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JohnScotusEriugena
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

JohnScotusEriugena(/dohniz,hns/
/skotsskts//rdn/c.815c.877)wasan JohnScotusEriugena
Irishtheologian,neoplatonistphilosopher,andpoet.
Hewroteanumberofworks,butisbestknowntoday,
andhadmostinfluenceinsubsequentcenturies,for
havingtranslatedandmadecommentariesuponthe
workofPseudoDionysius.

Contents

1 Name

2 Life

3 Works Born c.815


Ireland
3.1 TranslationofPseudoDionysius
Died c.877(agec.62)
3.2 Periphyseon ProbablyFrance,orEngland
Othernames JohannesScottusEriugena,Johannes
4 Influence
ScotusErigena,JohannesScottigena
5 Joke Era Medievalphilosophy

6 References Region Westernphilosophy


School Neoplatonism
7 Translations Main Freewill,logic,metaphysics
interests
8 Furtherreading
Influences
9 Seealso Plato,AugustineofHippo,Cappadocian
Fathers,PseudoDionysius,Maximusthe
10 Externallinks Confessor,Boethius

11 Sources Influenced
BerengarofTours,SchoolofChartres,
HonoriusofAutun,HildegardofBingen,

Name IsraeltheGrammarian,AmauryofBene,
AlaindeLille,PeterDamian,Thomas
Thespelling"Eriugena"isperhapsthemostsuitable Aquinas,NicholasofCusa,GeorgWilhelm
surnameformashehimselfusesitinonemanuscript. FriedrichHegel
Itmeans'Ireland(riu)born'.'Scottus'intheMiddle
AgeswastheLatintermfor"IrishorGaelic",sohisnametranslatesas"John,theIrishbornGael."The
spelling'Scottus'hastheauthorityoftheearlymanuscriptsuntilperhapsthe11thcentury.Occasionally
heisalsonamed'Scottigena'("Scotborn")inthemanuscripts.
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HeisnottobeconfusedwiththelaterphilosopherJohnDunsScotus.

Life
JohannesScotusEriugenawasan
Irishman,educatedinIreland.He
movedtoFrance(about845)and
tookoverthePalatineAcademyat
theinvitationofCarolingianKing
CharlestheBald.Hesucceeded
AlcuinofYork(735804)asheadof
EriugenacommemoratedontheIrish5banknote,issued197693.
thePalaceSchool.[1]Thereputation
ofthisschool,partofthe
CarolingianRenaissance,seemstohaveincreasedgreatlyunderEriugena'sleadership,andthe
philosopherhimselfwastreatedwithindulgencebytheking.WhereasAlcuinwasaschoolmasterrather
thanaphilosopher,EriugenawasanotedGreekscholar,askillwhich,thoughrareatthattimein
WesternEurope,wasusedinthelearningtraditionofEarlyandMedievalIreland,asevidencedbythe
useofGreekscriptinmedievalIrishmanuscripts.[1]HeremainedinFranceforatleastthirtyyears,and
itwasalmostcertainlyduringthisperiodthathewrotehisvariousworks.

Thelatterpartofhislifeisunclear.Thereisastorythatin882hewasinvitedtoOxfordbyAlfredthe
Great,labouredthereformanyyears,becameabbotatMalmesbury,andwasstabbedtodeathbyhis
pupilswiththeirstyli.Whetherthisistobetakenliterallyorfigurativelyisnotclear,[2]andsome
scholarsthinkitmayrefertosomeotherJohannes.[3]HeprobablyneverleftFrance,andthedateofhis
deathisgenerallygivenas877.[4]Fromtheevidenceavailable,itisimpossibletodeterminewhetherhe
wasaclericoralaymanthegeneralconditionsofthetimemakeitlikelythathewasaclericand
perhapsamonk.

Works
HisworkislargelybaseduponSaintAugustine,Pseudo
Dionysius,MaximustheConfessor,andtheCappadocian
Fathers,andisclearlyNeoplatonist.Herevivedthe
transcendentaliststandpointofNeoplatonismwithits"graded
hierarchy"approach.BygoingbacktoPlato,herevivedthe
nominalistrealistdebate.

ThefirstoftheworksknowntohavebeenwrittenbyEriugena
duringthisperiodwasatreatiseontheEucharist,whichhasnot
survived.Initheseemstohaveadvancedthedoctrinethatthe
Eucharistwasmerelysymbolicalorcommemorative,anopinion
forwhichBerengarofTourswasatalaterdatecensuredand
condemned.Asapartofhispenance,Berengariusissaidtohave
beencompelledtoburnpubliclyEriugena'streatise.Sofaraswe
canlearn,however,EriugenawasconsideredorthodoxandafewyearslaterwasselectedbyHincmar,
archbishopofReims,todefendthedoctrineoflibertyofwillagainsttheextremepredestinarianismof
themonkGottschalk(Gotteschalchus).ManyintheChurchopposedGottschalk'spositionbecauseit

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deniedtheinherentvalueofgoodworks.ThetreatiseDedivinapraedestinationecomposedforthis
occasionhasbeenpreserved,anditwasprobablyfromitscontentthatEriugena'sorthodoxybecame
suspect.[1]

Eriugenaarguesthequestionofpredestinationentirelyonspeculativegrounds,andstartswiththebold
affirmationthatphilosophyandreligionarefundamentallyoneandthesame.Evenmoresignificantis
hishandlingofauthorityandreason.Eriugenaofferedaskilledproofthattherecanbepredestination
onlytothegoodforallfolkaresummonedtobesaints.[1]TheworkwaswarmlyassailedbyDrepanius
Florus,canonofLyons,andPrudentius,andwascondemnedbytwocouncils:thatofValencein855,
andthatofLangresin859.BytheformercouncilhisargumentsweredescribedasPultesScotorum
("Irishporridge")andcommentumdiaboli("aninventionofthedevil").

Eriugenabelievedthatallpeopleandallbeings,includinganimals,reflectattributesofGod,towards
whomallarecapableofprogressingandtowhichallthingsultimatelymustreturn.Eriugenawasa
believerinapocatastasisoruniversalreconciliation,whichmaintainsthattheuniversewilleventuallybe
restoredunderGod'sdominion(seealsoChristianUniversalism).[5]

TranslationofPseudoDionysius

AtsomepointinthecenturiesbeforeEriugenatherehaddevelopedalegendthattheSaintDenis,the
firstBishopofParisandpatronsaintoftheimportantAbbeyofSaintDenis,wasthesamepersonas
boththeDionysiustheAreopagitementionedinActs17.34,andPseudoDionysiustheAreopagite,a
figurewhosewritingswereintheearlyninthcenturynotcirculatedintheWest(itwasnotuntilthe
sixteenthcentury,exceptbyAbelard,thatitwasrealisedthatthesetwofigureswerenotconnected
PseudoDionysiusisnowthoughtmostlikelytobeasixthcenturySyriacauthor).Accordingly,inthe
820sambassadorsfromtheByzantineemperortothecourtofLouisthePiousdonatedLouisaGreek
manuscriptoftheDionysiancorpus,whichwasimmediatelygiventotheAbbeyofSaintDenisinthe
careofAbbotHilduin.HilduinproceededtodirectatranslationoftheDionysiancorpusfromGreekinto
Latin,basedonthissinglemanuscript.[6]

Soonafter,probablybythemiddleoftheninthcentury,EriugenamadeasecondLatintranslationofthe
Dionysiancorpus,andmuchlaterwroteacommentaryon"TheCelestialHierarchy".Thisconstitutes
thefirstmajorLatinreceptionoftheAreopagite.ItisunclearwhyEriugenamadeanewtranslationso
soonafterHilduin's.IthasoftenbeensuggestedthatHilduin'stranslationwasdeficientthoughthisisa
possibility,itwasaserviceabletranslation.AnotherpossibilityisthatEriugena'screativeenergiesand
hisinclinationtowardGreektheologicalsubjectsmotivatedhimtomakeanewtranslation.[7]

Eriugena'snextworkwasaLatintranslationofDionysiustheAreopagiteundertakenattherequestof
CharlestheBald.Thisalsohasbeenpreserved,andfragmentsofacommentarybyEriugenaon
Dionysiushavebeendiscoveredinmanuscript.AtranslationoftheAreopagite'swritingswasnotlikely
toaltertheopinionalreadyformedastoEriugena'sorthodoxy.PopeNicholasIwasoffendedthatthe
workhadnotbeensubmittedforapprovalbeforebeinggiventotheworld,andorderedCharlestosend
EriugenatoRome,oratleasttodismisshimfromhiscourt.Thereisnoevidence,however,thatthis
orderwascarriedout.

AttherequestoftheByzantineemperorMichaelIII(ca.858),Eriugenaundertooksometranslationinto
LatinoftheworksofPseudoDionysiusandaddedhisowncommentary.

Withthistranslation,hewasthefirstsinceSaintAugustinetointroducetheideasofNeoplatonismfrom
theGreekintotheWesternEuropeanintellectualtradition,wheretheyweretohaveastronginfluence
onChristiantheology.
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Periphyseon

Eriugena'sgreatwork,Dedivisionenaturae(),whichwascondemnedbyacouncilatSens
byHonoriusIII(1225),whodescribeditas"swarmingwithwormsofhereticalperversity,"andby
GregoryXIIIin1585,isarrangedinfivebooks.Theformofexpositionisthatofdialoguethemethod
ofreasoningisthesyllogism.Nature(NaturainLatinorphysisinGreek)isthenameofthemost
comprehensiveofallunities,thatwhichcontainswithinitselfthemostprimarydivisionofallthings,
thatwhichis(being)andthatwhichisnot(nonbeing).TheLatintitlereferstothesefourdivisionsof
nature:(1)thatwhichcreatesandisnotcreated(2)thatwhichiscreatedandcreates(3)thatwhichis
createdanddoesnotcreate(4)thatwhichisneithercreatednorcreates.ThefirstisGodastheground
ororiginofallthings,thelastisGodasthefinalendorgoalofallthings,thatintowhichtheworldof
createdthingsultimatelyreturns.Thesecondandthirdtogethercomposethecreateduniverse,whichis
themanifestationofGod,Godinprocess,TheophaniathesecondistheworldofPlatonicideasor
forms,andthethirdisamorepantheisticworld,orapandeisticone,[8]dependingontheinterferenceof
God.Thuswedistinguishinthedivinesystembeginning,middleandendbutthesethreeareinessence
onethedifferenceisonlytheconsequenceofourfinitecomprehension.Wearecompelledtoenvisage
thiseternalprocessundertheformoftime,toapplytemporaldistinctionstothatwhichisextraor
supratemporal.Itisinturnthroughourexperiencethattheincomprehensibledivineisabletoframean
understandingofitself.

TheDivisionofNaturehasbeencalledthefinalachievementofancientphilosophy,aworkwhich
"synthesizesthephilosophicalaccomplishmentsoffifteencenturies."Itispresented,likeAlcuin'sbook,
asadialoguebetweenMasterandPupil.EriugenaanticipatesThomasAquinas,whosaidthatonecannot
knowandbelieveathingatthesametime.Eriugenaexplainsthatreasonisnecessarytounderstandand
interpretrevelation."Authorityisthesourceofknowledge,butthereasonofmankindisthenormby
whichallauthorityisjudged."[9]

Influence
Eriugena'sworkisdistinguishedbythefreedomofhisspeculation,andtheboldnesswithwhichhe
worksouthislogicalordialecticalsystemoftheuniverse.Hemarks,indeed,astageoftransitionfrom
theolderPlatonizingphilosophytothelaterscholasticism.Forhimphilosophyisnotintheserviceof
theology.Theabovequotedassertionastothesubstantialidentitybetweenphilosophyandreligionis
repeatedalmostwordforwordbymanyofthelaterscholasticwriters,butitssignificancedependsupon
theselectionofoneorothertermoftheidentityasfundamentalorprimary.ForEriugena,philosophyor
reasonisfirst,primitiveauthorityorreligionissecondary,derived.

Hisinfluencewasgreaterwithmysticsthanwithlogicians,buthewasresponsibleforarevivalof
philosophicalthoughtwhichhadremainedlargelydormantinwesternEuropeafterthedeathof
Boethius.

AfterEriugenaanothermedievalthinkerofsignificancewasBerengarofTours,professoratthe
monasticschoolintheFrenchcity.Berengarbelievedthattruthisobtainedthroughreasonratherthan
revelation.St.PeterDamianagreedwithTertullianthatitisnotnecessaryforpeopletophilosophize
becauseGodhasspokenforthem.DamianwaspriorofFonteAvellanaandafterwardCardinalBishop
ofOstia.Hediedin1072.Lanfranc(100589)waspriorofBecinNormandy.LikeDamianhebelieved
mostlyinfaith,butadmittedtheimportanceofreason.St.AnselmwasapupilandsuccessorofSt.Peter
Damian.[1]

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Onthewhole,onemightbesurprisedthatevenintheseventeenthcenturypantheism
didnotgainacompletevictoryovertheismforthemostoriginal,finest,andmost
thoroughEuropeanexpositionsofit(noneofthem,ofcourse,willbearcomparison
withtheUpanishadsoftheVedas)allcametolightatthatperiod,namelythrough
Bruno,Malebranche,Spinoza,andScotusErigena.AfterScotusErigenahadbeenlost
andforgottenformanycenturies,hewasagaindiscoveredatOxfordandin1681,thus
fouryearsafterSpinoza'sdeath,hisworkfirstsawthelightinprint.Thisseemsto
provethattheinsightofindividualscannotmakeitselffeltsolongasthespiritofthe
ageisnotripetoreceiveit.Ontheotherhand,inourday(1851)pantheism,although
presentedonlyinSchelling'seclecticandconfusedrevivalthereof,hasbecomethe
dominantmodeofthoughtofscholarsandevenofeducatedpeople.Thisisbecause
Kanthadprecededitwithhisoverthrowoftheisticdogmatismandhadclearedtheway
forit,wherebythespiritoftheagewasreadyforit,justasaploughedfieldisreadyfor
theseed.
Schopenhauer,ParergaandParalipomena,Vol.I,"SketchofaHistoryofthe
DoctrineoftheIdealandtheReal".

LeszekKoakowski,aPolishMarxscholar,hasmentionedEriugenaasoneoftheprimaryinfluenceson
Hegel's,andthereforeMarx's,dialecticalform.Inparticular,hecalledDeDivisioneNaturaeaprototype
ofHegel'sPhenomenologyofSpirit.[10]

Joke
WilliamofMalmesbury'shumorousanecdoteillustratesboththecharacterofEriugenaandtheposition
heoccupiedattheFrenchcourt.Thekinghavingasked,QuiddistatintersottumetScottum?(what
separatesasot(drunkard)fromanIrishman?)Eriugenareplied,Tabulatantum(Onlyatable).[11]

WilliamofMalmesburyisnotconsideredareliablesourceonJohnScotusErigenabymodernscholars.
Forexample,hisreportsthatErigenaisburiedatMalmesburyisdoubtedbyscholarswhosaythat
WilliamconfusedJohnErigenawithadifferentmonknamedJohn.Williamsreportonthemannerof
Erigenasdeath,killedbythepensofhisstudents,alsoappearstobealegend.Itseemscertainthatthis
isduetoconfusionwithanotherJohnandthatthemannerofJohnsdeathisborrowedfromtheActsof
St.CassianofImola.Feast:(atMalmesbury),28January.[12][13][14][15]

References
1.Freemantle,Anne,ed.(19541955),"JohnScotusErigena",TheAgeofBelief,TheMentorPhilosophers,
HoughtonMifflinCompany,pp.7287.
2.Caribine,Deirdre,GreatMedievalThinkers,JohnScottusEriugena,OxfordUniversityPress,p.14.
3.Cappuyns,M(1933),JeanScotrigne,savie,sonoeuvre,sapense,Louvain,BEMontCsar,pp.252
53.Figuratively,presentdayprofessorsmightrecognizetheironyindyingfromtheresultsoftheirstudents'
pens.
4.ThenineteenthcenturyFrenchhistorian,Haurauadvancedsomereasonsforfixingthisdate.
5."JohannesScotusErigena",NotableNamesDatabase,retrieved5August2007.
6.PaulRorem,'TheEarlyLatinDionysius:EriugenaandHughofStVictor,"ModernTheology"24:4,(2008),
p.602.
7.PaulRorem,TheEarlyLatinDionysius:EriugenaandHughofStVictor,"ModernTheology"24:4,(2008),
p602.
8.MaxBernhardWeinstein,WeltundLebensanschauungen,HervorgegangenausReligion,Philosophieund
Naturerkenntnis("WorldandLifeViews,EmergingFromReligion,PhilosophyandNature")(1910),page
28384:"JohannesScotusErigena....ltineinerseinermehrerenAnsichtenallesvonGottemaniertsein.
GottesKlarheit,welchemitRechtauchDunkelheitgenanntwird,breitesichberallesaus.Dieungeformte
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Scotus_Eriugena 5/8
31/1/2016 JohnScotusEriugenaWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

MateriesollnurdasUnendlichebedeuten,welches,daesformlossei,alleFormeninsichenthalte.Gotthat
dieWeltausseinemeigenenWesengebildet.JedesGeschpfisteineTheophanie,einSichoffenbarmachen
Gottes.GottseiansichvorhandenwieeinGedankeimMenschenbesteheermanifestieresichinderWelt
durchsichselbst,wieeinGedanke,dersichdenkt,sichselbstzurErkenntniskomme.SoseiGottohnedie
Weltabsolutnegativ.EsklingtwieeineBlasphemie,wenngesagtwird,Gottwissenicht,wasersei,under
werdeerstgeschaffenmitderSchpfung,indemersichinseinerSchpfungoffenbart,dieSchpfungsoaus
Nichtshervorbringend.DasistauchfastsoabstraktwiedieindischeTadAnschauung.Freilichbleibtesbei
diesemabsoluten,undjaauchnichtzudurchdringenden,Pandeismusnicht.WiederIndiermuScotusGott
dochetwaszuschreiben,Willen,unddieGeschpfesinddannWillensakte.DerWilleistpersnlichals
EmanationGottes(alsChristus)gedacht,wiewohlauchdieUrsachen(zusammengefatalsHeiligerGeist),
dieScotusvonGottausgehenlt,Emanationensind,unddieWirkungen,diewiedervonihnenausgehen,
Emanationenihrerselbstdarstellen."
9.TheAgeofBelief(https://archive.org/details/ageofbelief007499mbp),cit.,p.80
(https://archive.org/stream/ageofbelief007499mbp#page/n85/mode/2up)
10.Koakowski,L(1976),MainCurrentsofMarxism1.
11.WilliamofMalmesbury."Book5".GestapontificumAnglorum.QuotedinHelenWaddell,TheWandering
Scholars(GardenCity:Doubleday,1955),p.56.
12.JohntheSage,mentionedinR.P.S.(11thcentury)asrestingatMalmesburywithMaedubandAldhelm.He
shouldprobablybeidentifiedwiththeJohnwhosetombWilliamofMalmesburydescribedandwhoseepitaph
hetranscribed.HebelievedthatthiswasJohnScotusErigena,theIrishphilosopherofthe9thcentury,and
thathewaskilledbythepensofhisstudentsaftersettlingatMalmesbury.Itseemscertainthatthisisdueto
confusionwithanotherJohnandthatthemannerofJohnsdeathisborrowedfromtheActsofSt.Cassianof
Imola.Feast:(atMalmesbury),28January.JohntheSageTheOxfordDictionaryofSaints.DavidHugh
Farmer.OxfordUniversityPress2003.OxfordReferenceOnline.OxfordUniversityPress.Universityof
Oxford.12February2010
13.http://pyhiinvaeltaja.wordpress.com/2010/02/10/stjohnofmalmesbury/
14.Today(28January)wecommemorateStJohntheWiseofMalmesbury(8thcentury).Ordowe?Theredo
seemtobeseveralconfusionsandmisattributionsinthisstory,whichwasagoodresearchexerciserather
thanparticularlyenlightening.Twosourceswereuseful,FarmerandtheVictoriaCountyHistory:Atthis
time,about870,accordingtothetraditionrecordedbyWilliamofMalmesbury,(fn.59)JohnScotusErigena,
thephilosopher,attheinstigationofKingAlfredtookuphisresidenceattheabbeyasafugitivefromthe
Continentaftersomeyearshewasmurderedbyhispupils.HewasburiedfirstinSt.LaurencesChurch,but
thebodypreternaturalportents.ThetermsoftheepitaphasgivenbyWilliamimplythatthedeadscholarwas
regardedasamartyranditseemsclearthathebasesthestoryonanoldtraditionandatombbearingan
epitaphofaJohntheWisewhoistermedsaintandmartyr.(fn.60)ThisJohn,however,almostcertainly
cannothavebeenthefamousphilosopherhemaypossiblyhavebeenJohntheOldSaxonwhoseunfortunate
rgimeatAthelney(Som.)nearlyendedinmurder.(fn.61)JohntheOldSaxonescapedfromAthelney,but
whenandhowhediedwedonotknowitispossiblethatheistobeidentifiedwiththeJohntheWiseof
Malmesbury.From:HouseofBenedictinemonks:AbbeyofMalmesbury,AHistoryoftheCountyof
Wiltshire:Volume3(1956),pp.210231.URL:http://www.britishhistory.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=36532
Dateaccessed:12February2010.
15.[Williamwrote]thatJohnquittedFranciabecauseofthechargeoferroneousdoctrinebroughtagainsthim.
HecametoKingAlfred,bywhomhewaswelcomedandestablishedasateacheratMalmesbury,butafter
someyearshewasassailedbytheboys,waslatertranslatedtotheleftofthehighaltaroftheabbeychurch,
chieflyastheresultofwhomhetaught,withtheirstyles,andsodied.Itneveroccurredtoanyonetoidentify
theOldSaxonabbatofAthelneywiththeIrishteacherofMalmesburywiththenameJohnasthesingle
pointincommonuntilthelateforger,whopassedoffhisworkasthatofIngulf,whowasabbatofCroyland
towardstheendoftheeleventhcentury(Descr.Comp.inRer.Angl.Script.postBedam,p.870,Frankfurt,
1601)andtheconfusionhassurvivedtheexposureofthefraud.ItispermissibletoholdthatWilliamhas
handeddownagenuinetraditionofhismonastery,thoughitwouldbeextremetoacceptallthedetailsofwhat
happenedmorethantwocenturiesbeforehisbirthasstrictlyhistorical(seeanexaminationofthewhole
questioninPoole,app.ii.).DictionaryofNationalBiography,18851900,Volume51ScotusbyReginald
LanePoole.

Translations

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JohannisScottiEriugenaePeriphyseon:(Dedivisionenaturae),3vols,editedbyI.P.Sheldon
Williams,(Dublin:DublinInstituteforAdvancedStudies,19681981)[theLatinandEnglishtext
ofBooks13ofDedivisionenaturae]
Periphyseon(TheDivisionofNature),tr.I.P.SheldonWilliamsandJJO'Meara,(Montreal:
Bellarmin,1987)[TheLatintextispublishedin.Jeauneau,ed,CCCM161165.]
TheVoiceoftheEagle.TheHeartofCelticChristianity:JohnScotusEriugena'sHomilyonthe
ProloguetotheGospelofSt.John,translatedandintroducedbyChristopherBamford,(Hudson,
NY:LindisfarneEdinburgh:Floris,1990)[reprintedGreatBarrington,MA:Lindisfarne,2000)]
[translationofHomiliainprologumSanctiEvangeliisecundumJoannem]
IohannisScottiEriugenaePeriphyseon(Dedivisionenaturae),editedbydouardA.Jeauneau
translatedintoEnglishbyJohnJ.O'MearaandI.P.SheldonWilliams,(Dublin:SchoolofCeltic
Studies,DublinInstituteforAdvancedStudies,1995)[theLatinandEnglishtextofBook4ofDe
divisionenaturae]
Glossaedivinaehistoriae:theBiblicalglossesofJohnScottusEriugena,editedbyJohnJ.
ContreniandPdraigP.Nill,(Firenze:SISMELEdizionidelGalluzzo,1997)
Treatiseondivinepredestination,translatedbyMaryBrennan,(NotreDame,IN:Universityof
NotreDamePress,1998)[translationofDedivinapraedestinationeliber.]
AThirteenthCenturyTextbookofMysticalTheologyattheUniversityofParis:theMystical
TheologyofDionysiustheAreopagiteinEriugena'sLatinTranslation,withtheScholiatranslated
byAnastasiustheLibrarian,andExcerptsfromEriugena'sPeriphyseon,translatedandintroduced
byL.MichaelHarrington,Dallasmedievaltextsandtranslations4,(ParisDudley,MA:Peeters,
2004)
PaulRorem,EriugenasCommentaryontheDionysianCelestialHierarchy,(Toronto:Pontifical
InstituteofMediaevalStudies,2005).[TheLatintextispublishedinExpositionesinIerarchiam
coelestemIohannisScotiEriugenae,edJ.Barbet,CCCM31,(1975).]

Furtherreading
Jeauneau,douard(1979),"JeanScotrigneetleGrec",BulletinduCange:Archivvm
LatinitatisMediiAevi(Leiden:EJBrill),MCMLXXVIIIII.TomeXLI.[Thisarguesthat
Eriugena'sknowledgeofGreekwasnotcompletelythorough.]
PaulRorem."TheEarlyLatinDionysius:EriugenaandHughofStVictor."ModernTheology
24:4,(2008).
JohnMacInnis."'TheHarmonyofAllThings':Music,Soul,andCosmosintheWritingsofJohn
ScottusEriugena.PhDdiss.,FloridaStateUniversity,2014.

Seealso
Apocatastasis
Berengarians
ChristianUniversalism
Eucharistictheology
Mysticaltheology
NeoplatonismandChristianity

Externallinks
JohnScottusEriugena
WikimediaCommonshas
(http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/scottuseriugena)entryby
mediarelatedtoIohannes
DermotMoranintheStanfordEncyclopediaofPhilosophy ScotusEriugena.
John31(http://www.pase.ac.uk/jsp/ASC/person.jsp?
personKey=19522)atProsopographyofAngloSaxon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Scotus_Eriugena 7/8
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England Wikiquotehasquotations
Eriugena:DialecticandOntologyinthePeriphyseon, relatedto:JohnScotus
Ontology. Eriugena
CompleteListoftheEditionsandTranslationsofthe
WorksofEriugena,Ontology.
"AJ",BibliographyonEriugena'sPhilosophicalWork,Ontology.
"KZ",BibliographyonEriugena'sPhilosophicalWork,Ontology.
JohnScotusand"JohntheSophist",Elfinspell.
OperaOmniabyMignePatrologiaLatinawithanalyticalindexes,EU:DocumentaCatholica
omnia.

Sources
Thisarticleincorporatestextfromapublicationnowinthepublicdomain:Chisholm,Hugh,ed.
(1911).EncyclopdiaBritannica(11thed.).CambridgeUniversityPress.

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