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# Discussions

The first part of the experiment is to calibrate and operate the pH meter with the given
guidelines. In order to evaluate students handling skills, students are given a task of preparing
solutions with different pH value. The calculated value is already prepared and students are
tasked to conduct the experiment to achieve the theoretical values. The experiment was first
tested first with universal pH indicator to find the range of pH then afterwards measured by
the pH meter to find the exact readings.

After the solutions in the test tube are prepared the observation of the colour was
recorded. Test tube 1 with yellow colour solution. Test 2 with pale yellow solution. Test tube
3 with light green solution. Test tube 4 with green colour solution. Test tube 5 with light blue
solution. Test tube 6 with deep blue colour.

When testing with the pH indicator from test tube 1 the colour gradually increases its
intensity until test tube 6. When referring to the pH indicator chart the pH is around 6-7 this
is the desired outcome. The scale universal indicator is not sensitive enough measure the
exact pH value.

Once the solution was prepared the pH level was measured one by one for each test
tube by using the pH meter. Measuring for test tube 1 the expected results is pH 5.30 while
the actual result is 5.41. Test tube 2 the expected result is 5.91 while the actual result is 5.87.
test tube 3 the expected result is 6.47 and the actual result 6.41. Test tube 4 the expected
result is 6.81 and the actual result is 6.78. Test tube 5 the expected result is 7.17 and the
actual results 7.10. Lastly test tube 6 the expected result is 7.73 and the actual result is 7.68.
The result shows a margin at most ( 0.10) and at least ( 0.03 ) the recorded. There is
not a major different in pH value thus the experiment was a success. The slight difference
might be due to errors in preparations that later will be discuss in recommendations. The
objective is now achieved. Students are now capable in operating and calibrating the pH
meter and the used of universal pH indicator.
Graph of absorbance vs. concentration
0.25

0.2
Absorbance (max)

0.15

0.1

0.05

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Concentration (mol/L)

The second part of the experiment is with the motive of operating, calibrating and
handling the spectrophotometer. Students are required to operate the machine correctly based
on the guidelines given. To properly asses the capability of students in handling the
equipments the students are given a set of instructions to prepare 8 solutions with different
concentrations of 1.25%(w/v) of bromophenol blue. The spectrophotometer is set to 540nm
for visible light.

The prepared solutions are with 0.5L, 1.0L, 2.0L, 4.0L, 10.0L, 20L, 50.0L,
and 100L of 1.25% (w/v) bromophenol blue added into 10mL of distilled water in test tubes
labelled 2-9 with test tube 1 as the reference solution. Based on the result recorded the lowest
absorbance recorded is the test tube 3 (absorbance = 0.004) and the highest absorbance
recorded is test tube 9 (absorbance = 0.233). There is a slight error in test tube 2 and 3. Test
tube 2 shows 0.005 while test 3 shows 0.004 in absorbance. The readings of absorbance
should be increasing as it goes up the concentration but the result shows the otherwise. The
absorbance of test tube 2 (0.5L) is 0.005 and test tube 3 (1.0L) is 0.004. But afterwards test
tubes showed the desired result. Looking at the trends of the graph the absorbance increases
as the concentration of solute increases. But the trends put a horizontal slope when recording
results for test tube 6 and 7. The absorbance in test tube 6 is 0.054 while test tube 7 is 0.061.
There might be in error in preparing the concentrations of test tube 6 or 7. The scale
of the graph is too big causes the smaller readings to overlap one another. Overall the
experiment is somewhat successful but we didn't get to achieve the Beer Lambert's Law
under ideal conditions, a substances concentration and its absorbance are directly
proportional but we get the trend of best fit line of absorbance increases with concentration
that is the same as Beer's Law. The objective of the experiment is achieved. Students are able
to operate and calibrate the spectrophotometer based on the guidelines and managed to
properly conduct the experiment safely.