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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013)

GIS Applications in Land Use and Land Development of a City


R. Laxmana Reddy1, B. Apoorva2, S. Snigdha3, K. Spandana4
1
Asst. Prof., CED, CBIT, Andhra Pradesh, India.
2,3,4
CED, CBIT, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Abstract Since liberalization was introduced in the year 1.2 GIS components
1991, Indian cities have been experiencing an accelerated pace
The figure1 below shows the various components of
of growth. This has created opportunities for technocrats and
planners alike to guide and develop the process of planned GIS.
development and management of cities. Efficient urban
information system is a vital pre-requisite for planned
development as the ever increasing demands in urban
planning and management call for co-ordinate application of
Geographic Information System (GIS), for sustainable
development of urban areas. The availability of satellite
images from Google earth has revolutionized the process of
thematic mapping and spatial data base creation, specially, in
the context of urban and regional planning. Technologies such
as GIS have emerged as a powerful tool in integrating and
analyzing the various thematic layers along with attribute
information to create various planning scenarios for decision
making. The ability of GIS to store, manage and manipulate
large amounts of spatial data provides urban planners with a
powerful tool. This paper focuses on how GIS can be applied
to establish, maintain, and analyze urban and land-use
information for location and development of industries,
educational institutions, housing, water supply, service FIGURE 1
facilities, sewer systems, etc. The present case study involves
the suburbs of Boduppal and Pirzadiguda in Hyderabad city 1.3 Computer Hardware
of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. The general hardware component of a geographical
information system is the computer or central processing
Keywords GIS, GPS, Land Use, Land Development,
Urban Planning, Sustainable Development.
unit. It is linked to a disk drive storage unit, which provides
space for storing data and programs. A digitizer, scanner
I. INTRODUCTION and other device is used to convert data from maps and
documents into digital form and send them to computer. A
1.1 What is GIS? digitizer board is a flat board used to vectorize any map
GIS (Global Information System) is a computer based object. A plotter or other kind of display device is used to
integrated database management system that stores a large present the result of the data processing and a tape device is
volume of spatial data along with its attribute or non-spatial used for storing data or programs on magnetic tape.
data which are captured, stored, retrieved, processed and
1.4 Computer Software
analyzed to provide answers to queries of a geographical
nature as and when required. GIS technology integrates The GIS software includes the programs and the user
common database operations such as query and statistical interface for driving the hardware. GIS software is essential
analysis with the unique visualization and the geographic to generate, store, analyze, manipulate and display
analysis benefits offered by maps. These abilities geographic information or data. Good GIS software
distinguish GIS from other information systems and make requires user friendliness, functionalities, compatibilities,
it valuable to a wide range of public and private enterprises updatability, documentation, cost effectiveness.
for explaining events, predicting outcomes and planning
strategies.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013)
1.5 Geographic Data 1.10 What Is GPS
It is the most important component of GIS. Geographic The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based
data and related tabular data can be collected, compiled to navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites
custom specifications and requirements, or purchased from placed into orbit by the U.S. Department of Defence. GPS
a commercial data provider. A GIS can integrate spatial was originally intended for military applications, but in the
data with other existing data resources, often stored in a 1980s, the government made the system available for
DBMS. The integration of spatial and tabular data stored in civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions,
a DBMS is a key functionality afforded by GIS. anywhere in the world, 24 hours a day. It basically provides
the coordinates of its position.
1.6 Users
GIS technology has limited value without the people 1.11 Functionality of GPS
who manage and develop plans for applying it to real world GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very
problems. GIS users range from technical specialists (who precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS
design and maintain the system) to those who use it to help receivers take this information and use triangulation to
them perform their daily work. calculate the user's exact location. Essentially, the GPS
receiver compares the time a signal was transmitted by a
1.7 Methodology
satellite with the time it was received. The time difference
A successful GIS operates according to a well-designed tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. Now,
implementation plan and business rules, which are the with distance measurements from a few more satellites, the
models and operating practices unique to each organization receiver can determine the user's position and display it on
1.8 How does GIS work? the unit's electronic map.
The figure 2 below shows a typical GPS instrument
The power of a GIS comes from the ability to relate
different information in a spatial context and to reach a (etrex H)
conclusion about this relationship. GIS data represents real
objects (such as roads, land use, elevation, trees,
waterways, etc.) with digital data determining the mix. Real
objects can be divided into two abstractions: discrete
objects (e.g., a house) and continuous fields (such as
rainfall amount, or elevations). Traditionally, there are two
broad methods used to store data in a GIS for both kinds of
abstractions mapping references raster images and vector.
Points, lines, and polygons are the stuff of mapped location
attribute references. Most of the information we have about
our world contains a location reference, placing that
information at some point on the globe. Location of
features is done by using a location reference system, such
as longitude and latitude, and elevation. A GIS, therefore,
can reveal important new information that leads to better
decision making. After data is input into a GIS, it can be
analyzed using different tools in the software and results
are obtained. Based on the results, decisions are made.
1.9 Software Description
Arc GIS 9.3 software encompasses a broad range of
applications which involve the use of a combination of
digital maps and geo referenced data. In Arc GIS, Arc FIGURE 2
Catalog and Arc Map features were used for the present
study.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013)
II. ABOUT PRESENT CASE STUDY 1. It covers a good extent, area wise.
2.1 Study Area 2. It contains different types of terrain.
3. The development has been phenomenal in the area in
The two suburbs of Hyderabad city i.e. Boduppal and the recent past.
Pirzadiguda area, in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India 4. There is a scope for further development in the near
were selected for the purpose of designing a Geographic future.
Information System. The aim of the project is to design a
comprehensive GIS package for urban planning which will Necessary ground truthing was carried out (Ground
cover the following aspects: truthing is the process of gathering data to test the
accuracy, or otherwise, of a scientific model). The entire
1. The boundary of the chosen area. Project was carried out using Arc GIS software version 9.3.
2. Details of land cover such as buildings and blocks. Also, UTM Projection and WGS 84 reference system was
3. The extent of area, communication facilities available used.
in the area, the type of land use like Residential
Areas, Commercial Establishments, Educational 3.2 Collection of Data and Records
Institutions, Civic Amenities, Public places etc. A total number of about 300 Tiles were downloaded
4. The extent of no-horn zones around hospitals and along with their world files. A world file is a plain text
educational institutions. computer data file used by geographic information systems
5. Details of road network and routes. to geo reference raster map images. The file specification
These aspects will be useful for Resource Management was introduced by ESRI.
and will help in planning and executing development
3.2 Data Processing
activities effectively.
Since the Tiles downloaded from Google Earth were
III. METHODOLOGY already referenced in WGS 84 format there was no need for
any processing. They were simply stored in appropriate
The project was planned and executed in a number of folders.
systematic stages as shown below. A new Personal Geo Database was created following
Figure 3 below shows the schematic plan of the project steps as detailed below.
Planning 1. Creating a new folder.
2. Connecting to a folder.
3. Creating a new Personal Geo Database and naming it.
Collection of Data & Records
After creating the Geo Database, datasets were created
as enumerated below.
Data processing 1. Creating a new feature dataset and naming it.
2. Specifying the coordinate system for the dataset i.e.
WGS 1984.
Creation of Personal Geo Data
/ Vector Data
3. Providing the tolerance for XY as 0.001.
The necessary feature classes were then created, as listed
below.
Attribute Data Collection and Incorporation / QC Check
1. Creating a new feature class.
2. Specifying the type of feature i.e. point or line.
Query Selection / Analysis 3. Field name and data type are specified for attribute
data.
Final map Finally Arc Map is opened so as to work with the map,
as detailed below
1. A new empty map option is selected.
FIGURE 3 2. The + is selected on the tool bar to add data such as
3.1 Planning feature classes.
3. The boundary layer is added and properties such as
Boduppal and Pirzadiguda area was selected for the
symbol, color, etc are selected.
Project. The criteria for selecting this area were,

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013)
4. By selecting the edit tool bar, the boundary is drawn, Figure 5 below shows the digitized blocks
its topology is checked. A topology defines and
enforces data integrity rules. It works with adjacency
and connectivity. For example, there should be no
gaps between polygons.
5. Topology is named and cluster tolerance is set to
0.001, by default.
6. By selecting the feature for which the topology is to
be created, the rank feature class is entered.
7. Rules such as must not overlap, etc are added and
thus the boundary topology is created.
8. Finally, from the data icon, the boundary topology is
added to Arc Map and upon validation, errors, if any,
is highlighted and are fixed using the fix topology
error.
3.3 Digitization
Digitizing is the process of converting features on a map
into digital format. All the imageries covering the entire FIGURE 5
area were then added for digitization.
Figure 4 below shows the NH-202 digitized in Red Figure 6 below shows features such as tanks and canal
that are digitized

FIGURE 6
FIGURE 4

306
International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013)
After thus ascertaining the accuracy of the data created, Difference between GPS and
GPS Coordinates
hard copies of the imageries, on scale 1:4,000 were taken, Post point coordinates
for the purpose of Attribute Data collection from the area.
These imageries and plot were taken to the ground and Easting x Northing y x y
used for picking up major cultural details and their
Attribute Data were also collected. 243843.541 1926011.274 1.358 -1.215

3.4 Queries 247865.933 1927300.006 -2.311 -2.976


Queries are used to match an attribute value to the
attribute value in a feature class. Structured Query 249388.523 1927888.078 2.003 1.813
Language (SQL) is a powerful language you use to define
one or more criteria that can consist of attributes, operators, 247950.922 1924252.172 1.896 0.967
and calculations. With the help of the Data Base thus
created, select by Attribute Queries were carried out. 245377.890 1924429.251 -1.992 -2.481

3.5 Quality check 243154.080 1929620.364 2.314 2.178


As the imageries used were downloaded from Google
Earth, to check the quality/ correctness of the work, 6
Points, well distributed in the area were selected and these IV. ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
were Post Pointed on the Imagery. These points were given
4.1 Proximity Analysis
coordinates by using eTrex H GPS instrument. The results
Proximity analysis by Buffer was carried out. To mark
of this check are tabulated below.
no-horn zone around hospitals, buffer zones of 200 meters
Table 1 below shows comparison between GPS and
radius are applied around each hospital. The steps involve
Google earth coordinates.
1. In the buffer dialog box, the feature around which
TABLE 1
buffer zones are required to be applied is chosen i.e.
Post pointed coordinates Hospital layer.
Point No. 2. Thus Buffer zones are formed around each hospital.
Easting x Northing y Figure 7 below shows the buffer zones.

1 243842.183 1926012.489

2 247868.244 1927302.982

3 249386.520 1927886.265

4 247949.026 1924251.205

5 245379.882 1924431.732

6 243151.766 1929618.186

FIGURE 7

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering
Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 3, Issue 5, May 2013)
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