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in power system with emissions using Meta Heuristics based Lion

Optimization Algorithm

Govind Singh Raghuwanshi1, Mrs. Dr. Poonam Sinha2, Mr. Jay Narayan Thakre3

1Department of I.T., UIT, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (M.P.), India

2( Professor, Department of Electronics, UIT, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (M.P.), India)

3(Asst. Professor, Department of I.T., UIT, Barkatullah University, Bhopal (M.P.), India)

---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract - Lion Optimization algorithm simulates the lion pride demand and other operational constraints.

behavior based on lion pride evolution process and group living. The Several deterministic optimization approaches were

alarming environmental impacts from the emission produced by the proposed to solve the traditional ELD problem, including like

conventional fossil fuel power plants, has converted the classic

lambda iteration method, gradient-based method, Bundle

economic load dispatch that minimizes only the total fuel cost into a

multi objective function. The Lion Optimization algorithm strategy is method [2], nonlinear programming [3], mixed integer linear

based on mathematical modeling to solve economic, emission and programming [4], dynamic programming (DP) [6], linear

combined economic & emission dispatch problems by a single programming (LP) [7], quadratic programming (QP)[9],

equivalent objective function. In this work LOA is used for solving

economic load dispatch problem and the result produced by LOA Lagrange relaxation method (LR) [8], Newton-based

algorithm are compared with the result obtained by other optimizing techniques [10], reported in the literature are used to solve

techniques like Particle Swarm Optimization, Genetic Algorithm economic load dispatch problem but these methods require

Optimization, etc. Results shows that LOA has better performance

enormous efforts in terms of computation and workable on

than other bio inspired algorithms on both unimodal and multimodal

optimization problem. LOA is robust and it is affected by pride update ideal systems only with continuous functions.

strategy and brutal competition of individuals

Many meta-heuristic algorithms have recently shown the

Key Words: Economic Emission load Dispatch, Lion efficiency in dealing with many non linear optimization

Optimization Algorithm, pride, Survival of Fittest. constrained problems for finding the optimal solution in

various engineering problems evolutionary programming

(EP) [11], simulated annealing (SA) [12], Tabu search (TS)

1. INTRODUCTION [14], pattern search (PS) [15], Genetic algorithm (GA) [16],

In today s world everyone is most concerned about cost Differential evolution (DE) [17], Ant colony optimization [18],

he/she is paying for purchase of any commodity as well as Neural network [19], particle swarm optimization (PSO) [20].

environment impact of producing that commodity and thus In this paper Lion Optimization Algorithm is being proposed

primary objective in the planning and operation of power to solve constrained engineering problems is proposed by B

systems is not only to provide reliable and quality power to R Rajkumar [21] and Until now many researches have been

consumers but also at economical cost with less carbon carried out to find the solution of optimization problem using

footprints. The increasing energy demand and the decreasing LOA like community detection problem by Baber[22] and it

energy resources have made optimization a great necessity in was inferred that the LOA is more robust and efficient in

power system operation and planning. determining the optimization.

scheme of computing the best generation schedule to supply

a predetermined load, with minimum cost while satisfying The mathematical modeling of power generation considers

the essential constraints like power balance and generation total cost of operation includes the fuel cost, cost of labour,

limits.. Thermal power stations are a major cause of supplies and maintenance. Generally, costs of labour, supplies

atmospheric pollution, due to the high concentration of and maintenance are fixed percentages of incoming fuel costs.

pollutants emitted. Currently, with the increasing awareness The power output of fossil plants is increased sequentially by

of environmental pollution caused by burning fossil fuels, opening a set of valves to its steam turbine at the inlet. The

controlling the amount of pollutant emission is also a major throttling losses are large when a valve is just opened and

criterion in the economic dispatch problem. The purpose of small when it is fully opened. The cost is usually

Emission Economic Load Dispatch (EELD) is to obtain the approximated by one or more quadratic segments. The

optimal generation schedule by minimizing the fuel cost and present formulation treats the environmental economic

the emission level simultaneously while satisfying load dispatch problem as a multi-modal optimization problem

which simultaneously optimizes various related objectives as

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1398

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 02 | Feb -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

The objectives can be incorporated are fuel cost, emission

objectives like NOx, SOx, COX and system loss. With these

(4)

multiple objectives and constraints, the Multi-Objective

Environmental

Generator Capacity constraint: The power output of each

committed unit must be greater than or equal to the

. The total fuel cost in terms of real power output can be

minimum power permitted and must also be less than or

expressed with the function

equal to the maximum power permitted on that particular

unit. This inequality constraint may be framed as shown in

the Equation.

(1)

The same fuel cost objective of fossil fuel fired generator, (5)

considering the valve point effect, is expressed as the sum of

the quadratic and a sinusoidal function. 3. OVERVIEW OF LION OPTIMISATION

(2) computing in which the adaptation of a special organism to

its environment is considered. Lion Optimization Algorithm

Emission Objective: The atmospheric pollutants such as SOX, (LOA), an initial population is formed by a set of randomly

NOX and COX caused by fossil fuel fired generators can be generated solutions called Lions. Some of the lions in the

modelled separately and are discussed and formulated under initial population (%N) are selected as nomad lions and rest

division 4.2. These emissions can be expressed as given

population (resident lions) is randomly partitioned into P

subsets called prides. S percent of the pride's members are

considered as female and rest are considered as male, while

this rate in nomad lions is vice versa.

is called best visited position, and during the optimization

process is updated progressively. In LOA, a pride territory is

below: (3)

an area that consists of each member best visited position. In

each pride, some females which are selected randomly go

where Fs is the total SOX emission; Fn is the total NOx

emission; Fc is the total COX emission; sj , sj and sj are the hunting. Hunters move towards the prey to encircle and catch

SOX emission coefficients of the jth generator; nj , nj and nj it. The rest of the females move toward different positions of

are the NOX emission coefficients of the jth generator; cj , cj territory. Male lions in pride, roam in territory. Females in

and cj are the COX emission coefficients of the jth generator. prides mate with one or some resident males. In each pride,

young males are excluded from their maternal pride and

Problem constraints: The objective functions formulated so become nomad when they reach maturity and, their power is

far should be optimized while considering the following less than resident males.

equality and inequality constraints. The constraints are

power balance constraint and generation limit constraints

Also, a nomad lion (both male and female) moves randomly

and they are presented below. Power balance constraint: The

in the search space to find a better place (solution). If the

total generation must supply the demand and compensate strong nomad male invade the resident male, the resident

the transmission losses in the system. where PD is the total male is driven out of the pride by the nomad lion. The nomad

load demand and PL is the total transmission loss.The male becomes the resident lion. In the evolution, some

transmission losses must be taken into account to achieve resident females immigrate from one pride to another or

true economic dispatch. Transmission loss is a function of switch their lifestyles and become nomad and vice versa

unit generations. To calculate loss, the B-coefficients methods some nomad female lions join prides. Due to many factors

are used in general (Wood and Wollenberg 1996). This such as lack of food and competition, weakest lion will die or

method is commonly used by the power utility industry and be killed. Above process continues until the stopping

the network losses formula is expressed as follows. condition is satisfied.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1399

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 02 | Feb -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

In this work, the dimension of the problem is the number of The coding of LOA was written in MATLAB to solve

generators taking part in the EELD problem. The inequality Economic Load Dispatch Problem. The system comprises of

constraints are transformed to the penalty functions and 6 generating units. The following are the generators

these penalty functions are added to the objective function to operating costs in $/h, with Power in MW:

construct the fitness function. In this work, the equality

constraints and there active power inequality constraints

and the real power inequality constraints are handled during

the course of iteration. The EELD problem solved using

following algorithm for finding survival of fittest

Initialize the first population of Lion Nomad and Pride randomly

within limits

Calculate the firtness of Lion in Pride and Nomad lion

Find the best Lion and assume it part of Pride

While (t<Max Generation)

For i=1:n Table1. Generator data

Select an Male using Roulette wheel

Get nomad coalition

If Xe nomad wins

Kill all the Cubs

Update the position of Lion in Pride

End for

Calculate the fitness of all the Male Lions

Create a nomad coalition if fitter Nomad lion is found

Update Pride using step one

End while

The Survival fight takes place between one of the two lions of Table 2. Comparison of optimization solution using several stochastic

nomad coalition and the pride, despite coalition between algorithms like GA , EPA , BFA with LOA

nomadic lions is also possible. Instead of engaging nomad

coalition for territorial defense, winner take all approach so It is observed that optimal result obtained by LOA is

that only winning nomadic lion Xe _ nomad among the minimum in terms of cost , emission and power losses cases

coalition engage in territorial defense. The survival fight of load compared to other stochastic optimization algorithm

result comes in favour of the selected Xe _ nomad methods.

f (Xe _ nomad )< f (X male)

f (X e _ nomad )< f (X m _ cub )

This paper reports an initial study focusing on the use of the

f (X e _ nomad )< f (X f _ cub) .....(7)

Lion Optimization Algorithm for solving EELD problem.

Several basic models dealing with the problem of EELD are

Pride is updated by replacing X male by X e_ nomad after

implemented for a simple case. The LOA algorithm showed

removing it from nomad coalition, which happens only when

superior features including high quality solution, stable

X male is defeated in the territorial defensre. Likely, nomad

convergence characteristics. The solution may be close to

coalition is updated only when X e_ nomad is defeated. The

that of the conventional method but tends to give better

update process is done by selecting only one X nomad. This

solution in case of higher order systems .The LOA algorithm

approach is used in solving cost minimization problem

can be used for solving EELD with renewables in future as

considering generator constraints with minimization of

the inclusion of renewable energy in the power system will

Emission and Power losses.

have impact on generation mix, cost, the variability of load

seen by other plant, and reserves.

2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1400

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395 -0056

Volume: 04 Issue: 02 | Feb -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072

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