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Each after treatment system design should be done

in such a way that considering the complete
system objectives. Energy efficient exhaust
system development requires minimum fuel
consumption and maximum utilization of exhaust
energy for reduction of the exhaust emissions and
also for effective waste energy recovery system
such as in turbocharger, heat pipe etc. from C.I.
engine. Traditional manifold optimization has
been based on tests on Exhaust system. This trial
& error method can be effective but is very
expensive & time consuming. Beside this method
cannot provide any information about the actual
THE CFD ANALYSIS flow structure inside the system. This vital
information can be obtained using 3-D CFD
analysis. The design engineers can study the flow
OF A SINGLE structures & understand whether a particular
system performs correctly or not.

CYLINDER FOUR Prepared by:

Sadaf Mehdi (12-ME-28)
Muhammad Moonis (12-ME-60)
STROKE C.I. ENGINE Mohsin Raza (12-ME-76)
M. Arslan Khalid (12-ME-85)
Ibrahim Khan
Submitted to: Dr. Muhammad Ali Nasir Finite Element Methods (Semester Project)
1. Introduction
The steady state was performed in ANSYS FLUENT, from this we can get the flow structure,
pressure drop temperature variation etc. Higher the pressure drop higher will be the back pressure
and there is power loss due to back pressure since piston has to overcome this pressure. So ultimate
goal is to reduce the pressure drop in the exhaust system and make the necessary geometry

The set of equations, which describe the processes of momentum, heat and mass transfer are known
as the Navier-Stokes equations. These are partial differential equations, which were derived in the
early nineteenth century. They have no known general analytical solution but can be discretized
and solved numerically. Equations describing other processes, such as combustion, can also be
solved in conjunction with the Navier-Stokes equations. Often, an approximating model is used to
derive these additional equations, turbulence models being a particularly important example.

2. Governing Equations in CFD

All of Computational Fluid Dynamics, in one form or other is based on fundamental governing
equations of fluid dynamics,
Continuity Equation
Momentum Equation
Energy Equation.

Continuity Equation
It is based on the principle of conservation of mass.
Net mass flow out of control volume = Time rate of decrease of mass inside control volume
Mass Conservation Equation;

Momentum Equation

It is based on the law of conservation of momentum, which states that the net force acting in a
fluid mass is equal to change in momentum of flow per unit time in that direction. The force acting
on a fluid element is given by Newtons second law of motion is

Where a is the acceleration acting in the same direction as force F

Momentum Equation:
Energy Equation

It is based on the principle that total energy is conserved.

Total energy entering control volume = Total Energy leaving Control volume Energy Equation


3. Methodology

The exhaust system is designed on PRO-EINGINEER and imported for analysis and finding the
CFD results. Through CFD analysis conclusions are made on pressure variation, temperature
variation, velocity and density of exhaust gases.

3.1. Modeling of Exhaust System

The geometry model of exhaust Manifold is made in PRO ENGINEER. The coordinates are
provided for the development of the 2D parts of the exhaust system. The model is then
rotated about 360 degrees to get the 3D profile of parts which are then assembled. For design
purposes, the diffuser can be seen as an assembly of three separate sections operating in
series a short parallel section and the diverging section. The short parallel section of the
system acts as a casing to the engine. The straight portion of the diffuser helps in reducing
the non-uniformity of flow, and in the diverging section, the pressure recovery takes place

3.2. Assumptions made in CFD Analysis

1. Steady state analysis

2. Static Pressure, Subsonic flow
3. Adiabatic wall surface
4. Domain surface is used as a wall with No Slip condition
5. Inbuilt properties of air considered.
3.3. Modelling the Structure:
Part 1:
Creating a Hollow Cylindrical shape:

Step 1: Sketch a Circle

Step 2: Extrude
Step 3: Sketch Second Circle

Step 4: Extrude down to remove material

Step 5: Final Shape Obtained
Part 2:
Creating a conical section:

Step 1: Select-Sheet metal & Part

Step 2: Sketch one side of section

Step 3: Give value of thickness

Step 4: Define angle of revolution

Step 5: Final part shape obtained

Part 3:
Creating hollow cylindrical section:

Step 1: Sketch the Circle

Step 2: Extrude
Step 3: Draw second Circle

Step 4: Extrude downwards to remove material

Step 4: Final obtained part shape

Assembly of All Parts:

Step 1: Import Part 1 & make it fully constrained

Step 2: Import Part 2, Align& then mate the surface

Step 3: Import Part 3, Align & then mate the part

Open ANSYS Workbench & drag Fluent into workspace

Right click & then click on new geometry

3-Select the appropriate unit and click ok

4-Click on File and then on Import external geometry

5-Select the file and click on Generate to obtain the file

6-Click Look on Face-Plane-Sketch and then on XY

7-Go to Tools and click on Fill

8-Select the faces

9-Click Apply in details view window

10-Then click Generate

11-Right click on Fill and navigate to Boolean

12-Select Subtract operation in details view window

13- Select target and tool bodies

14-Click Generate
15-Right click Mesh and then Edit Mesh

16-Select Contact regions

17-Click Mesh and make desired changes in Meshing

18-Name the four sections separately, as shown in figure

19-Mesh obtained

20-Right click Setup and then Edit

21-Select the boxes as shown and click ok

22-Select steady state time analysis

22-Select steady state time analysis

23-Check the box of Energy equation

24-Select the Viscous model and make changes as shown in fig

25-From models click on air

26- Select Air as material and ideal gas properties

27-Apply BCs to inlet

28-BCs for Momentum

29-BCs for Temperature

30-Momentum BC at outlet

31-Temperature BC at outlet
32-BCs at Wall

33-Initialize the solution after selecting Hybrid Initialization

34- Run the calculation giving number of iterations

35- Close when solution is completed

36- Right click Results and then click Edit

4. Results:
(Next Page)


Graphs Obtained:

1) Density Relation
2) Pressure Relation
3) Temperature Relation
4) Total Pressure Relation
5) Velocity Relation
5. Conclusion:
This report has been made to present a powerful method to evaluate exhaust system performance.
Traditional method of optimization by experiments is time consuming and expensive. Also it does
not give the flow structure. CFD simulation is a powerful method to give flow structure, pressure
variation, temperature variation and velocity variation in the flow domain. The procedure and
results of steady state analysis has been explained and CFD results are obtained. According to
these results geometry is modified. Steady state analysis is carried out on each modified geometry
since steady state analysis is faster and gives better results.
Finally it can be stated that 3-D CFD simulation can be used as a strong and useful tool for design
or optimization of exhaust system.