CFD ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CYLINDER CI ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM

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CFD ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CYLINDER CI ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM

© All Rights Reserved

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in such a way that considering the complete

system objectives. Energy efficient exhaust

system development requires minimum fuel

consumption and maximum utilization of exhaust

energy for reduction of the exhaust emissions and

also for effective waste energy recovery system

such as in turbocharger, heat pipe etc. from C.I.

engine. Traditional manifold optimization has

been based on tests on Exhaust system. This trial

& error method can be effective but is very

expensive & time consuming. Beside this method

cannot provide any information about the actual

THE CFD ANALYSIS flow structure inside the system. This vital

information can be obtained using 3-D CFD

analysis. The design engineers can study the flow

OF A SINGLE structures & understand whether a particular

system performs correctly or not.

Sadaf Mehdi (12-ME-28)

Muhammad Moonis (12-ME-60)

STROKE C.I. ENGINE Mohsin Raza (12-ME-76)

M. Arslan Khalid (12-ME-85)

EXHAUST SYSTEM Hammad Ahmad

Ibrahim Khan

(12-ME-142)

(12-ME-144)

Submitted to: Dr. Muhammad Ali Nasir Finite Element Methods (Semester Project)

1. Introduction

The steady state was performed in ANSYS FLUENT, from this we can get the flow structure,

pressure drop temperature variation etc. Higher the pressure drop higher will be the back pressure

and there is power loss due to back pressure since piston has to overcome this pressure. So ultimate

goal is to reduce the pressure drop in the exhaust system and make the necessary geometry

changes.

The set of equations, which describe the processes of momentum, heat and mass transfer are known

as the Navier-Stokes equations. These are partial differential equations, which were derived in the

early nineteenth century. They have no known general analytical solution but can be discretized

and solved numerically. Equations describing other processes, such as combustion, can also be

solved in conjunction with the Navier-Stokes equations. Often, an approximating model is used to

derive these additional equations, turbulence models being a particularly important example.

All of Computational Fluid Dynamics, in one form or other is based on fundamental governing

equations of fluid dynamics,

Continuity Equation

Momentum Equation

Energy Equation.

Continuity Equation

It is based on the principle of conservation of mass.

Net mass flow out of control volume = Time rate of decrease of mass inside control volume

Mass Conservation Equation;

Momentum Equation

It is based on the law of conservation of momentum, which states that the net force acting in a

fluid mass is equal to change in momentum of flow per unit time in that direction. The force acting

on a fluid element is given by Newtons second law of motion is

F=m*a

Where a is the acceleration acting in the same direction as force F

Momentum Equation:

Energy Equation

Total energy entering control volume = Total Energy leaving Control volume Energy Equation

Where,

3. Methodology

The exhaust system is designed on PRO-EINGINEER and imported for analysis and finding the

CFD results. Through CFD analysis conclusions are made on pressure variation, temperature

variation, velocity and density of exhaust gases.

The geometry model of exhaust Manifold is made in PRO ENGINEER. The coordinates are

provided for the development of the 2D parts of the exhaust system. The model is then

rotated about 360 degrees to get the 3D profile of parts which are then assembled. For design

purposes, the diffuser can be seen as an assembly of three separate sections operating in

series a short parallel section and the diverging section. The short parallel section of the

system acts as a casing to the engine. The straight portion of the diffuser helps in reducing

the non-uniformity of flow, and in the diverging section, the pressure recovery takes place

2. Static Pressure, Subsonic flow

3. Adiabatic wall surface

4. Domain surface is used as a wall with No Slip condition

5. Inbuilt properties of air considered.

3.3. Modelling the Structure:

Part 1:

Creating a Hollow Cylindrical shape:

Step 2: Extrude

Step 3: Sketch Second Circle

Step 5: Final Shape Obtained

Part 2:

Creating a conical section:

Step 2: Sketch one side of section

Step 4: Define angle of revolution

Part 3:

Creating hollow cylindrical section:

Step 2: Extrude

Step 3: Draw second Circle

Step 4: Final obtained part shape

Step 2: Import Part 2, Align& then mate the surface

Open ANSYS Workbench & drag Fluent into workspace

3-Select the appropriate unit and click ok

file

5-Select the file and click on Generate to obtain the file

7-Go to Tools and click on Fill

9-Click Apply in details view window

11-Right click on Fill and navigate to Boolean

13- Select target and tool bodies

14-Click Generate

15-Right click Mesh and then Edit Mesh

17-Click Mesh and make desired changes in Meshing

19-Mesh obtained

21-Select the boxes as shown and click ok

22-Select steady state time analysis

24-Select the Viscous model and make changes as shown in fig

26- Select Air as material and ideal gas properties

28-BCs for Momentum

30-Momentum BC at outlet

31-Temperature BC at outlet

32-BCs at Wall

34- Run the calculation giving number of iterations

36- Right click Results and then click Edit

4. Results:

(Next Page)

Density

Pressure

Temperature

Velocity

Graphs Obtained:

1) Density Relation

2) Pressure Relation

3) Temperature Relation

4) Total Pressure Relation

5) Velocity Relation

5. Conclusion:

This report has been made to present a powerful method to evaluate exhaust system performance.

Traditional method of optimization by experiments is time consuming and expensive. Also it does

not give the flow structure. CFD simulation is a powerful method to give flow structure, pressure

variation, temperature variation and velocity variation in the flow domain. The procedure and

results of steady state analysis has been explained and CFD results are obtained. According to

these results geometry is modified. Steady state analysis is carried out on each modified geometry

since steady state analysis is faster and gives better results.

Finally it can be stated that 3-D CFD simulation can be used as a strong and useful tool for design

or optimization of exhaust system.

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