavor, they have depended not only on their own fire
fighting capabilities, but also on all other ONGCians who are equally dedicated to the cause of fire safety in
ONGC. Creating awareness among ONGCians on fire safety related issues has been the most effective way in
which fire safety and fire protection related matters have been efficiently handled by the ONGC Fire

Though keeping the fire personnel professionally updated is the primary concern of the Fire Services,
creating awareness among the ONGC work force on fire safety related issues is no less important. A handy
reference book which could impart knowledge on professional aspects of fire safety and fire fighting can be
of much help for these purposes. While literature ranging from simple handouts to complex text books on
the subject is available, what would be more useful would be reference material incorporating essential
facts related to fire safety and fire protection measures applicable to ONGC operations in the context of the
existing rules and regulations. The Fire Services Handbook of ONGC is expected to meet this requirement.
The handbook is intended to serve as a primary text for the fire personnel and a simple guide on fire related
matters for all other employees.

The requirement of such a Handbook was felt ever since the Corporate Fire Services Cell started
functioning in Delhi. Initial efforts for the project commenced under the guidance of late Dr. P K Chatterjee,
the then Adviser (Fire), with a group of Senior Fire Service Executives preparing the first draft. The draft
underwent changes when Dr. T P Sharma subsequently took over as the Adviser (Fire) and I deem it a great
privilege that the publication of the Handbook has become possible now with the co-operation and active
participation of a group of Senior Fire Service Executives in contributing to the efforts substantially. The
Fire Services Hand Book cannot claim to cover all aspects of operations of the ONGC Fire Services in
totality, but it is the first step in this direction. The Hand Book will undergo revision and updation in tune
with advancements in fire technology and changes in the regulatory framework governing fire safety in the
hydrocarbon sector.

(N M S Nair)
Senior Consultant (Security & Fire Services)
naIrja Samaa-
Neeraj Sharma
p`Qaana AignaSamana saovaaeoM
Head Fire Services
Aa^yala eND naocaurla gaOsa ka^rpaorSo ana ila.
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd.


In the fast moving world, the technology is becoming obsolete very fast and new
developments as well as modernization has become the order of the day. On the other hand,
it is evident that self preservation and advancement are the expectations of the employees of
any organization.

Although basic and fundamentals remain more or less unaltered, it becomes absolutely essential to
define as well as review the various administrative and technical aspects of fire services from time to time.
Therefore, a need was felt to consolidate all the relevant information of and for the fire services in one
comprehensive document as Fire Services Handbook.

I am confident that this handbook will prove to be an educative tool for ONGCians, resulting in
reduction of the number of fire incidents throughout. I appreciate the efforts of the team who has coined all
information in the form of this handbook.

We would like to express our whole hearted gratitude and thanks to Shri S.N. Singh, ED (Security) for
his courageous support and constant inspiration to undertake the assignment with keen zeal and interest.

We are grateful to Shri N. M. S. Nair, Sr. Consultant (Security & Fire Services) who has modified &
redrafted certain portions and ultimately brought the handbook to its final shape.

It is our privilege to show our sincere gratitude towards late Dr. P. K. Chatterjee, former Advisor
(Fire), ONGC, for his expertise guidance as well as generous advice that enabled us to incorporate various
technical aspects in the handbook.

Further, we also acknowledge the immense contribution made by the following members along with
all the ONGC fire service professionals for providing valuable feedback and showing their keen interest,
without whom it would have been very difficult to prepare this handbook.

Shri A K Tripathi, DGM(FS), Shri Sanjeev Kapoor, DGM(FS), Shri M A Sheikh, CM(FS), Shri Dinesh
Kumar, CM(FS), Shri S Bhattacharya, CM(FS), Shri Pawan Kumar, Manager (FS), Shri Akhilesh Meshram, Dy.
Mgr.(FS) , Shri Puneet Khanna, Dy. Mgr.(FS) & Shri V K Awasthi, Dy. Mgr.(FS).

I wish them all success.

(Neeraj Sharma)

Chapter Section Description Page

1 Introduction 1-4
1.1 Evolution of Fire Fighting 1

1.2 History of Fire Services 1

1.3 History of Fire Services in India 2

1.4 ONGC Fire Services 2

1.5 Objective of Fire Services Handbook 3

2 Properties of Flammable Materials 5-7
2.1 Important Properties of Flammable Materials 5
3 Fire Hazards 8 - 11
3.1 Overview of Hazards in ONGC 8

3.2 Sources of Ignition 10

4 Fire Science 12 - 15
4.1 Basics of Fire 12

4.2 Development of Fire 13

4.3 Classification of Fire 14

4.4 Classification of Fire Incidents 14

5 Fire Extinguishment 16 - 20

5.1 Fire extinguishment 16

5.2 Extinguishing media 17

6 Fire Protection Philosophy 21 - 24

6.1 Introduction 21

6.2 Passive Fire Protection 21

6.3 Active Fire Protection 22

6.4 Fire Detection and Alarm System 23

7 First-Aid Fire Fighting Equipment 25 - 42
Chapter Section Description Page

7.1 First-Aid Fire Fighting Equipment 25

7.2 Deployment of Extinguishers: 33

8 Awareness, Training and Drills 43 - 49
8.1 Awareness 43

8.2 Training 44

8.3 Training of Fire Personnel 45

8.4 Fire Drill
8.4.1 Types of Drill in Fire Services 45
8.4.2 Mock fire drill
9 Onshore Fire Facilities 50 - 70
9.1 Fire Station 50

9.2 Self- Propelled Major Appliances 53

9.3 Portable and Mobile Equipment 56

9.4 Personnel Protective and Rescue Gears 58

9.5 Stores, Accessories and Tools 60

9.6 Communication at Fire Station 62

9.7 Documentation at Fire Stations 63

Fixed Fire Fighting Systems for Onshore
9.8 63
9.9 Mutual Aid Scheme 69
10 Offshore Fire Facilities 71 - 74
Fixed Fire Fighting Systems for Offshore
10.1 71
10.2 Fire Fighting Vessels 73

10.3 Offshore Communication 74

11 Offices / Residential Buildings 75 - 79
11.1 Classification of buildings as per NBC 76

11.2 Fixed Fire Fighting Systems in buildings 78

Guidelines for Handling Typical Fire
12 80 - 84
Chapter Section Description Page

12.1 Blow-out Fires 80

12.2 Process Fires 82

12.3 Building Fires 83

12.4 Helicopter Fires 84

12.5 H2S Fires 84

13 References 85 - 88
13.1 Codes/Standards/Guidlelines 85
Office Orders / Circulars / Norms / Guidelines /
13.2 86
13.3 Other References 88
14 Miscellaneous 89 - 91
14.1 Miscellaneous 89
Common Acronyms 92
Reporting of a Fire Incident 93
Chapter - 1 Introduction

1.1 Evolution of Fire Fighting

Ever since mans monumental discovery of fire as a means of making his existence more
tenable, major attention has been directed towards its beneficial use. The key to this
benefit is control. Water was the most commonly used medium to fight fire. The
Industrial Revolution which started more than 150 years ago brought about changes in
the fire fighting techniques also, which till then depended on the use of water and
availability of manpower. As the Industrial revolution progressed, steam driven water
pumps increased the extinguishing efficiency of water. Hand portable and soda acid type
extinguishers became available about the time of the American civil war. With the advent
of petroleum and its derivatives, not only did fire hazards increase but the nature of the
fire also changed.

At the end of the World War-I, Marine fire protection became a reality and safety at sea
was greatly enhanced when carbon dioxide was employed in the first major
developments in fire protection. Mechanical Protein based and synthetic based foams
were developed to combat large scale oil fire during the period between World War-I and
II. The mechanical difficulties that plagued the dry chemical extinguishers were gradually
overcome and a new dimension to fire fighting was added. Just before World War-II,
halogenated hydrocarbon were developed that were markedly superior to other fire
fighting media and provided a means of achieving aircraft fire protection. After World
War II, the technology of fire control advanced significantly and progress was so prolific
that it became very difficult to itemize it.

Due to constant research and development, environmental effect, easy use of

equipment, increase in specific risks and hazards, availability of extinguishers on
economical rate etc, the water pressure type extinguishers and mechanical foam type
extinguishers were developed and were dispensed with soda acid type extinguishers and
chemical foam type extinguisher respectively.

The arsenal available to both fire fighters and fire engineers is constantly increasing
requiring greater knowledge and sophistication in the selection of an ever-increasing
number of choices. Specialization will result in more efficient use of human and material
resources, integrated with economic limitations.

It could well be that the future will mean the development not only of more separate
attacks on fire but, in addition of a more intelligent approach utilizing the various
available extinguisher agents and techniques in concert and in an optimal manner.

1.2 History of Fire Services

The first organised fire protection unit was established when Augustus became ruler of
Rome in 24 BC. Augustus had the foresight to create a watch guard service to look for
fires and prevent them from starting. The fear of a fires capacity to cause death and
destruction was just as prevalent then as it is today.

In 872 A.D. one of the earliest recorded fire protection ordinances was introduced in
Oxford, England, when a curfew was adopted requesting that hearth fire be extinguished
at a certain hour. The earliest known, organized fire brigades were called fire insurance
brigades. They were established in England in 1666 as a result of the great London Fire.
Prior to that in 1643, during the British Civil War, women were organized to patrol the
town of Nottigham during the night and to put out fires and prevent new fire from starting.
It was not until Edinburgs 1824 Fire Brigade establishment that public fire services
began to develop modern standards of operation when a surveyor named James
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Braidwood was appointed Chief of the Brigade. He selected 80 Part time aides between
the ages of 17 and 25 and required regular drill and night training.

Until 1853 all fire departments had volunteers workers. Most cities had no training
programme, lacked discipline, and had no positive direction. Fire fighting was not a
paying job and the work was hazardous. On April 1853 in Cincinnati, Ohio, the first paid
fire department was established. The departments only equipment to combat fire was
manpower and horse drawn steam pumpers. Use of steamers, motorised vehicles and
even air crafts for fire fighting operations evolved gradually to make fire fighting a highly
specialized, skilled job today.

The first fire drill school at which basic fire training and company drill were performed
was established in Boston, Massachusetts in 1889. New York City established the first
fire college for advanced fire officer training in 1914.

1.3 History of Fire Services in India

The regular fire services in India started its journey from the major ports and cities like
Mumbai, (then Bombay) and Calcutta (now Kolkata). The first Fire Services in Bombay
started its function in 1803 in the aftermath of a major fire and initially the Police Force
was entrusted the job of fire fighting. It was only in 1855, that the Bombay Fire Brigade
started its regular Fire Services activities with fire engine drawn by horses. It is believed
that Calcutta Fire Brigade was started in 1822 under Commissioner of Calcutta Police.
Delhi Fire Services was established way back in 1867. In 1888, Bombay Municipal
Corporation Act was enacted and protection of life and properties from fire became the
obligatory duty of the Corporation and W. Nichollls of the London Fire Brigade was
appointed Chief Fire Officer of Bombay Fire Brigade in 1890. The first Fire Brigade Act
was enacted in 1893 in Bengal under which 50% of the annual cost of the Fire Brigade
was to be met from the licence fee and other 50% from the Municipal revenues. History
says, the first petrol driven motor Fire Engine was imported and commissioned in
Bombay Fire Brigade in 1907. It is believed that Madras Fire Services started its
function in 1908 after a devastating fire in the city. The first Fire Service College in India
was established at Rampur, Uttar Pradesh in 1956 as National Fire Service College
which was shifted to its present location at Nagpur in 1957.

Fire Services in India comes under the 12th schedule under the provisions of Article
243W of the Constitution. The performance of functions listed in the 12th schedule comes
under the domain of Municipalities.

In view of the shortcomings in the Fire Services in different States of the country and the
need to upgrade it, the GOI in 1956 formed a Standing Fire Advisory Committee (SFAC)
under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). The mandate of the committee was to
examine the technical problems relating to fire services and to advise the GOI for speedy
development and up gradation of Fire Services all over the country. This committee was
renamed as the Standing Fire Advisory Council (SFAC) in 1980.

1.4 ONGC Fire Services

Due to Industrialization, the need of Industrial Fire Brigades with specific equipments and
manpower was realized by industries in the mid sixties. ONGC commenced its
commercial production of oil in 1957 after the drilling of the first oil well, Jawalamukhi
Well No 1. A few firemen with a Fire Pump were deputed to oversee the drilling
operations at Jawalamukhi. The team was ably led by the first Fire Officer who was
incidentally on deputation from Delhi Fire Services. Later in the same year, ONGC finally
started its Fire Services operation under the Assam Asset with the first Fire Station set
up at Rudrasagar Oil & Gas field with a few fireman and the first regular Fire Officer, of
ONGC. Since then, the ONGC Fire Services has never looked back. In fact, the unique

Fire Services Handbook Page 2 of 93

growth story of ONGC since early seventies, particularly with the discovery of Mumbai
High oil field in Western Offshore envisioned new roles & responsibilities for this

The discovery of large oil fields both in offshore and onshore, technological up gradation
in its E&P activities, and the need for compliance to guidelines issued by the regulatory
authorities, viz. Director General of Mines Safety Directorate (DGMS)- under the Ministry
of Labour & the Oil Industry Safety Directorate (OISD) under the Ministry of Petroleum &
Natural Gas, forced the ONGC management to expand and upgrade the Fire Services
by inducting qualified Fire Engineers from National Fire Service College, Nagpur, the
only Govt College under the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). Since then, the ONGC Fire
Services has travelled a long way. With 11 Main and 17 Sub - Fire Stations in onshore
areas and 12 offshore Process Complexes equipped with sophisticated, modern and
state of art fire Fighting Equipment, the ONGC Fire Services has grown into a
professional industrial Fire Service. The unsung heroes of the ONGC Fire Services have
provided yeomen service for building a safe environment at various levels so that the E &
P operations of the company are conducted without any hindrance.

The ONGC Fire services Handbook is the outcome of the combined efforts of a large
number of fire executives, who have contributed in one way or the other to make it a
comprehensive handbook on fire related subjects. The publication of this Handbook is
one more achievement for the Fire Services Cell in bringing about systemic changes in
the functioning of the Fire services to enhance the operational efficiency of its personnel
in all spheres of their activity. It is hoped that this Handbook will not only act as an
authoritative reference material for the fire services professionals, but it will also impart
basic knowledge to the ordinary ONGCian on fire safety related topics. After all, though
we all fear the ravageous nature of fire, we still worship its glory.

1.5 Objective of Fire Services Handbook

Oil and Natural Gas Directorate was formed towards the end of 1955 for exploration of
hydrocarbon and for making the country self sufficient on the energy front. For achieving
this objective, ONGC started expanding its activities of exploration by increasing the rigs
and by improving and sustaining the safe processes to enhance the production of

In oilfields, the risk of fire is always present right from exploration, drilling, production,
storage till distribution of the final products to consumers. Fire Hazards ought to be
controlled by efficient methods of prevention, supervision and use of automatic safety
devices for early detection. Technical safeguards to prevent fire during different
operations and the observance of the fire safety methods which are essentially based on
the following principle have been highlighted at appropriate places in this manual:

All persons employed in oilfield installations are individually responsible for fire
prevention and should be capable of sounding alarm and simultaneously taking
necessary emergency actions for limitation and extinguishing fire. This implies
that every worker has to be trained and has to act like Fireman in case of any fire
contingency. He should be capable to receive the information, analyse it and
trained sufficiently to tackle fire immediately at the incipient stage by using
suitable first aid fire-fighting equipment.

The objective of this Handbook is to lay down strategies to manage fire scenarios with
proper utilization of resources available within the organization for fire protection/fighting.
As it is also essential to get assistance from neighbouring industries, state authorities,
local fire-fighting services, etc., a strategy framed for mutual aid scheme has been
highlighted for the users in understanding the fundamentals and benefits of mutual aid in
case of major incidents requiring external assistance.

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The necessity of this Handbook was felt since long for providing simplified interpretations
and illustrations of the fire hazards, fundamentals of fire, fire prevention, fire protection
service management, operation of equipments, procedures and techniques. Further, for
successful handling of fire emergencies, it is necessary that the contents of this
Handbook are understood intelligently and put into practice faithfully by all to develop pre
- fire plans for each emergency.

Fire Services Handbook Page 4 of 93

Chapter - 2 Properties of Flammable Materials
2.1 Important Properties of Flammable Materials

The volatility of a liquid or a liquefied gas may be defined as its tendency to vaporise that
is to change from the liquid to the vapour or gaseous state. As the liquid should be in the
vapour state to effect combustion, volatility is a primary characteristic of liquid fuels.
Thus, the vapourising tendencies are the basis for the general characterisation of liquid
petroleum fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas, gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, gas oil,
diesel fuels and fuel oils.

To know flammability characteristics of a particular product it is necessary to have

information on the initial stage of vapourisation. Some of these characteristics are Flash
Point, Fire Point, Auto Ignition Temperature, Vapour Pressure, Flammability or
Explosivity Limits / range, etc. which are explained below:

Auto-Ignition Temperature
The lowest temperature at which a solid or liquid or gas undergoes self sustained
combustion without initiation by spark or flame or any other sources of ignition.

Boiling Point
The minimum temperature of any liquid at which the liquid undergoes phase change i.e.
liquid to vapour.

The heat wave, which develops in special crude oils or heavy oils, when comes in
contact with water under the oil surface causes the upper layer of water to convert
immediately into steam. Since water, when converted into steam increases its volume
1700 times unless the steam can break out of the surface in large bubbles; it becomes
entrained in the oil. This steamed oil, greatly increases in volume, pistons out a wave of
burning oil out of the tank. Burning oil erupts and then falls, spreading even beyond the
bund walls of the tank.

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion (BLEVE)

It is a combination of fire and explosion with an intense radiant heat emission within a
relatively very short time interval and is sometimes referred also as fire ball.

Burning Velocity
The velocity at which a flame front propagates relative to the unburnt materials in a
direction perpendicular to the flame front. Burning velocity varies with mixture
composition, temperature, pressure and turbulence in the vicinity of the flame front.

Combustible material
Any material, in the form in which it is used and under the conditions anticipated will
ignite and burn, generally accompanied by flames (temp. rise >500c) glow or emission of
smoke or a combination there of when subjected to a uniform temperature of >7500c for
a prescribed time.

Chemical Explosion
It is also referred as thermal explosion and occurs as a result of release of chemical
energy. Chemical explosion occurs either in the form of (a) Deflagration (b) Detonation or
(c) Combination of both, as per the rate of flame propagation.

Confined Vapour Cloud Explosion (CVCE)

It occurs when the flammable gas mixture is present in their explosive/flammable limits
within containment or any confined spaces, the sources of ignition in the atmosphere can
cause confined vapour cloud explosion.
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Combustible Liquids
Defined as liquids having flash points at or above 37.8C.

A chemical explosion where flame propagation for hydrocarbon and air mixture is
typically of the order of 1 m/sec. to 100 m/sec. and peak pressure generated is of the
order of 8 bars.

A chemical explosion where, flame travels as a shock wave, i.e., detonation velocity is of
the order of 2000-3000 m/sec, and peak pressure is of the order of 20 bars (more
destructive power).

An abrupt oxidation or decomposition reaction producing an increase in pressure or in
temperature or in both simultaneously. Explosion is a phenomenon of sudden and violent
release of energy accompanied by generation of pressure waves with loud noise.

A process of combustion characterised by the emission of heat accompanied by smoke
or flame or both with rapid combustion spreading uncontrolled in time and space

The process, which is capable of undergoing phase change to vapours and resulting in
combustion in the gaseous phase with the emission of light during or after the application
of an ignition source.

Flammable (Explosive) Limits

The term Lower Flammable Limit (LFL) or Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) describes the
minimum concentration of vapour to air below which propagation of a flame will not occur
in the presence of an ignition source. The Upper Flammable Limit (UFL) Upper
Explosive Limit (UEL) is the maximum vapour-to-air concentration above which
propagation of a flame will not occur. If a vapour-to-air mixture is below the lower
flammable limit it is described as being too lean to burn, and if it is above the upper
flammable limit it is too rich to burn.

Flammable Liquid
A liquid having a flash point below 37.80C and having a vapour pressure not exceeding
2.7 Kg/ cm2 at 37.80C

Flash Point
It is the lowest temperature at which there is a sufficient vapourisation of substance to
produce a vapour which will give momentarily flash when a tiny flame is applied.
Petroleum liquids have flash point ranging from 43C to +200C. Indian Petroleum Act
has classified petroleum liquids in three categories on the basis of their flash points:
Class A - flash point below 23C
Class B - flash point between 23 to 65C
Class C - flash point above 65C but below 93C
Excluded Class flash point 930C or above

Fire Point
Fire point is the lowest temperature at which the heat from the combustion of a burning
vapour is capable of producing sufficient vapour to flash the continuous flame. Thus fire
point is always higher than flash point.

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Heat Wave Characteristics
When heavy fuel oil or crude oil burns, the low boiling point hydrocarbons get brunt at
surface, the low boiling point hydrocarbons sink towards the bottom forming a layer of
hot oil below the surface. This layer of hot oil extends towards the bottom of the tank at a
rate depending on the type of oil involved. This is called a heat wave and is very
important in dealing with oil tank fires. (The temperature of heat wave is of the order of
1500C to 3000C.)

Pyrophoric Ignition
Spontaneous ignition of flammable vapour is caused by the presence of pyrophoric iron
sulphide deposits when exposed to atmosphere. These deposits are generally found in
locations where hydrogen sulphide or other sulphur compounds are formed in
hydrocarbon process equipment or piping system.

Slop Over
The slop over is not violent eruption like a Boil over. It is an over flow of the contents of
the tank. This can result when a water stream is applied to the hot surface of viscous
burning oil and its temperature exceeds the boiling Point of water. The water sinks into
the heat wave and is expanded into steam. On its way out, the stream forms a froth that
expands the hot oil in the heat wave to greater capacity and thus causes the froth to spill
over from the top of the tank.

It is by-product of fire and is available in small micron size particle.

Spontaneous Heating
Spontaneous heating is the process of increase in temperature of material without
drawing heat from its surrounding and usually result from contamination or slow
combustion. Spontaneous heating is reached only where there is enough air for
oxidation but not enough ventilators to carry away the heat as fast as it is generated.

Specific Gravity
The specific gravity of substance (solid & liquid) is the ratio of the weight of that
substance compared with the weight of equal volume of water.

Unconfined Vapour Cloud Explosion (UVCE)

It occurs when flammable gas-air (vapour cloud) mixture burns in free space rapidly to
generate pressure waves which propagate both through the vapour cloud and in the
surrounding atmosphere.

Vapour Density
Vapour Density is the relative density of a gas or vapour compared with that of air at the
same temperature which is taken as one.

Vapour Pressure
When liquid evaporates, molecules leave the liquid to space above. It is the pressure of
a vapour in equilibrium with a non vapour substance (liquid). A substance with a high
vapour pressure is often refiered as volatile.

The property of changing the state from liquid to vapour is called volatility of the liquid.

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Chapter - 3 Fire Hazards

3.1 Overview of Hazards in ONGC

A Hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to Life, Health, Property or

Environment. Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm;
however, once a hazard becomes "active", it can create an emergency situation. Hazard
and possibility interact together to create risk.

Oil & Gas continues to be the major source of energy and dependency has grown too
high since majority of energy needs are met by this sector. This has necessitated the
adoption of new technologies in exploration, refining & storage of the hydrocarbon in Oil
& Gas Industry. Thus a lot of technological improvements have taken place both in
upstream & downstream sectors of Oil & Gas to enhance oil recoveries in upstream and
make environment friendly products in downstream.

ONGC is committed to the idea that all the incidents (including fire) are preventable;
hence every fire incident can be classified by the place of work of its occurrence. In
ONGC, working areas can be classified as:-

1. Exploration

a) Geophysical drill site on land

b) Seismic vessel at offshore

2. Drilling

a) Drill site on land

b) Work Over Rig on land
c) Jack-up drilling rig at Offshore
d) Drill Ship/Floater at Offshore
e) Workover Rig at Offshore

3. Production

a) Well on land
b) Well Platform at Offshore
c) Well Head Installation (WHI) on land
d) Early Production System (EPS)
e) Group Gathering Station (GGS)
f) Production Platform Unmanned
g) Production Platform Manned
h) Gas Collecting Station (GCS) Onshore
i) Gas Compressor Station
j) Central Tank Farm (CTF) area
k) LPG Plant
l) Process Plant
m) Gas Processing Complex
n) Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP)
o) Central Processing Facility (CPF)

4. Transportation

a) Oil Pipeline on Land

b) Gas Pipeline on Land
c) Pumping Station of Pipeline on Land

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d) Submarine Pipeline
e) Rail and Road Loading Gantries
f) Land Fall Points
g) Offshore Support Vessel (OSV) & Multipurpose Support Vessel (MSV)

5. General Services

i. Workshops
ii. Laboratories
iii. Electrical Substations
iv. Stock Yards
v. Central Stores
vi. Explosive Magazines
vii. Multistoried Office Buildings
viii. Residential Colonies, etc.

The major hazards associated with the oil industry are fire, explosion, sudden pressure
release and toxic release. Of these, fire is the most common, but explosion is particularly
significant in terms of fatality and losses. ONGC has been engaged in oil and natural gas
exploration and production since its inception. Since exploration, production, refining and
marketing of hydrocarbons are the multidisciplinary task and are spread on land and sea,
hence one has to be extremely cautious and safe in each operation being performed.
Therefore, ONGC encounters all types of common fire hazards known in the industrial
operations, besides some special types of fire hazards specific to oil industry only. Some
of the major hazards are listed below:

Blow-out (oil and gas)

Explosion (CVCE, UVCE, BLEVE, Dust)
Rupture of vessel, pipelines and storage tanks
Leakage of oil, gas and H2S
Spillage of Hazardous Chemicals
Over-pressure, Under-pressure, Over-flow, Over-heating
Static Electricity
Radioactive materials release
Confined Space entry
Fires (Oil, Gas, Dry Vegetation, Electrical, etc.)
Collisions (helicopters, vessels, road tankers, rail wagons, etc.)
Natural Disasters (Cyclone, Floods, Earthquake, Lightning, etc.)

Most of these hazards lead to major fires as fuel in liquid and gaseous form, air and heat
(as a result of various operations) are present abundantly which under uncontrolled
conditions or malfunctioning of operations may lead to fires or sometimes explosion.

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3.2 Sources of Ignition

Ignition occurs when sufficient heat is produced to cause combustion. Factors

influencing resultant combustion from a given ignition source are temperature, exposure
time, and energy.

It is almost impossible, in most working environments to avoid oxygen and fuel coming
together - to prevent fires. Therefore the quantities and locations of the fuels must be
controlled and kept away from possible sources of ignition.

Ignition sources that may be present in operations include:

a. Chemical Reactions. Chemical reactions may produce heat. This heat can ignite the
substances reacting, products of the chemical reaction, or nearby materials.

b. Electric Sparks and Arcs. An electric spark is the discharge of electric current
across a gap between two dissimilarly charged objects. Although static electricity and
lightning are forms of electric spark, they are listed as separate ignition sources to
emphasize their importance. Electric sparks from most electric supply installations
will usually ignite a flammable mixture because the spark intensity and duration
create enough heat for combustion. An electric arc occurs when an electric circuit
carrying current is interrupted, either intentionally as by a switch or accidentally as
when a contact or terminal becomes loosened or a current- carrying conductor is
broken. The arc can be considered electric momentum. Electric current that is flowing
through a contact will try to keep flowing when the contact is broken. The same
charge will travel across a wider gap as an arc than as a spark. For this reason, the
opening of switches is a potentially greater ignition source than the closing of
switches. Sources of electric sparks and arcs could include but are not limited to the

Electric motors and generators.

Switches, relays, and other arcing components of electric circuits under normal
operating conditions.
Electric wiring and equipment malfunctions.
Electric arc welding.
Storage batteries.
Fired vessel ignition devices.
Internal combustion engine ignition systems.
Lighting fixtures.
Electric powered hand tools.

c. Lightning. Lightning is the discharge of an electric charge on a cloud to an opposite

charge on another cloud or on the earth. Lightning can develop very high
temperatures in any material of high resistance in its path. Lightning tends to
discharge to high points such as antennae and flare stacks.

d. Static Electrical Sparks. If two objects are in physical contact and then separated,
the objects sometimes collect an electric charge through friction or induction. Similar
electric charges can be generated by rapid flow of gases or liquids. If the objects are
not bonded or grounded, they may accumulate sufficient electric charges that a spark
discharge may occur. The terms bonding and grounding are sometimes used
interchangeably; however, the terms have different meanings. Bonding is done to
eliminate a difference in potential between objects. Grounding is done to eliminate a
difference in potential between an object and ground.

Static electrical sparks are normally of very short duration and do not produce
sufficient heat to ignite ordinary combustible materials, such as paper. Some,
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however, are capable of igniting flammable vapors and gases. This situation is more
common in a dry atmosphere. Static electrical sparks may be a problem in situations
such as the following:

Fueling operations
Filling containers, tanks, and pressure vessels
High exit fluid velocities
Drawing samples
Drive belt operation
Abrasive blasting
Steam cleaning

e. Flame. When common fuels are burned, energy is released in the form of heat. The
burning is generally accompanied by a luminosity called flame. Examples of
situations where flames may be present on a platform are the following:

Hydrocarbon flaring
Fired production equipment burner operation
Gas welding and cutting
Engine operation (backfires and hot exhaust gases)
Heating, cooking, and other appliances operation

f. Hot Surfaces. Hot surfaces can be a source of ignition. These sources may include
the following:

Welding slag
Fired vessel stacks
Hot process piping and equipment
Engine exhaust systems
High-temperature electrical devices such as incandescent lighting fixtures
Frictional heat such as a slipping belt against pulley,unlubricated bearings, etc.
Heating and cooking appliances
Hot metal particles from grinding
Clothes dryers and exhaust systems

g. Heat of Compression. If a flammable mixture is compressed rapidly, it will be ignited

when the heat generated by the compressing action is sufficient to raise the
temperature of the vapor to its ignition point. Combustion as a result of heat of
compression may occur when hydrocarbon vapors or gases are mixed with air under
situations such as the following:

Improper purging of pressure vessels and other equipment when introducing

Packing or seal failure that allows supply air to mix with supply or process
Lubricating system failure in air compressors.
Admission of air into the suction of hydrocarbon gas compressors.

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Chapter 4 Fire Science

4.1 Basics of Fire

Fire is a chemical reaction which is initiated by the presence of heat energy in which a
substance combines with oxygen present in the air. The process is accompanied by
emission of energy in the form of heat, light and smoke. Therefore, three elements
essential for combustion i.e. before a fire can occur, are:
A combustible substance i.e. fuel ( solid, liquid, gas)
Oxygen (air)
Source of heat (proper ignition temperature, i.e. applied heat, e.g. spark, flame, etc.

Absence of any of these three will result in extinguishing/decay of the fire when it is
already burning.

Fire tetrahedron

For a fire to happen all the three elements should be present. The combustion process
gets completed when sufficient source of heat is continuously available to initiate and
support the reaction, some of this heat is absorbed by the fuel which gives off flammable
vapours, that in-turn mixes with oxygen available in the surrounding atmosphere and fire
starts. This reaction in turn releases a larger amount of heat associated with light and
sound energy. At this stage, even if the source of heat is removed, the fire will continue.

One face of the triangle represents temperature, second fuel and third represents the
phenomenon of oxygen supply. With the advent of dry chemicals and vaporizing
extinguishing agents which extinguish the fire by inhibiting action (breaking the chain
reaction), a new factor has been introduced in the fire triangle. This fourth factor chain
reaction has now led the fire scientists /engineers to describe the phenomenon through
use of a fire pyramid or tetrahedron.

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4.2 Development of Fire

All objects in the environment in an attempt to acheive thermal equilibrium lose or gain
heat. A fuel can be heated to a temperature below its ignition temperature without the
possibility of its combustion. In some cases, an increase in temperature more than this
will result in instantaneous combustion over the whole surface of the fuel. This stage is
known as flash over. This will occur only when the combination of materials have been
preheated sufficiently (directly or indirectly) resulting in evolution of vapour. Rate of
Combustion is dependent on the ability of fuel and oxygen to mix together in the
appropriate proportion which also depends upon the condition of the surrounding
atmosphere and state of the fuel, besides its surface area and density of solid. At one
extreme, the most rapid rate of combustion will give rise to an explosion and a slow rate
may result in a small point fire (may be hidden) known as smouldering.

The stages in the development of fire are as under:

(I) Incipient Stage

Incipient stage is a region where preheating and gassification (slow pyrolysis) are in
progress. Invisible pyrolysis products in the form of gas and aerosols are being
generated and are transported away from the source by brownian motion, diffusion, back
ground air movement and sometimes a very weak convective movement induced by the
buoyancy of the pyrolysis products.

(II) Smouldering Stage

A region of fully developed pyrolysis which begins with ignition and includes the initial
stage of the combustion reaction. Invisible aerosols and visible smoke are being
generated and are carried away by moderate convective movement and background air
movement. All fires in smouldering stage give out smoke and combustion gases.
Gradually, the heat is built up and when substantial heat is generated it results in
bursting of flame.

(III) Flame Stage

A region of first reaction which
covers the period from initial
occurrence of flame to a fully
developed fire.

a) Flame Radiation
Radiant energy emitted by the
flame is transmitted hemi-
spherically to distant locations
independently of the convection

b) Convective Heating
It becomes important only in the
initial flashover period of fire development phases where large quantity of thermal energy
is released causing appreciable temperature rise at the ceiling level.

(IV) Heat Stage

At this stage, large amount of heat, flame, smoke and toxic gases are produced. The
transition from flame to heat stage is rapid and takes a few seconds.

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4.3 Classification of Fire

Based on the Indian Standard (IS: 2190), and OISD Standard, fires are classified into
four classes. This classification system helps to determine the type of hazard and
selection of the most effective type of extinguishing agent.

CLASS A: Fires involve ordinary solid combustible materials: wood, paper and cloth.
Class A fires are usually slow in their initial development and grow because the materials
are solids and spread and growth of fire depends on the specific gravity and surface area
of the materials and hardness of their surfaces.

CLASS B: Fires involve flammable and combustible liquids such as diesel, petrol,
kerosene, etc. Class B fires are usually developed and grew very rapidly. Since these
materials are liquid, hence they flow and may result into spread of fire very rapidly from
one place to other place. This makes the fire-fighting of these fires quite difficult.

CLASS C: Fires involve flammable gases under pressure. It is necessary to isolate the
burning gas at a fast rate to contain and subsequently extinguish these fires.

CLASS D: Fires involve combustible metals such as magnesium, aluminum, titanium

and zirconium. These materials are usually difficult to ignite but create intense heat once
fire initiation takes place. These fires are very difficult to extinguish.

 Note: Previously, electrical fires were classified as Class E Fires. However, the
electrical fires do not constitute a particular class now. Any fire involving electrical
cables and equipment is classified under the above categories only. The normal
procedure for such fires is to cut off the electricity and extinguish them by using proper
extinguishing agent. Special extinguishing agent which is non-conductor of electricity
and non-damaging to the electrical equipments should be used.

 Two dimensional fires are those where fire and fuel are on a single plane or flat
surface. A tank fire, ground fire or a trench fire fall in this group of fires.

 Three dimensional fires are complicated fires of falling liquid streams or fuel under
pressure escaping from a container. Any fire resulting from leak of petroleum products
from an elevated position falls under this category.LPG or light hydrocarbons
escaping from a pressurized vessel is also a three dimensional fire.

4.4 Classification of Fire Incidents: Fire incidents in ONGC are classified as Major and
Minor for Onshore areas as per Office Order No. DLH/Dir (Onshore) /Office/16/09 Dated
25th August, 2009 inter alia ONGC/FSC/23/07 dated 22nd August, 2007. The details of
classification are as under:-

Major Fire:
 Injury causing permanent Loss of Body Part or Permanent Disability or
Loss of more than 500 Man Hours.
 Loss of Proerty ` 5.00 lakhs
 Incident resulting in shut down of Plant/Installation/Rig
 Blow out/Explosion
 Fire more than 15 minutes duration or fire with any of the above

Minor Fire: Any incident not falling under any of the categories of major incident.

Nearmiss: An Incident which does not result in an injury or damage to property,

but has the potential to result in injury and/or property damage

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An undesireable event, if not timely controlled, whoulc have led to a major/minor

The following events are to be categorized under major or minor incident,

as applicable:-

 Hydrocarbon leakage from pipeline, resulting in stoppage of

 Collision between vessel and offshore installation/rig
 Release of toxic gases

For Offshore Facilities: As per Office Order No. DLH/Dir (Exploration)/Office/16/2012

Dated 05.11.2012, all Fire Incident in offshore based on their potential/severity of
consequences to be termed as major fire. Further any fire which causes any of the
following condition shall be categorized as Major Fire

2. Caused fatality due to burns or inhalation of smoke/fire gases

3. Caused a property damage of ` 1.0 Core or more based on book value.
4. Caused major burn injury to one or more personnel. The major burn injury
shall be defined as burns or corrosive injuries with full thickness skin injury
(third degree) or partial thickness skin injury (second degree) to the face,
hands, feet or abdomen as well as all partial thickness skin injury that covers
more than five percent of the surface of the body.
5. Fire lasting more than 10 minutes in living areas incl gallery/kitchen (other
than normal cooking fire), operations control room, open deck areas, battery
room/UPS area.
6. Any Fire in the operational area irrespective of duration. Operation area will
be all other areas except those covered in the above criteria (sl no 4).
7. Caused man-hour loss for more than 500 hours due to fire incident.
8. Caused blowout/Explosion due to fire.
9. A fire incident resulting in shut down of plant/installation/Rig.

All other fire to be treated as Minor Fires

It is also to be noted that all the fire incidents in offshore shall be compulsorily
reported to OISD and Corp HSE within 24 hours of occurrence, without
classifying into major or minor category. These fire incidents (major and minor)
are to be investigated and their investigation reports shall be submitted to OISD
and Corp HSE within one month of the occurrence of the incident.

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Chapter 5 Fire Extinguishment
5.1 Fire Extinguishment

For the purpose of extinguishing fires, one or more elements of the fire triangle /
tetrahedron namely fuel, source of ignition, oxygen (air) and chain reaction are required
to be limited or eliminated for stopping the combustion process. Whatever may be the
equipment or the extinguishing media used for fire fighting, they follow the following four
basic mechanisms for fire extinction. These are the commonly adopted methods of
extinguishing fires:

1. Starvation - Elimination of fuel

2. Smothering - Limitation of Oxygen.
3. Cooling - Removal of temperature (Ignition Source).
4. Inhibition - Breaking the chain reactions.

Starvation can be brought about in 3 ways:
By removing combustible material from the vicinity of fire such as transfer of fuel from
burning oil tanks, isolating or closing off valve on oil or gas line leading to fire, taking
material out of the ware-house etc.
By removing material on fire from the combustible source nearby.
By breaking continuity of fire by subjecting burning material into small sized isolated

If the oxygen or air source to the burning material can be minimized or limited, the
combustion will tend to retard. This method of extinguishment is accomplished by
covering a burning surface with a wet blanket, Sand, DCP, Foam, etc. These media will
displace the air and bring down the oxygen content in fire zones below the concentration
necessary to support the combustion. This method is inapplicable or ineffective in cases
where the burning material itself is a source of oxygen supply (oxidising materials, such
as peroxide, which contain and release their own oxygen for combustion).

The principle of smothering is employed in a small scale by capping a spirit lamp and on
a large scale by capping a burning oil well. Small fires such as the ones on a persons
clothing can be smothered with a rug or blanket. Another example is smothering a small
metal fire with sand or mud. In the hydrocarbon industries, foam is effectively used as a
smothering agent for oil fires.

If the heat generated during combustion can be dissipated by some means at a faster
rate than generation, the combustion cannot sustain. By proper cooling, the heat of
combustion is removed at a faster rate thus reducing the temperature of the burning
mass, continuously. In due course of time, the heat lost will be more than the production
and the fire will die down. Application of water jet or spray for this cooling purpose is
based on this method and principle. The efficiency of an extinguishing agent as a cooling
medium depends upon specific and latent heats, as well as the boiling point. For these
reasons, water is a good cooling medium as its specific and latent heats are higher than
those of other common extinguishing media.

In hydrocarbon fires, inhibition of chain reaction is achieved by the use of dry chemical
powder, which removes the free radicals formed in the fire zone, and thereby inhibits the
chain reaction, which ultimately prevents the propagation of flame - thus extinguishing
the fire.

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Combustion consists of rapid chain reactions involving hydrogen atoms and other active
species, hydroxyl free radicals (OH) and free oxygen atoms.

Consider chain reaction mechanism in the hydrogen oxygen flame.

It is seen that a single H atom, when introduced into an H2-O2 mixture at an elevated
temperature will be transformed by a sequence of rapid reactions. Requiring a fraction of
a millisecond to form two molecules of H2O and three new H atoms. Each of these new
H atoms can immediately initiate the same sequence, and a branching chain reaction is
produced, which continues until the reactants are consumed. Then the remaining H, O
and OH species recombine according to the reactions.

Chemical chain inhibition is further dealt under extinguishing mechanism of vapouring


5.2 Extinguishing Media

Water: Water is the most commonly used and readily available extinguishing agent. It is
used in portable fire extinguishers and fixed and moveable installed systems. Water
works efficiently as it has a large capacity for absorbing heat (latent heat of vaporization
is very high) which cools the burning materials below its ignition temperature, thus
causing the fire to go out. Water absorbs the most heat during its conversion to steam.
For example 1 kg of water at a room temperature of 210C will require 79 K. cals to raise
its temperature to 1000c i.e. the boiling point of water. When 1 Kg of water is vaporized
into steam, it absorbs approximately another 540 K cals. It is during the conversion to
steam that the maximum benefits from the application of water are gained.

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Volume of Steam when 1 kg of water is converted to steam

Foam: Foams are used for special applications on flammable liquid fires and are used in
portable fire extinguishers, wheeled extinguishers, fixed systems, and fire tenders.
Mixing water with a specific proportion of foam concentrate creates the foam. Several
types of proportionating devices are used. Connection is made between foam
concentrate tank and water flow line through eductor. The passing water creates a
venturi, which draws the foam concentrate into the water stream. The metering valve
controls the percentage of concentrate to ensure a proper mixture. Air is introduced to
the foam solution at the nozzle in a process called aeration to form the finished foam.
The finished foam is a bubbly substance that is similar to soap suds in appearance.

Induction of foam Foam application on fire

Foam is suitable for use on Class A and Class B fires but is specifically recommended
for Class B fires. Extinguishing fire by foam involves several extinguishing mechanisms
like cooling, blanketing of flammable liquid resulting in forming barrier between the fuel
surface and the air and flames. The foams are of different types namely AFFF, protein
foam, fluro protein and FFFP, alchohol resistant foam.

Dry Chemical Powder (DCP): Dry

Chemical powders are finely divided
powders of limited particle size range
which are based on combinations of
several chemical compounds. These are
available in two categories, both of them
function primarily by interrupting the
chemical chain reaction.

Chain breaking mechanism of DCP

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a) Regular dry chemical powders which may be used on class B and to limited extent
on Class C fires are based on potassium carbonate and urea and generally provide
the most rapid knock down potential of flammable liquid fire in its incipient stage.

b) Multipurpose dry chemical agents are used on class A, B and C fires. The
multipurpose dry chemicals are compounds based on the monoammonium
phosphate and allow the agent to adhere to surface, that is why they are good on
class A fires. Dry chemical powders are used in portable fire extinguishers, wheeled
fire extinguishers, vehicles and fixed fire-fighting systems.

Carbon Dioxide: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gaseous fire control agent that is stored
under pressure as a liquid. It is rated for Class B and C fires. The major advantage of
carbon dioxide is that it is non-conducting. Though it does not possess as much fire
extinguishing capability as Halon substitutes, but it is more economical. The mechanism
of extinguishment is by excluding oxygen from the fire. The main disadvantage of carbon
dioxide is that it can create oxygen deficient environment in an enclosure where it has
been used thus posing a significant risk to working personnel. The agent is used in
portable extinguishers, trolley mounted extinguishers and fixed fire fighting system.

Halon: Halogenated hydrocarbon agents, usually referred to as Halon, are a group of

gaseous agents which are effective in fire control. The most common halon agent which
is used for the effective fire control is Bromo Trifluro Methane (1301) which is normally
used for total flooding application in fixed fire-fighting system. Halon can be used for all
types of fire.

However, due to their ozone

depletion potential these are being
replaced by environment friendly
agents. The halons extinguish the
fire primarily by interrupting the
chemical chain reaction. Their
major advantage is that they leave
no residue which makes them
specially suited to computers and
other delicate electronic equipments. Halon is stored under pressure as liquid and
vaporizes rapidly when discharged. Another advantage of these agents is their holding
ability. If a room is filled to the proper concentration with these agents, a fire cannot burn
as long as that concentration is maintained. The main disadvantage of Halon is its
environmental impact and cost.

Clean Agent: The use of inert gases and their mixtures (e.g. nitrogen, argon) for fire
extinguishing purposes has developed in part as a response to the needs of halon phase
out. The systems that are currently commercially availabe in most parts of the world use
either (ARGOTEC) Argon alone, (ARGONITE) a mixture of Argon and Nitrogen or
(INERGEN) a mixture of Argon, Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide. Inert gases act by
reducing the flame temperature below thresholds necessarty to maintain combustion
reactions. Other clean agents being frequently used as alternatives to halon have been
tabulated below:

Extinguishant Chemical name Formula Trade Name

CF3I Trifluoroiodomethane CF3I Trodide
FC-2-1-8 Perfluoropropane CF3CF2CF3 CEA 308
FC-3-1-10 Perfluorobutane C4F10 CEA 410
FC-5-1-14 Perfluorohexane CF3(CF2)4CF3 CEA 614
HCFC-123 Dichlorotrifluoroethane CHCI2CF3 NAFS-III
HCFC-22 Chlorodifluoromethane CHCIF2
HCFC-124 Chlorotetrafluoroethane CHCIFCF3 FE-241

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HFC 125 Pentafluoroethane CHF2CF3 FE-25
HFC 227ea Heptafluoropropane CF3CHFCF3 FM-200
HFC 23 Trifluoromethane CHF3 FE-13
HFC 236ta Hexafluoropropane CF3CH2CF3 FE-36
IG-55 Nitrogen (50%) N2 Argonite
Argon (50%) Ar

ONGC Poilicy on Clean Agent:-

Guidelines as per EC 357th meeting dtd.05/11/2009 are tabulated below:

1. ONGC may with immediate effect discontinue the process of Halon

replacement in existing installations, in line with the MoEF clarificatioins for all
2. Chief HSE to take up the matter with DRDO /MoEF etc. regarding sourcing of
recycled Halon for ONGC operations.
3. For cases where NOA /Work order has been placed or the cases which are in
advance stage of tendering for new projects, we may coninute with the agents
4. For bids for future requirement, ONGC to follow following specs:
For normally unoccupied areas in onshore where there exist no space
constraint, the option of using CO2 be considered.
For other cases, it should meet the other guidelines of NFPA 2001 and
bean approved agent by MoEF.
While evaluating the bids, possibility of using the lifecycle cost concept

Sand: It is used as a smothering agent, when other agents are not readily available at
hand. It also prevents spreading of burning liquids. But on no account sand is to be used
for putting out fires on machinery such as electric motors, as it may necessitate
dismantling the entire machine for cleaning after the fire incident. Sand buckets are kept
in strategic locations for the purpose of immediate application to arrest oil flowing to
other areas.

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Chapter 6 Fire Protection Philosophy

6.1 Introduction

The Fire Protection Philosophy in oil and gas industry is based on Fire safety, Loss
Prevention and Control. It considers that in the hydrocarbon industry, the risk of fire is
omnipresent at all levels of operational activities like exploration, drilling, production,
processing and distribution, critical operations requirement and large inventories stored
at facilities. A fire in one part of these operational ares can endanger other part/section of
the area, if not controlled or extinguished as quickly as possible to minimize the loss of
life and property and prevent further spread of fire.

Considering the above philosophy, the basic fire protection requirement depends on
various factors like area of operations, size of storage tanks, layout of facilties like GGS,
CTF, Oil & Gas Processing installation, pipeline installation, disposal system of blow
down, drainage from equipment handling petroleum product, pressure & temperature
conditions in the procees, terrain, etc. Material of construction for infrastructure facilities
shall conform to various statutory regulations like National Building Code (NBC), Oil
Industry Safety Directorate (OISD), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA),
American Petroleum Institute (API), etc.

Depending on the nature of risk, following fire protection facilities shall be provided in the
operational work centres:-

Fire Water System

Foam System
Clean Agent Fire Protection System
Carbon Dioxide System
Dry Chemical Extinguishing System
Detection and Alaram System
Portable Fire Fighting Equipment
Mobile Fire Fighting Equipment
First Aid Fire Fighting Equipment.

6.2 Passive Fire Protection

Passive fire protection is also refered to as Pro-active Fire Protection Systems that by its
nature plays an active role in the protection of personnel and property from damage by
fire. It is quite often generically referred to as Structural Fire Protection (SFP).

Generally, passive fire protection is not used as the only means of fire protection, but
rather it is used in concert with active fire protection systems. This is because passive
fire protection does not, in and of itself, provide inherent protection and is normally
effective only for a finite time period. Once passive fire protection is exhausted, the
protected component is vulnerable to damage by fire. Examples where passive fire
protection is used are: critical structural steel, living quarters, firewalls, control rooms, fire
water pump enclosures, well head area in offshore installations etc.

Passive fire protection system includes the following:

1. Provision of Escape Routes

2. Smoke Extraction
3. Compartmentation
4. Fire Rated Ducts
5. Fire Rated Doors / Fire Lift / Ceilings
6. Spray-on Insulating Materials
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7. Fire Retardant Paint
8. Insulating Blankets of Fireproof Materials.
9. Fire Stop

6.3 Active Fire Protection:

This include fire protection measures which are directly involoved in controlling and
extinguishing fires such as water spray system, sprinklers system, foam system, DCP
system, gaseous flooding system, fire extinguishers etc.

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6.4 Fire Detection and Alarm System
A fire detector is nothing more than a sensor that observes a physical condition and a
decision making logic which compares the physical condition to a pre determined value
to determine if the physical condition warrants a cause for alarm.

No matter what preventive measures are taken to keep the elements of the fire triangle
from coming together the fact is that fires do occur. Once ignition occurs, the early
detection of fire then becomes critical to control fire. The sooner a fire is detected the
more likely it is to be controlled and extinguished before it reaches destructive

Objectives of Fire Detectors

To alert occupants to evacuate the fire area

To isolate fuel sources
To cause an automatic fire suppression system to actuate
To alert manual fire suppression systems to face the fire condition

Fire may be detected by manual observation or by automatic devices.

Manual Observation

Personnel may observe a fire and manually initiate fire control action before it is detected
by automatic devices.

Manual Call Point

These are the devices which are a part of alarm system and can be
operated manually to communicate the distress signal to the control
room. In case of fire or any other emergency situations, the glass of the
manual call point is broken which in turns generates an audio visual
alarm in the control room as well in the affected area indicating the
location of fire.

Automatic Fire Detection System

The primary function of an automatic fire detection system is to alert personnel about the
existence of a fire condition and to allow rapid identification of the location of the fire.
Following are the common types of detectors used in the process plants both onshore
and offshore:
Smoke Detectors

They are designed to provide early warning where a fire is expected

to have its origins in Class A combustibles and to progress through
distinct incipient and/or smoldering stages.

Heat Detectors

They are the ones which respond to the thermal energy from the fire.
Since thermal energy is available in abundance in all types of fires,
heat detectors provide a good method of fire detection. There are
three types of heat detectors: fixed temperature detectors, rate of rise
detectors and combination of fixed and rate of rise detectors.

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Ultra Violet /Infra Red (UV/IR) Detectors

UV flame detectors are spot type detectors intended or used in the UV

range below 4000 Angstrom, whereas IR detectors detect radiant
energy with wave lengths longer than approximately 7000 Angstrom.
Generally a combination of UV/IR detector is used in process areas
particularly at offshore installations.

Fusible Loop Systems

Fusible loop systems consisting of pressurized pneumatic lines

and strategically located fusible elements are the most widely used
automatic fire detection system. These systems are simple,
reliable, and have general industry acceptance.

Depending upon the location and material handling hazard involved, different types of
detectors are installed at onshore and offshore process plants:


Smoke Living area, switch gear room, lab, machine shop, control room,
battery charger room
Heat Kitchen, generator room, gas compressor, machine shop, labs.
UV /IR Open area, wellhead, risers, oil transfer pumps, turbine/ gas
enclosures, inside gas compressor
Fusible plug Above all vessels, flanges

Fire Sirens

Fire sirens are used as communication media to alert the persons in the installations,
buildings etc. They are located strategically to cover the whole area within the
operational control of the installation, building etc. Fire siren code is as follows:

1. Small Fire: No siren

2. Major Fire: A wailing siren for two minutes. Siren is sounded

three times for thirty seconds with an interval of fifteen
seconds in between.

3. Disaster: Same type of siren as in case of Major Fire but the

same is sounded for three times at the interval of two

4. All Clear (For fire): Straight run siren for two minutes.

5. Test: Straight run siren for two minutes

Fire Services Handbook Page 24 of 93

Chapter 7 First Aid Fire Equipment

7.1 First-Aid Fire Fighting Equipment

Portable and Mobile Fire Extinguishers
Fire Extinguishers are the first line of defence and are useful only in the incipient stages
of a fire. It is important that all personnel know how to operate fire extinguishers provided
in their area of work.
The Technical Parameters and other details of the Fire Extinguishers have been
mentioned in this Section. For their Operational Procedures, Circular No. 01/2013 and
01/2014 on Standard Operating Procedure (S.O.P.) for upkeepment of Fire Fighting
Equipment may be referred to.

Water Type Extinguisher

This is available in 9 ltrs. capacity and weigh about 14 Kg when fully charged. The
extinguisher contains water stored at atmospheric pressure. A CO2 Gas Cartridge is
fitted with cap assembly or the water is stored under pressure. The extinguisher is filled
with water upto a predetermined level. Fire extinguishers are available in cylindrical
shape. It is useful for Class A fires involving wood, textile, paper, etc.

Though Indian Standards viz. IS 940:2003 and IS 6234 : 2003 Specification for Portable
Fire Extinguishers, Water (Gas Cartridge) and Specification for Portable Fire
Extinguishers, Water Type (Stroed Pressure) respectively have been withdrawn with the
implementation of IS 15683 : 2006 for Portable Fire Extinguishers Performance and
Construction Specification, but in ONGC Fire Extinguishers conforming to these above
mentioned standards are still in use. Some important parameters of Extinguishers
conforming to IS 940:2003 & IS 6234: 2003 are as under:-
Parameters Gas Cartridge type As Stored pressure type
per IS 940 : 2003 As per IS 6234 : 2003
(fourth revision) (second revision)
Capacity 9 ltrs 9 ltrs
CO2 Gas Cartridge 60 gm Dry N2 Self Pressurised
Working Temperature 27+ 20C 27+ 20C
Test Pressure 25 Kg/Cm2 25 Kg/Cm2
Working Pressure 15 Kg/Cm2 15 Kg/Cm2
Dia of Cylinder 175 + 5 mm 175 + 5 mm
Jet Length Not less than 6 mtrs. Not less than 6 mtrs.
Duration of Discharge 60 120 Seconds 60 120 Seconds

Fire Services Handbook Page 25 of 93

As per ONGC approved specification based on latest version of IS 15683
Parameters Requirement
Extinguishing Media Water
Principle for Gas Cartridge Expulsion of water shall be by means of
Type compressed gas from a gas cartridge attached to
the cap
Principle for Stored Pressure Method of expulsion of water shall be by means of
Type stored pressure of dry nitrogen gas
Propellant for Cartridge Type Carbon Dioxide Gas Cartridge
Propellant for Stored Pressure Dry Nitrogen gas
Capacity (by volume) 2 ltr, 3 ltr, 6 ltr & 9 ltr.
Pressure Requirement Hydraulic Test pressure:- not less than 30 bar
Minimum burst pressure:- not less than 55 bar
Working Pressure Not more than 15 bar (kg/cm)
Operating Temparature (-) 100C to (+) 550C
Operating Position Upright

Operation of water type fire extinguisher

1. Take out extinguisher from the bracket/ cabinet

2. Pull or remove safety clip if present
3. Aim extinguisher at the base of the fire
4. Strike the plunger with palm
5. During striking keep your face away from extinguisher.
6. Directly charge water on base of Fire
7. For stored pressure type fire extinguisher , take out the safety pin squeeze the
operating lever and aim at the fire

Mechanical Foam Type Extinguisher

This is commonly available in 9 Ltrs capacity. It contains premixed solution of water and
AFFF within the container. A CO2 gas cartridge is fitted with cap assembly or the
premixed solution is stored under pressure. The foam produced is known as Mechanical
Foam used for Class B fire i.e. flammable liquids.

Though Indian Standards viz. IS 10204 : 2001 and IS 15397: 2003 i.e. Specification for
Portable Fire Extinguishers, Mechanical Foam Type and Specification for Portable Fire
Extinguishers, Mechanical Foam Type (Stroed pressure) have been withdrawn with the
implementation of IS 15683 : 2006 for Portable Fire Extinguishers Performance and
Construction Specification, but in ONGC Fire Extinguishers conforming to these above
mentioned standards are still in use. Some important parameters of Extinguishers
conforming to IS 10204:2001 & IS 15397 : 2003 are as under:-

Fire Services Handbook Page 26 of 93

Parameters Gas Cartridge type Stored Pressure type As per
As per IS 10204 : IS 15397:2003
Capacity 9 ltrs. 9 ltrs.
CO2 Gas Cartridge Capacity 60 gm Dry N2 Self Pressurised
Working Temperature Range 27+ 20C 27+ 20C
Test Pressure 25 Kg/Cm2 25 Kg/Cm2
Working Pressure 10 Kg/Cm2 10 Kg/Cm2
Dia of Cylinder 175 +10 mm 175 +10 mm
Jet Length > 6 mtrs > 6 mtrs
Duration of Discharge 60 90 Sec. 60 90 Sec.

As per ONGC approved specification based on latest version of IS 15683

Parameters Requirement
Extinguishing Media Pre Mix Foam solution (Water 97% & AFFF 3% concentration)
Foam concentrate UL 162 listed
Principle for Gas Expulsion of water shall be by means of compressed gas from a
Cartridge Type gas cartridge attached to the cap
Principle for Stored Method of expulsion of premixed solution shall be by means of
Pressure Type stored pressure of dry nitrogen gas
Propellant for Carbon dioxide gas cartridge
Cartridge Type
Propellant for Stored Dry nitrogen gas
Pressure Type
Capacity (by volume) 2 ltr, 3 ltr, 6 ltr & 9 ltr
Pressure requirement Hydraulic Test pressure:- not less than 30 bar
Minimum burst pressure not less than 55 bar
Working pressure Not more than 15 bar (kg/Cm2)
Operating (-) 10 to (+) 550C
Operating Position Upright

Operation of foam type fire extinguisher

1. Take out extinguisher from the bracket/cabinet
2. Pull or remove safety clip if present
3. Aim extinguisher on the opposite side wall of burning liquid container OR
4. Aim extinguisher such a way that Foam should gently flow over burning liquid
5. Strike the plunger with Palm
6. During striking keep your face away from extinguisher.
7. Directly discharge gently on to the burning liquid
8. For stored pressure type fire extinguisher , take out the safety pin squeeze the
operating lever and aim at the fire

DCP Type Extinguisher

Gas Cartridge Type:

DCP Fire Extinguishers of 5 Kg and 10 Kg capacity are operated by piercing CO2 Gas
Cartridges which expels DCP. In order to cover high fire risk, trolley /trailer mounted DCP
Fire Extinguisher of 25, 50, 75, 300 Kg capacity are also available but with separate CO2
cylinder, which is fitted outside the DCP vessel.

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DCP is charged in the extinguisher up to a predetermined level. The CO2 gas cartridge is
placed in an inner container which leads to the bottom of DCP Container. The inner
container has small holes over which plastic tube is fitted to function as a valve. The
DCP is discharged through a hose attached to upper portion of the outer container. A
squeeze grip nozzle is fitted at the end of the hose, which controls discharge of DCP.
The extinguisher is required to be carried / lifted with one hand and the DCP is to be
released and directed on to the seat of fire with other hand.These extinguishers are used
for the class B & C fire.

Though Indian Standards viz. IS 2171 : 1999 i.e. Specification for Portable Fire
Extinguishers Dry Chemical Powder (Cartridge Type) withdrawn with the implementation
of IS 15683 : 2006 for Portable Fire Extinguishers Performance and Construction
Specification, but in ONGC Fire Extinguishers conforming to the above mentioned
standard is still in use. Some important parameters of Extinguishers conforming to IS
2171 : 1999 are as under:-

As per IS 2171:1999 (fourth revision)

Capacity 10 kg 5 kg
CO2 Gas Cartridge Capacity 200 gm 120 gm
Working Temperature Range 27 2OC 27 2OC
Test Pressure 30 Kg/Cm2 30 Kg/Cm2
Working Pressure Range at 272 C 15 Kg/Cm2
15 Kg/Cm2
Dia of Cylinder (mm) 175 10 150 10
Jet Length (mm) >6 >4
Duration of Discharge (Sec) 20 - 30 15 20

Stored Pressure (Constant) Type Fire Extinguisher

Stored pressure type DCP extinguisher is recognized for its high efficiency in
extinguishing fires of class A and normal efficiency on fires of flammable Liquids as well
as Gases. Being electrically non conductive it can be used in fire involving live electrical
equipment. These Extinguishers are available in capacities of 1 to 10 kg.
DCP is stored in the cylinders under a gas (N2) pressure of 14 kg/cm2, which gets
discharged through the hose attached to the squeeze grip lever directly. A pressure
gauge is also fitted on the top of the cylinder. While operating the extinguisher, it is
required to be lifted and carried with one hand and the DCP is to be released and
directed on to the seat of fire with the other hand.

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Though Indian Standards viz. IS 13849 : 1993 i.e. Specification for Portable Fire
Extinguishers Dry Chemical Powder (Stored Pressure) Type withdrawn with the
implementation of IS 15683 : 2006 for Portable Fire Extinguishers Performance and
Construction Specification, but in ONGC Fire Extinguishers conforming to the above
mentioned standard is still in use. Some important parameters of Extinguishers
conforming to IS 13849 : 1993 are as under:-

As per IS 13849 : 1993

Capacity 1 kg 2 kg 5 kg 10 kg
Jet Length 4 mtrs 4 mtrs 4 mtrs. 4 mtrs.
Discharge time 6-12 sec. 6-12 sec. 15-25 sec. 15-25 sec.
Working Temperature Range 27 2OC 27 2OC 27 2OC 27 2OC
Test Pressure 30 Kg/cm2 30 Kg/cm2 30 Kg/cm2 30 Kg/cm2
Charged Pressure 14 Kg/cm 14 Kg/cm2 14 Kg/cm2 14 Kg/cm2

As per ONGC approved Specification based on latest version of IS 15683

Parameters Requirement
Powder Class A, B & C Mono Ammonium Phosphate (MAP) composition 90%,
UL listed/Classified.
Capacity (by mass of powder) 1 kg, 2 kg, 3 kg, 4 kg, 6 kg and 9 kg Capacity
Principle of Gas Cartridge Method of expulsion of dry powder shall be by means of
Type from gas cartridge
Principle of Stored Pressure Method of expulsion of dry powder shall be by means of
Type pressure produced by air/Carbon Di Oxide/Nitrogen or
mixture of these gases
Propellant for Gas Cartridge Carbon Dioxide Gas Cartridge
Propellent for Stored Pressure Air/Carbon Di Oxide/Nitrogen or mixture of these gases
Type having maximum dew point of (-) 55oC

Pressure Requirement Hydraulic Test pressure:- Conforming to IS 15683

Minimum burst pressure:- Conforming to IS 15683
Operating Temperature (-) 10 0C to (+) 550C
Working Pressure Not more than 15 bar (kg/cm2)
Operating Position Upright
Discharge Range 4 kg : 2 - 4 m (minimum distance)
9 kg : 2 - 6 m (minimum distance)
Average Discharge 4 kg : 10 - 12sec (minimum)
Time 9 kg : 13 - 15 sec (minimum)

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Operation of DCP type fire extinguisher

1. Take out extinguisher from the bracket/cabinet

2. Pull or Remove Safety Clip if present
3. Aim extinguisher at the base of the Fire
4. Strike the plunger with Palm
5. During striking keep your face away from extinguisher.
6. Directly charge DCP on base of flame in sweeping action
7. For stored pressure type fire extinguisher , take out the safety pin squeeze the
operating lever and aim at the fire

Carbon Di Oxide Type Extinguisher

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most commonly used compressed gas used in extinguishers
which is primarily intended for use on electrical fires. It is also effective on Class A fire
but only to some extent. CO2 is effective as an extinguishing agent because it reduces
the oxygen content of the air (Smothering Effect) to a point where the percentage of O2
will not be able to support combustion and thus fire is extinguished.

Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are available in different sizes i.e. 2, 4.5, 6.8 Kg. and
22.5 Kgs. CO2 is retained in a heavy metal shell (Cylinder) in a liquid stage at a pressure
of 64 Kg/Cm2 to 70 Kg/Cm2 at temperature below 31oC. The extinguisher consists of
pressure cylinder, a siphon tube, valve for releasing the carbon dioxide gas, a discharge
horn or a combination of discharge horn and hose. The siphon tube extends from the
valve to almost bottom of the cylinder, so that normally only a liquid carbon dioxide
reaches the discharge horn until about 80 percent of the content is discharged.

Indian Standard IS 2878 : 2004 i.e. Specification for Portable Fire Extinguisher Carbon
Di-oxide Type (portable) Capacity 2, 3 and 4.5 Kg withdrawn with the implementation of
IS 15683 : 2006. But, in ONGC still we are using Portable CO2 Extinguishers conforming
to IS 2878. Important parameters for Portable type CO2 Extinguishers conforming to IS
2878: 2004 are as under:-

IS 2878:2004 (third revision)

Capacity 6.8 kg 4.5 kg 2 kg
Complete weight Charged 23 kg 15 kg 6.2 kg
Filling Ratio 0.667 kg 0.667 kg 0.667 kg
Test Pressure 250 Kg/Cm2 250 Kg/Cm2 250 Kg/Cm2
Working Pressure Range at 27 20 C 10 Kg/Cm2 10 Kg/Cm2 10 Kg/Cm2
Dia of Cylinder 140 mm 140 mm 140 mm

Fire Services Handbook Page 30 of 93

Range of Discharge 6 mtrs. 6 mtrs. 4 mtrs.
Duration of Discharge 30 sec. 24 sec. 18 sec.

Based on the introduction of IS 15683:2006, ONGC has revised all technical

specifications for Portable Extinguishers and important parameters for Portable CO2
Type Extinguishers are as under:-

As per ONGC approved specification based on latest version of IS 15683

Parameters Requirement
Extinguishing media CO2 (Carbon Di Oxide) used in extinguisher shall comply
with IS 15222
Capacity (CO2) by mass 2 kg, 3 kg, 4.5 kg
Filling requirement The maximum fill density for CO2 extinguisher shall not
exceed 0.75 kg/ltr
Filling tolerance The actual charges of an extinguisher shall be nominal
charge within the limit of filling tolerance of (0) but not
more than - 5% by mass.
Filling ratio Not more than 0.667 0.033 %
Maximum service pressure Not more than 60 kg/cm2
Hydraulic Test pressure 250 kg/cm2
Operating temperature (-) 100 to (+) 550C

Operation of CO2 type fire extinguisher

1. Take out extinguisher from the bracket/cabinet or move the extinguisher on

2. Hold the handle firmly and transfer the extinguisher to fire spot
3. Pull or remove safety pin if present
4. Hold the discharge horn firmly
5. Open the cylinder valve in anticlockwise direction
6. Directly charge CO2 on base of flame in sweeping action

Trolley/Trailer Mounted Mechanical Foam Type Extinguisher

This is available in 50 Ltrs capacity. It contains premixed solution

of water and AFFF within the container. A CO2 gas cartridge is
fitted with cap assembly. The foam produced is known as
Mechanical Foam and used for Class B fire i.e. flammable
liquids. This type of Fire Extinguisher

Based on IS 13386 : 1992, ONGC has approved technical

specification for 50 Ltrs capacity and important parameters are
as under:-

As per ONGC approved Specification based on

IS 13386 : 1992 (Reaffirmend 2007)
Capacity 50 0.5 Ltrs
Out side Diameter 300 25 mm
Neck Ring Diameter 75 mm
Capacity of CO2 Gas Cartridge 300 3
Test Pressure 30 Kg/Cm2
Working Pressure Range at 27 20 C 20 Kg/Cm2
Safety Valve pop up Pressure 25 Kg/Cm2
Range of Discharge 10 mtrs.
Duration of Discharge 180 Sec.

Fire Services Handbook Page 31 of 93

Operation of trolley mounted foam type fire extinguisher
1. Carry the extinguisher near the fire and place at a distance of 5-6 mtrs. from the
seat of fire
2. Unroll the delivery hose
3. Aim extinguisher on the opposite side wall of burning liquid container OR
4. Aim extinguisher such a way that Foam should gently flow over burning liquid
5. Strike the plunger with Palm
6. During striking keep your face away from extinguisher.
7. Directly discharge gently on to the burning liquid

Trolley/Trailer Mounted DCP Type Extinguisher

Trolley /trailer mounted DCP Fire Extinguishers of 25, 50 and 75 Kg capacity are
provided at various locations
depending on type of risk. DCP is
charged in the extinguisher upto a
predetermined level. CO2 gas cylinder
with wheel type valve is fitted outside
the main DCP body and it is to be
operated manually to expel the DCP.
The CO2 is supplied to the main
container through copper tube. DCP is
discharged through the long hose
attached to the main DCP Container.
A discharge nozzle at the end of the
hose controls discharge of DCP from
the extinguisher.

Capacity 25 Kg 50 Kg 75 Kg
Out side Diameter 750 mm 750 mm 750 mm
Neck Ring Diameter 75 mm 75 mm 75 mm
Capacity of CO2 Gas Cartridge 1.5 Ltrs 3 Ltrs. 3 Ltrs.
Test Pressure 30 Kg/Cm2 30 Kg/Cm2 30 Kg/Cm2
Working Pressure Range at 27 20 C 15 Kg/Cm2 15 Kg/Cm2 15 Kg/Cm2
Safety Valve pop up Pressure 20 Kg/Cm2 20 Kg/Cm2 20 Kg/Cm2
Range of Discharge 6 mtrs. 8 mtrs. 10 mtrs
Duration of Discharge 30 Sec. 50 Sec 60 Sec

Operation of trolley mounted DCP type fire extinguisher

1. Carry the extinguisher near the fire and place at a distance of 5-6 mtrs. from the
seat of fire
2. Unroll the delivery hose
3. Open the CO2 cylinder valve
4. Squeeze the nozzle and direct the jet of powder on the fire in sweeping motion.

Trolley Mounted Carbon Di Oxide Type Extinguisher

Fire Services Handbook Page 32 of 93

These are mostly available in the range of 6.8 kg to 22.5 kg
capacity. The extinguisher consists of a pressure cylinder,
a siphon tube, valve for releasing the carbon dioxide gas, a
discharge horn or a combination of discharge horn and
hose. The siphon tube extends from the valve to almost
bottom of the cylinder so that only liquid carbon dioxide
reaches the discharge horn normally until about 80 percent
of the content is discharged. The remaining 20 percent of
the content enters in the siphon tube as a gas. It is only in
the discharge horn that liquid carbon dioxide vaporizes as
CO2 gas and thus the discharge horn plays a very vital role
in CO2 type fire extinguisher.

Operation of trolley mounted CO2 type fire extinguisher

1. Carry the extinguisher near the fire and place at a safe distance from the seat of
2. Unroll the delivery hose
3. Hold the discharge horn firmly
4. Open the CO2 cylinder valve
5. Direct CO2 on the seat of fire in sweeping motion.

7.2 Deployment of Extinguishers

For a fire extinguisher to be effective, the following conditions must be met:

 The extinguisher must be right for the type of fire

 It must be located where it can be easily reached

 It must be in good working order

 The fire must be discovered while it is still small

 The person using the extinguisher must be trained to use it properly

 Locate fire extinguishers such that

 they are visible, along with their operating instructions and identification marks;

 where they can be easily reached (i.e., they must not be blocked by machines or

 in or near corridors or aisles leading to exits however, they must not block

 close to potential fire hazards, but not so close that they could be damaged or cut
off by a fire;

 where they will not expose people using them to undue risk, e.g., using a Halon
or CO2 extinguisher in an unventilated area

Fire Services Handbook Page 33 of 93

 where they will not be damaged by moving vehicles, cranes or other work
activities, or corroded by chemical processes

 so that they are protected against the elements like rain, dust etc (if stored

 Where highly combustible material is stored in small rooms or enclosed


 locate the extinguisher outside of the room (this will force the potential user to
exit the room and then decide whether to re-enter it to fight the fire).

 For service rooms that contain electrical equipment:

 locate extinguishers in or near the room.

 On vehicles or in areas where extinguishers are subject to jarring or


 mount extinguishers on brackets designed to withstand vibration.

Tips for safe use of fire extinguishers

1. Test that the extinguisher works before you approach the fire.

2. Protect yourself at all times.

3. Take care. Speed is essential but it is more important to be cautious.

4. Keep your back to the exit at all times and stand 2 to 2.4m (6 to 8 ft.) away
from the fire.

5. Many fire extinguishers will work on a combination of fire classes. You will
need to decide what type of fire you have, and ensure that your fire
extinguisher is compatible with the fire you are attempting to extinguish.

6. Since the the capacity and discharge duration of fire exinguisher is very less ,
operate the extinguisher only after reaching the site of fire incident

7. Ready the fire extinguisher. Almost all fire extinguishers have a safety pin in
the handle, (usually looks like a plastic or metal ring, sometimes colored red,
which is held in place by a plastic seal.) This will vary on the type of fire
extinguisher you have. Ensure that you are familiar with how your fire
extinguisher works. You must break the seal and pull the safety pin from the
handle before squeezing the lever which discharges the fire extinguishing

8. Aim for the base of the fire. Shooting into the flame is a waste of your fire
extinguisher as you are not putting out the source of the flame. It is very
important that you stop the fire at the source or remove the fuel from the fire if
possible to put the fire out. That is why you need to focus your spray at the
base of the fire or the source.

9. Always try to operate the fire extiguisher in the upwind direction i.e try to
discharge the extinguishing agent in the direction of wind to get maxiumm

Fire Services Handbook Page 34 of 93

throw, more area coverage and reduced exposure of the exinguishing agent
to the operator

10. Follow the 4-step P-A-S-S procedure:

"P" stands for PULL the pin - This will unlock the operating
handle and allow you to
discharge the extinguisher.

"A" stands for AIM - Aim the discharge at the

base of fire.

"S" stands for SQUEEZE - Squeeze the operating

handle. This will discharge
the fire fighting agent

"S" stands for SWEEP - Sweep the nozzle from side

to side. Move carefully in on
the fire, aiming at the base,
sweep back and forth.
11. Immediately after use, never try to open the cap or discharge nozzle of the
12. Suitable shades or covers should be provided to protect extinguishers in the
open from excessive heat, cold, rains or corrosive environment. Where such
shades or covers are provided, they should be designed so that the removal
of extinguishers i not hampered in the event of fire.

13. The maximum travel distance from any point of the facility to an extinguisher
location shall not exceed 15 m.

Fire Services Handbook Page 35 of 93

Fire Services Handbook Page 36 of 93
Fire Bucket

Fire buckets are of 9 ltrs. capacity and placed at strategic location in

the plant and building. Buckets are filled with water /sand and used for
controlling spills and fighting incipient fires. The buckets have round
shaped bottom to avoid any misuse.Spreading sand on the hot spot
and wetting down with water provides a convenient means of fire

Fire Beater
They are used for controlling bush fires. They have a rectangular
shaped mesh fitted in a long wooden handle.

Fire Blanket

It is another extinguishing media for fires especially for human

beings engulfed in fire.The victim is stopped, dropped and rolled
down in the blanket to put off the fire. Blanket can also be used on
small fires when no fire extinguisher is available. It can also be
used as a screen to prevent sparks from reaching combustible
materials around welding, cutting and grinding operations

Hose reel

These are rubber hose of 19 -25 mm dia. having length of 30-60 mtrs.
mounted on a hose reel drum . A small nozzle is fitted at the end of the
hose for regulating the discharge of water. These hose reel are fitted
with wet riser/down comer and generally housed in a cabinet. The
advantage of hose reel is that it can be easily uncoiled by pulling by a
single person and water can be directed on the fire.

Fire Services Handbook Page 37 of 93


(A) Onshore installations (Drilling Rig, Work over Rigs, EPS, GGS, ETP, WHI
and QPS) as per OISD 189

Sr. Type of Area Fire Extinguishers

Drilling Rig/Workover Rig
1. Derrick/Rig Floor 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers.
2. Engine Area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher per engine.
3. Mud Preparation Pump Area 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher/ 1 No. 10 Kg DCP
4. Mud Gunning Pump Area 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher/ 1 No. 10 Kg DCP
5. Electrical Control Room 2 Nos. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguishers.
6. Diesel Generator House 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP and 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2
extinguishers and 1/2 sand drum with scoop.
7. Mud Mixing Tank Area and 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher each.
Chemical Laboratory
8. Diesel Storage Area 2 No. 25 Kg trolley mounted and 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP
extinguishers and 1/2 sand drum with scoop.
9. Lube Storage Area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher and 1/2 sand drum
with scoop.
10. Air Compressor Area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher per compressor.
11. Fire Pump Area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every two
pumps or min 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for
each Pump House whichever is higher.
12. DIC Office, bunk house area 1 No. fire extinguisher shed with 3 No. 10 kg DCP
and 3 NO. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher and 1/2 sand
drum with scoop.
1 No. fire bell
Early Production Set-up/Quick Production Set-up/Well Head Installation
1. Separator/Group Unit Area 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers and 1/2 sand
drum with scoop.
2. Despatch Pump Area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for each pump or
min 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers for each
pump area whichever is higher.
3. Storage Tank Area 1 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers per tank or min 2
Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers whichever is higher.
4. Switchgear Area 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher for every 25 m2 or
part thereof.
5. Diesel Generator House 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP and 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2
extinguishers and 1/2 sand drum with scoop.
6. Office area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every 100 m2 or
minimum 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers for each
floor of building whichever is higher.
1 No. fire extinguisher shed with 3 No. 10 kg DCP
and 3 No. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher 1/2 sand drum
with scoop.
1 No. fire bell
7 Tank Truck 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for each point plus 2
Loading/Unloading Area No. 25 Kg DCP extinguishers for each
loading/unloading area.
Gas Collection Station and Gas Compression Plant
1. Gas Compressor Area 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers for every 50 m2 or
part thereof.

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2. Glycol Dehydration Unit 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers for each unit.
3. Air Compressor Area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher per compressor.
4. Condensate Recovery Unit 2 Nos. 10 Kg and 2 No. 25 Kg DCP extinguishers.
5. Switchgear Area 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher for every 25 m2 or
part thereof.
6. Office area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every 100 m2 or
minimum 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers for each
floor of building whichever is higher.
1 No. fire extinguisher shed with 3 No. 10 kg DCP
and 3 NO. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher 1/2 sand drum
with scoop.
1 No. fire bell.
7. Computer Room and Control 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher per room
8. Canteen 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher per 100 m2 of floor
area or part thereof or 1 No. 10 DCP Kg
extinguisher per room whichever is higher.
9. Tank Truck 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for each point plus 2
Loading/Unloading Area No. 25 Kg DCP extinguishers for each
loading/unloading area.
Group Gathering Station/Oil Collecting Station/Effluent Treatment Plant
1. Separator Area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every 100 m2 or
part thereof.
2. Oil Dispatch Pump Area 2 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every pump
3. Manifold Area 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers per manifold.
4. Storage Tank Area 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers for each tank.
2 Nos. 25 Kg DCP extinguisher for each tank farm
5. Diesel Generator House 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP and 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2
extinguishers and 1/2 sand drum with scoop.
6. Fire Water Pump, Disposal 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every two pumps
Water Pump, Chemical or min 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for each
Dozing Pump Area and Pump House whichever is higher.
Water Clarification Plant
7. Tank Truck Loading / 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for each point plus 2
Unloading Area No. 25 Kg DCP extinguishers for each loading /
unloading area.
8. Emulsion Treater Area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for each unit
9. Lube Oil/Fuel Storage Area 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every 100 m2 or
part thereof or minimum 2 Nos. in each storage
area whichever is higher.
10. Main Switchgear Room 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher for every 25 m2 or
part thereof.
11. Boiler Area/Bath Heater 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP and 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2
12. Administrative Building 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every 100 m2 or
minimum 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers for each
floor of building whichever is higher.
1 No. fire extinguisher shed with 3 No. 10 kg DCP
and 3 NO. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher 1/2 sand drum
with scoop. 1 No. fire bell.
13. Computer Room and Control 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher per room.
14. Canteen 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher per 100 m2 of floor
area or part thereof or 1 No. 10 DCP Kg
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extinguisher per room whichever is higher.
15. Laboratory 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher and 1 No. 6.8 Kg
CO2 extinguisher.
16. Workshop 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher and 1 No. 2 Kg CO2
17. Oil Sample Storage Room 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher per 100 m2 of floor
area or part therefore or 1 No. 10 Kg DCP
extinguisher per room whichever is higher.
18. Transformer 1 No. 10 Kg. DCP extinguisher per transformer.
19. UPS/Charger Room 1 No. 2 Kg. CO2 extinguisher per room.

(B) Petroleum Depots, Terminals & Lube Oil Installations as per OISD 117

Sr. No. Type of Area Scale of Portable Fire Extinguishers

1. Lube Godown 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every 200 m2 or
min. 2 Nos. in each Godown whichever is higher.
2. Lube Filling Shed 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for 200 m2 or min. 2
Nos. in each Shed whichever is higher
3. Storage of (Class A / B) in 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for 100 m2 or min. 2
Packed containers and Nos. in each Storage Area whichever is higher.
stored in open / closed
4. Pump House (Class A / B)
Up to 50 HP 1 No. 10 Kg DCP for 2 pumps.
Above 50-100 HP 1 No. 10 Kg DCP for each pump.
Beyond 100 HP 2 Nos. of 10 kg or 1 no. of 25 kg DCP for each pump.
5. Pump House (Class C)
Up to 50 HP 1 no. 10Kg DCP for every 4 pumps up to 50 HP.
Above 50 HP 2 nos. 10 Kg DCP or 1x25 kg DCP for 4 pumps.
6. Tank Truck loading & 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for each bay plus 1
unloading gantry for No. 75 Kg DCP extinguisher for each gantry.
POL/Special products
7. Tank Wagon loading 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every 30 m of
and unloading gantry/siding /siding plus 1 No. 75 Kg DCP extinguisher for each
8. A/G Tank Farm 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers for each tank plus 4
Nos. 25 Kg DCP extinguishers for each Tank Farm
positioned at four corners. In case of adjoining tank
farms, the no. of 25 Kg extinguishers may be
reduced by 2 nos. per tank farm.
9. U/G Tank Farm 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for each Tank Farm
10. Other Pump Houses 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every two pumps
or min 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for each Pump
House whichever is higher.
11. Admin. Building/Store 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for every 200 m2 or
House min. 2 Nos. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers for each floor
of Building/Store whichever is higher.
12. DG Room 2 Nos. each 10 Kg DCP & 4.5 Kg CO2 extinguishers
for each DG room.
13. Main switch Room/Sub- 1 No. 4.5 Kg CO2 extinguisher for every 25 m2 plus 1
Station No. 9 Liter sand bucket per transformer bay.
14. Computer Room/ Cabin 2 Nos. of 2 Kg CO2 or 2 Nos. of 2.5 Kg Clean Agent
extinguisher per Computer Room and 1 No. 2 Kg
CO2 or 1 No. 1.0 Kg Clean Agent Extinguisher per

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15. Security Cabin 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher per cabin.
16. Canteen 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher for 100 m2.
17. Workshop 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher & 1 No. 2 Kg CO2
18. Laboratory 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher & 1 No. 4.5 Kg CO2
19. Oil Sample Storage Room 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher per 100 m2 or min. 1
no. 10 Kg extinguisher per room whichever is higher.
20. Effluent Treatment Plant 1 No. 75 Kg. & 2 nos. 10 Kg. DCP Extinguisher
21. Transformer 1 No. 10 Kg. DCP extinguisher.
22. UPS / Charger Room 1 No. 2 Kg. CO2 extinguisher.

Pipeline Installations
Sr. No. Type of Area Scale of Portable Fire Extinguishers
1. Main line pump shed 1No. 75 Kg DCP, 10 Kg DCP & 6.8 Kg CO2
(Engine / Motor Driven) extinguishers per two pumps up to a maximum of 4
2. Booster Pump 1 No. 10 Kg DCP per two pumps up to a maximum of
3 nos. and 1 No. 6.8 Kg CO2 extinguisher.
3. Sump Pump, Transmix 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher.
Pump & Oil Water
Separator Pump
4. Scrapper Barrel 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher.
5. Control Room 2 Nos. 2.5 Kg Clean Agent and 1 No. 4.5 Kg CO2
6. UHF / Radio Room 2 Nos. 2.5 Kg Clean Agent and 1 No. 4.5 Kg CO2
7. Meter Prover / Separator 1 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguisher.
8. Repeater Station 1 No. 10 Kg DCP & 1 No. 2 Kg CO2 extinguisher.
9. Mainline Emergency 4 Nos. 10 Kg DCP &
Equipment Centre 2 Nos. 2 Kg CO2 extinguishers.
10. Air Compressor 1 No. 2 Kg CO2 & 1 No. 5 Kg DCP extinguisher.
(C) Refinery/Process Plant as per OISD 117

Sr. No. Type of Area Scale of Portable Fire Extinguishers

1. Process Units, i. Dry chemical powder (DCP)* fire
Pump Houses, extinguishers - 10 kg capacity: IS: 15683 /
Pump Area, UL299.
LPG Storage Area, Note:
LPG Bottling Plant,
The number should be determined based
Oil Separator, Tank
on the max. Traveling distance of 15 M in
Truck/ Tank Wagon Loading
above areas. At least one fire extinguisher
shall be provided for every 250 m2 of
hazardous operating area.
Work Shops,
There shall be not less than two
extinguishers at one designated location
Power Station Buildings etc.
e.g. pump house.
ii. Dry chemical powder fire extinguishers
25/50/75 kg capacity: IS: 10658 / UL299 (in
addition to 10kg DCP requirement).
The extinguishers with the selection
criteria viz. flow rate, discharge time and
throw mentioned as above, to be located
in critical operating areas.
At least one fire extinguisher should be

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provided for every 750 m2 of hazardous
operating area.
iii. CO2 extinguishers 4.5/6.5/9.0/22.5 kg
capacity (IS:2878/UL154)
To be located in substations, power
stations, office building and control room.
The number should be determined based
on the maximum traveling distance of 15
At least one fire extinguisher shall be
provided for every 250 m2 of hazardous
operating area. There shall not be less
than 2nos. extinguishers at one
designated location e.g. control room.
iv. Portable clean agent extinguishers
This should be as an alternate to CO2
To be located in control rooms, computer
rooms, laboratories and office buildings.

(D) Geophysical Parties / Explosive Magazines / Temporary Structures

Sr. No. Type of Area Scale of Portable Fire Extinguishers

1. Geophysical Type A 25 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers
Parties 05 No. 4.5 Kg CO2 extinguishers
Type B 10 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers
05 No. 4.5 Kg CO2 extinguishers
2. Explosive Type A 04 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers
Magazines 04 No. 4.5 Kg CO2 extinguishers
Type B 01 No. 10 Kg DCP extinguishers
01 No. 4.5 Kg CO2 extinguishers
3. Temporary For every 100 01 No. Water Type extinguishers
Structures M2 area 01 No. 4.5 Kg CO2 extinguisher

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Chapter - 8 Awareness, Training and Drills

Hydrocarbon fires are highly complex in nature as these are associated with
some of the most complex chemicals producing toxic vapours and other by-products
whose harmful effects are always not well known. Fire fighting operations in such cases
would require specialized skills and knowledge about the chemical properties of various
hydrocarbons and other chemicals. Fire personnel of ONGC are constantly exposed to
the threat of hydrocarbon fires in all the operational areas and so need to be aware
about the risks associated with combating Oil and Gas fires and various protective
measures against the hazards resulting from such fires.

8.1 Awareness
Creating awareness on fire safety is a continuous process which can be achieved
through methods of theoretical education associated with practical demonstrations
organized by professionals dealing with the subject. Fire prevention, which is the most
desired aspect of fire safety, can be possible only through training imparted to staff at all
levels on the basic principles of fire prevention measures that could ensure protection
from the hazards of fire and effective fire fighting operations, in case of fire, in spite of all
preventive and protective measures. To meet the above requirement a suitable training
programme need to be evolved and incorporated in the fire safety plan of each
Asset/Basin/Work Centre.

For general fire safety awareness the following precautions are recommended:
1. Smoking is strictly prohibited in all the plants, storage tanks areas and near the
effluent drains and gutters. Smoking should be restricted to earmarked area on the
offshore installations and "no smoking" areas should be clearly identified by
warning signs.
2. No one shall light a fire or otherwise cause a possible source of ignition in the
installations except under the authority of a work permit which has to be in
accordance with applicable standards.
3. All employees should make it a point to familiarize themselves with the fire
extinguishers and other fire-fighting equipment in their specific job locations.
Prompt action is essential for effective fire-fighting and knowledge of the location
and use of the equipment are necessary for taking immediate action.
4. Employees must keep fire-fighting equipment and protective gears in easily
accessible places at all times. The piling of materials in front of fire equipment or
otherwise blocking access to the equipment should not be allowed.
5. The concerned area incharge should ensure that all employees under his control
are acquainted fully with the fire orders as well as operations and availability of first
aid fire- fighting equipment.
6. Employees of oil and gas installation must wear personal protective equipment.
7. Any electrical spark due to loose contacts any where inside the area must be
immediately brought to the notice of the area manager and electrical department
simultaneously. The portions of the electrical line where sparks are observed
should be put off by operating switches, if possible.
8. Preventive maintenance of all electrical equipment must be carried out periodically
9. Non-sparking tools (e.g. B-brass tools, safety torches, etc.) shall be provided for
use in the oil and gas zone.

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10. The installation must be kept clean of dry grass, bushes, rags, papers or any such
unwanted materials, which can act as fuel to the fire. Further the limited area
outside the installation should also be kept clean.
11. No vehicle shall be allowed inside the installation without spark arrestor.
12. In the event of fire or any emergency, persons not concerned in coping with the fire
or emergency shall stay away from the area involved.
13. Good housekeeping is an important part of any fire prevention programme. Keep
work areas free of combustible waste and other trash. Employees should not leave
oily rags and oily clothes in lockers, tool boxes, working areas etc.
14. There should be provision for safe handling and separate storage of dirty rags and
waste oil. Flammable liquids and chemicals spilled should be immediately cleaned.
15. Containers of paints and hydrocarbon samples, gas cylinders for welding and
cutting should be segregated / stored properly. Gas cylinders should be transported
in hand-carts.
16. Cutting and welding operations should be conducted in accordance with safety
procedures and with work permit.
17. Particular attention should be given to oil pumps, seals, diesel and gas engines
which could be potential source of ignition in the event of a failure.
18. Safety signages shall be provided at strategic locations of the installations, offices,
plants, residential colonies, etc. to provide guidance to the occupants during the
emergency evacuation

8.2 Training
Training plays a very important role in fire
prevention and fire fighting capability and
effectiveness. It helps also in reducing the
extent of damage in the event of a fire, as
also prevents the fire from spreading out.
It is very essential to train all employees in
all aspects of fire prevention which will
eliminate damage to machinery /
equipment and injury to personnel. Also it
is necessary to train everyone in basic fire
fighting so that they are aware of the
correct actions to be taken in case of a fire.
Oil and gas operations like drilling, production, processing, transportation and distribution
are hazardous. Therefore, fire safety training receives great attention in ONGC. Fire
Safety Training is not only about how to operate a fire extinguisher but, it also starts with
fire prevention, and for this, it is important to have certain basic knowledge of
combustion, fire hazard properties, and the potentially dangerous processes in each
area. Fire safety training; therefore, takes care of the following important factors:
1. Build up the right attitude amongst the
2. Basic and clear information on the phenomenon
of fire combustion.
3. Information on the correct fire fighting
4. Information on First-Aid, and Rescue
5. Knowledge of the Emergency Plan of the

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8.3 Training of Fire Personnel
The aim of imparting training to fire services personnel is not only to make them
proficient in their duties but also to prepare them to perform duties of higher
Training Needs Identification (TNI) is being carried out for different levels of employees
which are further evaluated for their efficiency and effectiveness.

Identified Training modules for Fire Services


Non-Executives Executive


A fire drill for fire personnel is a method of practicing laid down procedures in carrying
out fire fighting related operations as prescribed in the Drill Manual formulated by
National Fire Service College (NFSC). Practice / mock drills conducted in real life
situations involving other personnel are intended to practice the evacuation of a premise
/ installation for a fire or other emergency. Usually, the emergency alarm sounds and the
premises / installation is evacuated as though a real fire had occurred. The time it takes
to evacuate is measured to ensure that it occurs within a reasonable length of time, and
problems with the emergency system or evacuation procedures are identified to be

The purpose of fire drill for Fire Services personnel is to train them to perform their
operational activities in an efficient and effective manner in case of any eventuality. It
enables a leader to move his command from one place to another in an orderly manner.
It aids in disciplined conduct in training by instilling habits of precision and prompt
response to the leaders orders.


Squad Drill: Squad drill is practiced to

regulate the turn out and actions of Fire
Service Personnel on various parade
activities in accordance with the relevant
orders used as commands. The squad drill
involves marching in various functions and
other manoeuvres done in orderly manner.

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Hose Drill: It includes the general movements to be made for handling delivery hoses
such as lifting the hoses, carrying, unrolling, connecting, disconnecting, under running
and rolling of the delivery hoses.

Hydrant Drill: This involves the usage of hydrant, stand pipe, hydrant key, dividing
breeching, collecting breeching, etc. It can be performed either in a batch of three or

Trailer Pump Drill: It can be performed both from open water source and
hydrant/pressure fed supply, which includes the operation of Trailer Fire Pump (TFP),
usage of suction hose, suction wrench, strainer etc

Ladder Drill: An extension ladder is pitched at the appropriate location and crew
members climb and descend down as per the orders of the commander.

Appliance Drill: Various operations of Fire Fighting Appliances such as water tender,
Foam Tender, Emergency Rescue Tender, DCP Tender, etc. are demonstrated and
performed by the Fire Personnel. The crew of this drill includes the driver cum pump
operator with alongwith other fire fighting personnel.

Breathing Apparatus Drill: It is the most vital drill as the Fire Personnel many times
have to face oxygen deficient atmospheres with toxic and Poisons gases. It includes
assembling of cylinder, back plate&face mask and donning of the breathing apparatus,
conducting pre entry test, entering the smoke filled area, searching and rescuing the

Communication Drill: This drill has great importance for the Fire Crew Leader and the
Control Room personnel as the communication system plays a significant part in fire
service operation. It provides essential information about Walkie-Talkies sets and
acquaintance with Radio Telephonic (RT) procedure to be followed.

Rescue Drill: Fire service personnel are expected to carry out salvage as well as rescue
operation while performing fire fighting operations. During fire scenario, it is imperative to
perform the Search and Rescue (SAR) operations along with fire fighting. Picking up and
lowering an unconscious person , usage of stretchers as well as transporting the
casualty from one place to another by various methods like two hand seat, three hand
seat, making an improvised stretcher, etc. are the part of this drill.

8.4.2 Mock Fire Drill

(A) Mock Fire Drill at Onshore Installations

Mock fire drill is to be conducted once in a month to rehearse the fire emergency
procedures and to keep the fire fighting team trained and alert, as also to keep the fire
fighting facilities in working order.

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Following procedures need to be followed while conducting mock fire drill:

1. Person who first notices the fire shouts Fire, Fire, Fire and three times the word fire
in local language.
2. He also raises the alarm through hooter.
3. All installation personnel assemble at designated assembly point.
4. Inform the nearest fire station and concerned agencies and authorities about the fire
5. Before the arrival of fire vehicle try to extinguish the fire with available fire fighting
6. In case of major/uncontrolled fire, cut off the supply of oil/gas to the scene of fire
7. After arrival of fire vehicle the leader of fire crew reports to the site incharge/site
8. The fire team starts rescue and fire fighting operation.
9. After completion of rescue and fire fighting operation the fire team leader reports
back to the site incharge/site commander and leaves for fire station.
10. An analysis of the drill is carried out to assess the areas of concern, deficiencies,
etc. to make necessary amenments in future.

(B) Mock fire drill at offshore installations

Mock fire drills are conducted to familiarize all personnel with all aspects of fire-fighting
and safe evacuation at offshore installations. These drills are conducted as per the
annual schedule. However, surprise drills may be conducted once a year.

Persons to attend: Fire-fighting team and others as appropriate

1. Fire-fighting team members shall be made familiar with the muster point relevant to
the location of fire incident. Muster points through out the installation should be
known to each team member and other personnel
2. Fire-fighting team members shall be familiar with every location where fire
equipments including protective clothing are stored and of recognized areas covered
by different fixed firefighting systems.
3. Fire-fighting teams should record access route sessions as important and physically
explore routes at regular intervals and incorporate these in drill sessions.
4. A sample procedure for fire-fighting drill is given as under:

Announcement on PA system is made.

Mustering Station:

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The mustering is done at the fire-fighting muster station for that location. All the other
personnel (other than the fire fighting team members) proceed to their assigned muster

Mustering Incharges:
The fire-fighting team leader is responsible for taking the head count of the fire fighting
team members. The mustering incharge at the muster station take the head count of all
the other personnel to assure that all personnel have reached the muster station safely.

Actions to be taken by the fire-fighting team members:

All the fire-fighting team members report to the fire-fighting muster station. These team
members shall be in proper kits and leveries like clothing, hard hats, safety shoes and
safety gloves. Fire protection suit may also be worn, if required. Life jackets shall not be
worn by the team during the drill.

Actions to be taken by all persons on-board:

All the persons report to life boat station assigned. These persons shall don proper
clothing like overall and life vest. Hard hats, safety shoes and safety gloves shall be worn
during the drill.

After mustering:
The fire-fighting team leader informs the OIM about the team members not mustered.
Then the leader directs all the team members to fight the fire and assign various duties
to them viz. starting fire water pump, extinguishing medium to be used, gathering and
using the various fire-fighting equipment etc. Communications between the team leader
and process control room is included in all fire-fighting drills.

Completion of drill:
The fire-fighting team leader ensures that the fire-fighting equipment used in the drill are
returned to a state of readiness. The fire-fighting drill report and the muster list is
returned to HSE Manager/ OIM. Detailed guidelines for offshore mock drill are
deliberated in Emergency Response Plan of the respective platforms.

C) High Rise Building Mock Fire Drill

Fire protection management of high rise buildings as laid down in National Building Code
makes the buildings reasonably safe. However, the life safety equation in high rise
building would depend on the people who live and work in these buildings responding to
crisis situation in the most appropriate manner to follow the evacuation process.
The concerned authorities must inspect and maintain the escape routes, fire protection
equipment such as the fire pump, sprinkler system, hydrant, risers, fire alarm, PA
system, inlet connection and emergency power system and test the systems frequently.
Moreover, it is necessary that the occupants participate in mock fire drills so that they
can handle any emergency efficientely.
As per NBC provision E-3.1, fire drills are to be conducted in accordance with fire safety
plan, atleast once in every three months for the existing building during the first
two years and thereafter, atleast once in every six months. Fire Contingency Plans
needs to be drawn up and fire drills need to follow these palns.
For successful mock fire drill in multistoried buildings, following guidelines shall be
1. The respective Floor Marshals and their teams will immediately be at the scene of
fire / emergency of their respective floors on getting the information of fire / other

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2. Floor Marshals will order evacuation only after consultation with I/c Fire Fighting
3. Floor Marshals of affected floor
will inform the Fire Section,
Security Section, Electrical
Sub-station and AC plant
operator on telephone.
4. Once evacuation is ordered the
Search & Rescue (SAR) party
will guide the staff to the
designated stair-case in a
disciplined manner. SAR Party
will systematically search the
floor, bathrooms, toilets, store-
rooms and other places where
a person may hide himself,
Special attention should be given to physically disabled persons, ladies and children
on each floor.
5. The employees shall evacuate only on orders received from Floor Marshals or
announced over PA system.
6. When evacuation is ordered by Officer In charge or announced over P.A. system the
employees must remember the following:
a) Remain calm and cool, do not create panic.
b) Walk, do not run or attempt to pass or push others, allow physically disabled
persons and ladies to go first.
c) Use staircase only, do not use lift.
d) Go down the stairs; do not go up on the roof.
e) While going down the stairs, form two lines, one along the wall and other along
the railing of the stair case.
f) Do not take refuge in toilets / store rooms / AHU room or any other such place.
g) If trapped in a room filled with smoke, cover your face with a wet towel. Lie-down
and crawl towards the escape route / place of safety.
h) Wait for fire fighting / search & rescue party; do not jump from windows.
i) Be available for roll call at the designated assembly points.
j) Do not re-enter the building till all clear alarm is given.

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Chapter 9 Onshore Fire Facilities

9.1 Fire Station

A fire station is the basic operational Centre of ONGC Fire Service in the Asset /
Plant/Installation. In major Work Centres the main, centrally located fire station is
designated as Main Fire Station for coordinating the activities of other fire stations.
Main Fire Station has minimum two authorised manned fire tenders for initial emergency
response. All other fire stations in the Work Centres are called as Sub-Fire Station. In
smaller Work Centres sub Fire Stations can perform the role of the Main Fire Station of
the Work Centre.

The normal jurisdiction of the fire station extends to the whole of the area of the
concerned Asset/Plant/Installation.It is placed under the charge of I/C Fire Services of
the Asset/Plant/Installation. It is located in a strategic location in the Asset/Plant and
spaced at a safe distance from any process plant and other hazardous areas. The
manpower requirement and authorization of equipment etc are as per approved norms.

In the 249th meeting of EC, the standard layout and design of ONGC Fire Station
Buildings and static water tanks has been approved and circulated by Corporate Fire
Services Cell vide O.O. No. ONG/FSC/Drgs/07 dated 14.06.2007.

Functions of Fire Station

(a) Co-ordinate all activities in connection with fire safety, fire protection and fire
fighting operations within the operational jurisdiction.
(b) To respond to any emergency call.
(c) To organize maintenance of fire fighting equipments available in the field and also
which are available at the Fire Station itself. (Refer Part-VI of this Handbook for
ONGC guidelines).
(d) Checking and testing of fixed fire fighting equipment.
(e) To perform standby duties during hot jobs , hot oil circulation, well stimulation,
Helicopter landing and takeoff etc. (Refer Part-VI of this Handbook for ONGC
(f) Conducting onsite training programmes, mock drills etc. (Refer Part-VI of this
Handbook for ONGC guidelines).
(g) Provide mutual aid assistance to sister inductries and assist civil
administration in fire fighting & rescue operations, when so required.


(OO No. 10/2007 dtd. 23.07.07)


NO (In No.) (In No.)
( A) Self propelled Major Appliances
1. Self propelled Multipurpose 02 02
Large Fire Tender (16 Ton
2. Self propelled Multipurpose 0 * (01 No. of unit to be
foam cum DCP Fire Tender 02 equipped where no main
(25 Ton GVW) fire station exists)
3. Self propelled Multipurpose 01 01
Small Fire Tender (07 Ton
4. Self propelled DCP 2000 KG 01 00
Capacity Fire Tender
Fire Services Handbook Page 50 of 93
NO (In No.) (In No.)
5. Self Propelled Foam Nurser unit 01 00
6. Water Bowser with Water Tank 01 00
of 10000 litre capacity
7. Emergency Rescue Tender 25 *01 No., Sibsagar, 00
Ton GVW Ahmedabad and
8 Fire Jeep with Ultra High 01 01
Pressure Pump with 500 litre
water & 50 litre foam capacity.
9. Self Propelled Fire Jeep with 01 01
DCP 150 kg and 50 litre Water
Mist System.
(B) Portable & Mobile equipment
1. Portable Fire Pump 1600 LPM 03 02
2. Portable Fire Pump 275 LPM 02 02
3. Fire water/ Foam monitor 500 to 02 02
1000 GPM (Variable capacity)
with self foam pickup facility.
4. Fire water/ Foam monitor 1000 01 01
to 2000 GPM (Variable
capacity) with self foam pickup
5. Fire water/ Foam monitor 500 to 01 01
1000 GPM with self foam pickup
facility , 500 litre foam tank &
6. Water Mist System 9 litre 04 02
capacity with 100% spare
7. Water Mist System 35 litre 03 02
capacity with 100% spare
8. Water Mist System 50/60 litre 03 02
capacity with 100% spare
9. Different class/ type of Fire To be worked out To be worked out
Extinguishers, to meet standby, as per applicable as per applicable
training requirement. standards standards
(C) Break away , personnel protective and Rescue gears
1. SCBA set with 100% spare 10 06
2. Fire proximity suit. 04 04
3. Fire Approach suit. 12 06
4. Gas /Liquid tight chemical suit. 04 02
5. Thermal imaging camera (4 01 0
6. Breathing Air filling Compressor 01 -
(150+ - 50 lpm) unit.
7. Mobile /portable Emergency 01 01
lighting system unit.
8. Floater water pump 02 01

Fire Services Handbook Page 51 of 93

NO (In No.) (In No.)
9. Turbo/submersible pump 01 0
10. Smoke extractor 01 0
11. High expansion /medium 01 01
expansion foam generator
12. Electric/Hydraulic powered 0 01
Cutters 25 ton capacity
13. Electric/Hydraulic powered 0 01
Cutters 38 ton capacity
14. Electric/Hydraulic powered 0 01
Spreaders 10 ton/15 ton
15. Electric/Hydraulic powered 0 01
Circular Saw.
16 Hydraulic powered lifting jack 0 01
50 ton cap
17. Electric/Hydraulic powered 0 01
Diamond chain
(D) Stores, Accessories and Tools
1. Delivery hoses.(63mm) with 50 Nos in stock. 25 Nos in stock
couplings . .
2. Suction hoses 100 mm 04 04
3. Suction hoses 150 mm 04 04
4. Dry chemical powder 6000 Kg stock 3000 kg stock where no
main fire station exists.

5 Foam compound 10000 Litres 6000 Litre

High expansion foam compound 3000 litre 2000 litre

7 Fire buckets 100 No 50 No

8 Fire blanket. 25 nos. 20 nos.

9 Hydrant valves/pillar post To be worked out as To be worked out as per
,Double headed 63 mm. per applicable applicable standards

10 Multipurpose Nozzles (Orifice 10 05

of varying size)
11. Inductor with variable metering 05 03
12. Foam branches (FB-5,FB-10 02 Nos each 01 Nos each
and FB-20)
13 Hose binding machine with 02 0
allied accessories
14 Standard maintenance tool kit 02 01
15. Hydraulic testing machine 02 01
16 Spark arrestor with muffler 02 02
17 Rechargeable emergency torch 02 02
18 Weighing machine capacity 0 to 01 0
2000 grams + - 5 gram

Fire Services Handbook Page 52 of 93

NO (In No.) (In No.)
19 Weighing machine capacity 0 to 01 0
200 kg + - 1kg sensitivity.
20. Battery charger for charging 2 01 01
batteries at a time.
(E) Fire prevention training equipment
1. Fire fighting training kit 02 01
2. Smoke generator 01 0
3. Cut models of fire extinguishers One set One set
of different size &types
4. Cut models of SCBA Set One set One set
(F)Transportation communication equipment
1 Transport jeep. 01 01

Note: - At Oil and Gas Processing Facilities like Hazira, Uran, CPF Gandhar, C2C3,
Odalarevu, Tatipaka Mini Refinery, etc falling under OISD -116, the specific equipment
enlisted and capacity in the recommendation of OISD 116 prevails over ONGC norms.

9.2 Self Propelled Major Appliances

Fire Tenders (Self Propelled Multipurpose Mobile Appliances):- Fire tenders are
mobile vehicles used for fire fighting operations using various extinguishing media for
different types of fires.

Since the most commonly encountered fire in every day life is class A fires, water
tenders from the bulk of fire vehicles in organized Fire Services. However, in the
hydrocarbon industry, B & C classes fires are major hazards and so Foam Tenders are
required. The drawback of the two types of fire tenders above is that they cannot be
effectively used in combating electric fires, for which Dry Chemical Powder (DCP) is the
more appropriate fire fighting medium. Initially, fire tenders in use were catering to each
of the above segment and so water tenders, foam tenders and DCP tenders were kept in
the fire stations.

However, the concept of

multipurpose fire tender
incorporating all the three
extinguishing medias i.e.
water, foam and DCP in
the same vehicle evolved
over a period of time and
the convenience of
having a single fire
vehicle which can be
effectively utilized in
fighting all classes of fire
gave the ONGC Fire
Services more
capabilities in its fire
fighting operations. The different types of self propelled multipurpose Fire Tenders in use
in ONGC are:-

Parameters Multipurpose Self Propolled Foam cum DCP Tender

Capacity 25 Ton GVW 25 Ton GVW 16 Ton GVW 9 Ton GVW
Fire Services Handbook Page 53 of 93
for Plants
Engine 150 HP (Min) 150 HP (Min) 140 HP (Min) 120 HP with
output with 2500 RPM with 2500 RPM with 2200 RPM 2200 RPM
(Min) (Min) (Min) (Min)
Steering Power Power Power Power

Wheel Base 4800 mm 4800 mm 4700 mm 3600 mm

Emission Latest Bharat Latest Bharat Latest Bharat Latest Bharat
Norm Stage/Euro Stage/Euro Stage/Euro Stage/Euro
norms norms norms norms
Water Tank 7000 Litres 4500 Litres 5000 Litres 2400 Litres

Foam Tank 1000 Litres 5500 Litres 800 Litres 500 Litres

Pump 3200 lpm at 8.5 4000 lpm at 8.5 2250 lpm at 8.5 1800 lpm at 8.5
Kg/Cm2 and Kg/Cm2 and Kg/Cm2 and Kg/Cm2 and
350 lpm at 40 350 lpm at 40 350 lpm at 40 350 lpm at 40
Kg/Cm2. Kg/Cm2. Kg/Cm2. Kg/Cm2.

Primer Exhaust Ejector Exhaust Ejector Exhaust Ejector Exhaust Ejector

and Water Ring and Water Ring and Water Ring and Water Ring
Type. Type. Type. Type.
Lifting water Lifting water Lifting water Lifting water
from 7 mtr from 7 mtr from 7 mtr from 7 mtr
depth within 24 depth within 24 depth within 24 depth within 24
Sec. Sec. Sec. Sec.

PTO Speed ratio Speed ratio speed ratio speed ratio

1 : 1.45 1 : 1.45 1: 1.27 (Min) 1: 1.27 (Min)

DCP Vessel Design Design Design Design

conforming to conforming to conforming to conforming to
code, capacity code, capacity code, capacity capacity
500 Kg 500 Kg 500 Kg 200 Kg
(Potassium Bi (Potassium Bi (Potassium Bi (Potassium Bi
Carbonate, Ura Carbonate, Ura Carbonate, Ura Carbonate, Ura
reaction reaction reaction reaction
product UL product UL product UL product UL
classified/listed) classified/listed) classified/listed) classified/listed)

Foam cum Capacity: 2750 Capacity: 2500 Capacity: 1400 Capacity: 1200
Water lpm at 7 lpm at 10 lpm at 10 lpm at 8.5
Monitor Kg/Cm2 Kg/Cm2 Kg/Cm2 Kg/Cm2
Throw: Water : Throw: Water : Throw: Water: Throw:
55 Mtrs at 7 55 Mtrs at 7 55 Mtrs at 7 Foam: 45 Mtrs
Kg/Cm2 Kg/Cm2 Kg/Cm2 at 10 Kg/Cm2
Foam: 50 Mtrs Foam: 50 Mtrs Foam: 50 Mtrs
at 7 Kg/Cm2. at 7 Kg/Cm2. at 7 Kg/Cm2
DCP : 25 30 DCP : 20 25 DCP: 25 30
Mtrs. @ 25 Mtrs. @ 15 mtrs @ 25
Kg/Sec (Min) Kg/Sec (Min) Kg/Sec (Min)

Self Propelled Foam Nurser Unit

Fire Services Handbook Page 54 of 93

The foam nurser is virtually a storage vessel mainly for the supply of foam compound to
the foam tender and/or to the fixed fire-fighting system like high volume long range
monitors etc for uninterrupted fire-fighting by foam. For fighting major flammable liquid
fires, continuous supply of foam is required there by needing foam compound for foam
generation. Since foam tender or
multipurpose tender can have only a
limited capacity of foam storage, for
continuous and uninterrupted fire
fighting operation against major oil
fires, foam nurser unit is also used to
ensure availability of adequate
quantity of foam. The foam nurser is
attached with the gear pump to supply
foam to the other fire tenders.
Necessary equipments like delivery
hoses, valve key, etc are made
available in the nurser for quick transfer of foam compound.

Self Propelled Dry Chemical Powder (DCP) Fire Tender

Dry chemical powder tender of 2000 kg. capacity is generally available at all central fire
stations for major fire-fighting. The DCP tender consists of two nos. of vessels of 1000
Kg. capacity each, 16 Nos. nitrogen
cylinders each of 50 kg capacity at 140
kg/cm2 pressure, two delivery hoses of
30 m. length each and one monitor
with a provision for throwing the DCP
at variable rate of 25 kg/s to 45 kg/s.
fitted at the roof of the vehicle. The
vessels are filled with DCP up to the
predetermined level and nitrogen gas
is filled into the base of the each
vessel through nozzle. Before entering
the DCP vessel, the pressure of the
N2 gas get reduced from 140kgf/cm2
to 14kgf/cm2 throguh a pressure regulator. To expell 2000 kg. of DCP total 08 N2
cylinders are required, however, another 08 cylinders are available in the tender as
standby arrangement.

Water Bouser

Water Bouser is used in cases of large fires. Its primary role is to get large quantities of
water for fighting fire to different locations, to
supply water to different fire fighting vehicles, or to
act as a static emergency water supply. The
bouser also has a demountable pump, which
allows the vehicle to be used for quick attack
purposes. The vehicle can be filled from any
hydrant or other water supply, or open water using
the on board pump.
The pump could be of varying capacities from
2200 to 6500 Lpm at pressure 7-10.5 Kg/cm2 with
single /double stage/multi stage. The carrying capacity of water is from 5000 liters to
20000 liters . To avoid any corrosion the water tank is made up of Stainless steel

Emergency Rescue Tender

Fire Services Handbook Page 55 of 93

The ERT is equipped with very modern and sophisticated equipment like hydraulically
operated cutter, spreader, winch, rams
of different capacities, electrically
operated cutter, chain saw, telescopic
halogen light mast, pneumatic operated
lifting bags, chemical suits, search light,
breathing apparatus set, life boat and
jackets, multi gas detector, proximity
suit, etc. All the items are required for
rescue of the persons from the different
fire/accidents scenario, lifting the
equipments from depth, to arrest
leakage of hydrocarbon from flange,
valves, etc.

Fire Jeep wilth Ultra High Pressure Pump

It consists of a water tank of app. 500 ltrs. and a foam tank of app. 50 ltrs. capacity. The
Pump is mounted at the middle or rear of the appliance and driven through a separate
engine. Discharge of
pump is app. 35 lpm at
100 bar. The quantity of
water and high pressure
provides high level
kinetic energy effect i.e.
providing sufficient
energy to break up the
water into very fine
droplets thereby
generating water mist.
This jeep is generally
used for stand by duties
and fighting fires in
incipient stages. The jeep can be maneuvered easily in the areas inaccessible to large
fire tenders.

Self Propelled Fire Jeep with DCP and Water Mist System

The main agent used for fire fighting in this appliance is DCP (app. 300 kg capacity) and
the appliance is also capable of towing a trailer.The main use of this jeep is to extinguish
small fires of oil spillage, electrical and carbonaceous materials etc. It is provided with
supplementary water mist gun of app. 35 litres capacity.

9.3 Portable and Mobile Equipment

Trailer Fire Pump

The pump is mounted on a trailer and has a discharge of

about 1800 lpm at 7 kg/cm2 pressure. Water from open
sources is directly taken into the pump through 4 suction
inlet and delivered through two delivery outlets. This
pump is useful for fire fighting in areas where fire hydrant
facilities are not available and open water sources exist.
TFP chassis has a towing eye which enables it to be
towed and carried with the help of jeep to the desired

Fire Services Handbook Page 56 of 93

Portable Fire Pump

The pump is mounted on tubular steel frame and is of the

capacity of 275 lpm at 4 kg/cm2 for fighting small fires.
This pump can be used for water suction from external
source. It can be easity carried by two to four persons

Trailer Mounted Fire Water/Foam Monitor

This is meant for fighting fires of class A, B and C.It is of

adjustable variable flow type of 500 -1000 gpm discharge
capacity. It is mounted on portable trolley which can be
placed at pre determined strategic locations. It is capable to
give discharge with hollow jet, fog ,spray patterns and also

Floater Water Pump

Floaters Pumps are used to pump out the water and other
liquid from any static tank above ground or any splilled
chemical above water body

Turbo/ Submersible Pump

It is used for filling overhead tanks and ground water

reservoir for fire fighting use. The main purpose of this pump
is to extract ground water from bore wells.

High Expansion /Medium Expansion Foam Generator

It is Ideal for total flooding applications (eg.

basements, mines, tunnels, cable ducts,
warehouses). Powered by water turbine
and aerofoil fan, all that is required for
operation is pressurised water supply and
high expansion foam
concentrate.Expandable polythene ducting
ensures accurate foam delivery

Fire Services Handbook Page 57 of 93

Water Mist System

A water mist based fire fighting system utilizes very fine water
spray to extinguish fire. Water is recognized as an outstanding
physically acting fire fighting agent with exceptionally high heat
absorbing capacity and latent heat of vaporization. IN ONGC
water mist system are available in two configurations i.e.
Backpack of 10 Litres Capacity and Trolley Mounted of 50
Litres Capacity. A pressure vessel to hold the media with
safety valve, a compressed air cylinder coupled with a reducer,
hose pipes for discharge of water mist media and
extinguishing gun are th main components in these types of



These are designed to supply complete respiratory protection in any concentration of

toxic gases or even in environment deficient of

Breathing apparatus is used whenever a person is

entering into the area where the oxygen
concentration/percentage is less than required for
normal breathing or where leakages of gases like
hydrocarbon, H2S or carbon-monoxide (in case of fire)
take place or where one has to work in emergency.

The B.A. set consists of filled cylinders of capacity

from 1800 to 2200 litres filled with compressed air,
high pressure tube, face mask, demand regulator,
warning whistle, etc. Generally B.A. sets cylinders are
pressurised at the pressure of 200 kg/cm. B.A. set is used very effectively for rescue,
fire-fighting, closing/opening of valves in the gas leaked areas, etc.

Fire Suits

These are available as Fire Proximity Suits, Fire

Approach Suits and Heat Resistant Fire Suits.
Proximity and Approach suits are intended for
protection of personnel in close proximity of high heat
source including steam, vapours, and high
temperature liquids and suitable for exposure to
radiant heat upto 9000C. Heat resistant fire suits are
intended for entry in the total flame of heat ranging
from 14500C to 16500C for a limited period. The fabric
used in the suits is asbestos free light wieight fire
resistant and does not react chemically with water, oil,
grease and petrol. The complete suit consists of
hood, coat, trouser, boots and gloves.
Fire Services Handbook Page 58 of 93
Gas /Liquid Tight Chemical Suit

Chemical Protective Suit is normally used for protection of personal in close proximity of
high heat source including steam, vapour, high temperature liquids and chemicals.

Thermal Imaging Camera

Thermal imaging cameras, use infrared

sensor technology to see heat rather than
light, restoring vision and guiding
firefighters through dense smoke. The
camera not only help locate victims, but
they also enhance firefighter safety by
detecting impending dangers within the
structure. By employing this flexible
technology, firefighters can quickly pin-
point the source of a fire and locate hot spots that might re-ignite.

Breathing Air Filling Compressor Unit

Breathing Air Compressor are being used to refill

the Air cylinders of Compressed Air BA sets.These
compressors are used to refill the cylinders at fire
station and may also be carried to different

Mobile / Portable Emergency Lighting System Unit

Complete emergency inflatable Lighting Tower Unit is a single compact

portable unit with generator set, inflatable tower balloon in cylindrical
form and blowers. Lamp is mounted inside the balloon, it is
accommodated in the foldable conditions.
The inflatable tower which serves as light source is made of water proof
polyester treated with polyurethane and the special coated synthetic
fabric coated with three different layers polyester on outside,
polyurethane at the center and the aluminate surface inside which works
as the reflecting surface for better dispersion of light. It withstands the
temperature rise up to 90 degree centigrade.

Fire Services Handbook Page 59 of 93

Smoke Extractor

These extractors are widely used for fume and

smoke extraction.Robustly constructed these
extractors are suitable to offer maximum
prevention against harmful and dangerous
vapours and smoke.

Electric/Hydraulic Powered Cutters

The Hydraulic Rescue Equipment comprises of cutters,

spreaders and rams which enable firefighters to
release casualties involved in Road Traffic Collisions
(RTC) and in other incidents where they may be

Electric/Hydraulic Powered Spreaders

The spreaders are very useful in resue pupose during

road accident, earthquakes etc where casualties are
trapped inside some structure or vehicle

Electric/Hydraulic Powered Circular Saw

The circular saw is a very useful rescue tool for cutting

metallic objects during road accident, earthquakes etc
where casualties are trapped inside some structure or

Electric/Hydraulic Powered Diamond Chain Cutter

These saws have been developed to cut through
concrete and reinforced concrete. They use a diamond
chain and allow the user to surpass the cutting depth
normally found while cutting through concrete with a
circular saw.
9.5 Stores, Accessories and Tools
Delivery Hose
It is used for transportation of water under
pressure over long distances. It is made of
canvas and rubber lined with inner and outer
coating. Both ends of the hose are fitted with 63
mm male and female instantaneous type
couplings. In fire services, hose of 63 mm
diameter is mostly used. It is available in lengths
of 15 m, 22.5 m and 30 m.

Fire Services Handbook Page 60 of 93

These are meant for delivering the extinguishing agent at high pressures to long
distances. Various types of branches used for delivering water are, short branch, long
branch, diffuser branch, fog branch, etc

For discharging foam to the scene of fire, foam branches used are: FB-2X, FB-5X, FB-
10X etc. They have a pick up tube to extract foam coumpound from the tank.

FB-5X FB-10X

Inline Inductor

It is used to facilitate the flow of water into the inductor and discharge
of foam solution from the outlet. To draw foam compound into the
water stream, the inductor has a threaded nipple to which a flexible
pick-up tube is connected for sucking the foam compound.

Suction Hose

It is used for drawing water from the open source into the pump
inlet by creating a vacuum (the pump primer facilitates this)
which can then be delivered under pressure on the delivery side.
For fire appliance, they are available in the size of 4 and 6 and
length of 2.5 m. Both ends of the hose are coupled with the
appropriate male and female threaded couplings.

Fire Services Handbook Page 61 of 93

Fireman Axe

Fire man's axe is one of the specialized equipment maintianed in

fire stations and kept in vehicles. Through the axe is tested to
20,000 volts, however, their use should be limited to 1000 to 2000
volts with precautions.Normally two types of fireman's axe are
available, one having a wooden handle and the other with
insulated steel handle ,which is widely used in Fire services.The
insualting handle has chequred surface for providing a firm grip.

9.6 Communication at Fire Station

Reliable Communication System is essential for supporting effective Fire Service

operation. In this regard Circular No. 1/2006 (ONG/HFS/CEO/06) dtd 27.02.06 issued by
Dept. of Security can be referred for guidance. However following equipment are
available in the control room of the fire station:-

A. Line Communication:-
I. A telephone only with incoming calls facility for receiving fire calls in the fire
station/control room.
II. Another telephone for communication with outside agencies like local
civil/police/fire authorities, mutual support stations, etc.
III. Intercom / hotline connection for intra communication within the
Asset/Installation/Work Centre etc.

B. Wireless Communication:

I. All Main / Sub Fire Stations are equipped with VHF sets of required capacity
as Base Station to communicate among themselves as well as with the fire
appliances of the station.
II. All fire tenders/fire vehicles are fitted with VHF sets of sufficient capacity as
Mobile Stations to be in constant contact with their respective fire stations.
III. Each fire vehicles is are equipped with 4 walike talkie sets of 5 watt
capacity for use by the crew on fire fighting duty away from the tender.

Communication systems

Apart from the above, any fire incident can be communicated through following

1. Mass communication through hooters: Fire Sirens are installed with distant
wailing sound to announce serious fire accident or other serious emergency. The
main purpose to activate the siren is to alert all the employees and other persons

Fire Services Handbook Page 62 of 93

working in the installation/Plants. On hearing the fire siren wailing sound, all the
employees assemble at the designated nodal assembly points.
Various types of siren are as under:

Alert Siren: Continuous blowing for 30 Sec as a straight siren.

Disaster Siren: Wailing siren for 3 times for a period of 30

Sec. at an interval of 2 Minutes.

All Clear Siren and Test Siren: Both will be blown for 2
Minutes as straight siren. Test Siren will be operated on
particular day at specific time.

2. Mobile network communication: Incharge Fire Services, Fire Station In charge

and Shift Incharge of Assets /Plants have Mobile Telephone for effective
communication with the authorities incase of failure of all the above and away from
the work station.

9.7 Documentation at Fire Stations

To ensure uniformity in the maintenance of documents incorporating fire services

activities, standard formats have been designed and circulated to all Work Centres vide
Circular No. 02/08 issued vide No. ONG/FSC/06/08 dated 03.07.2008.

Fire Fighting Arrangements for Onshore Installations:-

9.8 Fixed Fire Fighting Systems for Onshore installations

Fire suppression system is an integral part of the Fire Protection philosophy. In a plant all
the fixed fire fighting systems are installed as per the design criterion which includes the
storage and handling capacity of the plant, its layout, its location and various hazards
involved. It includes various fire fighting systems, fixed, portable and mobile type.

Various fixed fire fighting systems provided in onshore installations are listed below:
Water Reservoirs / Tanks
Fire pumps (Electrical driven / Diesel driven)
Piping network
Hose Boxes
Monitors (Foam / Water)
Water spray / Drencher system
Deluge system
Foam systems
Gas based fire protection systems (Halon / CO2 / Clean Agent)

Water Reservoirs / Tanks

Water for fire water system is stored in any easily accessible surface or underground
lined reservoir or above ground tanks of steel, concrete or masonary. The effective
capacity of the reservoir above the level of suction point shall be minimum 4 hours
aggregate working capacity of pumps. Storage reservoir is available in two equal
interconnected compartments to facilitate cleaning and repairs.
Fire Services Handbook Page 63 of 93
Fire water supply shall be preferably from fresh water source such as river, tubewell or
lake. Where fresh water source is not easily available, fire water supply may be sea
water or other acceptable source like treated water from ETP or WIP. The storage
capacity of fire water tanks for any installation has to be worked out in accordance with
the quantity prescribed by relevant OISD standards.

Fire Pumps

The fire water system primarily consists of a pump and network piping to distribute water
for various fire-fighting purposes. The pump takes suction from the water reservoir and
starts in the event of fire.

Fire water pumps are of the following types:

Electric motor driven pumps.
Diesel engine driven pumps.

The pumps are either horizontal centrifugal type or vertical turbine submersible pumps.
The fire water pumps are generally kept in auto mode and they are so linked that when
header pressure drops to a pressure at which PSL (pressure switch low) of fire water
header is activated, the pumps start in sequential mode.

Fire Services Handbook Page 64 of 93

Electric driven pump Submersible pump

Fire water pumps are selected to deliver the pressure and flow requirements for the
anticipated manual fire fighting demand as per the applicable standards (Refer to Part-
VI of this manual).

Jockey Pump
A jockey pump, or a pressure-maintenance pump, is a small
apparatus that works together with a fire pump as part of a
fire-protection system Hydrant, monitor, sprinkler, drencher,
etc). It is designed to keep the pressure in the system
elevated to a specific level when the system is not in use, so
that the fire pump doesn't have to run all the time and the
system doesn't go off randomly. It can also help prevent the
system from damage when a fire happens and water rushes into the pipes. If a fire
happens and the pressure drops dramatically, the jockey pump won't be able to keep up,
and the drop in pressure will trigger the large fire pump to start sending water. In our
installation, availability of jockey pump is mandatory as per OISD.

Piping Network

Also known as Fire Water Ring Mains or Fire Water Header

for distribution of water in the network, it usually takes the
form of a ring main all around the various facilities; branches
are taken up to various hydrants, deluge valves, sprinkler
system, hose reels etc. The fire water network is laid in
closed loops to ensure multi-directional flow in the system.
Isolation valves are provided in the network to enable
isolation of any section of the network without affecting the
flow in the rest.


Fire hydrants are provided in the network to ensure protection

to all the facilities. The locations of the hydrants are decided
keeping in view easy accessibility and the risk involved.
Hydrants are available as single-headed and double-headed
types. The outlets are of female instantaneous type having a
standard size of 63 mm conforming to Indian Standards. The
discharge of hydrant valve is genrally 600 lpm and water from
the hydrant valve is discharged through fire hose and nozzle.
Hydrants are installed in the periphery of storage tank farms,
loading gantries, separators and other process areas.

Fire Services Handbook Page 65 of 93

Hose Boxes

Hose Boxes are used for housing hoses and nozzles and are
generally provided at critical locations preferably near hydrant
points and at periphery of the installation. Two delivery hoses
and one branch are hosued in the hose box.

Monitors (Foam / Water)

Fire monitors are devices which discharge water or foam to distant locations and are
such located to direct water on the object as well as to provide water shield to firemen
approaching a fire. These are either installed on the fire water header or available as
portable and mobile devices. Discharge of monitors varies from 1200 lpm to 8000 lpm
and range of throw varies from 30 mtrs. To 100 mtrs. The monitors are installed in the
periphery of storage tank farms, loading gantries, separators and other process areas.

Water spray / Drencher system

This system is a fixed pipe system connected to a source of water supply and equipped
with water spray nozzles for specific water discharge and distribution over the surface of
area to be protected. The piping system is connected to the fire water network system
through an automatically or manually actuated valve. This system is installed for the
exposure protection on storage tanks, separators, Horton spheres and bullets etc. The
system is designed as per applicable standards to discharge effective water spray within
shortest possible time.

Deluge system

This system is connected to fire water network on the upstream side of fire water
network. The system is operated either in auto mode by automatic FSD actuation
connected to the detection system or in manual mode by manual FSD actuation or
manually operating the valve locally. This system is used for protection of pressure
vessels, storage tanks, process area, well heads etc.

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Deluge valve in operation

Foam systems

The system consists of a supply of foam concentrate, proportioning equipment, piping

system, foam makers and discharge devices designed to distribute the foam over the
hazard. There are various types of foam systems:

1. Fixed foam conveying system: It comprises

of fixed piping for water supply, foam
concentrate tank, eductor, proportioning
equipment for drawing foam concentrate and
making foam solution, fixed piping system for
onward conveying to foam makers for making
foam, vapour seal box and foam pourer. A
detection system is provided to activate the
foam system.

Foam pourers /makers are used to discharge foam in oil storage tank and their number
depends upon the diameter of the storage tank as recommended in OISD standard.
Their discharge capacity varies from 150 lpm. to 1000 lpm. In cone roof tank foam
chamber is connected to the tank shell and it discharges foam through the inside of the
tank shell, whereas in floating roof tanks, it discharges foam on the rim seal of the tank.
The vapour seal chamber is provided with a seal, fragile under low pressure, to prevent
entrance of vapour into the foam conveying piping system.

2. Semi-fixed foam system: It gets supply of foam solution through the mobile foam
tender/foam nurser. A fixed piping system connected to foam makers cum vapour
seal box in case of cone roof tanks and foam maker and foam pourers in the case of
floating roof tanks conveys foam to the surface of tank.

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Foam pourer

3. Mobile system: It includes foam producing unit mounted on wheels which may be
self propelled or towed by a vehicle. These units supply foam through monitors/foam
towers to the burning surface.

4. Sub-surface foam injection: This is a system for protection of fixed roof storage
tanks. This comprises of high back-pressure foam generator and connected through
product lines or separate lines near the bottom of the tank.

5. Rim seal protection system: The system consists of metallic detection tube and a
number of pre-mixed foam modules, equally spaced on the roof of tanks. Each unit is
dedicated to the protection of an equal portion of the rim seal area. Low expansion
foam is delivered to the entire rim seal and tank shell upon detection of fire. All the
units on the tanks are interfaced to a PC for display, monitoring, control and
configuration of the system from the process control room.

Rim seal fire protection for floating roof tank

The event of fire occurring at rim seal is detected by a metallic detection tube placed
circumferentially within the rim seal around the whole circumference of the floating roof
tank. The linear heat detector operates on the basis of of an increase in the pressure of
a closed system that corresponds to increase in the rate of rise of an external
temperature of the area.

Gas based fire protection systems (Halon / CO2 / Clean Agent)

This Protection System broadly consists of gas cylinders, feed

lines, ring mains / laterals as required, spray nozzles,
signalling equipment, cables, heat detection and activation

The Protection System can detect, control and extinguish the

fire and also simultaneously give audio visual indication on the
control panel. Total flooding system is provided where there is
a permanent enclosure around the hazard.

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Where the hazard is not enclosed or is so large that total flooding system turns out to be
uneconomical, local application system should be used. Oil filled transformers are such

9.9 Mutual Aid Scheme

All industrial establishments dealing with hazardous products have to put in place
appropriate safety systems as mandated under various regulations on the subject. In the
oil and gas business dealing with highly inflammable hydrocarbons, fire safety is a major
concern and stringent provisions on fire safety measures have been incorporated in the
OISD Standards related to the hydrocarbon sector. The underlying philosophy of the fire
safety measures in oil and gas sector is the inbuilt capability of the plants, installations,
operational sites etc to quickly respond to any fire contingencies. In ONGC this is the
precise task assigned to the departmental Fire Services.

However, there may be occasions when fire and related contingencies may overwhelm
the inhouse capabilities and additional external help may be required to contain such
incidents. While the State Fire Services and other such government Fire Services
organizations are mandated to respond to all such situation with all possible assistance,
the expertise and availability of equipment with these Fire Services may be inadequate
and unsuitable for the nature of fire fighting operations required in the petroleum sector.
In such situations, the assistance of nearby industrial concerns having inhouse fire
services organizations may be required. For this mutual aid agreements covering various
aspects of co-operation between the partnering fire service organization would need to
be drawn up to ensure effective and timely response from the mutual aid partners.

As per OISD Standard, the refineries / process plants should have written mutual aid
agreements with similar neighboring industries fully detailing the responsibilities of the
members of the scheme, the procedures to be adopted, the minimum number of
equipment and manpower and minimum quantity of consumables to be exchanged /

n the ONGC Emergency Response Procedures the following guidelines have been
given for drawing up mutual aid schemes:-

Under an Onsite DMP, the response requirements and resources are supposed to be
mobilized from within the organization itself, ie. The installations/Assets/Plants of the
Company. However, experience suggest that in actual situation, the size of the disaster
may normally be expected to be so big that the companys Asset/Plant may have to go
for eternal help.

Mutual Aid Agreements Necessity

1. A Mutual Aid/Agreement is a pre-arranged agreement developed between

interested parties to render assistance to each other at the time of crisis. It can be
an MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) or a non-judicial agreement.

2. Mutual aid arrangements should be worked out in the Onsite plan to facilitate
additional help in the following areas::-

a) Fire Fighting
b) Rescue Operation
c) Manpower Support

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d) Medical Aid or
e) Rescue, Fire Fighting and life saving equipments etc

3. For an effectivde mutual aid scheme, the following exchange of information is

considered essential among the mutual aid members:-

a) The types of hazards in each plant and fire fighting measures

b) The type of equipment, that would be deployed and procedures for making
the replenishment of resosurces used in controlling emergeny.
c) Written procedures which spell out the communicatiion system for help and
how it will be responded. This is also required to get acquainted with
operation of different fire fighting equipment available at Mutual aid members
and compatibility for connecting at users place.
d) Joint orientatioin program for staff, joint inspection and mock drills.

4. The agreement should bring out the areas of cooperation in such a way so as to
augment the capabilities of each other, Issues to be discussed and recorded
a) Fire Fighting equipment available
b) Fire Fighting equipment which can be spared
c) PPEs available/can be spared
d) Number of experts and trained personnel available
e) Types and No of antidotes available/can be spared
f) Quantity and types of decontaminatioin substances available/can be spared
g) Gas detectors and other equipment avaialable/can be spared
h) Number of ambulances and other vehicles available/can be spared
i) Number of public warning system available/spared
j) Number of medical equipment and life saving drugs available/can be spared
k) Other equipment like cranes and portable generators etc.

5. Consideration should be given to the turn-out methodology of external help that

could be adopted for emergency response at the time of crisis. This should be
based on the capability and the type of help needed by the affected industrial
unit. Travel distance by the responder should be the key factor for such a
decision. Making an agreement with an industry unfavourably situated vis--vis
wind directioin wise should also be weighed and additional partners may be

6. Periodicity of the meeting of all mutual-aid member industries should be fixed and
conducted accordingly.

7. Any exercise or an actual hanlidng of emergencies should be detailed as far as

the lessons learned is concerned, for the benefit of all members.

8. Period visists to each others locations would help in familiarizing and assist in
quick response.

9. A list of core-competency (list of experts) for different types of disassters should

be drafted and be utilized as the need arises during emergency operations.

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Chapter 10 Offshore Fire Facilities

Fire is probably the greatest hazard that can be encountered on an offshore platform and
it needs no emphasis that a production platform at sea possesses nearly all of the fire
hazards to be found in refineries, chemical works or land based oil wells. But, while land
based operations can be spaced out to permit dangerous plants to be widely dispersed
thereby avoiding a possible domino effect, offshore installations are compressed into an
area of less than about 4500, enhancing the fire risk.

Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas vide its gazette of India notification dtd. 18th June
2008 has framed Petroleum and Natural Gas (Safety in Offshore Operations) Rules,
2008 which also covers all aspects of fire safety.

10.1 Fixed Fire Fighting Systems for offshore installations

A large number of active fire protection systems are installed at all platforms. These
include fire water system comprising of spray /sprinkler system, deluge valves and
monitors, gaseous fire protection, DCP system, foam system and fire extinguishers.
Except portable fire extinguishers all other systems are fixed in nature. The use and
function of each system is given in brief:

Fire water pump

Fire water pumps are selected to deliver

the pressure and flow requirements for the
anticipated manual fire fighting demand
(monitors or monitors plus hose streams)
as well as operation of the largest
deluge/water spray system if installed. The
pump must be able to supply adequate
pressure and flow, to the hydraulically most
demanding area.

Deluge system

This includes deluge valve which is connected to fire water

network on the upstream side and spray nozzles to the
downstream side. In normal condition the downstream
side is free of water. Deluge valve can be operated
automatically or manualy and is connected to the Fire &
Gas detection (F&G) system of the plant. After getting the
signal from the detector the deluge valve gets open and
delivers the water to the spray nozzles in the downstream
side. This system is used for protection of pressure
vessels, storage tanks, hydrocarbon risers, oil and gas
manifolds and seperators.

Fire Monitors and Hydrant valves

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Fire monitors are devices which discharge water and foam to distant locations. It can be
rotated at 3600 and moved verticallly ranging from 300 to 850. Discharge of monitors
varies from 1200 lpm to 3200 lpm and range of throw varies from 30 mtrs. to 100 mtrs.
However monitors of lower and higher ranges are also available. Monitors are generally
installed at helidecks at offshore platforms and process areas etc.
Hydrants are used for the discharge of water through hose and nozzle to the scene of
fire. Discharge of hydrant valve is genrally 780 lpm .These devices are generally
installed in process areas and living quarters etc.
Foam Water Hose Reel System

The unit comprises of a foam tank having capacity of

about 240 ltrs a rubber hose of size 1 and length of
approximately 25 mtrs. which is coiled on hose reel drum,
an eductor with pick up tube connected to the foam tank
and a nozzle having a discharge of about 350 lpm. In
case of need, even a single person can operate the unit.
The unit is used for fighting oil spill fires and installed in
process areas and helideck.

DCP System
This comprises of fixed type DCP skid of 150 kg, 450 kg and 900 kg. capacity. The skid
consists of DCP vessel, N2 cylinders for pressurization of vessel, discharge lines,
selector valves, main valve, hose reel and nozzle. The unit can be operated remotely
with the help of an actuation CO2 cartridge which in turn open the N2 cylinders thereby
pressuring DCP. Each unit of 450kg/900 kg. capacity caters the requirement of two to
three decks of the platform by means of selector valve and deck wise hose reel . Areas
of usage are process area, well head area, ATF refueling area and helideck etc.

DCP Skid DCP hose reel with actuator

Water Spray system

System comprises of spray nozzles connected to water

discharge lines which are in turn connected to
downstream side of deluge valve. The spray angle of
nozzles varies from 900 to 1200 and discharge varies
from 250 lpm to 400 lpm at pressure of 7 kg/cm2.The
sparay nozzles are normally installed in the process
areas, well head areas, riser areas and living quarters

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CO2 Snuffing System

System consist of CO2 gas cylinders, pressrure reducer

valve, check valve pressure swithches and gauges,
actuating system, discharge line and discharge nozzle.
The system is installed in the cold vent boom to extinguish
any fire occurring due to lightning or any other ignition

Gaseous flooding system

This system comprises of gas (Halon, FM-200,

CO2, Inergen, flouroketone etc) cylinders,
pressure switches, solenoid valves, discharge
nozzles, detection system and connecting hoses.
The system works in auto mode and can also be
operated manually .The system is generally used
in control rooms, switch gear & battery rooms,
communication rooms, gas compressors,
turbines, machine shops and laboratories

10.2 Fire Fighting Vessels

In the worst situation, if the above mentioned fixed fire fighting systems installed at
platform fail to meet the fire fighting and rescue of personnel on board the offshore
installations, MSV (Multi Support Vessel) with fire fighting arrangements are stationed at
strategic locations in the offshore area. These can be called for external help from the
installations. These vessels are also known as second line of defence . For fighting oil
fire the vessel has mainly following facilities:

Equipment Capacity

Fire water pump for monitors 1800 m3/hr 7200 m3/hr

Foam tank 60 KL 125 KL
Foam transfer pump App. 300 m3/hr
Long range monitors (Water/Foam) 120 mtr 150 mtr throw

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10.3 Offshore communication

An efficient communication system is a vital requisite for the safety of offshore

installations and the personnel on board, not only during normal operations but also
during unfavorable weather conditions and emergency situations. It is also of utmost
importance for emergency medical treatment, as in the case of a critically ill patient. It is
only by reliable radio-communication, that the doctor or a specialist from on-shore can
provide advice to the medical officer on the platform.

The recommendations given below provide guidance in this respect.

Radio communication equipment

1. Every manned offshore installation is provided with equipment for radio

communication at all times with the shore base, service vessels, stand-by vessel,
helicopters and other installations in the neighbourhood.
2. Every installation is also provided with emergency radio transmitter so that a distress
call can at all times be transmitted either by radio telegraphy or by radio-telephony
signal on the maritime distress frequency.
3. All ships/OSV, self propelled vessels have the emergency safety
communication/navigation equipment as per the requirement.
3. The radio equipment situated in classified hazardous zones should be of a type
suitable for use in such zones.

Internal offshore communication

1. Every manned offshore installation is provided with

reliable and efficient means of internal communication
which may be of the following types:

 Public address /Paging system (loud speaker)

 Telephone system
 Internal communication system

The choice of the system should be based on

the size of the installation and the use to which
it is to be put.

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Chapter - 11 Offices / Residential Buildings

The most serious fires with respect to loss of life and damage to property are those
which occur in buildings. Although fires in buildings do not have the same relative
severity as those of the fires in process area however, these are still important, because
there are many plants which need to be housed in buildings like laboratories, workshop
and offices.

Many ONGC establishments like offices, laboratories, datacenters, guest houses,

residential accommodations, etc are housed in multi storey buildings. Fire Safety of all
such buildings through a network of fire detection equipment and fire protection facilities
is one of the prime responsibilities of ONGC Fire Services. Fire safety of a building has
to be inbuilt into the architecture of the building at the design stage itself to ensure that
all possible fire prevention and protection measures are put in place alongwith the
different stages of construction and commissioning of the buildings.

Fire safety in all buildings is regulated by the National Building Code (NBC). The bye
laws and rules framed by the local self government agencies at various locations would
also have to be taken into account while planning and designing construction of
buildings. Moreover at each stage of design and construction effective supervision to
ensure that all fire safety eatures are in place is required. This would require the
association of Fire Services with the construction activities from the design stage itself.
Thus ONGC Fire Services has got a significant role in the fire safety of all buildings
under ONGC occupation in all Work Centres of ONGC. Circular Order No.
DDN/FFW/Circular/2000 2001 dated 06.09.2002 (Part I) and No.
DDN/FFW/Circular/2000 2001 Part II dated 06.09.2002 (Presently under revision)
clearly lay down the roles and responsibilities of various agencies in ensuring fire safety
in ONGC occupied buildings.

The fire risks in buildings fall under three main headings:

Hazard to life. (occupants)

Hazard of damage to the building and its occupied property
Hazard of exposure to nearby buildings

From a safety view point, all fire-fighters should have a basic knowledge of the principles
of building construction and detailed layout. Knowledge of the various types of building
construction and how a fire will behave and spread in each type of building will give the
fire-fighter an edge in planning for safe and effective fire attack.

New technologies and designs are being used for building construction everyday.
Therefore, it is impossible to highlight every conceivable situation in this manual. The
purpose of this section in this manual is to introduce to the readers some of the most
basic and common types of building construction and their fire protection characteristics.

Fire protection of buildings, as in the plants, is based on a combination of passive

measures such as compartmentation, structural protection and active ones such as fire-
fighting systems, detection and extinguishment.

The maximum size of fire and its severity which can develop in a building depends on
the amount of materials available for combustion and other parameters like ventilation,
height of windows and types of combustible materials used.

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11.1 Classification of Buildings as per NBC

As mentioned in National Building Code (NBC) (revised edition 2005) of India Part 4
Fire and Life Safety, all buildings are classified according to the use or the character of
occupancy in one of the following groups:

Group NBC Description

Group A Residential These shall include any building in which sleeping
accommodation is provided for normal residential
purposes with or without cooking or dining or both facilities
Group B Educational These shall include any building used for school ,college ,
other training institutions for day care purposes involving
assembly for instruction ,education or recreation for not
less than 20 students.
Group C Institutional These shall include any building or part thereof ,which is
used for purposes, such as medical or other treatment or
care of persons suffering from mental or physical illness
,care of infants, convalescents or aged persons in which
the liberty of the inmates is restricted
Group D Assembly These shall include any building or part of a building,
where number of persons not les than 50 congregate or
gather for amusement, recreation ,social ,religious, civil
,travel and similar purposes. For examples theatres ,
auditoria ,museums, etc
Group E Business These shall include any building or part of the building
which is used for transaction of business covered by group
F and part of building; for keeping of accounts and records
and similar purposes ,professional establishments, service
facilities etc. example city hall ,court houses and town
halls, broadcasting stations ,T.V. stations ,library comes
under this group
Group F Mercantile These shall include any building or part of a building, which
is used as shops, stores, market, for display and sale of
merchandises, either wholesale or retail.
Group G Industrial These shall include any building or part of building or
structure in which products or materials of all kinds and
properties are fabricated, assembled, processed or
manufactured. For example assembly plants ,power
plants, generating units , pumping stations ,fumigation
chambers ,laundries ,buildings or structures in gas plants
,refineries ,dairies and saw mills ,etc.
Group H Storage These shall include any building or part of building used
primarily for the storage or sheltering (including servicing
,processing or repairs incidental to storage) of goods ,ware
or merchandise vehicles or animals. For example ,
warehouses ,truck and marine terminals ,garages ,hangers
,cold storage, transit sheds, etc.
Group J Hazardous These shall include any building or part of building which is
used for the storage ,handling ,manufacture or processing
of highly combustible or explosive materials or products
which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity and or which
may produce poisonous fumes or explosions , which
involves highly corrosive , toxic or noxious alkali , acids
other liquids or chemicals producing flames ,fumes and
explosive , poisonous , irritant or corrosive gases

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In ONGC following types of buildings are mainly available:
Residential - family quarters
Business- offices, laboratories, computer installations, research establishments
Industrial -pumping stations, power generation plants
Hazardous hydrocarbon storage and processing plants, explosive magazines.

According to construction, buildings have been classified. An outline of the system is

given below:
Classification of construction grading
Grading of Construction Minimum Fire resistance
Type 1 In combustible Fire Resisting construction 4 Hours
fully protected in relation to high fire loads,
e.g. warehouses
Type 2 In combustible Fire Resisting construction 2 Hours
fully protected in relation to moderate fire
loads, e.g. shops and factories.
Type 3 In combustible Fire Resisting construction 1 Hour
fully protected in relation to low fire loads,
e.g. Offices and Residential Buildings.
Type 4 Fire resisting construction but not Hour
necessarily incombustible and may therefore
include timber floors and timber roof
construction. Partially protected only in
relation to all fire loads.

Above classification is useful for fire professionals to monitor building conditions for signs
of structural instability. This helps them by creating awareness among them about the
dangerous condition created by a fire, as well as dangerous condition that may be
created due to the extinguishment of the fire.

The longer a fire burns in a building, the higher the chances of structural damage. Some
of the symptoms of the building collapse are as follows:
Cracks or separation in walls, floors, ceilings and roof structures
Loose bricks, blocks or stones falling from buildings
Leaning of the walls or any other buildings element
Unusual cracks and cracking noises
Exposed reinforcement
Bulging walls
Buckling of trusses

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11.2 Fixed Fire Fighting Systems in Buildings

All types of buildings depending upon the occupancy and height are protected by
suitable Fire Fighting equipment.

Fixed fire fighting system for buildings includes water based and gas based systems.
Water based systems include fire water tank, fire pumps, piping network, wet riser /
down comer, hydrants, hose reels, sprinkler system and water spray system. Gas based
systems cover CO2, FM-200 and other clean agent flooding systems.

Water Based System

It mainly has static water reservoir, fire pumps, fire water network, hydrant cabinets
inside the buildings and yard hydrants outside the buildings, sprinkler system and water
spray system. A satisfactory supply of water
for the purpose of fire fighting is available in
the form of underground/terrace level static
storage tank. The static water storage tank is
provided with a fire brigade collecting head
with 63 mm diameter instantaneous male
inlets for accessibility to the fire engines of
the local fire service.

The capacity and design of the water based

system is planned as per Part-IV (Fire and
Life Safety) of National Building Code of
India and local byelaws of the area. The fire
pumps are electric motor driven as well as
diesel driven and start sequentially with the

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drop in the system pressure. In a system, arrangement of jockey pump is also devised.
The jockey pump is a small capacity pump which is intended to maintain pressure in the
fire water system.

Fire pumps are connected to internal fire hydrants and first-aid hose reels through wet
riser / down comer. These hydrants and hose reels are housed inside the fire hydrant
cabinets at each floor of the building along with fire fighting accessories like delivery
hoses, fireman axe and short branch. Yard hydrants are provided outside the buildings
along the periphery.

Sprinkler system is installed in high rise buildings, warehouses and other office buildings.
It operates when temperature of fire causes glass component in the sprinkler head to
break, thereby releasing the water from the sprinkler head. Automatic sprinklers have the
unique properties of automatic detection of fire (since they incorporate thermo-sensitive
devices), control and extinguishment of fire by automatically releasing water of activation
in specific patterns and quantities over designated areas. The system has come to be
universally  recognized as the most effective fire protection installation for
buildings/premises. Sprinkler systems are now being replaced by water mist systems
which give finer water droplets.

High / medium velocity water spray system, also known as emulsifying system, is
provided to protect the indoor
oil-cooled transformers. Since
the water is discharged in the
form of minute spray droplets to
the size of few microns, there is
no danger of electrical shock.

Gas Based System

Fixed Carbon dioxide Fire

Extinguishing system is provided
on devices where water cannot
be used for fire extinguishing
because of the special nature of
the contents of the
buildings/areas to be protected. For some special fire risks/essential applications, carbon
dioxide is not suitable and it is necessary to provide
Halon or other environment friendly clean agent.
However, the use of Halons is discouraged as Halons
are Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) and their use is
being phased out throughout the world under the
Montreal Protocol. These gas based systems are
installed in data centres, exchange rooms, infocom
rooms, laboratories, electrical switch board rooms etc.

Some of the environment friendly clean agents are listed

HFC-227 ea (FM-200)
Water Mist

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Chapter - 12 Guidelines for Handling Typical Fire Emergencies
in Process Plants

All the installations/ plants / assets of ONGC have different types of fire hazards where in
even a small fire has to be tackled immediately. Hence in the interest of the general
safety in ONGC, the below listed precautions should be followed:

1. All fires should be reported.

2. Ensure that all the fire-fighting equipment installed, are visible and are easily

3. When fire siren is sounded, all hot jobs shall be suspended till further clearance.

4. Whenever necessary, breathing apparatus should be worn for protection against

toxic gases.

5. In case of storage tank fires, men should not work inside the bund wall if there is any
danger of boil-over or a slop-over. However, if it is necessary to work within the bund
wall, point of escape should be predecided and well understood.

6. When there is a probability of a boil over, no one should be allowed within a

considerable distance from the tank. If there is any danger of being trapped by an oil
wave, men should not even take shelter behind tanks or nearby building.

7. Wherever necessary, men should be protected from radiated heat by improvised

shields, and relief at frequent intervals. This protection should be given even if it does
not felt immediately necessary because a change of wind may easily increase the
heat. Men working in extreme heat may be kept cool by water spray.

8. The possibility of splitting or exploding filled pipelines or drums of oil, involved in the
fire, must not be overlooked. When oil is held between two closed valves, a relatively
small amount of heat will cause a considerable rise of pressure with the possibility of
a fracture.

9. The vehicles, which are not involved in emergency operation, shall be parked at least
100 m away from the periphery of the affected area and should not obstruct the
movement of fire-fighting vehicles / persons engaged in handling the emergency.

12.1 Blow-Out Fires

During the process of drilling/workover operations in a well encountering abnormal
pressure condition, mud loss, swabbing or reducing of mud column due to inadequate fill
up in the hole lead to under balance situation which may induce a kick situation and in
case primary control of mud hydrostatic and secondary control of surface equipment
consisting of well head and BOP are lost, a blowout may occur.

Types of Blow-out: For the purpose of fire-fighting operations the blowouts have been
classified into three categories, (a) Oil blow-out, (b) Gas blow-out and (c) Gas-oil blow-

a) In case of oil blow-out, the out flow contains greater quantity of oil (i.e., more than
50%) and lesser quantity of gas.
b) In case of gas blow-out the outflow of gas is as high as 95% to 100%.
c) In case of gas-oil blow-out the outflow of gas is more than 50%

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Since it is not always feasible to determine the percentage of gas and oil in a flow which
is on fire, hence the, following method is used to determine the nature of blowout.

In the oil blow-out category, the oil that blows out from the well does not get
completely burnt in the flame but spills around, and can be seen.

In the gas-oil blow-out category, the gas-oil blowout can also be differentiated from
gas blowout by their dark (red) flames and formation of great quantity of smoke.

However, the blow-out with no smoke or with little quantity of smoke resulting from
burning of condensates belongs to the category of gas blow-out.

Common Types of Blow-Out Fires

On the basis of the nature of flame obtained after the wellhead is cleared of all the
obstructions and the place is made ready for conducting fire-fighting operations, blowout
fires can be broadly classified into two types.

Blow-Out Fire with Straight Flame

In this type of fire, the gusher has a compact flow when the well flows through conductor,
technical or production casing. The well head fittings do not create any obstacle in the
free flow of oil-gas from the well.

Blow-Out Fire With Scattered Flame

The flame takes the scattered shape when any equipment is there at the well head and
causes obstruction to the free flow of the product from the well.

The scattered flame of this type can be converted into compact flame by removing the
obstruction from the well head. In case it is not possible to remove the obstruction by
usual means, assistance from the artillery should be sought. After converting the flame
into compact one the same procedure is followed as mentioned in blow out fire with
straight flame

Role of Fire Services in Blow-Out Crisis

At the initial stage of blow out scenario, the fire services have the primary role of taking
necessary precautions to prevent any accidental fire. However, if the well has caught fire
then the main role of fire services is to control the spread of fire to nearby areas and
radiation protection by giving water protection cover during removal of debris and other
heavy equipment for clearing the well site location.

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Fire Fighting Operations in Blow Out

1. Area of 500 mtrs. radius around the blow-out site shall be cordoned off to avoid any
unauthorised entry.

2. The incharge of the fire-fighting operations, should engage his men and materials
mainly on those places where the fire is spreading besides protection of nearby

3. Water jets should be directed on the persons working near the blow out area on
drilling equipment and other materials.

4. Fire-fighting operations sometimes continue for days and even weeks, therefore
necessary arrangements for continuous fire fighting for longer durations shall be

5. The fire-fighting staff together with the drilling staff removes the equipment and
materials from the site of blow-out for easy and unhindered operation.

6. During work on a blow-out, the working personnel should wear canvas dresses, hand
gloves, boots, helmets and ear muffs/plugs.

7. Arrangements of fire fighting pumps, monitors and water in sufficient number and
quantity shall be made for fire fighting purpose.

8. The area near the well head, that has to be cooled with water, depends upon the
strength and character or the burning gusher and is determined by the incident
commander or incharge of the fire-fighting operations.

9. After laying the water line, method of extinguishing fire is decided and preparations
are made accordingly before the actual fire-fighting operations starts.

12.2 Process Fires

Fires in process plant are a serious hazard to both life and property. It is therefore,
essential to understand the ways in which fires can occur and develop. Normally fire
occurs as a result of leakage or spillage of fluid from the plant. Larger leaks may occur
due to the failure of a vessel, pipe or pump, and smaller ones from flanges, sample and
drain points and other small bore connections.

Prevention of fire in process areas is primarily a matter of preventing leaks and avoiding
sources of ignition. In addition to the fires arising from leakage in general, there are
certain characteristic of fire in process areas. These include:

1) Pump fires.
2) Flange fires
3) Cable tray fire
4) Pipeline fire
5) Storage tank fire.

Out of the above listed types of fire, the storage tank fire is considered to be of very
serious and catastrophic nature.

Fire Fighting Procedures

1. Process fires are extinguished mainly by isolation and removal of fuel.

2. Small fires can be extinguished by DCP extinguisher or water.

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3. Foam should be used on liquid fire where it can blanket the burning fuel.
4. Water in the form of spray, fog or jet can be used for fighting fire and also for
cooling the surrounding area.
5. Tank fires can be extinguished by applying foam through foam chamber and
cooling the tank shell by operating sprinklers.
6. Near by tanks shall be protected by sprinklers and also by cooling the shell area
through water monitors or hydrants.
7. In case oil has spilled in the dyke area, apply foam blanket on the oil to avoid any
8. For cable tray and pump fire, isolate the power supply and extinguish the fire by
using DCP/ CO2.
9. Water and foam should not be used on electrical fires.

LPG Leakage

Any LPG leakage is evident by the peculiar smell of the gas. In the event of leakage of
LPG or any other cooking gas, the following precautions must be taken:

(a) Strictly refrain from operating any electrical switch or appliance (either ON/OFF);
(b) Do not light a match-stick or use an open flame to detect the leakage;
(c) A safe way of detecting leakage is by applying soap solution to the suspected point
of leakage. If there is a leakage, soap bubbles would form;
(d) Close the gas supply and the cylinder valve ensuring that the leaked gas does not
enter other parts of the building; and
(e) Normal operations involving the use of LPG may be resumed only after the matter
has been investigated and the leakage is stopped and the environment has been
well ventilated.

LPG Storage Vessel Fire

1. LPG flame shall not be extinguished, except by fuel elimination, as leaking gas
can result in an explosion due to accidental ignition.
2. Isolate flame area from the tank, if possible.
3. Apply cooling water streams to the top valve assembly and to the top of the
vessel so that the run-off water will cover the shell.
4. Cooling streams should be continued after flame extinguishments until all danger
of reignition from hot steel has been eliminated.
5. Apply cooling streams in an adequate manner to the other adjacent
vessels/spheres also.
6. Stop immediately movement of product to/from the tank
7. If required pump out the tank contents to unaffected storage vessels

12.3 Building Fires

For fighting fires in high rise building following procedures shall be followed:
1. Raise the alarm by using manual call point or by informing the fire services.
2. In case of small fire use the fire extinguisher available on the floor.
3. For major fire use in built system installed in the building like hose reel, fire
hydrants etc.
4. Fire service personnel use the fire brigade inlet at the ground floor to supply
water to the main riser.
5. In case of gas leakage in the kitchen, open the windows, stop the leakage of gas,
do not switch on/off the electrical appliances and do not use any naked flame.
6. Extinguish the gas fire with the help of water and DCP/CO2.
7. In case of electrical fire try to cut off the power supply and do not apply water on
electrical appliance.
8. Apply DCP/CO2 on electrical fires.
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12.4 Helicopter Fires

Major risk of fire and explosion in helicopter operation is encounterd during landing and
take-off of helicopter. The exhaust coming out from the engines of the helicopter can be
an ignition source for the hydrocarbons present all around. So, all fire-fighting measures
are always kept ready during helicopter operations eg. keeping the fire water cum foam
monitors, foam water hose reel, DCP hose reel and fire tender in ready to operate

Follwing procedures should be followed for helicopter fire;

1. Small fire in the helicopter can be extinguished by using DCP/CO2.

2. For spill fire blanket the area by applying foam.
3. Try to cool the nearby area by using water spray.
4. Approach the fire by wearing fire suit and necessary protective gears.

12.5 H2S Fires

H2S gas is toxic, irritant and asphyxiant. It is a colourless gas which at low
concentrations is accompanied by rotten egg odour. It is a flammable gas which burns
with a blue flame giving rise to sulpher dioxide. Mixture of hydrogen sulphide and air in
the explosive range may explode violently. Since the vapours are heavier than air, they
may accumulate in lower areas or spread and travel along the ground to a source of

When approaching the job site it is necessary to take the following precautious to ensure
safe entry.

1. Observe for audio/ visual alarms.

2. Check for wind direction.
3. Look for personnel and their activities.
4. Enter job site slowly.
5. Look for the escape route.
6. Continuous detection.
7. Gas ignition hazards must be eliminated and No smoking regulations strictly
8. Reduce H2S exposure.
9. Continued observation of wind indicator is a must .
10. During atmospheric contamination by H2S, move upwind or cross wind from
source, not down wind: as such you have to make yourself always away from
11. H2S is heavier than air, therefore avoid low lying area.
12. Maintain and observe warning signs.
13. Maintain reliable communication systems.
14. Know the emergency preparedness plan.

Following procedures shall be adopted for fighting H2S gas fire;

1. Approach the scene of leakage / fire by wearing breathing apparatus.

2. Approach the affected site in a group.
3. Try to stop the leakage the gas.
4. Extinguish the fire by using water, CO2 or DCP.
5. Water shall be sprayed in sufficient quantity for diluting the gas concentration.

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Chapter 13 References

13.1 Codes/Standards/Guidlelines

Various guidelines / recommendations have been issued by different authorities for

providing fire safety arrangements in ONGC installations. In order to provide fire
protection and prevention measures, these standards have been framed considering
from the design stage of the installation. The references are as under:

Sl. Location Applicable Facilities recommended

No. Standards/
1 Processing OMR-84, Fire Water System
Plants OISD 116 Foam System
(Hazira, Uran) Factory Act Halon / its proven equivalent System
Carbon Dioxide System
Dry Chemical Extinguishing System
Detection and Alarm system
Communication System
Portable fire fighting equipment
Mobile fire fighting equipment
2 Processing OISD 116 Fire water system
Plants OMR-84 Foam system
(C2-C3, Dahej, Halon / its proven equivalent system
Gandhar) Carbon dioxide system
Dry chemical extinguishing system
Detection and alarm system
Communication system
Portable fire-fighting equipment
Mobile fire-fighting equipment
3 Petroleum OMR-84, Fire Water System
Depots, OISD 117 Foam System
Terminals Halon / Its proven equivalent Protection System
(CTF), Pipeline First Aid Fire Fighting Equipment
Installations, Mobile Fire Fighting Equipment
CBM-DP Fire alarm / Communication System
4 Drilling Rigs, OMR-84, Fire Water system
Workover Rigs, OISD 189 Foam system
GGS, EPS, First Aid fire fighting equipment
WHI / QPS, Communication system
5 Offshore Petroleum Fire Water System (Pump, Deluge Valves,
Production and Natural Sprinkler, etc)
Installations Gas (Safety Foam Water Hose Reel / Monitor
in Offshore Halon / FM 200 System
Operations) Carbon Dioxide Snuffing System
Rules 2008, DCP Skid
NFPA Detection and Alarm system
Standard, Portable / Mobile fire Extinguisher
6 Office Buildings NBC Part-IV Fire Water System
/ Institutes / and relevant Gas based System
Residential BIS Detection and Alarm system
Complexes Portable / Mobile fire Extinguishers
Fire Services Handbook Page 85 of 93
13.2 List of the Office Orders / Circulars / Norms / Guidelines / Advisories
applicable for ONGC Fire Services:

Circular No. Issue Date Description

TS/DDN/Colour Coding/2005 24-10-05 Uniform Policy for Implementation of

colour codes for Pipings & Fire
Equipment in ONGC
ONG/HFS/CEO/06 27-02-06 Communication Equipment for
Onshore Fire Station
ONG/HFS/FSA/05 05-05-06 Fire Safety Measure in ONGC
ONG/FSA/06 26-09-06 Fire Safety Signage in Building

107(92)-86-06/OFT/CP 10-10-06 Special Allowance for Driving Fire

ONG/HFS/Mock-Drill/7 12-01-07 Mock Fire Drills in ONGC occupied
ONGC/FSC/00/07 18-05-07 Manning Norms for ONGC Fire
ONG/FSC/Awards/07 18-05-07 Best Fire Station Awards

ONG/FSC/06/07 08-06-07 Standardization of Standby Duties

of ONGC Fire Personnel
ONG/FSC/Drg/07 14-06-07 Standard Layout of ONGC Fire
Station Building
1(2)/2007(FIRE/ALLIED)HRP 28-06-07 Reporting Pattern of Fire Services

ONGC/ER/CP/GAD/08 20-07-07 Kits & Livery Norms for Security &

Fire Personnel
ONG/FSC/Policy/07 23-07-07 Absence of Incharge Fire Services
on Leave/Tour/Training etc
ONG/FSC/6/07 23-07-07 Standard Norms of Fire Fighting
Equipment -Onshore
ONG/FSC/06/2007 24-07-07 Guidelines for Maintenance of Fire
ONG/FSC/23/07 22-08-07 Classification of Fire Incidents

ONG/FSC/Procurement/07 14-09-07 Centralized procurement of Fire

Fighting equipments & consumables
DLH/F&A/TMG/5.31 17-09-07 Delegated authority in BDP
for I/c Fire Services
ONG/HFS/23/07 18-09-07 Mock Fire Drills to create
Awareness among the employees
ONG/HFS/Trg/06 20-10-07 Training of Fire Services Personnel

107(92)/86-07/OFT/CP 19-11-07 Incentive to Junior Fireman for

driving Fire Tenders
ONG/COS/OPS/Offshore/08 05-12-07 Designating Fire Officers as Fire-
Cum-Security Officer in Offshore
ONG/FSC/23/08 30-04-08 Detailed Enquiries into the causes
of Fire Incidents
ONG/FSC/06/08 03-07-08 Standardization of Documents

ONG/FSC/06/08 28-07-08 Wearing of Uniform by Fire Services


Fire Services Handbook Page 86 of 93

Circular No. Issue Date Description

ONG/FSC/24/08 05-09-08 Fire Equipments for Geophysical

ONG/FSC/23/08 18-09-08 Visit of I/cs Security/Fire Services to
operational areas .
ONG/COS/OPS/CIR/2009/10 01-01-09 Office order regarding Leave

ONG/FSC/Policy/98 07-01-09 Availing of Leave

1(20)/2009(Allied)-HRP 25-04-09 Reporting Pattern of Logistic

employees posted in Fire Services
DLH/Dir(O)/Office/16/2009 11-05-09 Fire Incidents

3(7)2009(CRC-Security)-HRP 21-07-09 Charter of Duties of Fire-cum-

Security Officer in Offshore
ONGC/ER/CP/GAD/10 23-12-09 Additional Kit & livery for Security &
Fire Personnel
ONG/FSC/Cir(01)/2010 15-03-10 Fire Safety Guidelines of E.D.P and
operating Centres
ONG/FSC/23/08 31-03-10 Fire Incidents in High Rise Buildings

ONG/FSC/06/2010 05-05-10 Guidelines on Posting of FS

Executives as Fire Station Incharge
ONG/FSC/06/2010 19-05-10 Guidelines on Servicing,
Maintenance and Testing of Fire
ONG/FSC/06/2010 06-05-10 Guidelines on Fire Safety Measures
for Operational areas
ONG/FSC/24/2010 11-05-09 Fire Equipments for Geophysical
Parties - corrigendum
ONG/FSC/06/2010 06-05-10 Fire Service Medal for Meritorious
Service- Selection Criteria
ONG/FSC/06/2010 28-12-10 Guidelines on Fire Fighting
Accessories in Fire Tenders
ONG/COS/OPS/CIR/2011 16-03-11 Procedure for procurement of Kits &
ONGC/1/K&L/20/2010 29-04-11 Technical Specification of kits &
liveries items
R&P/1(18)/2011-PAR 05-05-11 Reporting Chain of PAR Process for
Fire Executives at Offshore
ONG/FSC/06/2011 01-07-11 Guidelines on the standard
procedure for storage, transfer,
regular quality check and laboratory
test of fire fighting chemicals
ONG/FSC/06/2011 13-07-11 Standby Duties in Operational Areas

ONG/FSC/06/2011 05-08-11 Revised Guidelines for Nomination

of ONGC Fire Services Personnel
for Fire Service Medal for
Meritorious Service
ONGC/FSC/14(Awards)/2011 24-11-11 Best Fire Safe Offshore Platform
DLH/DIR(Exploration)/Offshore/16/2012 06-11-12 Classification of Fire - Offshore

ONGC/CHSE/OISD/16/2012 22-10-12 Clarification for use of LPG

Cylinders in Hot Jobs

Fire Services Handbook Page 87 of 93

Circular No. Issue Date Description

ONGC/FSC/Cir-12/2012 03-12-12 Fire Fighting Equipments for

Explosive Magazine
ONGC/FSC/CIR-12(Amend.)/12 10-01-13 Amendment Fire Fighting
Equipment for Exp. Magazine
ONGC/ER/CP/GAD/10 25-04-13 Review of Specifications of Fire
Retardant Overall
DGMS(Approval)Circular No.02 08-07-13 Fire Fighting and Suppression
Systems to be used in HEMMs
ONGC/FSC/06(CIR)/2013 07-10-13 S.O.P. for up-keepment of Fire
Fighting & Rescue Equipment for
Onshore Activities
ONGC/FSC/06(CIR)/2014 08-01-14 S.O.P. for up-keepment of Fire
Fighting Equipment for Offshore

13.3 Other References

Sr. No. Reference

1 American Petroleum Institute(API RP 14G)
2 Bureau of Indian Standards
3 Directorate General of Mines Safety(DGMS)
4 Drill Manual for Fire Services Of India, NFSC, Nagpur
5 Manual of Firemanship, Breathing Apparatus & Resuscitation, Book
No. 6, Fire Department Home Office, London
6 National Building Code of India-2005, Part-4 (Fire and Life Safety)
7 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
8 Oil Mines Regulation-1984
9 Oil Industry Safety Directorate, Std:OISD-116
10 Oil Industry Safety Directorate, Std:OISD-117
11 Oil Industry Safety Directorate, Std:OISD-189

Fire Services Handbook Page 88 of 93

Chapter 14 Miscellaneous

14.1 Miscellaneous

1. Uniform Policy on Colour Code for piping and Fire Equipment: Colour codes
and identification are required to promote greater safety, lessen the chances of
error, confusion or inaction, especially in times of emergency, when piping contents
are inherently hazardous. A uniform approach for identification would address all
such issues besides the issues of standardization and ONGC wide uniformity.
Accoridngly, colour codes for piping and Fire Equipment in ONGC had been
approved in the 278th EC Metting held on 15.05.2005 and Office Order issued vide
No. TS/DDN/Colour Coding/2005 dated 24th October, 2005. Colour code for fire
fighting equipment is as under:-

Sl. Item/Application Standard Painting Colour

01 Fire Extinguishers (Water based, Foam, DCP, Fire Red Paint (Shed No.
CO2) 536 of IS: 5 as amended)
02 All Fire Tenders/Jeep Enginees (Except Foam
Tank, foam piping & Nitrogen Cylinder)
03 Fire Tender water piping/Wet Risers/Fire Hose
Reel box
04 Fire Tender Water Pump & Engine/Water Pipe
line in engine & Pump
05 DCP Tank & DCP Piping
06 Foam Tank & Foam piping/Nitrogen Cylinder Dark Admirality Grey
07 Driver compartment & Inside of the lockers Parle Cream
08 Chassis & Wheel arches Black
09 Fire Service Insignia & identity nomenclatures Canary yellow with black
border on both sides of the

2. Fire Safety Signages: Fire safety signages play a very vital role in the fire
protection and fire fighting arrangements generally in operational areas and
particularly in buildings, especially the multistoreyed buildings used for
commercial purposes like offices, laboratories, auditoriums, etc. Proper signages
displayed at appropriate locations create awareness of the availability of fire
fighting equipment, provide basic instructions for the usage of fire fighting
equipment, provides directions for safe exit of occupants in case of fire
emergencies, help inculcating a feeling of safety and security amongst the
occupants of the building, usage of personal protective equipment, etc. Standard
pattern of signages on fire safety in the buildings was issued vide Circualr No.
ONG/HFS/FSA/06 Dated 26th September, 2006.
3. Maintenance of Fire Fighting Equipment: In order to have proper supervision/
maintenance for ensuring 100% availability of fire fighting equipment/ system on
round the clock basis, EC in its 309th meeting held on 30th May, 2007 approved
the following guidelines which was circulated vide Office Order No.
ONGC/FSC/6/07 Dated 24th July, 2007:-
a) Fire fighting & detection system including fire vehicles be treated at par
with essential operational equipment.
b) In-charge Fire Services will co-ordinate repairs & maintenance jobs
c) Fire department of the concerned Work Centre is responsible for
repair/maintenance of portable and mobile fire fighting equipment.
d) Responsibility of repairs and maintenance support for static/fixed
equipments should be entrusted to the Engineering
Services/HSE/Maintenance department.

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e) Responsibility of repairs & maintenance support of major fire fighting
appliances/vehicles/tenders be with Engineering Services/Maintenance
f) In charge Fire Services of Work Centre empowered to carry out minor
repairs of fire vehicles/equipment from authorized service centres as per
delegated L- III powers under BDP.

4. Fire Equipment for Geophysical Parties: Geophysical parties carrying out

survey and exploration activities are normally accommodated in temporary
structures within a campus having essential facilities like cooking, bathing and
other utilities at remote areas. The camps also have battery storage area, stores,
explosive magazines, etc. which are source of fire. As these camps are
established away from ONGC Work Centres or toen remote areas, fire tender
from ONGC or State/Municipal Fire Services takes long time to reposnd to any
fire call. Considering all these aspects, scale of fire fighting equipment required
for Geophysical Camp along with responsibility for inspection and maintenance of
fire fighting equipment was circulated vide No. ONG/FSC/24/08 dated 5th
September, 2008. The scale of fire fighting equipment circulated vide mentioned
guideline is for camps having tents and/or thatched bamboo huts for offices and
living accommodation and camps having bunk houses for offices and living

5. Guidelines on Fire safety for Electronic Data Processing and Operating

Centres:- Exploration and production of hydrocarbon, the core business of
ONGC, is an information intensive process wherein the progress largely depends
on a huge data base of intelligent scientific information distributed in various high
and computing resources like servers, workstations, online data storage stacks,
Network Clusters and their supporting backbone of communication and network
infrastructure. Considering the fire hazards associated with these facilities
standard guidelines on the minimum essential fire protection measures for the
safety of such centres have been formulated and circulated vide Circular No.
ONGC/FSC/Cir (01)/2010 dated 15th March, 2010. These guidelines prescribe the
minimum and essential fire safety measures for the following aspects:-

a) Civil Architectural Design of Data Centre Area

b) Air conditioning and Environment Control
c) Cabling, Lighting and other Electrical Installations
d) Paper and Other Combustible Material Handling
e) Fire Detection, Alarm and Control Panel

6. Guidelines on Servicing, Maintenance and Testing of Fire Extinguishers:

Fire Extinguishers are the most important first aid fire fighting equipment and play
an important role in controlling fire at the incipient stage thereby protecting life
and property. The effectiveness of fire extinguishers depend not only on their
type and suitability for the category of fire for which they can be used, but also on
their serviceability through regular inspections and maintenance. Instructions on
the inspection, servicing and maintenance of fire extinguishers of various types
used for different applications in ONGC have been issued by various statutory
agencies like DGMS, OISD and BIS, etc. Therefore, detailed guidelines
incorporating all the above requirements were issued vide No. ONG/FSC/06/2010
dated 19th May, 2010. This guidelines stipulated type of inspection, frequency of
inspection, Hydraulic Testing, Performance test, etc.

7. Guidelines on Deployment of Fire Fighting Accessories in Different Fire

Tenders: Fire tender is the most critical component in fire fighting operations in
Onshore operational areas. Various types of fire tenders of different capacities
and makes are in use in onshore fire stations of ONGC. In order to maintain

Fire Services Handbook Page 90 of 93

uniformity on fire fighting accessories kept in fire tenders, a circular vide No.
ONG/FSC/06/2010 dated 28th December, 2010 was issued. This guideline
ensures that the recommended scale of accessories is kept in fire vehicles for
effective fire fighting operations at all times.

8. Guidelines on the Standard Procedure for Storage, Transfer, Regular

Quality Check and Laboratory Test of Fire Fighting Chemicals: Fire Fighting
Chemicals viz. AFFF 3% & 6%, DCP Type A & Type B play a very vital role in
the efficiency of fire fighting operations in hydrocarbon fires. To achieve optimum
fire fighting performance from the chemicals, not only is it necessary to procure
the best quality product in these categories conforming to best International
standards, but it is also necessary that proper handling, storage and regular
quality check of these chemiclas are ensured. EC in its 276th meeting held on 17th
April, 2005 directed to formulate standard procedure/guidelines for decanting
foam from container to foam tender and regular quality check during its shelf life.
Guidelines on this aspect issued on 14th February, 2006, with the revision of
technical specifications of fire fighting chemicals revised guidelines on the
Standard Procedure for Storage, Transfer, Regular Quality Check and Laboratory
Test of Fire Fighting Chemicals were issued vide Cicular No. ONG/FSC/06/2011
Dated 1st July, 2011.

9. Fire Fighting Equipment for Explosive Magazines: Explosive Magazines of

ONGC are located in remote areas far away from Fire Stations and the time
taken to respond to a fire call can be quite long. Therefore, to protect the
magazines from fire hazards, it is essential to provide suitable and adequate
number of fire fighting equipment at the magazine itself to combat any threat from
fire. Earlier, there was no scale of fire fighting equipment for Explosive Magazines
Considering the remote location and its vulnerability, Scale of Fire Fighting
Equipment for Mode A Magazine and Mode B Magazine along with
responsibility for maintenance of authorized equipment were circulated vide No.
ONGC/FSC/Cir 12/2012 dated 3rd December, 2012.

Fire Services Handbook Page 91 of 93

Common Acronyms
AFFF - Aqueous Film Forming Foam
DCP - Dry Chemical Powder
MFG - Mechanical Foam Generator
TFP - Trailer Fire Pump
BLEVE - Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion
VCE - Vapor Cloud Explosion
UCVE - Unconfined Vapor Cloud Explosion
NFPA - National Fire Protection Association
OISD - Oil Industry Safety Directorate
OMR - Oil Mines Regulation
BIS - Bureau of Indian Standard
UL - Under Writer Laboratory
FM - Factory Mutual
PPM - Parts Per Million
RCP - Recommended Code of Practice
SCBA - Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas
LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas
TLV - Threshold Limit Value
MSV - Multi Support Vessel
SAR - Search and Rescue
FFFP - Film Forming Fluoro Protein Foam
NISA - National Industrial Security Academy
IPSHEM - Institutes of Petroleum Safety Health and Environment Managment
NBC - National Buidling Codes
FSD - Fire Safety Shutdown
ESD - Emergency Shut Down
ODS - Ozone Depleting Substnces
CTF - Central Tank Farm
HCFC - Hydro Chloro Fluro Carbon
GEOPIC - Geodata Proceesing and Interpretation Centre
IRS - Institutes of Resercior Studies
MMS - Marine Mercantile Services
EN - European Norms
API - Amercian Petroleum Institutes
SOLAS - Safety of Life at Sea
ASTM - American Standard of Testing Material
AHU - Air Handling Unit
GVW - Gross Vehicle Weight
ERP - Emergency Response Plan

Fire Services Handbook Page 92 of 93


Reporting a fire is not something that you need to do everyday; however, it is very
important that you know how to report a fire when the time comes.


1. Get to the nearest telephone/press the manual call point/break glass of manual
call point.
2. Call emergency numbers i.e. fire service control room, nearby installations,
process control room etc.

3. Explain the control room that there is a fire.

4. Explain

where the fire is,

how large the fire is,
what type of structure is on fire,
whether or not the fire is near any houses,
if anyone has been burned by the fire,
if anyone is trapped inside,
any hazardous materials in or around the area that you know of
and any other information the control room may request.


 Try to use a calm and relaxed voice.

 Answer all the questions the dispatcher asks of you


Never hang up on the dispatcher until they say it is okay.

Never make a fake call or call when there is no fire. It is unlawful and

Fire Services Handbook Page 93 of 93