Notch fluid mech 2

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Notch fluid mech 2

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A notch may be defined as an opening in one side of a tank or a reservoir, like a large orifice, with the

upstream liquid level below the top edge of the opening.

Since the top edge of the notch above the liquid level serves no purpose, therefore a notch may have

only the bottom edge and sides.

The bottom edge, over which the liquid flows, is known as sill or crest of the notch and the sheet of

liquid flowing over a notch (or a weir) is known as nappe or vein. A notch is, usually made of a

metallic plate and is used to measure the discharge of liquids.

Types Of Notches

There are many types of notches, depending upon their shapes. But the following are important from

the subject point of view.

Rectangular notch

Triangular notch

Trapezoidal notch

Stepped notch

Rectangular notch

Discharge over a rectangular notch

View other versions (2)

Theory

Consider a rectangular notch in one side of a tank over which water is flowing as shown in figure.

Let,

Cd = Coefficient of discharge

Let us consider a horizontal strip of water of thickness dh at a depth of h from the water level as

shown in figure.

(1)

We know know that the theoretical velocity of water through the strip,

(2)

The total discharge over the whole notch, may be found out by integrating the above equation within

the limits 0 and H.

Example: 1 2

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[metric]

Problem

A rectangular notch 0.5m wide has constant head of 400 mm. Find the discharge over the notch in

liters per second, if the coefficient of discharge for the notch is 0.62.

Workings

Given,

b = 0.5 m

H = 400 mm = 0.4 m

Cd = 0.62

Solution

Calibration Of Rectangular Notch

Advertisements Apparatus:

Hydraulic bench

Stopwatch

Rectangular notch

Concepts:

NOTCH:

A Notch is regarded as an orifice with water level below its upper edge. Notch is

made of a metallic plate and its use is to measure the discharge of liquids. These

are used for measuring the flow of water from a vessel or tank with no pressure

flow. Since the top edge of the notch above the liquid level serves no purpose

therefore a notch may have only bottom edge and sides.

The bottom edge over which liquid flows is known as Sill or Crest of the notch.

RECTANGULAR NOTCH:

The notch which is Rectangular in shape is called as the rectangular notch. Coefficient of discharge

(Cd): It is the ratio between the actual discharge and the theoretical discharge. Mathematically:

Procedure:

1. Fix the plate having rectangular notch in the water passage of Hydraulic bench.

2. Turn the hydraulic bench on; water will accumulate in the channel.

3. When the water level reaches the Crest or sill of notch stop the inflow and note the reading,

and design it as H1.

4. Restart the bench and note the volume and time of water that accumulates in the

volumetric tank of bench, from this find the discharge, and also note the height of water at

this point.

5. Find H = H2 H1 This will give you the head over the notch.

7. Take different readings by changing the discharge head over the notch, using the above

procedure.

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