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Unit Operations

George Grancer Brown

_.-0 .,. 1III1u& CAMnBt.L V)l'I~ ...arEMOII or CKEltICAL JlSGl lfln:IlU' O
~o DMlf O. nu:

Alarl Shiftl'lll'_t Georse Marlin Brown

1'110_ OJ' eft.IlIC,U .. ItNGUIIUalNO, UN I- AUOCIA.T& raorr.lleOll or C'U:MICAL DOl-

Donald LaVerne Katz lloyd FArl Brownell

J'llO""O. PI' eII.IlICAI" I:NOII'fEEKlNG AND AMNX:IAT& P/WP'r..">5011 01' CH&:IIICA1, ENOl_
IIlTT OJ' .... CHlGJ.M

Ridaanl Schneidewind Joeeph J. Martin

DIG, vtll YIII3!TT O. Ylc.IO",. KUalII'G, UN IVEMITT or IIIIlct1I0,,'"

Robert Roy White GeorKe Brymer Williams

r .orsM()a or ell.llIc"L IlII'OUfEEJUMO, 11MI- AMOCIATI: 'AOnMOa or CHCMIC"L 'ENOI-

WOllam PIau Wood Jun. Thom s.nehero

..:tJ'E!lII01I or III&TA LL1J1Wlc.&.L IU'OIN&U- AMIn'AlIT I'JIOn:MOlt 01' CHJ:~IC4L 1'01
DIIO, UlUVaaur!" 0 1' IIIICIUOAif ",1:&""'10, VIf,VI:-.:ITr 01' .IllClU04'"

JefJaIC Louis York

UIIJOC14TS ..-01'11lIII0& 01' CIl&KICAL l:"'OI,,al"O,

4596/1A. 11 DARYAGANJ NEW DELHI 11,0 P02 .; """

This textbook. is the first to carry the title Unit Operatimu, but it is not the first
to treat the suoJect. .
Modern practice anrl equipmp.nt are emphasized ILl! well as ma.themlltica1 inter-
. pretations, as only by properly designed, oollStruei.ed, and operated equ ipment can
mathematical treatment yield usefu l result/!. The object is to build the student:s
knowledge and power progrcSfJiveiy and continuously until he has a. reasonably
clear concept of how to approac~ the problem'l of design and operation of processing
equipment. The unit operations are grouped according to similarities in action or
in methods of calculation and presented in ,sequence according to iDereMing diffi-
culty. . .
By gJ:ouping similar operatiollil and using a common nomenclature in similar
theoretical discussiollfl. we find that the titudent makes more rapid progress, less
effort is required to master nomenclature, and a better Wlderstanding is gained oC
the rel&tionships among the different unit operations. The ~iation and com
plI,rison of similar opemtions from different industrinl processes is the essence of
unit operations and the major factor in developing chemical, metallurgical, or
process engineers capable of sucttSSfuJly designing new plants for conducting new
processes. The full advantage of the study of unit operations can be realized only
if the unit operations are themselves associated and compared 80 the engineer may
more skillfully seled the most suitable operation and equipment desired for each
step in the process. The tendency of -the specinlist to treat each unit operation lUI
Ito specialty having its own peculiar re>uI ~. rationalization, and nomenclature is of
questionable value in any suatained edu.cational effort and is to be resisted by all
means in an undergraduate curriculum.
The arrangement in oroer of increasing difficulty rather than in order of assumed
importance continually presents new advanced intriguing problems to the student,
maintains his interest, and encourages him to continue his awn development
beyond the limitations of the book. The treatment of those operations covering
solids in Part I requires little more preparation than is ordinarily given in high
school, whereas the treatment of mass kal18fer in Part JV is suitable for 1', p08~
graduate course and is presented with a critical attitude tending to develop the
research point of view.
The inductive method is generally folluwed, relying upon observations from
experience rather than upon deductive rationali~tions. This method is:L powerful
tool of the pmcLicing cngineer and has been Cound moet satisfactory for under_
graduate st udents. However, kinetic explanations are not neglected and receive
increasing emphasis in the last part on energy and mM8 transfer as an important
means 10 a. thorough understanding of the mechanisms involved.
PhY$ics, calculus, and a beginning course in material and .e nergy balances, or
thermodynamics, are assumed &$ pren>quisites to unit opera.ti~ns. Even with this
background the student may be confused regarding dimen!lions and energy balances,
and these subjects are treated rather fully . It. is hoped that .all chapters have

received sufficiently extensive treatment to meet the requiremenu of any under-
graduate curriculum so tha.t the desired emphMia mAY be obtained by omission
rather than addition. Alnut 180 recitations should be required to cover the
entire material in an adequate manner with undergra.dua.f.e students, allowing 8
to 10 for the first five chapter! and 50 to 60 f~ Parte II, IU , &lid IV. In &.
postgraduate course for studenUi who have completed an undergraduate COUl'8e in
unit Operatiollll, this time could be redueed by one-third or one-haiL With appro-
priate omissions the text has been used euooe8llfully for undergraduate courses
of three qUllJ'ters with a total of 117 clas8 meetings and of two with ..
total of 105 claN meetings, as well as for a singl&-eCmester short course of 60 clase
References to the literature are included for the purpose of attractin,g the stu-
dent's attention to other 8OUl'Ce8 of information a8 well as to acknowledge eources.
An effort. bas been made to give credit for 'all material used, but 80 many workers
have contributed so much that 'it is impo8lllbie to recognise the contributions 01
everyo'ne. Indebtedness to previous texta and handbooks and to manufacturers of
equipment is freely, acknowledged. Tbe apecific belp and ~OD8 of L. F .
Stutzman and George '111od08, Associate Professors, Hdlan. A. Dahlitrom, Asaiatant
Prolessor of Chemioal Engineering, at Northwelltem Univeraity, F . Charles Moeeel
and Cedomir 8liepoevich, Assistant Pro(ef!80~ of ChemiCal ~gineeri~ at The
University of Michigan, Dr. Joseph Allerton, of Sayville, L;mg Isltt.nd, and Verne C .
Kennedy. Jr., of. Chicago, aDd the frank criticisms of .tudents who have used the
material &II mimeographed- notes have been invaluable. tolerance and your 00-
open.tion in helping to eliminate erron and .ugert improvements at they may
appear are requested;

~ ......
1. lrttroduewlD too the Uni~ OpHaUon'
I t. Transportation of Fluids I-Pipet and Fittinp 122

Unit ()pf.n.tiODa ClaI$fifld, Ii Opera.-
- ~ '; Fundamental CoorepL&, 3; Application of
TbreadOO CoruieoctioDll, 123;"Fittinp, 124; Vllves,
124; Connections. 127; Welded

a_ """""" ConneetioM, 127; Fla.upd ~ 129

"an I. Sol"" 5 12. Tl"VWlporl.t.tiop. of Fluids 2--~ RelatiOq
7 DimensioN and Unite, 131, .T he Flo" &tu...tion,."
2. PropertJe. 01 Solidi!
133; Friction 1..-, 136; Dimenaional Analyai.,
9 136; ProblelJ\$, 146
IndulJtrial Screening Equipment, 9; Detennining 13. MeMUl'f)ment of Flow of Fluids 149
Particle SiM!, 16; ScreeII Analyees, 17: ProblCIn>!, Dispiaooment Flowmeter&, 149; Current Flmv--

.. SiN Reduction of 80lkk 25
meters, 152;, 1M, Pitot Tube, 156;
VeDtun, 156; Flow NouJe, t57: Ori&e,
1 ~7; Area Met.e .... 161; Problftms, 163
Objedivee,' 25; 8tapBol Reduction, 26; OperatlDt;
Varlt.bIe., 26; Couae SUe Red uction, 27; Intu- 14.. Pum~ina: and Colnpretlliog 1M
II'Iedi.ate SiHo Redudioll. 32;.:ijne SUe Reducliou, Reciprocatilll Pumps and CoIllpl"'ell8Ort, 167;
37; Enerv Requirelnenla, 42; Prob)eme, 45 Rotary Pwups tor>d BIowera, 174, eenWupl
Pumplaod Com~ ITl; Special PuJ)l.PI and
5. lUndlil1l of &6dB. 49 Blowe.... 19".(: Problems, 197
Port&ble Power-Driven Mft.chinea, 49; Permanent
I.n8tallAtions, 51; FJilht ConVf)Yo1'll, 53; Belt Con-
15. G... Flow at Hi&h Velocity I,.
veyon; M; Weight lXlternUlUotion, 61; Problems, Nol.IlM. illS; PipeB, 2Oa;':Proolema, 209
Pari II.
6. .PropertioB of Fluids
F"".,. "
16. Flow of Fluid3 throUCh Porous Media 1-8inale'
Fluid Phalle 210
Compu tatiONl, 216; Equatione Ueed for anililu
Flow throu&h POI"OOII Bed.. 217; Problelu, 219
, .'
V~ty. 67; Relative Motion betll'een Fluid5 aod
17. Flow of FlWds throu&h POrollll Media 2-TWiJ Fluid
Solids, 68; Problems, 71
"'- Z2II
7. The F10w of Solids I.hrough Fluids
Maximum Velocity, 73; Two-~ MOo
Rmi.dual Sel.uRtion, 223; F'Io:ri of tba WetUoa
Fluid, 224; Flow of Nop.weuilll FIuid,~; Prob-
tiou, 79; Problem!!, 83
8. ClNIificat.ion
"Equ&l Falling" Particle., 84; Equipmeat, 85;
. 18. Filtra t.iob
Gravity }'ilt.e.... 229; Filtan,
231; Batclll-eaf Filteril", 233; Continuo.. Rotary
JiainI, 91; TabliDa:, 115; ~dC) ClaNiJica.-
Vl.;C"um Filten, 235; Ope~tion, 241 j &1eetJoo 01
tion, 96: Problems, 97
Filtenl, 242; Filter Caleul&t.ione, 242 ; Blower Re-
9.;ln W qui_nUl {or Rotary Vaeuwn Filters, 263; ProO-
Jolot.atioo Cella, 100; F~t.ion Aplw., IOf; Cal-
culatiou fOJ' It. Flot.&t.ion ~ 107; Ptolmms, 19. Ceotrifuptioo 258
'09 Equipmeat., 258; Cak:u1atioos, 266; Probleo:w, au .
to. Sedimea\&Uon 110 20. Fluidi&ation of SoIXiII
t..boratory BaUh 8edimentaUot:!., 111; Equip. P&rticulate FtuidiuUon, 269; AlWt'Ptino FlWdi-
-t. ml; C<lnt.i.nUOllll Sedimentation, lHo; Sepa- u.t.ioo, 270; C&leUJat.>ou of Requil1Kl. ~
raUoIl from G-. lUI; Probiflrrll. IlIO Drop!!, 270; Criteria Jor' Pa:rtieulate aDd Agrtp- '
CH,lP'I'li:Il OIl AP'n:R
live Fiuidi l&tion, 272; Traneportation of Fluidi~od 2!). He/lt Tranllfer 2- Transftr Coeflicien~ between
Dil!pereed Solid8, 273 Fluids and Tubctl 438
.1"ids ioollo Tu bes, 438; Fluids ool.aide Tube.,
r.,. " '. ~,...,..,i"'." M .... TralU/~r: 443; Problems, 0144
rlt. l<I.eal Sf.,. C_eJH 275
30. II lmt Transfer B-Conde!llling Vapors a.nd Bollin,
21. Solid-Liquid Elltraction 277 Liquids 448
Equipment, 277; Mp,thods of Operat:"'n, 282; F'i lmw ise Condensation, 448; D ro pwi$e Condtn-
Method of Calculation, 282; Gr.phi~1 l[ethod~, 63tion, 4~1; Boililli Coefficicn l4, 463; Probkuw,
286; ProblemA, 294
22. liquid-Liquid Extrar.ion
Equipment, 298; Methodll of Operation, 301 ;
'1. Hent TtlWSfer ~T4diation
mack Bodietl, 4~7 ; Goometric F~tonJ, 461; Allow-
Method. of Calculation, 302; Equilibrium ReI&- ance for Surfacl'fJ, 464; Radiant Heat
tionllhips in T ernary SyatemA, 303; Graphical Tra.nafcr to Banks of TubeS, 464; Gt&phiea.\ Solu-
Methods, 3OS; Continuo~ Countercurrent Multi- tion for Radi.tion in a Funmce, 466; Radia.ot
p-Coo\aet OperaUoo, 31; Intermediate Feed, Jleat Ttanal'er Coefficients, 467; fUdiation from
308j ReBu.x. 312; M. . or Maio Ratio DiacraJn, Nonluminous C--. -468; Radiation from
316; ProbJem.s, 320 nOW! FI&me., 471; ~JeIIlll, 473

23. Vapor-Liquid Tmnsfer Operations 1 322 32. Evaporation --""

~uipment, 322; Calcult.UoM by Enth&lpy Com-
poIIiUou Dlq.ram, 325; StriPpinl Culumns. 33 1;
Huri~ntal-Tube Evaporator, 474; Vertical-Tube
Evaporator, 47S; Forced-Cireu1ation Enporaior,
Rect.ifyin, Columna, 332; Complete FrI.ctiooatillg
476; Lon~Tube Vertical E"'porator, 4n; Traps,
Column, 33.; Food Plate t..:-tion, 337; Re8ux H8; Evaporat AUl<iliariee, .79; EvaporalAll'
Ratio, 337; Total Reflux, 337; Minimum Reflux, Operation, 481; )'lultipie Effect, 481; VlI.por R&.
339; Optimum ReftUl[ Ratio, 339; Partial Con- compressioll, 482; Hoot 'trlLll8fer Cotftidenl4, 483;
de~ 339; Open Steam, 340; Enuaimnent,
Ca1euIation8, 484, Problema, 492
MO; Plate Efticieocy, 343; ProbleIlllJ, a43
33. Cry3la.lliZ&uon 403
:U:' Va por-Uquid T ransfer Ope.ratiODII 2-DelIign -.nd
Control of Fn.etionating Columnll 346 Rate of Cryat.lliu.tion, 493; Yield of a Given
Bubble Plate CoIUIIlIlII, 346; Pa.eked Column.s, Operotion, 494; Purity of Product, 4%, Energy
361; lnatrumentation and Control of Fl'8.(ltiQnat.- EKwta i" the P~ 495; Size uf Crystals, 497,
ing Colulnll4, 362; Probltmt, 366 Equipment, 499; Prob1elfll!, 501

25. V.-por-Llquld Tn.nsCer Operatioftf! 3------Calculation 34. Agi tation 503

of Ideal Stagetl Asauming Constant Molal Overflow 366 ObjcctiY<:S lind Requiremen te, M3; Type!! of "i-
Gnapbical Methods, 367; Analytic Expressm, tation F..quipmen t, S04; Po .... er Consumption of
_ 370; Mul ticomponent!l, 37~ ; Sbort Procedure, Agitators, 506
386; Problems, 387
35. ~Iasa Transfer 1 510
26. Vapol'-LiquHi Transfer Operat.i.ollH +----Dieti lletion The Rate Equflt.ioo, 510; The Driving Fome,
t.od CortdetMIiUon 388 Fupc~ ty, am.I Concentration, 5U ; Wetted-Wall
Bat.eb FmetioOll.tioll, 300; Vaeuum and S\u.Ju Column..., an Adiabatic H umidifier, 512; M_
Di.ltilla\ioo, 391; A&eotropie and Extraetive Di.- Ti&nsfer by Molecule.r Diffu~on, Slot; Diffusivity,
tillation, 893; Problema, 396 b15, MD.S8 Transfer in Turbulent Flow, 517; Di~
menllioOll.I AO/lJyeh, .518; AnnlOfO' between M o-
"n. Adaorption 398 m~ntum, Heat, and '\[IIM Trnnafer, 5111; Du.trlbu-
&.uipmen~ <""9; Method of CaleulatioD. 407; tin!!. of Moh,culnr and Ttlrbuient Shear StnlM,
Probk!m, 411 52(); Prandtl M ixi ng Lfongtb, 522; Pbyaieal 8i&~
ni61l&nce uf Di mensionless Groups, 523; Problems,
28. Heat Tranafer 1 415 36. ",IMS Tnmsfer 2-t~fficientl in Packed Towel'll
Heat E:':change Equipment, 417; Theory flDd i:J:Perimcntal MII$!J T ranRfer Cocfficient4, 527;
(',Q~1ation 0{ J.iquid Pb!U!ll Coofficient&, 529;
Fonnulfltion, 424 ; CoD<luetioD throud> a Series of
Solids, 429; Convection, 431; Ca l~ula tion of Heat Correlation 01 GM Coeftid('nla, 530; Th
Tranger Coeftident, 432; M eal!. Tempen.lure I);J- Tf'lUlSler Unit, [031; Dititi1latiun, 635; liquid-
ference, .34; Foulin, F actor" '36; ProblerTIII, 436 Liquid Ext.ra~tif)n, (036; Maslil Trn Mfer in Systems


ef'FluidII and Gran. &l:idl, 638; Fluidized Beds,
539; Probkml, MO
37. Simu....'\aneouI Reat ami M. . Trantfer I-Pay


Liqui(\..Liquid ~:'>ria, &81 ; Vapor-Liquid


........". Equilibria., MI; Ea\balpy CoDoeotntioD Data.

De6DiUoM., M2; Bumidit.y Chart. M3j Wet.- ud Ethaool-Wa t.ff, ti82; Vapor ~rea, 583; Vola.-
Dry~BuJ, T~ &4&; The Interactron of tility Equilibrium Dilt.tibuUon Raw., K, for-
AU Ad W..... 541; Adiwlie Bumidifica~ Bydrocarbona, Mi; 'J'bmuJ CoDdudiviw., 584.
~j J)eiI_idiecat.!on, M9; CooIiIll To"",", 562; & \un.t.ed &lid VIf)Or DeuIi~ 685 ; Vm.i tiee

NaiunII DnI\. 663; Meehanica1 Draft., S66; Cool--
iDe PODdIJ, 667; epr.y Poruk, 5057; ProbI.!un.,.
of lCquidt and Vapon. 586; Specifie HM." of
Uquidll .ad VaJXd, 587; E Dtlalpy 01. Pardin
Hydrocarbon Liquids, &88; EnthalpY Of Pan.IIin
Bydrocarboa. G_. 689; Itot.hermal Dec:re_ in
38. H_ t and M . . Truefer 2-Dryioc
I>JoyiDt: Equipment, 569; Tny Drier'll, S59j Rotary
'" Enthalpy of G_ Accompanying &II. Increaie in
Pn.ure, 6QO; Comp,.bility Factor for 0 - ,
~ 669; Spray Drien, 1160; Drum DrlerB, "5/54; > 691 i EnQWpJ-oonOllQtratJOIl Dlt.c:ram. Ammonia-
Vaouum Drit!I1I, 566; MechaDUIm. Of 'I>t-yiq; Solids,
56&; Calculatione, 66Q; ConUnI1Ollll Drier8,672j
:r..tiIutbJi; Dryiaa,Rau.. 673; Prob~ 67.
------:... ------

.Principles of molecular di iiusion and diffusion between

phases. Concept of stage wise processes.
. Distilation, vapour liquid equilibria. fWD cDmponenl idea l

mlxlures. McCabe':hieh~, method, nonideal binary systems.
enthalpy concenlratlon diagrams, plale efficiencies, plale and
packe~ columns. H. E. T. P. and H. T. U. Batch , azeolropk;,
extractIVe. steam and vacuum distilations .

. Absorption, mechanism of absorption theories of abso~tion

eqUl~men! , .' ra.nsler coefficient and absorption wilh chemical
. reachon. Pnnclples of absorption . .

Extrac tion, eq uilibrium data use of trangular diagrams

c oc urr.ent and count ercurrent arrangements, conti nu o u ~
'- <.!'!x!.r.a~JIQfl and .Ira n~fer c!?effjci e~t ~~in_ciRles of leaching and
--_..... -.
methods 01ca lculations.
- - - .......... _-_. . - - , -

eqUi~~~~~if;~~I~~~~;i~~~;i;~sa~x~re~. ~U~idity cha rt _ana'

principles 01d in ehum,dd,callon.Drylng,
ry g. types of dryers and calculation methods.

AbS:~t:~~e:d ~~~Z:~~~~~~~n and crystallisa tion equ;pm:nr.
Texl Books:

Mc?a be. and Smit h, Unit Operations

Englneenng.:' McGraw-Hili (Asian Edition).
In Chemical ,,

TreybaJ, R. E. Mass Transfer Operation.




.. '. " 1 J' . I

.,.:. J: '. CHAPTER

",;.. ~ , ., r.>
'd hl.~ ' .. 1 ) .,
'. I L~.n'.j.l , .' A ,,; .
. -,fe, - '.j ,
'v,., "; ...... iI.

"",..,.. "',
;f... '
lntrqduclwn 10 the Unit Operatwns
N geoeral.,there are two different approaches to cept of unit operations was first crylitallize<1 h,v

I , the 8t}Ldy, of. industrial prpcessing. ~-b .par-

. .:ticular industry, such as tI~)uccWQJ , getrolc~Ul'l"
I t' M~I " d t " I d' 'tg h
P &$ ~c, .c~pper,'~1i "Y<'!" 'M us ry" me U 109 ., c af-
A.,p,: I~ ttJ e t in 191,5.
'TIie 'ai=tR 0 f 'pu 1vermng,
.. ti filte'
evapora fiR,
d' Wli . 1
rmg, IS tlg, -'
and other Opet"8.tioti5 constantJy ~ earried,. on in chemicuL .
acterllltlC operat.lons,'1TIay. be studll~i aa II. u0I1 ; or the". works ha ve been !IO thoroughly de\::eIoped u to. amount
different operatioM . C;OPlmop ~ lO, many 1i ndustr~al al lllJl!l~ w apecml 8C ieo~. p :\,

p~ may be c1~ijied. eac!J. according ~ i~ An y chemiN!.1proce8'I. on wru..teveor Beale conducted, may-

fu nct ion without regard to .the indu'Itry us ing it, be mIOIved iuto a l'oordinllteaerie8 of what may be tenDed
and each such operation s tud ied as a unit. operation . . ; "Unit O.eerat.ion:!,.," all pulvcrizing drying~ roosting, erys-
Thlls bent tramder is a s.ingle or unit openat ion;::om- t:a1li1iin. fil tering. e\'aporatillg, electrolyzing, aud 80 on.
mOil .to pract-ically all indus~riell, aflu kn owledge.of The number of t hese basie unit operations ill not. large and
reb t ivcly few of them are involved iu any purtieular proc-
t.h.I:! ,pr i ncipl~ of heat transfer, ilI ,equally Uie(ul to an eflS. The compleKity -of' c-hemieal engina:rinll:' mults from ~
engineer in any in.4ustry reqvidng .the transfer oi the varicty of COn<j.itioIl8 l&/J,to temperatul'fl, pres8ul't, etc,. ,
heat. , .... ' . " ulldpr which t~ unit oMl"ationa must be ~ out in
-,As industrial pr~ pave-,become more vari _. d.ifTel'Cll~ ''p~ell8e;8, ~nd from. the limitations ,~8 to jmate-. ,
and, ~hnicaJ, the_fiel~oMn t.o the, ~Jliineer hav~ of e~l)Struc\lon an,d de:sl~ of a pparatus Im~ by
wi'dened and it has ~a. increasingly difficult, if ~~Ieal and C1hemical eh~:~r of the reaetmg sub-
not impossible, to cove,r t~ va.riou~ industries in an
~,.,a.J.e ' mlUlner witbout lim iting the stud~1.3 to a A st.udy of t he unit oper&.tionS is jUIJt ~ valu1wIe'-'
few c!oeely; relatal ficlds. By s Ludy ing the unit. to the opera ting e ngineer as -to tbe d~iiner:"since all "I
operations themselves and the ir functio ns the engi. industr ial operations, or plaiJUi, are oot1lf!(l8e<l pbytliJ
neer ~s trained to rccvgtIi.z.e these (unctiollS in new cally of a series of uni t opera tions in thei r proper
ind~tr,ial processes; illld by applying his knq-iyledge..:_ sequenCe. The ability or caPacity of a plant no is
and s}cill in the corresp?nding unit operations he is. than t~at of its w.eakest unit. The operak>r
able. to design, eOllStruct, and operate a plant for a analyze! his c,o mplex operations into unit.8 Jor i1idi ~.
ne,w prClCC,'>8 with almost as much confidence as fqr a vidual impro .... el'(lent, and the d esigner synthesizes
plll.... ed procCSl>. For t~esc reasons thEl study of unit complex opCrat ions from a number of unit op"mtions. ;
operations has proved to be the more effic ient
approach to t he study of indUBtrial proce>!sing.
Although the imporlance. of these operdlioM that
are cqrnm9Jl to different intlust-ries \I'M ret'<lgnized as In Ihis t rea tmen t t he unft. operations are classified";
early as, ~893 by Professor George Lunge, the con- or grouped accordiag to their function and th;e ph&$('
P'roCCIIOr Grorp;e.Lunge of ,be .'ede1..J PoIyta:hnic &:hooJ
. ,
t Arthur D. Li ttle u d",irm...n of thf! V.itl03 CornmiUIe("
of Zurich, in ILn ILddrese on the " EduCII.Uoo of._ llldustrilLl of the D<:p&rtmcnt uf Chemistry ILDd Chtlmic&1 ElJgineerinc
Cbemi-tII" pTe!!ent.eU at the <'..-QnilTe311 n( ChcmieUl at t :-.e Ex- of tlk; i\ht.S&tcbusetts Institute of Technology io .. report 10
position in CbiCf.jl;o, 1893. the (' n;;ident o~ t he Instit utodn -.1915. ;' 'r J ' .
I .i , . "" K "' ',':\' _I' "

. .'
or phases treated. A f)hast is a homogeneous and in a sugar plant, a crusher in a cement pla.nt, a diItil-
mechanically distinct or separable mass. Thus sand !ation column in a petroleum refinery, aDd. that the
and water are two mechanically distinct masses, and important requirement in each case is a aati:lfact.ory
each repr~nts a separate phase; whether the sand workable overall operation. It makes no difference
ig separate from 'or slIspended in the water makes no whether the result is obtained by exMt mathematical
difference. An oil phase Aoating upon water, or calculation, by empirical approximation, or by a
emulsified with the water, is a homogeneous mass good guess based on the application of sound judg-
mechanically disti nct from tlll~ wider whetber or not ment, provided it is a satisfactory, workable, ec0-
it is continuous ; and it is, therefore, II. separate nomical operat.ioo in its entirety.
phase from the water pbase. Similarly, a copper The unit operations are the best available meLhods
ore contail18 the miner-oi l chalcopy ri"tc tl.S tl separate for classifying and formulating the combined expe-
solid phase from the surrounding gnuguc or rock, ~ce of engineers as a guide to the operation and
no matter how finely t.he mineral may be dis- de;ign of industrial plants. But these data, although
",.,."j. of grea~ help, are inadequate in t hemselves to insure
The phases present at anyone time may he one or successful operations. The successful engineer must
more solid phases, and one or more fluid phases. develop sound judgment by his willingness to try,
. Sand and water represent -one solid and one fh;id to recognize failures, 'and to keep on trying until be
phase, oil and water are two fluid phnl:lC~, and the arrives at a satisfactory result. Seldom if ever does
mineral end gangue are two (at least) solid phal:\es. he have the opportunity to assemble either on paper
A mixture ot .solid salt, ice, water, and water vapor or in physical form the ideal or perfect operation.
cont.ains two solid and two fluid Oases are Engineering operations require approximations and
flu ids. Ordinarily there will-exist ooi).- one gt\.SOOUS compromises. If made too nearly perfect, they may
phase. cost too much and last too long. Many pJ:ww be- -
The order of treatment begins with unit operations come oOOolete before they wear out.
that treat solids alone, such as mechanical size sepa- All the information no..... available started with a
ratic.n, size reduction, and conveying of solids. single observation. As additional observations were
These are followed by operations involving fluids. made, the engineering mind began to draw conclu-
Since all fluids must be confined to stClre them or to sions which cou1d be presented in the form of an
direct their flow, a solid boundary phase is always empirical tabulation, such as the power requIred to
involved, whether the solid particlee are flowing operate crushing and grinding machines. Frequently
through the fluid as in clBssi.fication and flotation, these tabulated data could be presented in the form
or whether the fluid is flowing through a solid as in of & graph as a more satisfMtory basis for extra.-
fluid transportation or filtration. The operat ions in- polating and interpolating the results. The next step
volving transfer of material from one phase to an- was to derive an equation for the line represeotin&
other are next treated by the method of equilibrium the plotted data and to indicate me&n..B for estimating
stage!! or contact!. These include leaching (solid to how the corutants in the equation would be affected
liquid), extraction (liquid to liquid), gas absorption by different conditions. These equatiOM miahi then
and distillation (vapdr to liquid), and adsorption be rationalized or sometimes "derived." However,
(fluid to solid). Heat transfer and evaporation fol- the student and engineer should always keep in mind
low. Heat transfer deals with the rate of energy that these conclusions are drawn more or lese &OUD.dly
tra.ruofer a.nd serves 88 a meMS of leading directly to from a series of more or less reliable observatiollB
the concept of rate of ml:l8S transfer as applied in that have been empirically correlaU!d; also, they
crystalli&a.tion, drYing, absol'ptioD, distillation, and should remember that the practical operator in the
the more complicated operations involving eatal)'llts plant who may never have seen the equatioo or
and "'tea of reaction. -beard the tenn "unit operation" has probably made
more observations himself than an those involved in
deriving the equ,tion. But it has taken the practical
operator a. much longer time to acquire his skill with-
In the study of unit operations, it must alwa)'ll be out undenotanding than it has the modem student 01
remembered that a unit operation is simply a lUlit of unit operations to acquire his comprehensive under-
a more oomplBJ[ operating pl.a.nt: a heat exchanger standing.
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS As long &::I the reaction is chemical and does Dot
destroy or create atoms, it is proper and rrequcDtly
Certain concepts or conclusions drawn from many very convenient W employ awms as the basis for
observations are regarded as runda.ment.&l because, the material balance. The material balance may be
the more carefully the observations made, the made for the entire plant or for any part of it as a
more closely do the data conform t<l the previous unit, depending upon the problem atl hand. It is
conciUt!lion. Perhaps the most important of these to most conveniently by adopting as a bll8is for
the engineer is the law of conservation of mass and calculation a fixed quantity of materia! which pa..!:IfIe8
,",,,,,. through the opera.tion unchanged.
Operations involving awmic energy have e~pha-
Ped the cOncept that mass and energy are dll~tJy 2. The Ener&y Balant:e
re1&t.ed. The quantity of energy equ.ivalent to a Similarly, an energy balance may be made around
unital mass is so large, about 3 X 10 1& ft--Ib of energy any plant or unit operation to determine the energy
per pouDdmass, or the lJla3S is so small, a~t required to Cll.rry on the operation or to maintain the
2.6 X 10- 1' poundms,ss per British thermal umt desired operating conditions. The principle is just
(Btu), that ordinary mean~ of meas1lTement..are in as importailt a.s that of the material balance, and it
capable of detecting any increase or deerease.m m~ is used in the same way. The important point to
accompanying a chemical p~. In engmeermg keep in mind is that all energy of all kinds must be
operations, when nuclear changes are not involved, included, although it may be converted to ~ single
the mass of the products equals the mass of t.he re- equivalent form such &8 Btu's, calories, or foot-
actants. This is in accord with engineering ex~ pounds for the sake of addition. A balance cannot
fience over many years and simplifies calculat.ions, be made of heal or electrical energy alone, since all
sint.-e material balances ('an then be made inde- energy is convertible and all forms must be included
pendently of energy balances. in the balance.
The following four concepts are b[l8ic and form lbe
found ation for the calculation of all operations. If 3. The Ideol Contact
nuclear changes are involved, the energy changes be- Whenever the materials being processed are in
cOI1le ~ great that the first ami second concepts are contact for any length of time under speciAed condi
not independent and a combined energy and mass tions, au.h M conditions cf temperature, pressure,
balance must be made. chemical compo&ition, or elect.rical potential, they
tend to approach a definite condition of equilibrium
1. TIle Materia' Balance which is determined by the specified conditions. In
If matter may be neither efea-ted nor destroyed. mauy cases the rate of approach w these eq\Li~ibrium
the total mass for all materials entering an opera tion condit.ionlS is so rapid or the length of time is suffi.-
equals the total mass for all materials I('twi ng that cient that the equilibrium conditions are practically
operation, cxcept for any material thn.t may be re- at l.;lincd at ench eont.act. Such a contact is known
tained or accumulated in the operation. By the as an cC"juiliorillm or idc!\l contact. The caltulation
application of this principle, the yields of a. chemical of the number of ideal cont.acts is an important step
reaction or engineering operation are computed. required in undcn.t anding those unit operations in
Ir. continuous operations, material is usually not volvinp; transfer of material from one phtwl to an-
f>Ccumulated in the operation) and a material balance other, ~uch as leaching, extraction, ab~rption, and
consists Bimply in charging (or debiting) the opera- distillation.
twn with all material entering and crediting the
operation with all mau-.rial leaving, in the same 4. Rate. of an Operation
manner as ust:d by any accountant. The result must In most operations equilibrium is not aHamed,
be 8. ba\a.nce. The uses dollars as his either because of insufficient timc or because it is not.
unit, IUld the engineer uses pounds, tons, etc. In desired. As /lOOn !l8 equilibrium is attained no
making a. material. balance, the engineer should not further chtlllge can take place and. the. pr0ce88 etope,
attempt w use units that may be Crea&.d or de but the must keep the prOCl!'88 going. For
Btroyed during the prccl'Sil, snch as nnits of volume this reason rate operations. such as rate of energy
or moles, or cubic feet, gallons, barrels, or moieeulcs. transfer, rate of mass transfer, and rate of cbemienl
rea,etiOD, are 0( the greatest importance and interest. TB ' tempeI'lLture of m&88 B.
In all such ea8efI the rate 'and direction depend upon a -fJ.T - the tempera.ture drop.
d1ft'erence in potential or driving foroe. The rate R - resistance to heat tr&n8fer.
usually may be expressed as proportional to a poten-
t.i&l drop divided by Ii resistance. An apptieation of In solving rate problems as in heat transfer or mass
~thi. principle W eleetrical energy is the familiar
transfer with this simple concept, the major difficulty
Ohm's law for steady ,or direct current. is the evaluation ,of the resistance term. In pract~,
the values of the resistance term are generaDy com-
HI - E, -6E puted from an empirical correlation of many deter-
1- P. - - R- mmataoJ18 of transfer rates under different conditions.
The blU!ie concept that rate depcnc:h directly upon
where I _ fate of electron transfer or current of elee- a potential drop and inversely upon a resistance"maY
. trieity' (coulombs/ see. or amp), be applied to any rate operation, alt1lough the rate
~. g ' _ electrical potential, and t1i _" the increase
. in potential between points 1 and 2
may be expressed in different ways with particular
coefficients for particular cues.
R _ resistance (~hnls). I,
In b~t:transfer un~ similar conditions for steady
Bo~, the time rate of heat transfer from mass A in These principles, used' singly or in combination,
contact with I1l88S B is and the coordinate<l knowledge of the unit operations
as presented ill this textbook, the handbooks, and

. dt
R - -(Ta - T A )
other technical literature c(lll8titute the 8Ctence or
lhCOl"y of the unit operatioll8. Practical engineering
consists in applying the undel"'ltanding of t.hMIe
where - - the instantaneous time rate of heat operations &lid practical Imowkdge of the many
. fit transfer or the quantity of beat types of equipment that may be employed to the
transferred per ~nit of iime from design and operation of a commercial plant tha~ will
mass A to m 888 show not only a material balance but &lao a favorable
... TAO. temperature of ml\S8 A . dollar balance.

, ~ "', .


HIS section deals with those operations which treat material in the
. solid state only : screening, size reduction, and handling of solids .
Before discussing these operations the properties of solids should be

" . i. ; '

Properties of Solids
MONG the many properties of sulids, those of Mobs'-scale, which is ba.!lcd on a serip.! of llJ.inerals

A . listed below are of particular significance in

engineering operations.
Density, usually expressed by the symbol p, is
of increasing ha.rdneSd numbers W! follows:

I Talc
' Gyp8UIll
6 Feldapa.r
7 'QuartJ
defined 88 the mass per unit vQlume. The units are
usually poWlds per cubic foot, or grams per cubic ,
3 Calcite
8 ToPfiz
Corundum, I!SIpprure
Speci% gravity is the ratio of the density of the
Apatite 10 Diamond

Esct. mineral ie the list will scratch all those of a

material to the density of some reference substnm:e,
lower number. A mineral of unknown bardness is
or pi Pm. For solids and liquids the reference sub-
rubbed against these test min eral~, and its hardness
stance is usually water at 4 C. For mOtit engineer-
is indicated by the softest material which just
ing work the specific gravity may be given the same
scratches it. The approximate bardnesses of some
numerical value as density in grams per cubic
common materials are: dry finger nail, 2.5 ; copper
centimeter, but the spetifle gravity is a dimension-
Bulk (or appartnl) def'l.a1ill p~ is the total mass per
unit of total volume. For example, the tme density
of quartz is 2.65 grams/ceo But a quartz sand of M.w.w
.1,.'" MI.>eoooOI,.
)b/... It
,... ~-..

'or .. '

-. -_.. ----_._- -'

ib/"" It
2.65 grams mass may occupy a total or bulk volume
of 2 ec and have a bulk density Pb of 1.33 grams/ceo
The bulk density is not an intrinsic characteristic of
the material since it varies with the size distribution
AIIuni AI,O.
BonIN, BoSO.
O'... hod 80
Ctoohed 180
Otll>or ..... bio

........" ........,....
Calcile. Coco. o.""hocl QO-itil H'lIaIoooI
of the particles and their environment. The porosity {Ctuoh.d IO-IOO} 1.1-1.0 Monoeli ...
of the solid itself and the material with which the
G,-powo, Co9O.2fuO
H.!lW.iIe. F.,o,
'" CnoooIotd 160 &.I-U Tticlio ..
pores, or voids, are filled also influence the bulk I')TiI<e, r eS. 1.0-6.1
density. For a single nonpo rous particle the true
density p equals the bulk density Pit-
H(U"dneu' of certain solids such .B.8 met&!s and
HoiW, N.c\

~ ""
1~1 - 1 1l2
On.<e! 100-111
, H_

1.1-1. 7

..... 1 ...... 0 OoM
plastics may be defined as resi!;tance to indentation.
8sMI<ri", WI
iIeoo.<ot._ ... ...-..Iooo.. W

The hardness of minerals is usually defined as resist- Cot-.l. _

CooI,Ii. _ _

ance to scratching and is usually expressed in tenns
Dumben relu to eotriOfi in tbA bi bliOgraphies..
tm. claapter, _ p. 8.


- ~

penny, 3.0; tooth enamel, 5.0; penknife, 5.5; ordi- break apart, they simply deform.. Wood and aebe&-
nwy """" 5.8. toe are fibrous, do not posseB8 cleavage planes, and
BriUlen.uI or friability refers to the ease with do not crush readily, but must be tom or shreddld.
which & substance may be broken by impact. The Friction is the resistance to sliding of one material
hardness of a mineral is not. a sure criterion of its against another material. The coefficient of friction
brittleness. Hom, some plaStics, 8JId gypsum are is the ratio of t.he force parallel to the surface of
soft and tough and are not easily broken by impact. friction in the direction of motion required to main-
Coal is 80ftana also friable. Friability is the inverse tain a CODlltant velocity, to the force perpendicular
quality to toughness. TlnlfIhJU83 is the property of to the surface of friction and normal to the direction
metals and alloys called impact resistance. of motion.
The crystalline structure and crystal size influence
the friability. The structure also detennines the omUOGRAPHY
shape into which parlic1es na.turally break: when 1. Nurm, E. H" W. F. BUNT, &nd L. F. RAlIBDzLL, Miner-
subjected to a crushing operation. For example, aI.ov!I, 3rd ed., McCr..w-Hill Book Co. (1936).
2. WII.Lu.JIa, 8. R. t Jlani_ and Hard_ M~
galena, PbS, breaks into cubes; miea into plates ; and
Ameri.....rl Sonety lor Metals, Cle~hwd (1942).
magnetite into somewhat rounded grains. ThOlle
crystalline planes which are easily broken are tenned
cleavage p14nes. The quantity of work necessary to PROBLEM
fracture a unit area of cleavage plane can be deter-
A copper t ube, 1 iD.. I.D. and 2 It lon:, iIIlilled with steel
mined by experiment. When metals and allo)'B are balls of J-in. di.8 mcter. The llpace between the baI.. is 6UN
stressed beyond their yield points, Ii simillU' e1eavage wit b 1'fater. The _pcciJic gravity 01 . teel ill 7.8. What ill
takes pla.oe in the crystals; but the crystals do not tho bulk density of the contents of tbe tube1



HE separation of materials on the basis of wil"e mesh: Screening consists in separating a mix-
size is frequently important as a means of ture of various size8 of particles into 1,\\"0 OJ" more
. preparing a produd for sale or for a subse- portions, each of which i8 more \llLiform ill ,,;ire of
quent operation. It is also a widely used means of particle than is the original mixLl1rr..
uMiysis, either to control or gage the effectiveness Dry sereening refers t.o"lhe t l"eatment. of a material
(If another operatinn, slich as erushing or grinding, containing a nat.ural am()unt. of moisture or a male-
or to determine the value of a product for some rial that has been dl'ied before screening. \Yet
sJX~ific appiicatiflO. screening refers to an operation in which lI'alel' i~
10 the marketing of coal, for example, the size of adde<.\ 1,0 the maferial heing treated for the purpose
t.he particle!; is the basis of its 'classification for l; of \V~hing thl;' fine matcl:ial through the I:lCreen.
Certain equipment such as st.okers reqlfire definire The material t hat-fails to P(\::iS thrl)lIl;lr the i;creen
limits of size for slll'ce8l:lfui operation. In the case is referred tll ll.S bV~~iz(', or plu~ material, ami that
t.f sand and gravel for concrete, on thtl other hand, which pa.s&'s through the SC1"C('n opl'nings 18 referred
only a properly blended serres of sizes will insure the w !\.lj IIm\ersire or_minns mate'rial. \rh~nihorotlmn
most dense packing, requiring the minimum of one screen is lIscd ( ~I\d more than two sizcs arc pro-
cement and securing the greatest strength and free- duced, the vario\l"; frar-lions may be JesignalN
dom from voids. according to the ofx~nin~s employed in mr..king the
It has frequently been observed that the rate of a separations. Fur example , 'fahle 2 shows three
chemical react ion between a solid and a fluid II:! different. ways of im\i('lIting s ize~.
roughly proportional to- the surface involved. Since
the sury-ace 'areas may be computed from a knowledge TARLE 2. THREE :\IETHODS OF INDICATI:-l"G
of t\!e sizes of the particles, a sizing operation is of
particular value in controlling the !"ales of reactions Thin!
1 in.
involving solic,ls. The combustion of powdered coal Ovc",izo' +{ in. +1 in.
illustrates the desirability of conl.rolling the grinding Through I in. nn ~ in. -l+ { in. lil in.
operation to proriuce material of definite ~ize limit.; Thn,ugh: in. nn twin. -~ + r'1I" in. ~/n in
in order to control the rate of combustion. Since the t.:nd"r.;il", -h :O in.
setting of Portlu.od Cl;'mentmust take- plnce within a
specifie<.l time, it hws heen necessary to specify certain
size limits. The hiding P9wer of a pigment is
indicated by size since it depends upon the projected GI"uziil'8 are widely uscd for screening large lSizes,
area of the particles. particula.rly of I ill. unci O\'CI". They eon:,;ist lSimply
Screening is accomplished by pws:,;ing the material of a &'t of parnlld Imrs >;(1H1nttcd lJy spacers at the
over a surface provided with openings of the desired endlS. The hars mny he laid horizontally or inclinN
size. The equipment may take the form of station- longitudinally 20 to 50 dl'gll,('" from the horizontal,
ary or moving Lar~, punched metal plate, or woven depending upon the nature of the material treated .

The mrunl crOSll section of the bars is t.rapezoidal with
the wide base upward to prevent clogging or wedging
of the particles between the bars, Inverted railrood.
rails are frequen tly employed. Owing to the wear on
the bars, they are frequently made of manganese
Grizzlies are usually construeW about 3 to 4 rt
wide with the bars from 8 to 10 it in length . TItey
are freque ntly used before mat~rial i.o'I sent to a
cnl~hcr to remove the emllllcr particles from the feel
to the crusher.
In some grizzlies, a cam arrangerne.."lt causes a
slight lengthwise reciprocal movement of alternate
bars, permitting better fiow of material through
them and preventing clogging. Ehdless chains pMS-
ing over sheaves may rcpJactl the bars, constituting FlO. 2. Triple-deel:ed mechanital1y vibrfltl !SCreen. (W. S. '
Tiller Co.)

is to be handled stationary screens aTe usually--aban-

doned in favor of the vibrating &creens.
Vibrating screeni are used where large tonnages
are ro be treated. The vibrating motion is imparted
to the screen surface by means of CItJIlS, eccentric
shafts, unualanced fiywheels, or electromagnetic
means. A complete screen ma.y have a. single screen-
ing surface, or it may be double- or triple-decked, lIB
indicated in Fig. 2. This screen is driven by ap
ecccnt-ric shaft, as shown in F ig. 3. The wire screerui

FIG. I. Meehanically vihrated har grizJiy. The materia l

enkl1l at the top left and ....orb itll wILy downward to the right.
The Large or ove~~ partida! .re di$Chllrged over the lower
right end, and the emaHer pArticiell pa$! t hrough the ~Iot~
between the ba.!'1! into a hopper directly below. (NOTdbfrl1
MIll. Co.)

the chain grizdy. These more elaborate grizzlies

are for somewhat sticky or clay-like material.
Figure I shows a grizzly mounted on springs with
the whole ll88Cmbly vibrated mechanically.
A rough figure for the capacit.y of grizzlies is
approximately 100 to 15(1 tons of material per square
foot of area per 24 hr when the bars arc spaced to
give ahout 1 in. of clear opening.
Sllllwnary lCTeen, are mnde of punched metal
plate or woven wire mesh, usually set at. an angle
with the horizontal up to about 60 degrees. They
are suitable for intermittent small-tlC8.le operations,
such as screening sand, gravel, or coal by throwing Flo. 3. Sectional drflwincollbe mechanism of a mecbaoica Uy
the material against the &creen. When large tollll1lgC vibraled IICTeeQ. (W. S. Tyln Co.)
are held in place under tension by the clamr:; and
supported on the vibrating frame. The rotating
shaft is supported on the stationary hune by th~
~" oute!' relier bearings which are fastenOO to the sta-
tionary frame. The eca!ntric carries the roller bear-
ings which support the vibrating frame. The vibrat.-
ing frCome is poeitioned by springs, four of which are
indicated under oovers on each side of the Hereen
MOwn in Fig. 2. The flywheel is mounted ~
trically on th~ shaft as a counterbalance w bclance
the vibrating frame, screens, and load of material
being screened. An adjustable masB is provided for
controlling the eccentricity of t he fl.ywhecl. Rota.-
tion of the shaft gives the screens a circular motion
in the v~rti cal plane. As the screen passes the top
of its cycle, the material is thrown clear of the
screen surface. The material will be moved along
the screen in either direction, depending upon the
c:.irection of rotation. Such screens are operated
(Fig. 4) with a slope that may vary from the bori-
sootal to about. 45 degrees. These SCteel18 are oper-
atnd with an amplitude (diameter of the described
circle of motlon) up to about U in., depending on the FlO. I). Vibrating m e.m&nism consigting 'If lion &cl!'l$tAble
unbt,ianoed fl.ywheel and shaft mounted rigidly on & vibrating
scree.n harne, which ig in turn support.ed on sprinp..
(Nordbttr, Mf,. Co.)

size of thl' materia'., and with a frequency of vibra.-

tion or rotation of about 1200 t() 1800 per m inute.
They are made for heavy duty with above
1 in. and are widely used for dry screening of par-
ticles from 1 in.. down to about 35 mesh" (O.OI64 in.)
at an angle of about 20 degrees. For wet screening
the angle is reduced to about 5 or 10 degreeg. Usu-
ally the feed enter"! the top of the screen, but some-
times it. is found desirable to feed at the lower end
of the screen and discbarge at the top.
In another type of screen the vibrating frame is
mounted on springs, and the belt-driven rotating
shaft. is mounted only on the vibrating frame . Vi-
bration is caused by creating an unbalance on the
rotating shaft by mounting an adjustable
flywheel (Fig. 5) to give the desired a.mplitude. Such
a drive is mechanically simpler than the counter-
balanced eccentric-shaft drive previously described,
M ull ill .. term .t&tinl the nUJnb"r of opening!! per liocar
inch 0 1 IICl"een surface. T he..ue 01 the opening depeoUa on
the , iUt of the wire, but 101" &creeD!! of II. st.&lKlard s.:0ie8 the
FlO. 4. Double-dedr.oo mechanically vibrated lICn!en operat- mesh ia &pecific dCllipI.tion 01 the &perture, lLIi ~tll.t~ in
ing under test conditiollll, (W. S. Tllkr Co.) T&ble 4.

but it is not (,:ljlllhie of w; rugged constructi on. If

two \lIlbalalH;I'{j 1I"1i{.'t'ii;arc rolated in opposite
diffi'(jun:; !It the ~am(' numi)(>r of revolutions per
minu te (rpm), thl' vibration may t.e strictly nonnal
to Ihf" pilUle of the ~rccn .
An eh;tromagnotic vibrator In!>Y be attached 19
the (;enter of the ~crc('n, U3 shown in Fig. 6. llla
frame is rigid uno the scref'n i8 vibrated by the
solenoid whose core is fas\cnp.(i to the center of the
sertell . T he coro of the solenoid works against ad~
jU!:lt1l.blc ~pring tension, as showil ill Fig. 7. In this
IV:!y the amplitude of vibrat i'Jrl Inay be varied Ill" t.o
about Ys in. In othl>r ty pe:; the core is fastent:d to
the frame supporting the scrccn and vibratl"s the
frame and screen. With such an arrangement Lhe
solenoid may be mounted obliquely to the w rccn
!FIG. 6. Vibrelillll: IS"I1)'n emp!oYlflj!; an l'I~"'lrom!l"ncli~ vi_
bIllting unit .. tlll-ched to the (,,'nk, of the SI'T"('!>. (IV. S. surface, giving the screen a motiun u.t an anglo to
T yltr Cp.) the normal. High amplitude in I!. screen vibrated

Fw 7. (:roil .o..'P\ i'''1 (If ilrdl'Ofll" 1<''''1 ip ''u""tO!' or Fig_ 6. The hand"'hpP\, I, tldju~t~ tne ~pring ten..ion an d 1imit~ the leogth
of strok(' ""wo,d hy til<" .. lr(-lr(,n"'IC""I, 'l. O]",,,,lml': on the armu tu rc eo",I('CI~~J to the IloCro..~,n, 6. (II'. S. Ty&r Cu.)
The undesirable particles flow oVl'r the end
or ~ iCl"Hn into II separet. conuinl'r

Th. Super.Adive BaH CI."!,,

5Creen and a frH passage of
FlO. 8. Reciprocating screen "itb bRU cleanel"ll. Tbt ovel'I!ize BoWlS o~...,r the end of the IlCreen. The balIa an confined ! ..
limitf!d ISreM diredly bemath the screen, and supported on 8. COIU'1Ie wire screen. The balls bounce apifl/jt thie 8.Upportinc
l!CTeen anq gi~e additioruo.i vibration to the screen dire!!t1f above, Tht ue!!ired fine material ptISI!eI:I. through the fJCreer'~
(J, H. Dav Co.)

in a fixed frame (Fig. 6) may eause fatigue failure circular orbit. ~'lany of these devices cany a coaree
of the IIcreen near the clamps. If the screen is sup-- screen directly below the e<:reertJftg cloths on which
ported in a vibrating frame this limitation docs not rubbcr balls arc confined to limited areas and are
apply but a greater energy is required to overcome caused to bounce against the lower surface of the
the inertia of the mass of the frame, The solenoid screen cloths as the device is oscillated.
is UIlually caused to strike a block or anvil, thereby lltciprocati1l{J 8CTten3 (Fig, 8) are driven by an
suddenly halting the upward motion of the screen eccentric under the screen at the feed end. The
and thro\\'mg the material clear of thc screen, This motion varies from gyratory (about 2 in, in diameter)
U! particula rly desirable in 'the handling of sticky at the feed cnd to a reciprocating motion at the
:nat.erlala, . These screens arc om-mally used for discharge end. These screens are UlIually inclined
material from about 8 mesh down io 100 mesh or about 5 degrees, giving the screen a motion normal
finer and have been lIuccessful in wet screening, The to the cloths of about h 0 in, Further vibration may
frequency of vibration is determined by the fre- be caused by including rubber balls as shown con-
qucncy of the alternating current used and vsries fined to locttl &reM below the '}Clive screen surface.
from about 900 to 7200 vibrat-ions per minute, This type of !!Creen is popular and widlJly used for
The lower frequency is used for coarser screening screening dry chemical::! down to about 300 mesh.
(8 mesh) and the higher frequencies for the finer Trammels, or revolving screens, oonsist of a screen
screening. cylindrical or conical in form rotated about its a.xis..
The capacity of a vibrating screen varies widely
with the character of the material trea.ted from 2
tons/fIQ ft of surface per 24 hr for materials such as
damp eay f)f powdered soap, up to 30 tons for dry
materia) such as coke on screens of about 6 to H
. . .h.
Oscill4ting lICNJetI.a are characterized by a. relatively
low speed (300 or 400 oscillations per minute) in a essentially parallel to the screen. The riddle
ill a screen driven in an oscillating path by an eccen-
aic or other mechanism attached to the sole support
of the screen, usually a vertlco.l bar extending from FlO, 9. Compound trammel. (C, 0, Barlldf olld 8nmtl Co.)
the top of the screen box. It is the cheapest form of
I!;roen OIl the market and is used for batch screen- Simple trommels may be arranged in series ,vith the
ilg. undersize of the first passing to the second trommel
A lIifter is a box-like container holding a number of and the undersize of the second passing to the third,
1Cmen cloths nested on top of one another and O!!Cil- etc, Somctimes the trammels ar!! built with screens
Jared by an eccentric or oounterwcighbJ in a nearly of different sit.e8 throughou t their length, the feed

FIG. 10. Tandem-type trommel. The feed entenl at the left end and passes Qver ~ueeessh'cly eoane r IICreens M it worka it&
Ivay to dit;eh&rge of the oven;ize at the rar right. (C. O. Barlldl and S 'IOII! Co.)

entering at the end of the finest screen (Fig. to) . In to cause the particle to fall to the centr ifugal force
this way it, is possible to collect materials of different te nding to carry the par ticle amu nd.
s ize ranges from a s ingle trommel. But the opera.rion
is not so efficient /l8 that of a series of simple trom- mg ~
2mv 2
-- 0- -
mels, or a compound trommel. D D
The compound trommel (Fig. 9) contain!! two or where m - mll.!!S (lb) .
morc concentric screening surfaces mounted on the g - sccdendion of gravity (ft / S(!c 2).
same shaft. The coan!Cr screening surfu.ce is lhe II -velocity of particle, or of trommel, in
innermost, and the finest the outermost, with inler- circ\llar path (fp,,).
mediate sizes arranged between the two limits. With D _ diameter of trammel (ft).
provision made for the separate removal of t he over-
size from each screening surface, the undersize of When N = nurnUer of revolutions of trammel J}(,r
each screen becomes the feed to the screen of the minute,
7I: DN
next smaller aperture. , ---
Conical trammels have the shape of a t.runcated
cone and are generally mounted with their ax(l3
Trommels aTe quite effident for coarse sizes. The
g - ~e:Y
inclination of the trommel varies from about ~ in. 2 oo'gD 6Q2g
(for wet screening) to 3 in./ft of length, depending N - -- ~ -
2(TD)2 'i.7I: 2n
on the nature of lilt! materia] to be processed.
The capacity of the trammel increases with in-
creased speed of rotation up to a point where N~ - 2-
blinding occurs due to crowding of material through 271: D
t he screen. If the speed of rotation is increased still At sea level g - 32.17 ft/ St'cll and N .. 76.65/"";1;
furth er to the critical speed, the material no longer With compound trammels the speed of rotation \8
cascades over the screen surface but is carried around nAturally governed by t he diameter o( the outside
by centrifugal force. The best operating speed is screen.
usually about 0.33 to 0.45 times the critical speed. Tr')mmcls are usually about 3 to 4 ft in diameter,
'I'he criticol speed oj rolll/ion of a tromm!'1 may be ' from 5 to 8 ft in length, and driven a t 15 to 20 rpm
computoo h.\ Cl:jIUlting the force of gmvily l!'luling with 2M- to 5-hr motors.
The trommel is best SUIted for material from ~ Collecting terms
to 2~ in. in size.
F(xl' - XR) - P(xp - %R)
Rem are revolving $CreeM driven at relatively high
speed. They are used in the flour milling industry
and for other light, dry, t\OMbNlsive material. The
screening surface eonsista of silk bolting cloth sup-
-F - (ZT - XR)
(Xl' - XR)

ported by wire mesh. Speed of rotation is above the Substituting for PI F

critical speed for a trammel and is such as to throw "

xp(XI' - l'R)
the oodersised particles outward through the bolting Recovery
cloth by centrifugal force. The surface may be Xl' (xp XR)
cleared by brushes inside the reel. Reels are gen-
erally 24 to 40 in. in diameter and 5 to 8 ft long, and . ,
RejectIOn - 1 - -;:
they are rotated at speeds that may vary from 100 (1 z,)(xP ZR)
to 200 rpm. Effectiveness .. (recovery X rejection)
TM effectivem" of screens is based upon both the
recovery in the product of the desired material ill _ xp(ZI' - XR) [I _ ~(I:--_X"'~)7(,,,,,_--,Z,,,R~)J
the feed and the .exclusion or rejection from the ;C,.(zp - 'XR) (I XI')(zP XR)
product of the undesired material in the feed. For
example, the specificationa for hycira4lic hydrated These equations permit the
desired calculation of
lime (ASTM Cl41-42) require that the product con- recovery, rejection, or effectiveness of any sizing
tain not more than 10 per cent by weight of material operation from size analysis of the streams, without
coarser than 200 mesh. knowledge of the quantities.
Rapid feeding or too steep an angle of the screen
If Xp _ mas,s fraction of dealred material in
gives insufficient time for complete separati()fl of the
product, fine and coarse material. Excessive dampness in
x, _ mass fraction of desired material in feed, the feed may cause cOOtlll.ion of small particles to
XR - maas fraction of desired material in reject,
fo rm larger masses, or the adhesion of small particles
P _ total mass of product,
to large particles. Worn screens with enlarged aper-
P _ total mass of feed,
tures will p8SII more oversize material into the under-
R - total mass of reject, size fni.ct.ion.. Clogged screens (blinded) retain more
z,P undersize material in the oversize fraction. Tbe
Reco"ery - - - effectiveness as defined above is a numerical expres-
Ilion for the effect of alJ these factors.
Rejection (1 - Effectiveness of recovery or Capacity of ICnen.! and elTectiveDe!18 are closely
(1 - xp}P related. If a low efficiency or effectiveness may be
undesired material) - 1 - (1 xp)F tolerated, the screen may be operated at high
capacity. The ability of the device to prevent
FJiectivencss (recovery X rejection) blinding of the screen surfa.ce is probably t.he mOl!t
_ -,,_P(I - .c(I,---_"'C)-ooP) important single factor detenninillg capacity of the
screen. In dry screening, the greater the amount of
xTF (1 - xp)F
moisture or dampness in any particular material, the
Weighing the en,tire feed and product is not prac- Ot.her expreMioJU! for effectivenel!l!l are uaed, meh &II the
tical, and it iI3 deBirable tQ express ttlC effectiveness rec:overy, or rejection, till defined above, or the product of
from the analyses of samples alone. A material recovery &nd enrichment.
balance around the screening operation gives
~p(~, - :Ill) (~)
x,F - XI'P + xRR ~,(zr ZR) I -:I,

All these e,,~ live ditreNln~ vuuea. dt;pendinl on

F - P+R whet her ~he unde"';te is eoosldered the J"e}eet or the proouct.
Substituting ror R The ex~ lor effectivenea in the text p\"1'A the same
nm.e, nogardleM .. r whethe r the unde.rsbe it tho produCt. or-
z,P - XI'P + %RF - %RP reject.
IO~\'cr is the capacity of the screen. ~ause of its physical properties, and the condition {)( dryness or
greater surface area, finer material can tolerate a wctness pcrhliss.iblc. Thc following methods are
greater percentage of moisture. If the fct.J t..'Ontains used in laboratory and control work.
a high proportion of material of a siUl ju~t ",lightly l\'liCl'()t;Cope. For very small 6i~ of the order of
smaller than the size of the openings in the screep, a few microns ( I micron 0,001 mm), the
called "near mesh," the capacity of th ~ scrC!Cn wlll sample may be placed under a micl'()8(lope; the size
be greatly reduced. For example, if the size of lpe may be determined by simple meMurement of a
openings is Yii in. and there is Il. large proportion of photomicrograph uf known magnification, or it may
%2-in . gralns in the material to be screcneq, the be determined directly by means uf a filar microm-
screen's capacit y, for the same degree of effect.iveness, eter. Tbis device consjsta of a movable cross hair
will be much IOI'."er than if most of the undersize built- into a standard microscope eyepiece. The
material is smaller than ~2 in. movement of the cross hair is actuated by a cali-
The ratio of the open area of the screen to the tota1 brated micrometer screw. The cross hair is moved
area is an important factor in detennining its until it appcal'8 in cont.act with one edge of the par-
capacity. Because of the direct dependence of tide, and a readieg is taken on the micrometer; then
screening capacity upon the area. of the screen sur- ~hc cross hair is moved to the opp06ire edge of the
face and upon the screen aperture, the capar.ity is particle, and anuther reading is made. The differ-
usually expJ.essed I. in terms of tons of feed per square ence in readings is a measure of the particle "di-
foot of screen area per millimeter of screen aperture ameter." This number divided by the optical
per 24 hr, lIS indicated in Table 3. For example, magnification of t.he object ive and eyepiece will give
a vibrating. screen having 6 9Q. ft of snrfaee and an the true dimension in inches or other units. The
aperture of 2 mm may be expected to have an approx- microscopic method is frequently employed to meaa-
imate capacity of (5 to 20)(6)(2) - 60 to 240 tons urn particles of dust from the atmosphere and to
of ore per 24 hr. evaluate the clTcct-iveness of air filters.
~reening. Perhllps the simplest method for
TABLE S. THE APPROXIMATE CA PACITY OF laboratory lOizinp; consist~ in passing the material
SCREENS FOR DENSE MATJ::1tIALS SUCH successivdy o\'or a !Series of screens or sieves having
AS ORES smn.llor openings. Tho size of Do mate- Range,
toll5/"'l ft an,.. jmm
rinl which has PRsseq through one screen and has
Type of Semen aperture!24 'h r hoen retained on a ~reen having openings of a
Grizzl ie8 H\ swaller size is usually considered to be the arithmetlo
St.tionary acrecns I -~ !!overage of the tWQ screen Qpeninp and i.6 called
Vibrat in&: flCreene: >-20 ttte " average dimeQ3iop" (or- "average dia.zneter")
ShAkin&: and OIIciIlating 8Creellll :HI represented by the symbol D.~.
Trommele 0.3-2
Sedhp.enution. 8edimenb\tion methods &re
U \be OIcilIatilll 8CmeM are .1110 vibrated by me&nII o.f based on the fact that small particles of a given
the rubber balIa dcacrlbed, 1M capacit.ieIJ will be lIOffie1Vha.t ffiarerinl fall in a fluid at a rate that ill proportional
inere&llld o'ftr thole of tM .simple OIIcillating 8Creen..
to their aize. One method involves shakina a sample
of the solid in water; aftel' the mixture stands a
DETERMINING PARTICLE SIZE definite length of time, portioM are removed from
diffeJ'lmt levels 'by of a pipet";. Theee pOl'-
The aile of a particle ma.y be expressed in different tioll8 are evaporated to dryness, and the reaidueI!I
ways. If the pa.rtic!e is a spbere, tlle diametel', the weighed. Other modifications have been developed,
projected area, the volume, or the surface of a par- such lIS having one balance pan fn1SpeIl.ded in the
ticle may be the significant size. If the particle is a pulp N suspended l!IOijds and \\"eighina at intervala
cube, the ed&e length, the projeeted area, th~ volUme, as the parl.icles IlettJe on the pan.-
or the surface may be the significant dimension Dutriation alao depends on the velocity of !!let;...
in4icatins size. tling. If the material is placed in a rising stream rJ
Various methods are used for measurements of fluid having a fixed upward velocity, partic1eB whoee
particle size. These depend on the aiae range, the normal falling velocity ifl less than the .vel~ty of
The bibliocraphy for this chapter ap~ OD p. 22. the Rui'd will be carried upward and out of the Ve!58e1.
If fractions obtained from a series of Ruid ve loc i l i~ I-in. and 2in . sj ~, but the 9-io. and IO-in . sizes are
are collected and weighed, a complete size an~ llysi.s almos t :llikc fOf pmct ical purpooes. AU the mate ..ia1 he obtainoo. limier I in . down to II. micron would be in one
Centrifuging. &'I.!imcnt:ltion i~ too slow f.,r fractiun.
particles uf diameter under }1 m icron. Therefore a A mi)te 8l1l isfilctory series of screens ill one in which
centrifugal force is substituted for the nonna! force t.he oJX'"lI i n ~ or ~/ successive member varlt."lI from
of gravity when the size of very small particles is to t.he next by If. multiplier such as to givc EI. series having
be determined. orcnings of 8, 4, 2, I, ~, and so forth. These sizes
Other Methods. The coercive (mll.gnetic) fOf('e
of a. pa.ramugnetie material such II!! mlLgnet ite i>l
di rectly proportional 1..0 its !!~i fic lturfliW, regtlrdll'"S..~
of its mape. This rela tionship hus served as u Sl:Inda N
means of dctcnnining the s urface, o r lIi::e, of such InlctVll t , ,- -. -
parl-icles. The amount of light trn ngmittet.i" th rough
a suspension of a definite quan tity of the finely
.. y'2',
ApIl rture. Al'e:rtu l'I', 1 A,ICrlun', :\lcah
I1 Wire
in. III. Illm N . '
divided Solid in kerosene in a tu be of specified d imf'll- m.
_ .._. _ _ 1 _ . _ __ _
lIions depends upon the proj ~ l~ arc[\. of thc par-
ticles and is used as a methOd of det.ermining partiCle
size.' TIle surface 'size of quart z parti(' les hll.':! 1-*-'C1l
1.050 1.050
0 .""
I .. ...
. ....
I 0 . 148
0 .131\
mC8l:lurcd in fCSCMCh \\'ork by t he ra.te of solution 0 . 742 0 .742 18.85 .... . O. IM
in solutiolta of hydrofluor ic scid . It. is 1'L.'limmOO that 0 .1>24 15.~ .. . .. 0 . 120
0 .525 0.525
, 13.33 .. O . I~
the ratc of solut ion ill ma.o.;s per ullit of time is directly
proportions l 1..0 the surfl\ce area of quart, . 0 .371
O .4 ~'
0 .371
11. 20
U.423 ..
.-00 .092
. 105

0 .312 7 .925 2Ji 0 .1\a8

0.263 0. 263 6.6\lO 3 0 .070
SCREEN ANALYSES 0 .1-2 : 5.613 3)j 0 .00.5
Screens are generally used for cont rol and nnalyti~
cal wo rk. They are constructed of wirl'! mesh cloth,
0.185 0 . 185
0.1 56
3.962 ,
4 0 .005
0 .044
0.131 0.131 3.327 6 0.036
the diameters uf the wire alld ' the (lpa('ing of the 0 .1 10 2. 'l<J.f 7 0 .0326
wires being closely specified. The"S(l SC I"f;eIlS form
the bottoms of metal pans about 8 in. in diameter
0.093 0.003
0 .078
1.981 0 .032
0 .033
nnd 2 in. high, whose sides are SO fMhioned that the 0.005 0 .005 1.651 10 0 .005
,0 .055 l.3t.J7 12 0 .028
bottom of one sieve nests snugly on the top of the O.MG 0 .04(; 1. 168 14 0 .""
Screen AJMlrtul'C and Scrt!en Inte rval. The 0 .0328
0 .03'.10
0 .991
0.833 ,.I' 0 .023a
0 .0172
clear space between the individua l wires of the 0 .0276 0 . 7U1 24 0 . 0141
screen is termed the screen aperture. Frequently 0.0232 0 .0232 0 ."" 28 0 .0125
0. 01\).5 0.495 32 0 .0118
the wrm mesh is applied to the number of apertures 0.417
per linear inch.; for example, a. I()..mcsh !!CreeR will
have 10 openings per inch, and the aperture will be

0 .OW4
0 .0116
0 . 351
0 .0122
0 .0100
0 .0092
0.1 in. minilll the diameter of the wire. :vIesh is 0 .0097 0 . 248 00 0 .0070
0._ 0 ._ 0.2118
therefore II. nominal figure which does not pennit
accurate computation of the screen openings or 0 .00\8
0 .0009
0 .1lO66
0 .0042
aperture without knowledge of the wire sizes used 0 .0049 0.124 115 0 ._
by the manufsct.urer.
The screen interval is the relationship betwoon the
O.O()U 0 .0011
0 .1\036
' .1\811
'70 ......
0 .002Il

sueces8ive size! of screen openings in a series. A

simple arithmetic series might be used such that the
. 00(1)

0 .002\
. 00(1)

0 .002\
0 .0'14
0 .061
' .01l3
0 .0021
0 .001&
0 .0016
~ screen openings are 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 in.,
for cxample. The weakness of such II. system is
that there is 1,\ large relative difference between the
0 .0015
0 .0017
'.008 '"
vary in a geometric progression, and the factor or sharp tap or blow being given at the top of the
screen interval is 2. If closer sizing is . desired, an screens for each revolution. Shaking is continued
additional ~reen is inserted between each two screens for 15 to 20 min. Other machilles employ vibratol'$
of the previous series and t he screen interval becomcs or other motions.
0 . Thc standard screens used in the United Factors which militate against accurate resulta
States employ a screen interval in which the factor are overloading of the screens, which may result in
is v'2 although V"2 is sometimes used for careful blinding which is the wedging of particles in t.he
work and research. openings; or electrOlltatic force:'! causing small part.i-
The first commercial laboratory screens using t his des to adhere to one another or to farge parlicles.. A
system were the Tyler Standard acreen.1. This series small amount of moisture may also cause adhes.ion
of screen., is baaed upon a 200-mesh screen with or oobesion of particles.
wire 0.0021 in. thick and with an opernng of 0.0029 Wet-and-dry screening is suitable for very precise
in. (0.0074 om). The other siZl;:s vary by a fixed screen analyses since it avoids the dangers of adhe-
ratio of 0 . A supplementary set can be purchased sion and cohesion. T he weighed sample is placed
for intennediate sizes 80 that the oomplete set varies in a beaker and pulped with a nonllOlvent, frequently
byV2. water, and then decanted over tbe finest screen in
The United States screens introduced by the the seri~, for example, 200 mesh. More water is
N ationa! Bureau of Standards differ but slightly added; stirring and decantation are repeated until'
from the Tyler series, being based on a I-mm no fines arc in suspension after stirring. Water from
opening (No. 18 mesh) and varying by V'2. & wash bottle is played on the screen until the drip
The British stAndard SCreeDS are similar hut. have is clear. The water is decanted from the undersize
wires of different gage. fract-ion , and the material is dried. The oversize
Method of Making a Screen Analysis. In is also dri~ and put over the entire series of screens
making a screen analysis, the individual lOCrI..'Cns as usual. The Dew - 200 fraction is weighed with
comprising the entire series, varying for example by the fractil?n obtained by wet screening. This pro-
the ratio vrz from 3 mesh to 200 mesh, are cleaned cedure gives morc accurate resulta since the cblWcc
with a brush and tapped free from any adhering of fine particles clinging to large ones is minimized.
particles. Tbey are nested together with the coarsest Method of R eporting Screen Analyses. The
- or 3 mesh at the top and the {mest or 200 mesh at customary manner of reporting screen analyses is
the bottom. A bottom pan and top cover are put shown in Table- 5, in which the mass fractioIlB re-
in place to complete -the BE!t . A weighed amount tained on cach of the serecns are given.
or m&terial is placed upon the top screen, and the
cover is replaced. The 8I!Bembly may be SlJpportai
and rotated by one hand fi1Id bumped against tlle I
other hand at intervals to set up a jarring nction. M_
eter of P"rtieiell, M_
Mter a period of time, the fines, - 200 mesh, are re-
moved from the bottom pan. The pan is replaced,
D (or Wei,ht)
' .......

and shaking is resumed to see whether ally more
fi nes are revealed. When no ncw material nppeal1! om io. "'-,
in the bottom pan, thus indicating for all pradicnl
purposes that the screening operation seenll! to have - 8 + 10 I0.2007 0 .0191 0.03 1.0
been completed, the sieves are disassembled and the -- 1014 ++
0 . 1410 0.055S
0 .100 1 0 .0394
0 . 14
0 .25
0 .97
0 .83
individual fraetiona are weighed. The material, for
example, which passed the lOO-mesh screen but was - 20 + 28 0 .0711 0 .0280 '.20 0 ."
- 28+35 0 .0.'i03 0. 0198 0 . 14 0 .38
retained on the ISO-mesh screen is designated the -35+ 48 0 .0356 0 .0140 0.00 0.2<
]00/150 or - 100 + 150 fraction.
Since the !:lhaking of the screens is a rediou!:l prQCC&j
and open to error, mechanical screening u. desirable.
- 48 + M
- " + 100
-100 + 150
-150. + 200
I 0_0252 0 .0099
0 .0 118 0.0070
0. 0126 0.00l96
0 .0089 0. 0005
0 .03
0 . 16
0 .09
0 .0>
0 .02
In one of these machines, the Ro-Tap, the screens -
are fastened into a vertical framework which is ToW 1.00
given an elliptical motion in a horizontal plane, a I
/ 1\
,.20 /
f ~ 0.15

5 <
~ 0.10 /
, I

If ' 1\

u" a g S2
" B
8 ~ ~
/ \ o 0 CJ 0
" " " ""
,o 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08
A_age Diameter, in~ D.,.
Flo. lB. FraC\k>nai plot of 1I<:ret'.1l au&lysie of Table 5, &holriq
Average Oi.amelat, in. the Ill8S!I flllction retained on !lCf"l)eIlil in the Mlries interval
V2 pioltod IIgllilllll. too iog&rithm of the averl.C'J ptlrticl~
Fm. 11. FractioJl8.1 plot of !:<Creen analy,is of T&ble .5, show- diameter retained in each irn.etio n.
ir.l& the rn&/!IS fraction (oolumn 4) retained on 1ICrt'e1Ul ill the
!lentil in~rv81 v'2 all a function of the average particle di-
curves for dilierent SCft!Cn intervals an~ are thcrefore
""lOIter retained in Mcb fraction (column 3).
specific t o the particular screen series used 8J! in
Table 5. This limitation does not apply to plots of
Th(,'!!e data. may be presented graphiCl&lly by any
the cumulative da.ta. (lo'igs. 12 a.nd 14.) which give
OIle of l>everal meLilOds (Figs. 11 to IS). But most
t.he sa.'l1e values regardless d screen The
of the resulting curves are valuable primarily as
cumulative plot docs Dot requ ire the computation
pictures of the size distribution of the mixture. Sucb
of average diameter but rather the addition of the
pictures tell a great deal to an experienced obtierver
but are misleading unless the method of plotting fractiOn!! passing through the screens.
Ordinary rectangular coordinate plota crowd many
and the materittls com~rising the mixture are not
changed from curve to curve. FrQ.Ctirmal plD~ of points in the small size range into a narrow section
tIle mass fraction rctain('d on each screen versu!; of the curvc. A better picture is obtained with ihe
average screen aperture (Fi~. 11), or cumulative plo~ logarithm of the average of screen apertures (Figs.
of the m8S8 fraction pass;ng each screen versU8 13 and 14), all this spreads the points for the small
particular screen aperture (Fie:. 12), may be the particles along the dimension scale.
basis for comparisons of different mixtures of the Still furUltr use ean be made of a. plot of the loga..-
same materials, indicating changes with tiRK' or ship- rithm of the mass frartion retained on each screen
ment. The fractional data (Fig. I I) give different against the logarithm of the arithmetic average of the

! ,.
1 08

!r',. /

Jio. 12.
t: o 0.02 0.04 0.06 o.os
ser-n Apertn, in.
CWlIulative pl<Jt d scmen 'analysis of Tahle 5
5(;reen Aperture. in.

Fla. 1~. Cumulntive plot of 1CreeD. analyru of Table ~

Ihowin& the m&8II fmction pMlSin(l: through tereeM (ecl.umn 5) Bhowinc the m888 fraction paaing IICN>BllII all a 'unetion oi
all a function of the acreen aperture. the logarithm of th~ screenll.perture.
apertures of tbe screens bounding the fraotion (Fig. which, when multiplied by the number of particles,
1.5). Experimental results indicate t.hat such a plot will give the sum of all the diameters in that group.
gives a. s~a.ight-line relation for t.he small sizes of The average 8urface is that IlUrface by which the total
crushed or ground material when all particles are of surface area may be obtained. SiIDllai-iy , the
the same basic crystal structure. The straight, line is averat;e volume or average ma88 is that volwne or
valid in the size range below 200 mesh, the limiting mass from which the total volume or mass of the
anaIyt;caI screen, except for natural dcposil.$ where group may be obtained by multiplying by the num-
part of the fine material ha.s been carried away by ber of pari-icles.
8W1J)e!l8iOll in water. Thus, an' extrapolation of the No single parti.c1e can satisfy all these average
propertiee. The smallest particles contribute little
to the sum of diameters, total weight, or tots!
volume, but they contribute heavily to the total
V surface area.
Frequently average diameter is used to designate
the composite particle having some other average
property than t.he 8.v~ diameter as defined above.
Care must be exercised in interpreting average di-
ameter since the term may be so defined as to be
useful only for comparison of particles having some
other average pr.1perty. Forexa.mple, if N I , N z, N;.
. et.e., are the number of particles and x!, X2 , XI, etc. ,
~~ ! ~g- ~ ~ ~ ~!d
- are the mass fractions having diameters D" ~ , D3 ,
el.<:. , respectively:
1. The true arillt:m~tic avtrO{Je diameter is
....vtl1P IMorneter, in.
Flo. 1.5. Los-10K fractions! plot of screen analysis of Table 5,
ebowiq; the maM f ...c\.ion retained on each screen in the
.. riel; iDt.ern.l V2 .... funetion of the BveJ:&&l:l particle di&m- N l +N2 ++N", !.N;
eter retained in esch fntct.ion. Since
~N - -
- - + C- Z2D,3 XN ]
- + ... +--
st.rai&bt line (Fig. IS) will
give approximate quanti- p CI D ,3 2 CND.v l
ties of the material in each small size fMge. This _ M ~--"--
extrapolation must be stopped when the total quan- p CJ)3
tity through the ~mesh screen is obtained by a
where M '"' total ma88 of alillarticies.
cumulation of the small fractions. The extrapolation
C is 6. constant depending {'In the shape of the
is valid only if the same screen sire interval is main-
tained in the small sizes as was used in the ~t8ndanj
screen range, 0
in Table 5.
for these plots of the data given
particle by which
the volume ;
. rr
is multiplied to obtain
6" for spheres..
I for cubes, etc.

Evaluation of the Sereen Analysis. From the "

~ CD'
tabulation of datIL. IL8 in Table 5, extended if neces- True arithmetic average diameter'"' -
sary by the extl'apoiation outlined above, variuus . "
ulculations can be made to provide further infunna.- ~CD'
The average diameter of a mixture of !5Olids is a 2. The mean IJUl"faa dunm'.n' is or considerahle
term requiring careful use. " Average" signifies a value, parl,j('lJlarly in studying the flow of f1uirls
composite individuaL representative of an entire through porous media (Chapter 16) where it is used
group of similar but not identical Bpecimcn~. As as the diameter of tl}e particle Dp. It is that diam
aueh, ihe "average" property should be capable of eter the square of which , whron multiplied by the
multiplicatio~ by the Dumber of specimens ir. the number of particles and all:lO by a suitable constant,
. entire group to give a totaLvalue for that property. R, depending upOn the particle l"ohape (r fOl; spheres,
Thus, strictly, ClVerag<e dianuter is that diameter 6 for cubes, etc.). gives t-he total surface of the aggre-

JQIoi.e-"Tlumber of particles One of the important. properties of solids is tbf'_

BID j 2N 1 + B2DlN2 + ... - B(D. u.)2I.N,. surface area. Since it iiS impractical _to determine
the number of particle.'! in a mixture, the usual basis
The mean surface diameter (Dour ) ill for evaluation of surface is a unit of mass. The
I --=-
:E :r,.B,., qJijiJ; trar/act. or the kUTloa ana peT unit 01 maN!
is an important property of solidB which varies
(J).w) - widely depending upon the condition of the surface
BI; x; as well as the particle size.
CiD,' The 8p1-f~ surface .could be computed easily if
3. Similarly the moon volU17U diaml'/R.r or mean the particles were of known geometry, but they are
m&SII diameter equals of many different shapes and highly irregular. If
the sphere is considered , its su rface area i8 llfil,
I.N.C i D,.3
- ,/-cI;--,I.Xi
where D is the diameter of the sphere. Its mass is
pT[)!/6, where p is its demiity. The specific surface
CiD. of iJPherical partidtJJ is area divided by mass or 6/ pD.


~~ ~


2.000 ~~

, '.000
"" ~
~" "'-
"'-~ ~
' 00

..." II


, :: :! 2 Ug
A~ Diameter.
Flo. 16. ActU&l lpeci lie -.ui_ .. a function of .vert\~ diameter D...c for quam, e.leite. Iphalerite, pyrite, and ~

Aver... Particle Dilmetet. microns, D....

~'I(j. 17. Rloli"" or ~l lI'ei fic: AUrf",.e;c ...~ (I. fU""'tum of lIverallt diaml..u ,r of p&rt icles D.v for 'Iuarta, pyrite. ~J..rite, Cfl lcite
lind ",1en:l.

'j'1lc dime[ll!ion of the part icle I".ootrolling its fllr the ratio of specific 8urfo.ces n are shown in
rctention un Ii S(:reen is called its " diamflter," D. ,.... Fig. 17.
"'01' irregular pm'tides usually encountered in SC I'een*
ing, this so-ralled "," D. vl , is usually the RIBI.IOGRAPIlY
>4CCond hu'ge:4 dimcm.ion of the Jllirticle und mwst I. GAUDIN', A. 1\( , Primiple' of Mi" NYiJ. ImMing, M,:flr.lw-
not be con fu~ with the diameter of a sphere. Hill ltonk Co. (1939),
2. GftOIM., J OHN, "Crushi ng and G rin.linK," 1I. S. Hllr, M inl!it
The specific surface of particles having a Imown B..u. 402 (1938).
ratio of actual sllrfu.ce to the calculated surfoce of Ii 3. R iCHARl1&, R. R ., and C. E. T.Q<": KI:, T t zlbool.: "f ()rt Ik t .
~phere of the same "diameter" (Dne - D for sphere) inv, 3rt! ed.,
McG.,.w_HiII BoIlk Cu. (1!14()).
4. TAaaART, A. F., Handbook Ilf Millmu /)rt!.;,,g, John
i", (injpD.
v" where n i8 lhe ratiQ of lJ'fJf'.Cijil: Bll/faces Wiley a nd Son~ (1945).
IUUJ becomes UTl!ty for spheres. 6. W. S. TY).~;JI. en., 1'''t Prrofil4J,fe Uu of T,*i,,(/ Si~,

(Spceific surface)
G/ pD .,.
I. ,CalculAte t he ~urinClP. per unit volume in "'Iuare oent~
Since Ii mixture of particl~ contains many different meters per cubic ocntimH(.or of gillen.. huring t h" L'CI'een
sizes of particles, the basic definition of specific SUf* luul.iyeis below. 1J.'!e t he methool of cxtrapoiRtion for -200
m ""h, and R&'IUme that tlw two points between 100 a nd 2()0
f:1.Ce is tlle totul surfnr.e area divided by t.ota\ muss.
me!h I~t('r,nioo tim ~trai Kht Hn<l in ,\ l<lg_klj( p\t)t. ~1M!(:i.6r.
Tile tula\ s urface urea is I!:r.lvily "I !C>~le "" _ 7.U .
l'et'OIollt " I:\'
MOO, 1t' \JI.iIl(~ 1

+ , 1.0
nnd !:mi is the totul mWlli, if m, is tile Ina&! of the 6+ 8 8.1
8 + 10 1I . S
rruction i.
10+14 16.0
The specific surface then ,i" 6 (L (D.,.,). 11;m.. ) j pT.m, 14 + 20
20 + 28
14 .8
ur ~ L , ~. 28 +" 8. 1
p Du,
Figure 16 s}J{)ws the- actual specifiu lI\lI'face as
"' +
~8 !l5
4 .1
!l5 + 100 3.(1
det.ermined by rates of go\ution t as a fun ction of-tb~ -100 + 100 2 .2
average "diumeter" D. ~, for. quartz, calcite, ~phu\- " - 150 +200 I.,
t'x ile, pyrite, lUlU galen/j,. The l:iJrre:sponding val~ -roo 5.3
2. Gatamle thlfspee!6e .urf~ in !!Quare oentimetenl per ~ P""'dered coal ,dth tbe aereen!ysi.\: given Jx.1o,,' lI.II
~'TI.m (jf pyri te IL'lY!nl , thc_ lICn.'(In b.'low. Specific "1~c~..:f" 1s fed to a viurat ing 4S-meSh sen:..,n in an at templ. to
~ IJ'svity Of pyrite - 5.0. rt.move t he 1..uxle$ired fine IT\Il.l erial. \'Io'hen- the 8CJ'Ct!n WAIl
ne ..... {he "versize and undelllire sn.al1flell "'ere listed under
. Pt:tl:cntll.JCl!
(",JU" "L~ IL."ltl"d "N.. ",." Afwr 3 IlInnths' opel'll.lion, the

""'"+ ,
"o"ly_ "n' ,,~ 1"',,010"1 "(lId." What .. t he "ff~ LiVf'n_ Of
3 II", "'n..,,, (<l) ,..I",,, I",W "IM I (I.) ",I ..." ..1,11'

" "
+ 8 '"
7. 2
10 + ,.
10 12 .0
17 . 6
~ . --

l' +20
20 +2R
IG. ~
1<'... 1
0 .012
O . Ot~
N~,,' OJd

28 + 3.'i - + H O. lrl'l 0 .027 0.031

35 +
'48 1.2
" +
8 +
tUll oa 0 .078
0. 1]:.!
- 48 "+ 41.',
- GO + 100
- 111+ I' '" lI .lIS t
tl . 102 0 . 12tl 0 . 142
14 + 211 O. 111e> 0."" 0.22\'
-100 + 150 ' .8 ,,>+ 28 0 . 13 ] 0 . Hl2 0.182 ..
- 150 +200 2. 0
28 + ;j;j 0.101 0 . 125 O. I(H 0 .093
35 + ~8 O.O!l5 0 . 117 O.OW .0 . 171
3. I n tIl(! pe lr,,\eulIl irx11.\"l ty , p.~ " i! kI ernck,~l in oonl:wt .IS + 105 0.070 0 .0'1!l 0.0;;:5 0.24(; O. J8tl
\0 ith "olid CAtlllysw. to yield hillh-oolaroc ulc ndinJl: .tvc ks, wit.h li..'i +100 0 .047 0 .015 0.008 0 . 183 0 . 141.>
a line'v diviJ.,d clay ~ t bo. c:t.t:U~t.. The yidJa obt..ti......J -100 + lIiO 0 .03 1 0.005 U. UI 0.11 1
Are So function of the IJU rf"OO:&ro1l of the ClI.I.. I)'>lt.. The
hl>I:I a density of 1.20 gl1l11l!l /CO !lJld il.ppl"oltilUatdy th~ ij:.lUIC -150 +2tX) O.O'l!l 0 . 10:; 0 .071
~pI!ci6e SUMaw ratio M quarh. A Stlmplc uf this !lUlteri,,1 - 20n O.Oli:.! O.3'la 0 .222
....... acrwned, &n<.I tbe IlUI.tcria.l through tIN! ~ll\C!Ih IICrucn
WIM furtbcr sized by air elutrilltion. From the re!ulting 5. Tablo !!nIt ill being fed to a vibrating $crocn ut the rate of
Iln.. ly!li>i given below, determine the s(lecific surfil.(lI': (lKjU3.ffl SOO Ibth r. 'l'hol. d~red product ill tho 48/ 65 mesh fract ion.
cent imeters per gram), the ari t hmetic average diall"\Cter. a nd A 48- and a 65-1IlCI!Ih eereen are t hcrorore LI!Ied (double deck) ,
the metln IRlrfat:e diameter of the O'l.t.alyst. the food being introdu ced on too 4S-meeb screen, the product
Thll specific BurfllOe 110 computed dOO!! not include t he bein" discharged. from the 65-me!!h lICl'l.'IJn. DurinII' the opel'-
IIUrlsee in the (:o'l.pilklrica wbjch rnay inCfro8ll the totIIl surf ... ce at.ion it Wall obJerved that the average proportion 01 OYet-
a bout :DJO-fold. size: product: un<kreize was 2 : 1'1 : L
(a) Calculnw effcetiwnetll of the scroencr .
(/I) If &en.'en d imcl'l.'lions ,,'ere 2 It by of It., ealculate the
capaci;,y of the 65,.Il}Cflh ISCree n on tile Iw<is of ;I. perfectly
fWldioniul 4S-mc"h !lCn~'n lind a[.;,u Ull tiM' ix>."i" uf the
M,,~h 1,'r, .<'Ii" 1I
:u'"nll",ul" "r I llO' "' n~ n.
48 + 6a 0 .088
0 . ]78
+100 !liA!,
-100 +150
- 150 +200
0 .2!J3
O. IM &roen
F .... Product.,
m_ r~~

-200 0 . 247 M,,", fraction {rMctioD ' fraction lJon

10 + 14 0.0003.\6 0 .0008
ElutriatOO Fraction 14+20 0.00373 0.008 0.0006 0.00003
20+28 0.089 0 . 189 0 . 016 0 .00012
Siu Li mite, Mass Fr:tclion - 28+35 0 . 186 0.389 0 .000 0.0000
microns (of Oricirml &luplll)
M + 48 0.258 0.337 0.322 0.0f)36
0 . 1\3
-" +"
- u.s +100
0 .281
0 .091
0 .~2(j

0 . 344
0.042 - 100 + 16(1 0 .062 0.005 0.02. 0 . 237
0 .014 -Joo +200 0.020 0 .001 O.OO'l 0 . 11
e. Ooa
taD per t.our of dolomite .. produoed toy IlI'UIIbiI'll yftfd,k1 s..,en, 111 "I:~/Br..(~ a% KuiMN)
aDd. ,bell --. ,~ a 14-meih , I!ICreeIl.. Al'lI'din
kt t.he _ ~ bekrw. cabi.te (II) the k.d In fbo If &.apia Weicht.
____ ud (') tJ. .eet.i~ 01 lobe 8CftIeIL +K in. 3825 pamI
J.(" X 8 m.h 1(108

..... ...... 6X 14
14 X 28

Tyler MMh
PrOOuct., Cireula.tinc
% ,_%
28 X 48
~ XO

0verlI0w from &reen

.~ 1:4,.8
"'.0 "
28 Size 8&JuPe Weicht
,,~ 0.0
"'.0 28 + K in.
' 28.5 40 .0
fiX 14
2905 srama
" m 14 X 28 117
WOo. '.7 "' .0 28X48 68
100 throuch 2." 10 .0
48XO 278

7. The data bebor W'tll'e obtained on the operation of :& Underflow frtlp, &=cD, 9.8 T6a1/IIr (Dry 800dB)
e-u-h (eq,uare) h\llMll8l' _ n at the tipple of .. oot.l mine.
n. _nine ... done 't o.eparate .. TeTy fine r$fl*l from. Sise 8ample,%
' - ~.uearn 10 tt.t i' eouId be~. Caleulate (II) J1 X 6 mesh 11 .3
the _'ftI'y and re)eetioD. of Neb ... fl1lodion and (II) the 6X8 7.8
_eI'eet.ift-. 8 X 14
14 X 28


' .



Size Reduction of .solids

N inrlUHtrie$ that p rc.eess raw material in the From this, it might appear t hat,the best method

I solid state 01' use solid material in the prxessing

of fluids, reduction in the size of the solid par
tidee is frequently required. In the producti<'D of
of causing rupture to take place in solid material
would be the application of shearing loads. How-
ever, the orientation of crystals in solid matter is
gypsum piaster, the raw gypsum rock is removed usually so irregular ~hat the direct a.pplication of
from '~he quarry in large blocks, sometimes 5 ft in compressive loads is just aa effectiVe ItS shearing loads.
diameter. It must be reduced to particles fine All equipment. for size reduction of solids U8eII com-
eoough to pM8 through '). lOO-mesh screen in oroer pression, or s hear, or both. as disrupting forces.
to provide IIllfficient specific surface for hydration
to tAke place rapidly. This means a reduction ie
size from ~ in. to 0.005 in. Pigments in paints must
be very fine in order to give good coverage \\'~ The plll'p<)6e of hlze reiuetion is not only to make
applied to a surface. " little one! out of big ones" \"hen the effeotivene8if
Red uction in size involv"S the prcxiuction of can be me8Ji!urcd by tt.e deg ree of fineneaa of the
smaller mRSII unite from tarter ruMs units of the ll&D1e product, but also to produce a product of tbe desired
material ; it therefore fol1\,1ws that the operation must size or size range. The size requirement8 for vRrioua
caU8(l fracture to take place in the larger unitl!. This products may vary widely, and hence different rna-
fracturing or shattering of the larger m&88 units is chines and procedures are employed. A size range
accomplished by the application of pressure. All entirely salisfactory for one purpose may be higb1y
trm Kid materiaU !"I'e crystalline in nature ; that is, undesirable for a,n,)ther, eVo:!n when the llame au!?
the awms in the individual crystals are arranged in Iltance ia involved. Powdered coal is widely used for
definite repe.atirig geometric patterns, and there are firing industridl furnaces, a!ld iwnp coal is also fEd
certain pl~ in the crystal along which shear tUfliI inoo furnacee by mechlUlica.l stokers. But. powdered
place more readily. The pressure applied mW!t be coal could not be used in the Hooker, and lump coal
sufficient to cause failu re by shclIor along t hese could not be used in the equipment designed for
cleavage plane6. If the e.hcar along these planes re- firing pulverized or powdered 00&1.
suits in deformation but not rupture, the defonnatioo In many CMftI, it i.s necessary to use a product with
is called plaatic dElformation. The segments of t.he rat.her narrow limits in size variat.ion. It is usually
cl'ylItal Miide N ong on each other like a pack of (lards,. impossible to acr.omp1ish t his by "ire redu nt.ion only_
the only I'ftIUlt being a change in dimensioos of the Screening and clSMifiCtl.tioD by variOUl'l mean&
crystal. In order to bring about actual size reduc- required 00 secure the desired limitation in aile
tion, it is neC88sa.ry that the material be actually rlUl8e. The two unit operations' of size reduction and
fractured and that shear movement, once IItarted, aiae separation are further closely &SI!OCiI!.ted in that
rwultll in cornpleltl !Oeptlrutioo of the qlIM~llts be- I~t.ury,;c reen lUW,Yl:IeI urc IlCCeiSSary 1.0;) cvaluat.&
tween which the she!\!' JiUlure oooun-ed. the effectiveness of a given size reduction operation
" .'
26 SIZt; RU)UCI'ION Of.' SOJfi:us
as well 88 to furnish data for estima.ting the po,,:cr or which are divided 8Cl.-'{)rWng to the types of machines
energy required. bcs~ adapted to each stage, The three steps arc!
Ores of metals ooMist. of varying amounts of 1. Coarse size reduction: feeds from 2 to 96 in, or'
valuable mineralll B88OOiatc<i with undesired gangue more,
minerals. The finst step in proctltt!ing Ore8 for th.1 2. Intenncdilltc "ize n~luctwn : feeo;l..; from I 00' 3
f'eOOV(lry of metal values is the sepatMotion of the in.
values' from the gangue, dinoe the ore 88 ta.ken from '3. Fine size redu otion: feeds fl'tJlll 0.25 to 0.5 in.
the mine contains both tYp(1@ of minerals together in
solid ma8Se!!. Unless ' the valuable mineral exist.<> in
great enough concentration to permit the ore to be
reduced to the metal without previous treatment, in The moisture cortknt II( l:iOlidl! to he reduced in II;ZU
whir.h elide I,he gangue is u~\IRlIy sepsratoo in the or
i!i importAnt.. If it IS below 3 ~ per cent by weight.,
molt('n !:It,ate, il. ill nec~l'y t.o break lip t,h e ore mas> nu plI.l'ticlIlar difficII\t.ie8 arc cncollntel'edj im/(lM. it
',Illpt,hanic:ally, I,hur; freeing the valuable mineral>:! app!1l1.1'1:1 t.hat. the pl'CIICllCe of tbil! amuullt of muilll.1I1'C
froDLthe; pdgnc. The minerah! are then .;cparatcd ill uf real benefit in mzc reduction if for no other
by pvity or flotation methods resulting in copoen- reason than (or dust con trol. When moisture cont.ent
'tration of the valuable e.'~ceeds about 4 per cent, most I'OAterials beoomo
The plolip(lSC5 of size reductions are therefore two- sticky or pasty with a tendency to clog the machi Ie,
fold: (1) To produce solids with desired size ranges This is particularly true in the eoa.rse and inter--
or specific surfaces. (2) To break apart minerals or mediate stages.
crystals of chemical compounds which arc inti- A large excess of water (SO per cent or mom)
mately a8!IOCiat.OO in the IIOlid state.- (aeilitates t he operation by \,!ashing the feed into
and the product out of the zone of action and by
furni shing a me&nl! for transporting the solids about
the plant as a suspension or l!iurry. Wet {lTirl<iing Is
For succcsaful 'size red,llction, it. is nece!l88ry that mostly confined til the tine stage of reduction.
every lump or particle must be broken by eontact The redUction ratio is the ratio of t he ~vel"tij"rc
I\'it.h other particl.e s or by direct contact with the diameter _Of the feed to the average diameter of I-he
moving parts of the ma.chine. As the breaking action product. Most machines in the coarser ranges of
proceec:ts, the number of particles increases, requiring crushing have a reduction ratio from about 3 tv 7.
more contacts per unit masi. Thus the capacity of a Fine grinders may have a reduction ratio as high jl.'J
particular machioe of fixed. dimensions, 88 in tons per 100.
d ay, is much 1e88 for lUTIall sizes than for the larger In jr: crushinl}. t he cnlShed product with what-
lIizes, since it is necessary for the smaller particles to ever fine;; have been fonned III quickly removed afi('r
remain in the machine for longer periodl! uf time to a I'O lattvl'ly short. !;ojourn in t.he I:rnshing zone. TJie
sUl!tain the 'requ ired oumbel' of contactK. No device pruJuct may Row Ollt ,b y gravity, hP. bluwn out with
has been developed capable of automaticlllly adjust- cumprCllSCd air, be wll.l>hed out with water, or hI!
ing itself to t he varying requirements of eont.act. In thrown out hy centrifugal fo rce, This method <If
commercial operationll, sufficient capacity in the operation prevents the formation of an excessive
intermediate and fine ranges of size reduction is amount of fines by limiting the number of contacts.
obtained either by operating several similar units in In choke feeding ' (tho antithesill of free crushing),
parallel Of, baiter, by f'mpbying machinp.!! which the crusher is equipped with a feed- hopper arid kepi
furnish greater numbers of contacts per unit of filled (ur choked), 80 that it does not freely discharge
lime. Ihf' \' rnshm pr<xhwt . ThiR iruI'NI_Jl:ll'lI.tly t.he I"" "
:\-Iachine" pt"lwirlinll,: the N"tluired largt> OIlm~r of porlillo of fines prnducffl and f lp\' l'e1lJ:'eN t.he ('apar;t\.
contact." particularly for srnaller-size malA'!rial, have In'!'oOme in~iancAA ~hokl' fcedinjl; may reomlt, in ern;l-
been deveJoped, primarily for the last stages of size omy of operation, eliminating uno or more rcdw:ing
reduction. stap;es because of the large quantity of fines pro-
For c(Jffinwreiai reduction in Si1R 01 mlU:lSf'8 of dw~I.
solids I ft or more in diameter to ~mesh si7.C, Ench ,.;Iugc in "ire I'Od uc tion muy, a nd ffC(lllently
usually at least three stages or steps are followed docs, have B. osize..l:IOpal'ating unit folluwing it, 1 tlu:
oversillC ml\,terial is returned to the crusher, the oper- ize tbis, one or two heavy HywheeilS are IYII./lIllli...-d on
Ilion is termed closed circuit U no material is re- the ma in shaft of the crusher. The muchine il:!
turned for recrushing, the operation is called open driven by Hat belts or V-bells.
circuit. Closed-<:ircuit operation is economical of
Ilrushing power, which at best is high, permits smaller
uni ts per given tonnage, and produces a material
with greater uniformity of size.
Although the size of the feed is an important
factor in t.he selection of a machine, other facton!
must be considered, such as hardne&:l or structure of
the material. From the 3tanupoiDt of crushing,
minerals with a T\'fohl! hard nell8 of 4 or less are classed
lUi IOOft j othe~ are considered hard. Machioel> for the
coa.~ preliminary cnllihing of soft mat-erialij .do not
need to be so sturdily or ij() elaborate in
rlCfoiign as machines for breaking hard materials. In
the finer size ranges, similar machines are used for
both hard and soft materials.
l\Iachines exerting a tearing action and called
diBinugrator8 are employed for reducing the size of FlO. 18. Secti!)""l drnwinJl: of make-type jaw;iMlf.
fibrous materials such as wood and aabestos. (A.U~-Cllalmm Mfg. Co. )

The lJIJdve crwher (Fig. 19) il:l l:IUJ,ject W uncve n

COARSE Sll REDUCT~ON s tresses inherent in its del:!igrt a nd therefore is made
Machines for the coarser stages of size reduct ion ouly in small sizes. It differs from the Blake crusher
handle feed lSillClS from 3 to 4 ill. and up. For hanl in that the movable jaw _is pivoted at t~ bottom
materials, either jaw, gyratory, or disk crushers are and the width of the diOlCharge oPCl1ing remains
used. For soft materials where the production of prIWtica.Jly conlltant, thereby yielding a more closely
fines is to be limited, as in crushing coal for sale, such sized product . ~ 0 toggles are required, the juw being
devices 8S hammer mills or toothed tonS are em- opera .x\ through the pitman by the eccentric. If
ployed. only one gize-reducing machine is being employed,
the uniformity in si:re of product may be of advan-
Coor8e CrU8herBJor Hard Materiot. tage, but otherwise the machine is of limited usc.
Jaw Cru sh ers. Jaw crushers are repl"eIiienttd by
the Blake and Dodge types a.nd operate by &pplying
1:1. crushing pressure.
The BWke cnaher (Fig. 18) consists C8!lent-iRlly of a.
east-steel frame supporting one fixed and one mov-
a.ble jaw. The jaws are made of cast steel lined with
a tough abrasion resistant metal, such 118 manganese
steel. ' T,be movable jaw is pivoted at the top and
operatecl"by the eccentric, pitman, and toggles. The
pitman il:! given a nearly vertical motion by the ec-
cent-ric, and, lIince one of tho toggles is mounted in
rigi!1 journall:! at one end of the cnlsher frome, the
reciprocating mOl-ion of the pitman causes the other FlU. I!.I. &'(:Iioual 0.11'11.""", of IJOOgo;~IY I " ' ~.. w ('ro.o;I"r.
toggle to move the jaw back ar.d forth: The jaw is (A.U.....Chalntel"ll Mfg. C... )
held against the toggle by a tension link and spring.
Crushing is accomplished only when the movable The power is npp lif'fi l.hrougb tI long lever, 8Ild if thl'
jaw movc~ toward the fixed jaw. This means an (:rusher hccomes clogged cnormous Sll'egllC!:! are I'oI't
intermittent- JX.lwcr requirement. In order t.o equal- up in the mf'mbcn. whidl become exce$Sive ill ma-


(Atn.-Chalmel'l ?oJI,. Co.)

s.. ... J'ood ..... ........



D ....... r~ Sol,; .... III.
<m"" "'",
'" Jaw .~ M_ w....,
, ," , I "I,

)( Oope, iK,

'" I I
I 0
" u

or, ur >or " 10. 000

II )( 10 0 ~r
'" "
. . ... .. ......
"n " "

:u x 15
'" " n""
" "
" ~


42 !ic: 40
.. ,n ~
" , r ,wr
'" " ro,""

'" '00
'" '" '"=
,~ 197
tl)( :to U. ,,.
'" '" '" 14$ .000


... ,,. ,.
4& X .2

110 )(


'" '"


,~ ~ n. .... 1/10,000

2 16 .000

-- .
'" '" '" '"
"' x.. ." .,r "'T
~, W <&2'11 ,000

... .
," ,., "

0 ., 00 ~ , .."

'" '". '"

"x .. 0

" . "

. '".

" .


'" 4110 .000

.. A .. ,w...dud jo... placet (oJnoo~) . t r _ "'napo. ""ur.

B .. ' :Nondooklnl" jaw plate< (oorrupted) .

TARLE 7. CAPACITIES OF DODGE CRUSHERS There are many different designs of jaw crushers,
(AIJi5-Chalmel'll Mfg. Co.) some of. which combine shear with compression. The

.... I
TO< Diooehaf n St11itl1. I ~ .
..... "'''''.
Uruv..aal jaw crusher (Fig. 20) combines the prin ~
cip1es of the Dodge and Blake crushers. It gives two
crushing strokes per revolution because the pivot

, ". ~ .""

is above the bottom end of the jaw, causing the
bottom of the jaw to move forward while the upper
'", I
" "

end of the jaw recedes.

.,' ,", ," m ,, Gyratory Crushers. Gyratory crushers were

OX. 1.100
OX> . =
12 X I
UXII ,". ," ='" "" ..~
lS , m
developed later to supply a machine wj~ greater
capacity. Actually, the crushing action of gyratories
is similar to the action of jaw crushers in that the
.. !' .. to ... 1"" hour. moving crushing element apprOHches to and recedes
from a fixed crushing plate.
chines with gape!! .. above II in. The constant open- Figure 21 shows a $U8pendtd~ndk type of gyra.-
ing or the jaws at the discharge end gives the Dodge wry, consist ing of an outer frame carrying an in-
,crusher an annoying tendency to dog which is absent verted conical surfl1.ce known 8.8 "concaves" and an
in the Blake crusher. inner gyrating crushing head. The conical crushing
lil!.IJOJ ito Ih" ltI'Ctlh:llt distance het"~"Iln the jl!.W$ or crush- head is supported on a spindle which hugs from It
illl eurfllee$. 8Hitabl~ bearing in the upper portion of t he ml\Chin~.

Flo.~. Sectional drawing of UnivcrMl ttmlmli,nOO roller. I Flo. 21. Sec~ional drawing of gyratory eruslU!r of sutpended-
oo.rin&:;aw ertll!oor, (lJ"i~ Engi1ll!Q1'1I4 t!mp.) _ aplndlo type. (AUU-Clialmoa Mfll. Co.)


(Allis-Chalmen Mfg. Co.)

Fi rw_.t Setting Coa rSlll\t Setting t

Si~cof Feed Driving mended Crusher
Opening, Gape
Si.e of Di~_ RiU! of Dis- Pulky, rpm Motor, Wcll[ht, lb
X Length, in. Cllo~eity, ClIlJfll:i~y,
char~ Open- charge Open- HOCI!CJX>wt'r
t.ou/ hr inK. i n.
ing, in.

2K X 10
X,. lli " li
", ., 700
3 700
"" 1a.-25
10 X 40
13 X 45
16 X 1>6
3 "
2OX68 3% l52 246 330 75-- 125 94,000
4 235 '% .50 325 125-175 169,000
132 '% '"
200- 275
50 X 162 6 1li 2.50 22a--300 675 ,000

54 X 162 6li lO5O ';0 22;;-,..'>()() 630,000
00 X 6li
00 X 182 ')< 1420 IO.K """
1,000, 000

Finellt permitted for this size gyrawry.

t eo..~t permitted for this 8iae arawry.
The lower end o f the spindle is a circular shaft free Tagga rt' fo rmlllu:
to rotate in an eccentric sleeve. The eccentric Rleeve
T:o O.6LS
is driven from a rolllting main shaft through a set
of bevel gears and \\ilhin II. fixed cylindrical whero 7' =- capacity (wns/hr).
housing. The cr ushing spindle is free to rotate. But, At = length of leed opening (in j ..w ~ru8he""
lIS soon as feeding of the machine starta, rotat.ion normal to gape; in gyrator\es, the
ceases and gyration is the only motion, causing the perimeter of a circle whose diameter
head to approach and ret:cde rrom the concave sur- is the arithmetic average of the diam-
fl~s , bre~king the feed by II. cnpiliing pressure a.~ it eters of the two cones) (in.).
pas;es down through the crusher. or
S = greatest width discharge openiD& (in.).
In the fixed-spindle gyrawry (Fig. 22), thc eccen-
Exerel....,. Compll.Te ~ captLcities foil eetirnated by tilt
tric sleeve is inserted between the fixed vertical shuft Taggart fOl"mul1l \\i~b t.ha.l aivtlfl in Table 6.
and the movable vertiCalI cone. Ry rotttting lhi.-;
The power requir~ lor jaw and gyrawry crush-
f!rs are about the same, but the gyratory Jott.d is
somewhat more unifonn since it is crushing contin-
uously wherea.s the jaw crusher worn intern.ittently.
In choosing betweeD a jaw crusher or .. gyratory
crusher for a given installat.ion, capacity is the
criterion. If capacity requirements are small enough
so that one jaw crusher is adequate, the jaw crusher
is the usual choice bCealllJC of iulower original e()8t
and upkeep. If capacity requirements are large
enough to keep a gyratory in contiDuou8 operation,
the gyratory is ul:lualiy preferred . Taggart ' 8taf.l!8
an empiric!!i rule that "il the hourly tonnage to be
crushed divided hy the square of the gape in inches
is less than /).115, use a jaw cM.1'lher; otherwise, ..

Co..,."., C,.utlhersfo,. Soft Materiab

Such materials n.~ cQ8l, gypsum, some types c:J
limet!tone, ice, fire clay II,J'ld shalCI:I are len bard than
FIG. 22. SeetioMl drawinJl: Qr Td.mith parallel pinch erti"her. 4 on the ]\foh!l scale and donet require the hbavy and
(2mi/1I 8,.,;.ltui.., Wl)Tb.) expensive types or c rushe~ needed for hard mat&-
ri8J.~. FrequenUy, the siR reduction desired for these
eccentric sleeve the a:'I:]S of the conc i.'1 given a 100ft materials excludetl the very fine ranges. and mOtit
cylindrical motion with a " parallel pinching" !l{;tion of the crushers deeigned for such materials produce a
on t.he material being crushed. small amount of excessively fiDe material.
Gyratory crushers have large capacity because the The B,.ad/qrd br~ for coal (Fig. 23) combines
act.ion is continuous. The capacity is similar t-o that the two features of breaking and screening. The
of a jaw crlmher having the same gape and a length periphery of the macbine at! a reinlorr.ed &creen which
L equal to the .perimeter of the gyratory. Since all allowa the ooal, when sufficiently reduced in size, to
the coarse crushers have greater capacities than the pass through. Breaking ill accomplished by rotation
devices for the tiner ranges of size reduction, 3. of the cylinder: . Tho ooal il:l lift..ed on interior shelvfll
gyratory of sufficicnt size to handle the required size and ~rdJ(on by falling and striking the coal below
(If feed may have an l!XCCSllivc f:a.pacity. Jaw crlL<ID-
a::r'the cylinder is rotated. Harder material such an
c~, therefore, are frequently used for the first (:Cllirnc and tram p iron Pore not broken and gradually
breaking operation, followed by gyratoriee. pass out from the open end of the brP.p.ker as indi-
Cupaci&' of jaw and gyratory crushers with cutcd .
Jl;UpcS of 4 in. to 2 ft may be approximuted by tile

" ' 1'1.23. P hllll l0m oirnW lnll: of R,"'a\l[on! lm:uktr . Run_of_mine eonl !!IlI<'I'1I throu gil II .., " hule .... . hE" lar IlntJ, iil liflod , fa lls,
fin'" is hroklln I,), the, ~jnl<: thn.ugh IK'rfor.Llions inl" II", rhme bel" ... ; rod.; an d refU!ll' !Ore 1'1<"';00 <>tIt all indie"t(~1
in tbe fOrt gl"OU:x!. (l'w'~!lll.'an;" ("ru~/.~r Co.)
:\ loo/ill'(/ (fill UIW!("r' for coal, g,vpo:<um, it,*" or other speed ....;thin IL BtUn:iy boulling. Tbe hammers deJiVl'T
!!Oft. mate-rials (Fig. 24) accom plishes llTf'llkinR by heavy hlows t.o the feed ml~wri81 while it is in 811&-
r l'P'!.'SlIl'1' of jhe tef'th Ilgainst the Jar~r l1\mp~ of the penB;on, driving it against a. breaker plate until it is
fin e enough to pass through t,he openings in the cage
b!lr~ a .. the bottom oCthe mill constituting the screen.
Some of these mills a re bllilt in cxtremely Ia.rge sizes,
the individual hammers wf'ighing IlB much as 2.50 II .
Ye ry !:Itumy housings are req uired for such halTU'l'klf'
mill,;. The same type is ILli:IO adapted to fine pHI-
Vl:' the size of the proouct being controlled by
t.he ",iZ(1!I of t.he dii'K:hargf~ III:r()Cns. The httmmer
mill i ~ p r,)hahly thc must versat.i le type of crushing
dCl'j l1P, cu rrt'.l\ tly availl\blc. For wet material the
cagt>:> for ~'I"'e Ii S arc rcpla.ce<.l with c grind-
ing pla t,eIi.
A sv-called lffjuirn-l-cflge dUinlegraror (Fig. 2f) is
'll~f\l l in te-uri[l~ apart fihrou~ material sllch as wOod
hllll:ks and n~bclltos. The device COMilll;; tlf two 01"
mm" concentric cages T()tated in opposite directions.
The fct.'" is introdueoo in Iv the inner cage. Centrifu-
.'.';.2:-,. R.c..,tKm,,1 111,,\\" ill~ ~I ~, ... illjt o''''l'IItion of 1\ bamrner gul foree rlrivcs the material into the sptK.'eS between
mill. rA/!i.-Cltu/"'f7>< Mfg. CtJ.) the rotating cages where it is torn a.part , and thence
into t he outer ca.sing from which iJ: is diBCharged to
material, d;~illtcgntlmg it in much 1,11(: Rarne manner
a conveyor or st.orage hin.
iee is brok ~n up manually with an i,:f! pkl.:.
Ex cc~ive prodllct ion of fine;; is thus prevented.
Knl)hl~l and :mwoth rolls (Fig. 30) arC nlw widely INTERi\lEDIATI: SIZE REDUCTION
for coar;;c crushing of soft materials.
A hammrr mill (F ig . 2,) may he used for coal or CVII/! crU:dIl'TS, developed sill(.'e the 1f'2O's, have
even fihrous material. 1leavy bl{K~ ks of steel are gained such wide R.CfCptW(.'t' that they may be re-
athu:hed by pin!; In 11 tIL,,1.: IIr d isk;; rev(llving at high garded a.~ s tandard in the intermediate talIge. A

FIG. 27. &",tional drawing of ,,,,,Ie cru.;lwr. (Ntml/;trg .ll/g. Co.)

st.&ndard cone crusher is 8hown in Figs. 27 and 28.

The drive is similar to t hat of the gyr:\tory crw:lhcr.
The inner cone or "cnlshing head" is supported by
the tapered et.'centric journal which is rotated by t:lC
bevel gears dri ve n by Ihe main shaft,. Tho entire
weight of the crushing hend and 51)indle is !!lIpported
on a bearing plate supplied with oil undcr pres&.lre.
The op(wB.tion is quite similar to that 01 the gyratolT
crui3bor, but there are two important painl!! uf difff'I'-
enoo. The outer 81ationury cru~hing plate flm't>!;
outward to provide ali increa.;;ing ares o( di,;chtll'l,"C
80 tha{ ~ lhe machine can quickly eleal' ilSClf of Ihe
reduced product. 111 is lltationary cruMhing plate
is held in potIition by a nest of heavy helical tensi()f\
springs so that when tramp iron or other uncruflhable
objects enter the crushing llone the plute is lifted,
preventing fraoture of the plate Ilfld injury to t,he __
machine. These CODe crushers are available in two FlO. 28. CU! 'I\''''Y view aho",if\ll: action
sizes, the standard (Fi,. 27) fOf COOt'l!Cf feed , and a (NurdIxrf Mfg. Co.)
8O-i:a1led "short head" for finer fL'Cd. The feed to ventOO by a device in the bearing of one roll whieh
cone dHshers must be dry a nd rather uniformly gives it a limited latera.l motion simultaneously with
sized. Cone crushers give lJC8t m;ult~ whcn OIJeJ'lll. t he rotntion. The size reduction accomplished by
ing in elosed circuit with &lrccn~. rolls is relatively small, the average diumeU!r of the
The Tclsmith GYrru!phere, Fig. 29, is a vari::ttioll produc t being about one.rourt-h tha t. of the feed.
of the cone crusher. Thc er1l:lhing head is o;plwrieal ('one crushers are I''placing rolls for intermediate
in contour, and tho crushing platr is hflld in pu.'Iil ion ~ize reduction of ores beCllusc their reduct.ion ratio
by springs llnaer compn>;;.';.ion in>;leao of t('n~ion . is two or three time; that of rolls ;Lnd they rP.qu irc
The drive and oiling system is I;imilar to tha t of the less maintenance.

FIG. 29. &ctional drKI\'lng of TClStnlln liyrMphcrc. (Smith l!:>IIJinr:erinq Wurh. )

cone cnishN. The spherical head fw;i lila tf..'>S dis-- T he diamd c r a ud spac mg of rIIlJ,. may be varial
chargc of the crushed prwuct. o ve r ra.ther wide rangc:>, allowing considerable var'-
Crushing rol~ consist of two heavy cylinJurs rr. ations in fl ize of feed and product.. This flexibility is
vrilving toward each olher, the feed being ni pped l!.nu a favo rable r-haracl.edslic uf crushing rolls, which,
pulled downward through the rollll by friction. As cumbined wit h t he low initial oust, has encouraged
slwwfI in Fig. 30, modern cruSDers drive bUlll J'fllls t he wide adoption of rolls fur moderate size reduction
positively, breakage heing prevented by moun I.ill;/; of all si u~:;. The proper diameter and spacing of the
t h.e bea rings of ona of HlC rolls agaill~1. nCijIi> of heavy rulllO, the capacity in tom~ per hour, and lhc rnt"llIired
comprell8ion "pringiS. Since Ulerc ill IL l:un~ itlCl'd hlfl horsepower fo r crUBhing rolls may be computed !\II
amount of wear on the roU~ , t he cru~hing !Surface fHI10W ~.
consillU! of a tough steel ~lt.'cvc \rhich ill IIhrunk 01\ The coefficient of friction of the mineral against
to the mnin cylindrir-,J ('u.~tin)(, makinl( possihlc LiIl' t he ;;~l SUrrl ll:t:S o( the roUs incorporated with Il
replaf..'ClnCflt of worn t'nlshing l:Iurfa(:eg, The weuring rdatiml>;hip l>ctwecn tile oim('n~ ion of the "material
of grooves in the surface of t.he I'OH ~ is largely pro- tu be crushed and the dia.meter of the rolls determines

FlO. ao. Cru~hmg ro~ls.

whether or not a particle will be drawn int.o the rolls J),. = maximum dimension of the pnJllut'l (lI1 ini~
and crushed. Figure 31 is a line diagram showing the mum diMancc between ro ll.;).
outline of R spherical particle in position to be fi'r = tangentiul force on the part icle.
crushed between a pair of rolls. The vectors Fr and F N = normal force on the particle.
PH represent the fo rces acting on the particle at the FH = result"nnt of Fr and P....
point of contact with the roll and may be represented
J FH i!:l at a negative angle (poinling downward)
iJy the l"e!>ultant force FH~
with the horizontal, as shown in Fig. 31 , the particle
A .. - ringle of nip (the value for angle A in Fig. will be drawn betl\'een the rolls. If PH is nt II positive
31 corrt'::lponding /.0 PH horizontal) . :mglc \vith hOl'izolltnl, the jJurtid(' will ride on t he
Dr "" dinmctc.r of the I"olls. rolls or be thl'OlI"ll up and out. und will not be cl'\.lshed.
DI - diMrncter of the feed purticle, The angle A between the two tangenh at the points
of contact of the particle with the roUs indicates The limiting vaJue for the angle Aj2 at which the
whether or not. the particle will be drawn bet.ween resulting force is horizontal is called the angk of bUr
the "'Oils. The fheoretical capacity of rolU is the weight or 0.
The definition of the eoofficient of friction is the ribbon of feed having a width equal to the width of
ratio of the force tangent to the surface to the force
normal to the surface. In Fig. 31 , this is FT/ FN.

I i---- -D.- -H


Flo. 31. FQf"Q!$ exerted by crushi", rolbJ for .. IIPberi~

p'rticle in position to be crushed.
In the limiting case F H is horizontal and f---D.--1 D,f---D. --~
tan (,!) _FT
2 FN
Fm. 32. Foreea exerttd by en.Wtin&: rolls on a slab at the
approximate an&le of bite.

which is equal to the coefficient. of friction . the rolla, a thickness equal to the distance between
If the particle ill a sphere, the rolla. ADd a Iebgth equal to peripheral velocity
, D. D, ' of the roll! in linear unita per interval. of time. This
- +- may be expre98ed in tons per hour:
A 2 2 D. + D,
2 D. D, Dr+D, T- -oo._~LD:c"::
-+- 2000
2 2
The value for tne angle A. corresponding to tbie where T _ capacity (toIl8/hr).
limiting case is called the angle of nip, A ... " - peripheral ve10city (fpm). For rolla up
For lImooth steel rolls the value of the angle of to 72 in. in diametei, " is ullually
nip A. is usually about. 32 degrees for ordinary approximately equal to :100 + 84D .
rocks. In industrial operations general practice is L _ width of roll! (ft) .
to dep!rmine the theoretical minimum roJl diameter D~ _ distance between rolls (It).
Dr, add 1 in. to allow for wear, and selec~ the Dext p - density of material (lb/ cu It).
largur industr.ial roll. The actual capacity is usually from 0.10 tu 0.30 of
If the rolls are operat~ on a slab of steel (or a the theoretical.
particle of similar shape) aa indicated in Fi~. 32, With the increasing use of cone crushers for inter-
Dy D~ mediate size m1uetion of ores, the application of
A ae
-2 D~ + D~ rolla in this field is being limited to the sise range
008---- - between cone crushers and fine grinders.
2 tiC D D
~+bc Dr+ I Gra;JitJj ,tamp'. The oldest method for size reduc-
2 cos (A/2) tion of solids is undoubtedly a husky human being
Dp(I - 008~) - DI-D, swinging a heavy hammer. When man began to
devise mechanical methods for industrial operations,

. he naturally thought of a rock~rushing device in- and a surface rubbed against the stationary surface.
_volving a weight to be lifted and
dropped on t.he The upper ind nether millstones used for grinding
material to be broken. For tPjs re8.'!()n the gravity flour from grain are t.ypical. Such a machinf' CII.l1>;("1
stamp is the oldest recorded method for size reduc- disintegration mainly by the appliCftion of !:!hesr
tion in the intermediate and fine size ranges. Gravity loads. Most recent devices in 6ne size reduction,
stamps are stili used to a oonsiderable extent because s uch as ball mills, depend more Ofl impact than .m
of the ease of oonstnlction in the field, especially for shearing forces. The division of the operations "f
crushing gold orcs when the gold is to be amal- size reduction into crlLShing and grinding is no longer
gamated with mercury, in spite of the fact that descriptive of the operations used in coarse size
capacity is low and the costs are relatively h igh. reductiOll, a8 distinct from tine size reduction .
Figure 33 is a modern type or stamp min. The
stamps are vertical shafts raised by c:ams
under oolllU'8 fastened to the u})per PMt of the shafts.

F)G. l-t. C uta"'HY lInd fleCl401'lll1 d iacran' of b",.1 mill ...ilh

Flo. 33. G\,. 1Itam!l mill. (AU.:.cMl~ Mfa. Co.) air cialolifior. or $!jlIltat.or . (C~Wn EftgihUn"'l en.)

. . The lower end of eaeh shaft is equipped with a In the transition from the old-style shear-gt'inding
heavy cylindrical metal block which strikes on a sta- device5 to the wldespread application of hall mill!!
tionary hard metal slab. Since & stamp miU has no and rod mills, iSCveral mar.hines appeared in whirh
means of clearing itself of the crushed proouct, the the material is reduced in size ootween rullpn!, ur
operation is usually carried out on suspensions of heavy balls, rolling agajn~t a crushing ring. In t!lc
solids in water, which pass slowly through the crush- Chilean mill, the horiwlltal axes of t.he roll!:! are
ing lonP , usually stationary, and the flat pan cfJ.:rying the
The reduction ratioe in stamps may be as high M crlt.3hing ring revolves. The bowl mill (Fig. 34) may
150, making them one of the mOllt flexible types of be I'egalued as it$ modem d evtJIopmcnt.
machine!! for size reduction. The Raymond roller mill (Fig. 35) COll8ists IIf
rollel"l! !!uspended all balanced jounlals from a rapKlly
rot.sting spider mounted on the upper end of the main
shaft. The revolving rolls exert prC!:'!0'3 ure on a sta-
Sise reduction in the finer ranges has usually been tionary confining ring by centrifugal force. A plow
termed fine grinding. This is due to the fact. that mounted on the apron or slec\'c revolves with the
mMt of the older devices for reductton in this range shaft to throw the material into the crushing zone.
eoosisted of two main pari.&, & statiooary surface ~ mill is usually provided with a sizing feature
whereby the material cannot leave the machine The length of the cylinder is usually aoout equal to
until it is fine enough to pass through a screen of the diameter. Most ball mills are continuous in
given mesh or be lifted by a stream of air of constant operation, feed entering at one nnd and discharging

FlO. 36. Cutaway a nd sectional diagram of Raymond roller mill with air cb.iiiifier or R pe.llItor. (CQmblllliDn BIl/Ii-".., Co.)

velocity. The so-:called whizzer consists of vertical through the opposite end or through the periphery.
vane!! rotating rapidly in a bori~tal plane to knock They may be oPerated either wet. or dry.
oversillC particicH out of the rjsing stream . In cylindrical ball mills the product. may be dis-
Bail miUtJ are horizontal rotating cylindricaJ or charged by overflow through a hollow trunnion (Fig.
conical steel ch.unbers, approximately half full of 36). The smaller particles are IIUSpended and carried
steel or iron haiL!. or flint stone& The aiae reduction out by the circulating fluid, such ILl! air or water.
is aceomplished by the impact of these balls as they The.Hardinge mill (Fig. 37) ill typical of cylindro-
fait back after being lifted by the rotating chamber. conical ball mills. The larger balls and larger pa.r~

FI(;.3G. &Il mill ~ho,,-ing feeder.nd hollo ... t runni()/l. (AUu- FlO. 38. Interior view of em"ty ball mill showing grale lind
Challll~1'3 Mfg. Co. ) roUed ateellinc~. ( Mffl. Co.)

tides of feed arc supposed to segregate to a certain V!l.nes on the inner periphery of the cylinder, and dis-
extent in thp. cylindrical port ion of the mill with the charged from the hollow trunnion by which lite mill
greatest. diameter. 'Vhether or flOt t.his supposition is supported . If the mill is supported by pcriph~ral
is true, there is a definitc relationship between size tires riding on rollers ( Fig. 40), the materilll simply
of p3rticles and size of baUJS fe(juiN>d for effe(!th'e Rows out through the grate and through the open
size reduction. In any casc the lifting _ cct 0 11 the cnd of the mill.
balls i!! greatest. at the greatest, and the CumpoUlld ball mills consist of two to four cylin-
large r balls willlJC most eITective in size reduction at d rical eOffiJ)(lrtmcnts separated by grates. Each
this poin t. successive compartmcnt is of smlliler diameter and
In "grate mill!:l" the product p~ out th rough the eonLains balls of smaller sizes for finer grinding.
openings in a vertical grate or diaphragm (Fig. 38).
In the trunnion mill, the proouct may be raised by , .-
:-adiat plates or scoops on the otltside of the grate
(Fig. 39), p.lshed away from the grate by helical



Comlllfitiw} 5-ln. b.a!!
rtlttion of c:tusflina:
. j
1IiI:, of ~tI$ 2-1n. materilll """-",,~~~:u:03
ID II'IIIa"iaI -15.6: 1
Fl o. 39. Out.side view of IratA: IIIIOWin, radial plall!!' which
FlO. 37. Cut4way diaP"Bm ind ieaLing ideto liled opcrMLion of mille the product and eau..<IIl iL w be dilM:hargal through the
,,"nieal ball mill. (llaroinl}fJ Co.) hollow trunnion. (AUi~-CIW1>U1'3 Mig. Co.) '"

FI Q, ofO, Gr.-Ie mln 10th opt.O-f':nd d ischnge. (TAt: .Hi"" find oSmdt(T SI'Ppili ro.)

Such a mill is e8-'lCntialty iI. ileries of mill~ operating :111(1 thel'..fol'e IiI' ill the mill pnn.Hl'l tv the axis" The
COllI iUlloll::lly . impm't of the rvds is l'cf.. ived 1ll!linl.'" by the la.'I(Cl'
The lincl":! of ball mills are "'!lIlaceable and u.'!lIally pill'lidC>!, callsi!!,,; pl"t'fele."ial 1'{'C.iUctioll VII t~ .e
made frum alloy ~teel. Uther matcriald such :"...i> e;;t It.rtid~ and I~i \'ill g :l mvre clVOiC" sized
ru bber, Cl:I3t iron , ceramic, II.lId I\JCk pI'Oducls are fm.xluct. Rod mills are m()n~ c:pcnsive to operate
sometimes used. The wear on linen! i8 usually frum than ball mills, but their liS(' iii indicated wh.m 9.
0.1 to 0.5 Ill/ ton oj product. The balls introduced -"mull proportion of fines is de~ in...u in the pr~)lhl('t.
into the mill vary from 1 to 6 in. in diameter, and Fip;urc -11 . WlI the inside of a typical roo mill and
the wcar is from 1 to 3 Jb/ ton of product. It. I!!. indi,c ates the w~ar and replacement of the rod;:; by
customary to compensate for ball wear by introduc- thei r different diameters" Whe n the rods become
ing one or more fu balls to t he roili at least badly worn they mil!'!] be removed before they bend
on~:!. day. or hl-eak; if they become shortr than the diameter
R()d milu are similar t,) 1)1111 mills except that the of ] he mill they may become wedged in such a posi~
grir.ding media arc steel rOl.b~ 1'8t:,er th&.Ll halls. The tion as to be beld ap;ainst the lining.
nods are always longer than tbfl diamete.. of the mills Tube mill is a term used to identify a long cylin.
drical milt (usually about 22 ft long) utilizing pebbles
of flint and ceramic linings 'lIld usually opcrq,tcd
intermittently on Ii hatch of tnllterial. Tubc mill"
havf' lnrgc!y 1J<!(:u replaced by hall mills e:ccpt in
cu,..'s whcTl" iron in the P~lIct eannot be tolerat.OO,

Opel'u1jn8 Condition.
The rate cf rotation of ball milill ~hould be Icss
than the sJ)CC(\ at whic;l the ch3rge is held II.gainst
th(' in",iilf' s{jrf~~ct' by ccn trifut!:u l for(.'C , S ill v'e no size
l\!llu<'t ion ,,"ould tll kc place unless the h:ilb fall UpOIl
tiU'l malerial to be crushed. At low s~" wl.ere
thf' balls simply ron over each other and are not
cU1'ried up and dropped, only the ljm~lIest part iclflS
~U'e atTeeted. The ;".riti('al ma:imum speed may be
determined in the same rr..mner as d~ribed for
~1". H. ".L.
I,,"ri..... vi... 01 ..... 1 mill ........inlt ill v.ri"y,. lrommel ~recll!l" With a correction malic for lilt"
o<ta~ of W~ r rrom "",.vicc. (A.Ui~Chal""," .\fl , . Co,) diameter of the ball, the eritiul rate at >!C8. lewl
n~E S11.. REDl:C:TION 41
.lUl~ be IU\("('rt"inM fn)fYI fhf' f'xpl'f'R..'1ion 0
i 6.65 i I I
N - ----
v:o=d ., I I I
whlre N - !"f'\'ullllion..d per min.n t'. I ! I
/) = tliume tcr uf the mi ll (ft ). : A- I
d = tli:' m('f(' r '"If the l)!lll,. (rt) .
V , ,

At low l:!pPf'(ls wh('t"(' Ihf' ('"Q1I 1('" nlS are simpl~' ! ,, I , ,

tumlH! lit" I"OlIt'(l u\("r. the power I'{'(luired to dril'!' 'II I ,
ttl(, mill 1'llriN di rec tly with the spE"Cd of rotation ..
At higllt>r " 1)('('(18 sliPPdgE' Ol'Curs bel\\"E'('n the COll-
!('ntl! lind thr lining, alld Pl)\\"{'r feluinm('ntsill('I'('H.""t,
'" 0 I
2 3
Load. TO/l5 Clrc~lated
5 6
Ton of Fre$h Feed
more ,uu\\"ly with spt't'l.l of l"Olatioll. FIG. 43. R~la li ,-,,, b.'I"......" "i""U,-,li1'" hu\ anti .pn:o.!ut"l;,,"
11I(rt'a:;inll; th' IUlld (buill:! alld material) in a ball nf fines in " L,,!) ",itl \.>oiug (\lJenlh~\ in do ....,] ci,rcuit.'
mill will im'I"('1I&l the pu.lfOr requil"t'ments \Il1til the
ma."Ximum \'ull1 e is rea-.ed, after whiC"h the power at the other t'nd. M sho\\"n ill Fig. -l2a. "fht' telu-
requift'ment d('('1'('3ISe" with in('rt'n:;mg loaU us tlw I i\,t'l~' fixed or l'UIl:!tnnt pulp If'n,j !l1"\'\' idNl. b~' ~uc h u
ct'ntt'l' of gravity of tile load appl'OaC'hl'>:< til('" axis of [llill mf'tlns that tht' t'tf('(,til' t;' I!('~ Ilf grinding ('an be
rotation. For \\"('1 grinding the maximum pt)\It'f i" ('ontl"tJIII'(I ullly by th(' ~iU' li nd quantit.\ (If ball:> 01'
J"t'(lllirt'{i wh('.n the wt'ight iru.ction of IlOlids ill tilt' til(' flltl' of ft't'd. . ',"ith Ill(' lI~e of dinphra~m:i thl'
f('('d it! abtmt 0.('00 10 0.75, The load ma~' be in- pulp l('n'l may 1>(' Lndt>\lt'ndf'IIi1.1' c{) nTruIlNl.- al IIny
ere8llt'd hy incrt'lLlIing the weight of bulls m l rooll(""t'(l dt'Sil"('(llt'nl hy mnking titt' diuphr:lgm or gratl' ;:;olid
intu the miH, by Ilperating on ntaterial (wel pulp) uf fur HIt' de>lir('(1 di:ltnnt"t' fr(>m the pt'ripht'ry (Fig.
hight'f dens ity. or by operating af a highel' pulp -I-2b) .
k!.vel. The pulp kJl'el or quantity o r mktt'riaJ lK>ing lower 1'111.., 1t'l"d $ rf'$ult in gl"('9 te r freedum of
ground in the mill i$ a major faetor in Ihe opera tion mo\'eml'tft of Iht> 1);111", \li lh C"on~ t \l(,ll t improl'emeDt
of the mill . in (>if('('l i\'(' n(';<,; (If j!;rindilltt:. III 11 ",impl .. o\'erftull'
In the lIimpJe overflow t.ype of rontinuo lls 1",11 Iypt' (of m ill 11\(' 1);111,, 111,'" kinf'lit t'1lt'T"g.\' when falling
mill (no "dillphragin), the feed ('nlt'f8 III .Ine ('nd ami inln the dt'l~ pilip, And 1;'(' t'lllIl lI('1 fun't'>l bt't \\"('t'D
t,he. procilll't HO\\"l:l ou l Ih rough th(' hulltl\\" irllnnioll 1i.lIs II ndt'r Ih(> "'lIn,I \'(' I~' Iht' pulp d('(rell.'lM, i.;
:\Iill" willi liia pilrdJl;IlI" ur t;mt <'t' l>1V\'kf't.i In m.lillluul
111(' prupt'r pulp 11'\'1" III'(' n'p'Ir::>t1 11.1 dt'li\'er 25 per
('('Ill mOIl' pruduct nr th(' ( '01' 1";'( ' \ "jU' r:mgt' wilh an
inl'rC'aSl'(j ptlll'er J"f'tluift'nlt'llt uf olll ~' 20 p('~ C('nt .
] ....111' \('1't'1" of pIlip :lIld 111.. rt.a~,, 1 time ill !he mill
!"t'sult nl""-I ill u (k\" In ~' I.f U\'t'l"gl"imling.
Clo8f'd rirl"llil flpan/i.", \0\('(' diugrlllll ac('olllp:IllY-
illp: exnmpl(', p. H) i~ u",uall.\ 1It""'!;I:tur)' ill bull mill
llperntioll "il)l't' thC'~(' ruill .. dUIIII! h.ft-t, a ~il\ illg fictioll
till tilC'ir produl'l , A sizill~ dl'\' ilI'. "'lIt'h!ls n "{'"\u"si-
fi(')"." is plm'l'Il in lSt'ril'i! with tht' bnll min. and tht'
OYC'I-:-:iu' nwt C')"Lal frlllll tilt, "ir,iIlJl; Illlf'rat iull is )"f'-
tUfIl('tilu tilt' m ill for fllrthn !lizl' r('tiud illll, III "1I1'h
Il}It'mtiulls, lilt' dn'Hhllill~ IllUd nlll,\" \)t! the major
llurl. of tht' f('I'I1. Thl' P!"('St'lIt tn'l ul i~ to t1~ nigh
('in'uialing loads, The IIppruXim:lh' rt,jlllio.n ship I~
hn'1'n lilt' p r'lthwl itln of lint.". and t'in'ulat ing load is
t '",, 42. (.. ) :<. ...;.II ... t tii"jCl'>llU vi uwrH..", ""II mi tl. {Ill s.....- ,q lO ln l. ill Fig, -13 ,
I,.....,d , ti~ltntlll of I. ,n mill '~ltlil>P',, 1 "'11 1"' 1 >i''''~ Kltl .. r Kill'" 'I'll(' m p<lr iiy til bull lIIi/l.. Ilt'IWIlt.i:1 \'er~' lurgely on
.... Io,,,;n I"",','r I ~ ,II' t,v,L1. (.-lUi".('j",I,,,,u "'f,. C.... ) lilt, n.'lIUdion ,..... Ii" 1\" I\"('\I a:' (.n Ill.. hp.rdtl~ o'
t l"..,
material, and ii cannot be aceurat~ly cnJculated. Mines.' A drop weight crusher (Fig. 44) Wall used
A reasonably ' conservative e8timate of the capacity for accuraw determination of the energy expended
of a cylindroconical (Hardinge type) ball mill in toIlS in crushing, and a rate of sol.ution method for accu-
l)C:r 24 hT i.'\ rate determination of the 8Uriace of the particles.
Maximum diameter X Length (ft) The resulta of their measurement.'! on quartz (Si02),

where C,! varill>l rrom (j t() 3 for mor;t normal opera-
The normal capacity of cylindrical ball mills in
tH:l.~ per '2'1 hr. may be estimated as
Volume of mill (eu It)
C o 5 10 15 ro ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
where C uJ';ua11y varies from About I to 2. KikIe'Im-CentimeteBper Gnlm 01 Q\grtl
Flo.~. ReiatWn d enerv i'!Put to !lUrfare prod uced in
crushinc qUArt. with & iJrop weight erusher.'
Although most of the power required for driving plotted in Fig. 45, show a constant energy requi:-e--
crushers IUld grinders is: used in O\'ercoming mechan- mcnt of I kg-cm for each 17.56 i:IQ cm Q:f new surface
ical friction, the actual eucrgy used in !Size red uction produced for this quartz, or, as U8Ual1y exp~ ,
i.g an important eOllSideration and theoretically is 17 .56 Bq em of new 8urface procluccd by the applica-
proportional to the new surface produced, as there tion of I kg-em of mechanical cnergy.
i.~ no change in the male rial except lIim and the RiUinger's number designates the new surface pro--
duced per unit of mechanical energy absorbed by the
material being crushed. The values vary forrlifferent
materials, depending on the elastic constants and
their relation t.(l the ultimate strength and on the
manner or rate of application of the crushing force .
A few values of Ritiinger's nwnber as determined
by (I, drop weight crusher are given in Table 9.



Rittin&Cr's Number
Mineral eq in./lt-Ib eq cm/ lt.-Ib sq cm/ q-cm
Quartl (Bi0z) "'.7 2<3 17 .56
Flo. 44. Qia,gram d drop wei~t I:nI8ber."
Pyrite (lo'e8t) 48. 7 31. 22.57
Sphalerite (ZnS) 121.0 780 66.'
creation of new surface. This principle was first
recognized by Rittinger.4 Rittinger's law was first
Calcite (CaCO s)
Calc!... (PbS)
201.5 I'"
7.5 .9
eoofirmed beyond doubt" by the U. S. Bureau of
The energy absorbed in crushing mixtures of these
-The prineiple known .. Klck'l) Ia.... that "~he e~
required to produoe alllllogowJ chtlnll'l'l of ooofigunLtion or rriinflrals can be calculated by addition if the propor-
geometrically similar bodi08 v"riuIJ all the volunll'lll or II18Me:!! tion of earh mineral is Irnown in the various screen
or thei!e bodie8," W88 at 01\6 time Af.l'Qneousiy II.pplicd in the fractions before and afwr CMlslling. The most rapid
theory of erushinl!. It Ietl to \.be ialee ooocJusK,n that the means of estimating the new BUrface produced is by
coerX)' l'ieq'lirod in crt1!!hini: ...... prnportion&! to the dec:rea8e
the use of IICreen analyses as discussed in Chapter 3.
iD ...tumc or ,,... of the partk-kol. Thill principle in now
f'I!COgIIized l1li .. ppliQ&bl,e only 1.01 pla>!lic deformation or par-
Other mel-hod~, l:Iuch Ill! the rate of ijQlution, IU'e more
tides withiu tllo! elwltic limit IUkl Hut to crushi"". prto(:ise but more diffir.llil to execute.

The mechanical energy supplied to the entaher is

lILting the crrahing ejftifINUBB for any such opera.-
always greater than that indicated by Rittinger'a tion. In the ball mill with 178 lb of baLL!, the cruah-
number, &8 friction 1088e8 and inertia effeet8 in the ing effect.iveness is 94/ 243 - 0.387. In this I1WlDer
e<luipment require more energy than the actual pro-- the performance of variOlls machines, and variatiolll:l
duction of new surface. Also, fracture is accom- in the machine, can be compared,
plished, not by static loading, but by exceeding the The overall energy eff.)Ctiveness (or efficiency) of a
minimum rate of loading or deformation. Even crusher is always much ICBS than the crushing effec-
brittle substances adjust themselveB to slowly applied tiveness, 88 the latter does not include the mechan-
loads, and fracture does not oceur the illBtant the icall088C8 such 88 friction and inertia, The capacity
load is applied but only when the rate of loading of ball mills cannot be accurately calculated because
e,-eeeds a certain minimum. of the etTeeUi of variablelS &lch 88 the relative grind-
The total energy supplied to the crusher, there- ability of the material and the range in size reduction.
fore, ::iependll.upoll the rate of load application, which An approximate idea of the capacity and power
differs with the type of machine and conditions of requirements of ball mills, both cylindrlcul and
()peration. Table 10 gives values {or the new surface conical, may be gained by reference to Table lL
'produced per unit of energy IlUpplied to the material
being crushed in a laboratory beJ1 mill qperated at TABLE II, CAPA 'TY AND POWER REQUIRE-
t!le speed but with varying weights of similar

... ,,-
balls in the machine whiltl vinding equal weights of.

TABl,!:: 10.
- ........ ,. . -.....
... .. .-.
""'. a_
"' "" "'
' ~IJ, -.rt4"


,~ -

FOR QUARTZ x< '.M " " " 1%- 16

. -...
c..IcuJat.eJ hy IlUbtnoclinr; ~be energy required to driv(I the 'x< '.- N

mill containing ballll but no IlUIterial from tho! total ODe...,. 'x<
.... n
.... .. ......
requi ..... 1 to drive the operating mill for the same le~b of OX> ~

time. .X>
:X I

." ~
,. ~
'" ,
Total Wei&ht
oi ;:~:: :n IX 12 N." ... m
.Ball Mill, Ib sq in./ft-Ib eq c.m/ ft--lb IIQ. emJkc-4'.ID


7~ ,OOO


" "
"00 . ....
...'" ......

5.' I X" ......



,."" "
I X~;

,. . ..,...
Drop ""flight

............. ....."
.. "
~""'" 37 .6 17 .00

The new surface proo.uced per unit of energy sup-
plied to the material. being crushed in 8. ball mill is
much less thall for the drop weight cfUllher. Thill
12X O

.. .. .
'''' ,~ '" ,n.


may be explained by the high percentage of ineffec-

IlI u.t,.tive E.J.ample, A ball mill operating in clOl'lld
tive blows and other 1088CS in the ball miD. The cireui!. witb a 1(n.IIlf;f!h ""rocn glVt'lll the IICreen ana!yl!C8
important practical point is the variation in effec- !rio.... The ratio of the oYcrsUe to the un<":rsi:u: (prod!...:!.)
tivenel!lS of Bille reduction wit..h the total weight of IIt rt!llm i>< ; .0"10<> ..' hen 200 1.088 of gak-na. I.I'C handlutJ pet da,.
blllis charged, showing a maximum value at a.bout Tb" bltH mill N<luires !5.0 bp when runnint; empty (with
175 Ib of balls in this particular mill. till) hIIH~ hut .... ithout pklna} lind 20.0 hi) when ,Jeliverilll:
200 t<>flll per o..y of galena. Find:
VS.hles of the Rittinger number as determined ill I. 1'00 <.ftectivcm_ fIr "ru..hirll! u...~ un drop 'II'eigM
the drop weight crusher rep~nt maximum effe<'- cru~hinJ( :lH 1.00.
tivene88 in sile .reduction anu roay lie used in culc:lI- 2. TI~ ovu!ll.ll .. )\ergy ~.ffi,,"'oey,
:.. T~ d",...jfyinc IlCree:I t'ffecli'ft~ Etl'eef,ive._ 01 elMeifying eereeo

Ovel'!ize Ulldel1lir.e %"v, - %.11) [ (I - %I')():' - %11')

Mill from from - ",(%,. _ J:.II) 1 - (I _ J:1')(:t1' _ J:A'l

Food, feroon,
wei&ht % v.eiiht % ....eight %
Produel ])ot.
~ ..
4 + 6 1.0 0 0 Calculated SiN D;"tribotion 100 Ib 01 Ii<)n.
Oy.roI.., M_
6 + 8 1.2 0 0

M 0 ............. %"
8 +
10 +
2. 3
0 ..... % ;n
(ho""; ..
% in

Undenoi ..
(Und<roI ..;
1.o1O!>\. lb
M lU

14 20 7.1 0 0 - 'nI + U 18.87 la .~1
20 + 211 15.4 0 0 -85+48 M." '2 .011 18 .(10
18 .5 13.67 -" + 0.5 27. 12 27 .1 2 14 .cr:
28+" 0 - r,.; + 100 20.70 ~.M 11 .112
"+48 17 .2 32.09 0 - 100 +1l1li ' .M If. I!! I1 .U '.m
+ tI5
15 .6
10 .4
Tl . 12
20 .70
- 150 + 200
-'" ,' .m 13.M
It. n
M .M
" ...
' .Q
- 100 +100 0.' .4 . 3.~ 14 . 12
100 .00 100.00 1113.13 100.00
- 160 +200 1.3 2 .07 13.54
- 200 0 0 70.02 M&SII %in mill product ,
- MIWJ % undeni ...
100.00 l00 .OCr 100.00 ~1II.911 % OV~i";ze + 1.0705
Tht; distribution of material I!IIllIl1er thM 200 metlh in mill
lOO-mesh w'''ne ween product from an ext... pola.t ion 00 II. plot of
M'M produet Joe (n)UII retained, per oeD') \.!I'Ilq los (DoYa )
Bell mil
ill given be low.
200 tans/
A..,... M~ ,11:1\1J1

Analy .. III. The Rittinger number meuu~s the minimum

elle rr.y required to form new BUrfRce. If the new BIlrfaC6
(D ov.) ,
% in

-14.46 1. 65
eree.ted per unit time is ca.leulated, then the minimum ell(!~a:Y '.00 0.'"
re<!wred for the formation CRn be CRleulRted. "
:J1.8 ' .00
1. 60
1.03 O.4{17
In nrder to evaluate the new surf&OC of the product, the
minUII 2OI:MneI!h fl'llclions may be evaJmkd by the !!tl1light-
22 .'
3. 58
7 .41
line plot. 8I.Ieb u Fig. 15. This method ill valk1 only foc the 11 .2 3 .03 6.28 1.42 0.""
pI'O(!uel. 0( 1\ -r-hanical enJllbina: device a nd not for the 7." 2." ' .58 lAO 0.""
ebuJlliliod product. There'ore the ajq distri but ion of the ' .59 2. 19 4 . 54 1.375 1. 117
mill product m ....t be computed and extrapolated lor the 3.84 0." 0 .41 1.35 0. 144
DlI\$IJ fractions retained beIo.. 200 mesh. Tile sum of t hei!e
fractiorla mUlllt!!-qual the minW! 200-rneosh fraction.
33 ." 70 .025.611 - L . -
~ m.
The fraetiorlll of mill plt.'duct below 200 meeh...-e then C:>n- D.n
wrted to f"'eli.oM of the undersize stream . The surfaeee SutfMee arcl!. fot this fraction of the undenize IItre&m
of the fl'Mtiollll~ calc,u1ated either from thfl actual specific
turface_ in Fig. 16 or from the I'Illatlollllhlp (p. 22): .5.611X1Q4X6 4 '2150 '/7002
- ---
7 .'-3-- " ~' aq em IilI"lUlll!
6 n;m,
Total. IIWfIlCl,! .. - L - - M_ SpociIi, ",.w
.. is evahuted from the data of Fig. 17.
% .0 Surface, SurflC&;
1)nOOfllUe S<i cm/ grnm oq=
- 55 +100 2.32 85 .8 109 . 1
Theoretical eft'cc:t;VCOO$ll of Oal l mill
- 100 + 150 14 . 12 115 .4 1,629.4
Minimum pow "" required to _a~ ...." . eurf_ - 150 +200 13 .M 155 . 1 2 , 100.0
Power in,-,reaeo due to t. hll./'KI!
- 200 70.02 4.5 ,250.0

~ver&ll "nerBY etlecti.,enes!! c.f ball mill 100 .00 ~9 , ISO tq em lJUrfaoe
are_f lOO
M : nimum energy I'Ilqui red to o~ate new surbJe gramlll of
Trw (loorlD' used Undnrlllizlll

,,_ _Ii< Actual

SUrl'_. 1. A ahort..bead anne' crusher is availabt6 for eruahin 2 tont
,,~ .

% in
lit! em/ gam ...
eq em / IOO
of pyrites pel' hom. On limilsr, ~he o~rall eoerJY
j,'fficicooy h!UI t-n found to ~ 3. 1 ~ per etIl'It.. 11w! raw feed
is to be ~ by a j&w oruaber, . hoE,product. ~
, + I.'
+ 7.' 7.' the feed to CODe cr\III!hu. ~ oone cruaher opera'" in
- " ..
h + I'

eloaed circuit with a 14-me8li IICI'8eIl. 11le cone auaber ;
prOOud and n.eyclo IItream aDair- ""' gi~n heklw. OD.
10 +
14 3.' 16.4 67.4
:.M bMia of calcula\ions and of &D1 8IIISUDlPWJona wbieh :roo.
14 + 20 7.1 21.1 149 .8
lI13y find JJOOeIR.Ij', /!elect _ ~~",Je elUIlher ,hAt will
-20 +28
26 .'
35.7 .,..,
U4 .6
do too job.
TIle surface ratio (n) IDII.)' be OOfUIIdered to be 6..6 oLbo'ftl
-35+48 17 .2 0(7 . 2 811. 8
3 mesh. The full 'oad ene'1O' nKluiremellt for the ~
-48+65 IS.6 63.' 082.' oone CfUflber ill 5 hp. The r ..cycle MI';'" (n.,<:yc)P, stream/prod-
- 65 +t OO
- 100 +150
10 .4 ''-8
Ue\. stroam) ill 1.
-ll!O + 200 1. 3 166.1 201.6 Prod.", Reeyele Stream
Mesh Mai.! % Mesh M.,. %
4,968.8aq em ~tal
-14 + 20 29.8 - 3 + 4 3.8
- 20 + 28 30.2 - 4 + 6 10.0
.N_ lIlIriaee treAted _ (49,180 - 4968)
&n1Illl of feed
-28 + 35 26 .0 - 6 + 8 19.6
-35 + 48 9.6 - 8 +1 0 26.0
.. ,212eqem/ 100cram- offeed -48 + 65 S.H -10 +14 36.6
-65 +100 1.6 - 14 +20 4 .6
. . (44,212)(0072)(200)
100.0 100 .0
'l'!lore?cal eft'eetive_ .. (6.462)(1.98)(1()i)(24)(201.5)(5)

.. 1.266 hp ... 263

6 hp . 2. A. b&l1 mill, ope ... t~ in a clnIIP.d circuit ....ith a claMifier.
_ ill 1.I.'II'ld to grind a.lcite after it haa b.d preliminary en&I!hinc
Ovenll1 euetl.)' effeetin-neea .. . ""
2il .. 0.0633 in j_w auslienr. 8cnleo. aoalyaee d the ~ ~ ~
giren below. '
The bolD miD feed (2S ton.I/ hr) ill estimated to - bolYe a
SCREEN EFFECTIVENESS CAlCULATIONS 8pl'ci6c swf'_ of m eq ~m/gam. When the baD mill iii
opented .ith a rceyde of 76 tona/bt. 75 n .. aPe required to
~I' .. I - 0.02a2 .. 0.9768 d rive the bRII miD. Determine the eIlicieney 01. tbe baD null

%, .. 0.0907 + 0 .0762 + O.33lJ) .. 0.1i049
...1 Reeycle; " . Produ...-t,

~JI .. 0.0642


...... .,..,...,
' Cla8lifw a...m.,

% mMI%
1 _ (0.0232)(0.4407) ] _ 0.914
Tyler Screen MetIb
0.525 in. - 0 . 371 in.
0.371 in. - 3_h

' .7

3m.... + 4meah 17 .9 7 .
+ 6
12, 1

I. C\tJl)II'f, A. M., Print;il'lu 0/ MiM;r(d DnMin(J. MeGraw- +10 5.5 3.0
Hill Book Co. (1939).
2. GftOlIft, JOHN, "Crushing and Grindina:;," fl. S. Bwr. M inn
B"U.402 (1938). ContailUl oompiet" hibli"llTllphy. -20
.. + "
+ 20
. .7
2 .7

16 ."

! f! :g
3. RtCH.UID8, R. H., and C. E. Locu, Ta;ibooI< '" ON: Drus- -28 + "
mg, 3m 00., MeGraw- RilI Book Co. (1931l).
4. VON RrrI'lNOEH, P. R., Llr.rbovA "" A ,ifbnllit"ngd:ImM,
- 35
+ IS
+ ., I.'
2 .'
i';. 7
Berlin (1867).
S. T.l.OOAIn'. A. F .. HandbooI: oJ MiMrtJJ l>raWIg, John -"
- 100
+ 100

13. 7
11. 7
Wiley and 80M (1946). - 150 +200 1. 5 9.S.
6. DAVIa, E. W., "8&\1 Mill CTUihinc in CIoIIrd Circu it .nth -200 3.0 . :lR.1i
' .5
Screeru.,' BwU. U...,. &i...... ta, No. ~ (IDU).! BoJL 10,
&ItooJ. of It/i>ul Bq. && Tot_ 100.0 10&:0 !OO.O
3. A Clement plAnt ia 10 toM/hr of a bani rock S. QuMta: from the mll)ll jllelI t oyer a piuly with &.ilL
(8pecifie pvity, 3.8) in a h~ disk pinder operatin3; 8pa.cinJ and then to a B"ke at.ndard ;'W' C!'Ullher with
in a cIoIed circuit with .. 6S-rnesh ICteeD. Re&uIar cbecb a 4O-i.1L by 42-in. foed openlnJ and a ~ dilclu.rgc eettin&-
upon the poIIeibi.1ity 01 o~ part)elel ~ throurh the The ertI$her operatel!l at 190 rpm and IwKIb 130 tonB/hr of
ICftJefI .bow that all material in tbe unden:ile Itream from feed. Screen ~ of t)lo felld and product are liven
the _ 0 win ~ throuah .. ~meeh IIereI!JI,. beloW'.
Drop weicht laboratory te8tI upon tbe ~l.erial beiq (a ) What arc the thooreti~ po'A'er rcquiremenla.?
t:nIIbed IDdieal(! thac. the abeotption of I ft.-lb of _.tID' will (b) What me motor reoommentled? Why?
ftft1It in eruti<ln of 110 8q em of new 1IW'f_ and that the (In the &i.e ranv- iooita t.ed the a veJ'lllll SUrfllW ratio may
8pI!cifie lIW'faoe r.tiOll are ideut.ical lrith tbolle of Iphalerite. he &!IIR1IDIld to he 8.0)
(0) If the enel'l)' elfideney of the ,"oder is 18 per oent
.m tbe knotll'n 8trtamll ha:e the ana.iyeell PftD belo.... wh3.t F"'" M_
ill the bo~r required by the IJinder! I'rne- 8cl't'f'n F_
(&0) What ill the eft'ecli nl_ 01 the IIIlrnen!

Raw Diechlll'F (>vtonR:se

AJI",1;uro, in .
- 34 +2tI .6
0 . 181 -. Aperture. iu.

,- -
"eud to from from -28. 1> +2-1 .0 0.343 - 4 , 2,3 H OO o.m
Grinder, Grimier, -24.0 +20.3 0.220 -2.00 + 2.11 0 . 167
-20.3 +J7.0 0.165 - 2 . 11 +1.49 O.IOS
M~h lraetion f raIltioli - 17 .0 +14 .3 0.064 -1. 49 +t.~ 0.008
-14' .3 +12 .0 0 .037 -1.0.5 + 0.81 O .~ I
3+ 0 .0.\
- 0 .81 +0.67 0 .04<>
+ 6 0. 10
- 0 . 57 +0.403 0.039
- : ~ I~ 0.30 -0.403 + 0.28.5 0.0:33
- 10 + 14- 0.20 0.04 0.05 - 0 .28.5
+ 0 .201
+0 . 142
14 + 20 0 . \0 0.08 0.10
-0. 142 +0 . 100 0.023
-20 + 28 0." 0 . 16 0.20
- 28+35 0 .2< 0.30 -0. 100 + 0 .0707 0 .0 18
- 36+48 0 . 17 0. _ -0 .0707 +0 .0500 0.016
- 48 + M 0.10 0.0075 - 0 . 0600 +0 .0353 0.010
- 66 +100 0.08 0." 6. In an a~tempt t.o eyaluate the efficiency of a 24-in. by
-100+1&1 0.'" Il) Blake jaw c~r. a \let of eo&I'IiIOJ analytical _ , .
- 150 +200 0.04 ..-...s oonst-ructed from welded atee! roda. The 8landa.rd
- 200 +270 0.02 Tyler v'2 relt.t.ionahlp between acreen apert.uma Wall main-
- 27'0 +fOO 0 .01 ~ in UliB ~ of I&rp_,..
Ca..\cite WM fed t.o the e~r at the rw.te or
60 tonafhr.
4.. A feed of 1&1 toni/ day of pyri lell moo be l)OlllIUi.nuted The di8charge !leltint; of the jall'l W'M 6 in. The CI'Ulher ....
hom the rnatuialsiKe pven below .. feed (the product front .. driven by .. 35-bp motor. ije~n uaI,,- of the feed and
aontrollin _ 0) to tbe me ranp pY'eD helow .. product the product liven in the tt.ble below.
(the feed lo .. reduetion pr.-). A ball min is to be Il!!ed. (0) Calculate efficiency of the cruaher, ...urninl the motor
II. will be 1o.ded with ballII to operate at .. erushi"l declive- ,,'M opcllltinl at an averap of U ila. rw.~inJ.
~ of about 32 per cent., tb) HOOI' many toN per hour of p}ena ouuld be fed to tn.1
(a) What IIisc cylindrical mill Ihoukl be ee\t!eled1 CTUllber and reduood over the same aill) I'llJlIC with tbo flame
(b) What llise motor will be needed to drive it? IlOwer?
(el What ill the overall ene-iY efficiency! (c) wtw.t it! tho capacity MCQrtliug w Taggart'! ronnul&?


3 +
Feed, JT\&I!IIII
0 .036

Aperture of - -


Spedfic SurfIlCC
Ratio ..
Averap Diam

+ 8 Scn:.en, M eter of Mate-
8 + 8
0 . 111'2
in. '" rial on Screen
8 + 10 0.284 0 .010 22.S 0.0 0.0
10 + 14 0.123 0 .072 16 .71) 0 . 11i o.n 10 .0
14+20 0 . 228 II .11.... O . a.~ 0 .0 ' .7
- 20 + 28 0 .29.\ 8 . 40 0 ." 0 .0 !I."
- 28+35 0 . 170 '.03 0.15 0.0 !I.O
-35+~ 0 ."'" ' .20 0 . 10 0.05 8 .S
- 48 + ~ 0.072 2.1/7 0.0 0.20 8.0
- 6.'i + 100 0 .04<l 2.10 0.0 0 . 46 7 .2
-100 +1&0 0 .000 1.48 0.0 0." S .S
- I~ +D) 0 .002 1.05 0.0 0." 8.2
7. A grinder .. to be tilled to ..n-! oce 01 the willreeult in the (RAtion 0( 110 IIq em of new surfaae. on-
lood abe !lho\Ion below. I.aborat.ory t.elta: 01:1 IIbnil&r equip- teo!b al80 indica.te ;h&t. the surf~ area ~lioB for the cnakrial
IDtIIlt indicalAl ~ba~ the product I!izc IIwn beki ,....m be sati8- are identical ..;tb t holle 0( sphalerite.
l..etory, and that the &rindcr b apprmlimate1y 8 per cent If the eoorcY effiti.-;ney 01 U>e grindN is 18 ,oet oenl and the
efficient in oon'ftrtin inpUt enerxY into Bir.e .. ~fnctton III! kn,,"n 5trelI.~ have the anal)f1'C'8 given below, ... hat ill ti)Q
evidenced by an incn'aae in '''.Hfare. hOnICp<>wer roquin..'d by the winder? What. ill ttlO ctl't'CtiVQ-
I t is eet imatoo t hat . enJllher to handle 10 ~h(l~t tons/ht IICI'O! uf the ocrocn?
will ()()lIt "boot t4OOO. If the crueher (lperlliel! (In /I. 24-hr n..w Di.w:h/l.rlC Ovcnsl"O
bMis for 300 dJt.Y!i!yr, it is estimated that main/.(:mmt~' 0061.11,

- -
fo'ood to from {"nn
o~rhead, -.nd ordinaryn>pi800IlYmt 008t.8 wUl be ",bout 50 per Grinder, Grinder, Screen,
cent of pnwer ()()lltI!. F,J.erlric rostI! 2 or.n11l/kwhr.
If this ine depreciatee on a ~traiKht.-li<le 1>IUIie lind its MMh lradi<lfl { tACtic'lt f raction
lire is ee~ima.tOO d 10 yr, is the p ~nlt r.(V!t per ton
or ore? + 0.10
, + 0 .20
........I.m:""" 1'",,1\1"1, mlU!6 + 0 .<0
Ty k,. .\It"'" I.... <:ti<lf. fr:u:liQn 8 + to 0 .20
Ii + 8 0. 143 10 -+ 14 0.10 0.'" 0.03
fI + lU 0.211 14 + 20 0." 0 .06
10 + 14 0.2JO "'+28 0.00 0.09
l4.+20 0.186 0 .008 28+" 0.25 0.35
28+35 1'
0 . 120
0 .016
ar. + 48 0.034 O. J4!l 6.5 +100 0 .06 0.05
48 + 65 0 .101 - 100 +150 0 ." 0."
65 +100 0.068 -160 +200 0.03
- 100 + 150 0 .044
- 150 +200 O.02'.t 10. QuaTU IOC'8 IhmICh b-o IIUCCCIIIiVII g illooll orr tbe
IMII'" oshaIt which dnt.wI a total 0( 20 hp. Tbu feed averace-
8. A roll crui her is to be IlIICd to crush nlL'<lium hanl q uartz :I in. in diamuter and ..... allllriaoc I1I.tio n of 10. Tbt. criOOe ...
(specific gravity, 2.65). TIle produet from the crutShec iII"", running tmpty require 2 hp. Their capacity is 3 \o../ b.r.
be 1M tc. a number of rod mill~ (6 ft by 12 ft) itJ. lh" rate 0( T he analyBel of their produeta aro &:lYen below.
8 toNl / hr to each mill. The power DClfl8Umption 01 each I"Od (II) Calculate tho bonIepower UIled In eaeh grinder.
mm Ja 160 hp. with &n overall e!".erg,Y cl'fectiv~lIe"" ur efficieucy (~) Cak'UI~te the effiMeucy of the ,;rindetll if Rittirlier'R
of 2.0 per !lent. number (new IJUrf8.Ol) produced por unit of ~nergy) it 37.6
The 'rod milbt oPCl'lLtt, in p,m".,J cir~uit with /I. 4S-mcsh IIQ lll./
IICrnI.!n. 'I'hI:I ratio of recyd.., to po:xluct iII l : l .
Primary Grinder
If the IlUrfaoe ratio n for quartz iIiI to for all sizeII .boYe
3 meth, determine the 'leUing (distance bet"''()Cn the J"Oi\s) MeIlh %
in the -ro1l CJUIIher. - 4+ 8 20
- 8 + 14 30
C\Msit;er Product ~d" 1$1'-"1 - 14 +2R ao
~I - M_ - 28 + 48 15

M'+" 48 Fnw:tioll
-20 +28
- 48 +100 .5

J.'inal Grinder
~8 + 56 0."' - 28 +~ 0.10
M +100 0.10 - 35+48 0.80 "~h %
- 100 +150 0.05 - 48 +66 0.05 -28 + 48 10
- <8 +[00 20
O. Jo'ivo toM of hard rock (~ptlCifie Jl'l\v\ly, 3.8) are foo - [00 T200 00
.. very ""'.... r (,<, 8. rone crusher ill el.....'<l circui t .... ith a ~g.lllI:tIh -200 n~h + 0.001 in. 30
...._rnP.Il. Refllw ~.oo.,k>t upon the JlO"'I'ibili~y "I over:.iw
puI,i~'" r--ing through >Ir.n!fln I<hQw ~hll' ... 1 mllk-n..]
- 0.001 ill. + O.CJK13 in. 10

in the untkl'l!izI> .stream -fr"m It... II<:M!n will 1_ lhroudl II

28-0_ eereen.
DtOfJ we icht laboratory I.e8l& upon tbe malerW. being
cn.lShed indic.\.e that Ulll IlblJorptioo 0( I fWb of e~'1D"
Meded to run tbe min e!DPCoY.
FoIlowini: is .. .be &I'Ialysill Wb~ is iJwI-.:y ~ per boar if h _ feed
fA ~ feed and pnXIuc\.
,.... Product..
rate (10 ton./hr) is '*'" ill tbe cbed cUcuitP
M~h -% -% , 12. The double-roll tootbtod cru.her of a ooaI OOJpOntion
yi~ld~ .. product of the indlrllllPd """"fm IlnalyHill .... hen I'lI'\IIIh-
Jiin. + ~ in. 25.0, 7.2 i", 239 toll8/hr Wlilll 38 np.
~in. + 3 27.3 '. 1 {oj If the 1IW'f&lle ratio " .. g:, .bat ill Rittin~', numbo'r
3 + 8 19.2 '.2 (or 1bit pari.ieulu intt.a.IIationf
+ '" 19.6 ' .1
8 (II) From lhit cakulatioa and an)' data. you c.D find in
- 20 +48 8.' 7 .' the handboob, "bat is your eooellll!ion M to the efficiene)'
- 48 +65 7 .1 2.7 of this cruaher1
- M +100 7.3
-100 +200
- 200 mesh + 0.001 in.
67 .8
1.6 ''''.
+2~in. 16 .88
A eloeed cirouil lI)'l1ten\ ill atIpeIIted all .. me&I'IB of l1\ducirIJI:
po..-er _ts. A IlIho~lory test. indica~ the fnllowinl; 2H X2 " .62
""'-lUI. muk' be ob1ained with .. c" ~ circui~ unit using lhe 2 X 1M 10 .82
abol'e feed and !!CreeDi", cn- produet. 011. .. 48-moIsh IM XHi IUO 0.311
_ ( I n ..hr_I.341, Hi X I}( 11.12 ::.24
M... -

% -


Hi X

1 X '"
1 6.77
16 .~
21 . 14
+ 8
.. .1
' .1
!" "
0 . 42
0 . 21
' .43

)( X
-00 +48 L4..1 31.4 Nothlnc M.xO 1.13 14 . 10
-48 +OS 20.2 23.'
-OS . . 00 24.3 6.' 1.... J{. X tI mesh 2.83
-DJ meah.
+ O.OCH In.
48 ....

11 eleetrieit:J ..... I Cltnt/ no.,' mud! iu po1i"eI" IOItII

' 6 X8
Ij X It
)4, X 28

ooald be - - ' per)'eV t,y .. rlo8ed cim&it. if f80 t.c.. fA pmd 28X48 1.28 ... poo.!'.oed cIail:r. 365 da,. .. yeKf 48Xn 2.18

Handling of Solids

ANDLING of material!! deals with their 0.03. Loading uno unloading time varies greutly

H movement !Qver retati\'ciy short distances

such at:J from cargo ship and freight car to
storage, from plant to plant, or from one piece of
with the material being handled but runs approxi-
mately Yi to 1 min/ II)O lb of material. For distances
greater than about 200 ft, power tl'ucks or tractol'-
- apparatus to another, as distinct from the transporta,.- drawn trucks are more efficient.
tion of materials cJter relatively long distances such To lift loads weighing more than 100 t.o 150 lb,
- as .by ship, rail, or motor transport. various mechanical devices are employed to amplify
U~ted manpower involving shoveling, push- the force exerted by the workman. All these d.vil'Cli,
ing, carrying, and lifting is recommended for moving such as chain falls, pulley blocks, hand-power hoists,
solKl materials short distances, uSUEuly not exceed~ and jacks, are based on the lever principle. For ex-
10 ft, and '()Diy when the qusntity does not exceed ample, in raising a I-ton load by means of a chain
4 or 5 Wns. In exceptional C88e8, 88 in an t!Jllergency fall , a man would pull about 50 Ib and wouid pass
OF when the operation is not repetitive, larger quan- about 100 ft of chain through his han<b per minute,
tities may be 80 moved. elevating tbe load about 2 rpm (80% eff.).
Under normal conditions a man can do work at llle rates given apply to conHnuous work. It is
the rate of about 1500 to 3000 ft-Ibj min; for example, possib1c to double or triple the rate at work1or short
an average 150-lb man can lift 20 lb on the end of a intervals if they are followed by a rest period oJ.
shovel a distance of 5' ft within a radius of 5 (t at an equivalent Length.
average continuous r&t.e of 15 strokes per minute.
The handling rate varies considerably with indi-
vidul!.b, with the nature of the materia.l being han-
dled, and with the method of handling, but it always Electric-~t.ora!1c-OO llery trucks are available in var-
decreases rapidly when the material must be lifted ious capacitics, the most (ommon being the 2-ton
higher than 3 to 5 ft 'or moved a distance greater than truck wit.h a speed of about 4 to 0 mph. The
5 to 10 ft . Lifting of more t han 100 to 150 lb per general-purpose trurk (Fig. 46) has a fixed platform
man should be avoided as it may result in a strain on which t ll"e load is carried. The lift-platform truck
or rupture. ill a similar unit wit.h a platform t.hat is elevated by
Al$ri,W ~ with wheelbarrows, two-wheeled power. It is used primarily for handling material on
hand trueks, four-wheeled floor trucks, or carts is skids. Special'types of trul'kl:l mu.y be obtained, such
recommended when the radius of WOl'k is increasoo to as the crane truck, dump body truck, tiering ur high-
100 to :l)O ft. Dependin on the device, 8lI average lift trucks. Elect.ric t.rucks will r'un about 8 hr with-
man can move 200 to 1000 Ib 8oC1'08S a horaontal sur- out recharging or battery 8ul>stitutjc)f}. Ample cha.rg-
faoe at the average rate of J~ mpb, or 130 rpm, ex- , ing facilities and battery storage must be provKled.

cluding loading. unloading, and return. The rolling indrl./riDl trmh are similar 10
eoeffieierat of friction usually will be about 0.02 to the electri~ truckS! but. have speeds up to 15 mph .
paved surfaces, whereas tractors with caterpillar
treads arc used over rough J n rough ter-
min I!kids often replace trailers.
'rraclor$, which in themselves carry no load but
draw truii<'r8 or m al~iul on 8kids, are extremt'ly
valua ble gcneral-plIrJ)IJtIe muchincg nnd are livtl.ihlble
in Il large runge of l!.iros.
Pawer 8ho~'('18 are widely used for h!lJldling large
quantities of solid materials with portable equip-
ment. Open-pit mining. excavation, nnrl the hlUl-
dUng of open-air stumKC pilCll are examples. Steam
shovcl1:l am economical to oppratp, but, becauSf' 0;," the
Fill. 46. F:I~ttie-AtOl1tlCl!-battery j,rur.k, ti~wl'h.trorrn type.
e.'I(tra man hour~ requiN!d to get, \ IP ~tcam and ot.her
(1',,/.0 ,uld T _ MIg. Co.)
disadvantages of the tx,i icr, til", gllSOline and diesel
In general, l,he gasoline trucks ure better adapted power shovels ha\'e gllined great favor. Electric
for longer hauls OUldoora, whereas the electric trucks shovels ure uften uSl'<i where ample pleetric power i~
are ideal for silorl hUllls indoors. uvuiluule. Puwer shuvels opel'at A 011 a tumtll.b!e
Truiicr& are frequently used in conjunction with and have a boom which may be mi:iCd or lowered.
industr(u.l trucks. The larger trailcl'S tuoe generally The materinl to be handled is pkked up by a thru1:It
drawn by tractors. Rubber-tired traetors are em- or drag motion, elevated with the boom, and rotated
ployed for hauling across relatively smooth and to the point of discharge by the turntable. DillChargt-
is by gravity and occurs when the scoop is inverted The angle oj 8lUk is the angle of minimum sJope
or a gate at the back of the scoop is opened. Power measured r....m the horiaoota.l at which any looee
~hovels are generally u~ in conjunction with com- solid material will flow. The angle of TtpOIt ia the
mercial dump tnlcks but are often employed to load angie of mlUimujll slope mes.sured from !.he hon-
}'ailroad Un! directly. The flewer shovels have cater- :r.ont.a.1 at which a heap of loose solid material will
IIi1l0.r t ..etti.L:I and cun be movtiti frum place to pla<.'e stand without &diding. approximately 17 degrees for
untie!" their own power. Power shovels are expensive wet clay earth, 27 degrees for anthracite coal. 31
nnd fCquire skilled operatore. Their purchase is degrees for fine sand, 35 degrees for bit.uminous cOal,
warranted only when large quantities of bulk mate- 39 degrees for dry earth, and 39 to 48 degreet!l fOl'
rials are being handled at changing locations. A gravel.
10ClLi contractor can often supply thib equipment for Vibrators m.a.y be ul!ed to keep gravity .didos free
Mort perioo>:l IIr will (.'1mtrnct to move a lluantity of by giving the slide a vibration in Ule ~ireet.iOll Of
material. How. The most common type is the magnetic v ...
Oanity or I;rKlge cranes ("'ig. 47) are often IUICd brator, operating on alternating current with lhf!
for IOLU.ling and unlOH.ding rll.ilrotW C8.T>:l or ships. wme frequency of vibration as thecurrcot frequency.
'l'h{J!;fl machines oonsil>t of two towe~ The di8placement of the slide is small, U$u~lly les!i
with a bridge between. A trolley moves back and than 78 in., but th~ frequency of vibration keeps the
forth across the bridge; the entire crane is on wheels slide in motion relative to the solid material because
und CUll be moved along a track. The trolley hWJ a of the inertia of the solid.
grab lJucket or lift. This type of equipment i>:l widely If a heavy spring is employed with the magnetic
ul!ed in the Great Lakes area for htuldling are and vibrator, the forces o! the spring and magnet become
;oal. Electrical drive i8 the general practice. A a.dditive in one dircdion and opposite in the other
skilled operator is required who generally ridel! in a dir"Ct:tiofi, caumg a slower mot ion of the slide in
cab on one of the Lowers. In the larger and newer the direction of the s.maUer force or accelerutlOn.
tlC!ligns the operator's cab il, placed j. the trolley. The material on the slide tellds to ride with it in
tile directioll of slower movement. With this aT:
rangement, gra.vity may be overcome and a solid
material m.9.Y be conveyed up an incline (Fig. 48).
MaU!riai that lli being moved from one fixoo loca-
tion to another fixed location continuowdy or at
frequent inU!rvals usually can be more economically
handled by some type of pem18nent installation.
\vh"'n. the material must pass through .II. aeries of
operations, gravity feed can ofU!n be used to advan-
tage, the raw material being bmtlght to the top of
the building or structure by a conveyor or elevator
and passing downward, operation by operation, until
removed tiS product at the bottom. In idea.: situa-
tions the cnly power requirement is for the original FIG. 4.8. Di ll./i:r~mmati.c ropreaent.....t.ion of magnetic 't'ibrator \
elevation of the raw material. Loose material is f""ding up an innli ..... to right. The spring and eleotrio mal5Jlet
work tOi'-'tho:or to give a flLllt rolum to the left and 110 slower
usually guided by means of a chute or slide. The moVtlm~nt to the right.
dlUteli may be straight or spiral. The angle of the
slide wiLh the horizontal must be suffi cient to over- Vibrators Me oflen used to obtain uniform feed from
come the frictional resistance. The coefficient of a hopper having an adjustable gate at the bottom.
friclio!) varieR with different materinls but is about A great adv.nltige of the electric vibrator is that. it
0 .3 to O.(j for most dry 8'lIKls on steel slides. Mate- obtains motion of the alide without any mechanical
rial often ))eeomf!8 wedged betwoon the sides of the parts requiring IlIbr;1)ation, resulting in low main-
<:illite, crenting additional re8ilSt.a.nce", . ~ that an tenance coslS.
:Ul~ll' of -15 dC'KIl'('S or s\..('f'per is desiralJle for Ole A':/l.1 feedf'r pla<.'Cd inside th~' tank 01
:;lidt'. IWIJvvr is iIIu ~tl'atol'" in Fig. H!. Lumps of material

IolG. 50. o~ llect ion of 11 screw or helical oonveyor. (Lillk-

BtU Co.)

For handling abrasivc materials, the fin may be

mado oC CMt iron or tipped with a hard metal &.lloy
FHi. 41'1. M ~..,m"iC'l I feeder to vrovide onir"nn I'II le of feedillg l:Iueh as mungane!'ie steel. Tile trough may be made
$JIi.b f .....m oo;>pt!r. (.~q.oII ....... AooM.t_ Mf,. Co.)
considerably la rger than the fi n so that the material
ruhs on itself rather than on the trough, thereby
are uroken by the revol ving conf' IOnd moved at. u
reducing wcar on the trough. In selection of the
uuiform rule to the discharge opening by the feede r
lingers. di ameter of the conveyor, considerat,ion must be
given to thA Si1.e of the lump, as shown in Table 12.
Mec1wrlical CQn 1."ryors
:\techani('al conveyors may move materials by a VARlOI Ie; DlAMI:.'TERS OF SCRF-W CO~V.EYOltS
scraping action or by IL carrying nc tiou. Another
, , ., .
type of conveyor, the pneumatic, i!:l dCS(:ribcd under
the handling of fluids.
Serapen. Screw or helical flight CC1lt'eyor& (F ig.
50) consist \)f a 8t,1 sh uft. havin" Il spiral or hclieal
c.... ...~..., dlt.rn_. ;h.

[.urn. . 2U '"

l~ m ... in.
:.u PO' - .1
,, " ," , " '"
" "" "" '". '"
, ,
'" '" ,"
fin fli!:ll{med to the shaft and rotating in a trough Screw convpyol'lS are used to handle a wide range
without tollching the trough, SO that the helical fin of materials, such as gra.:Jl, asphalt, crushed coal,
pushes the material along the trough. The shaft iOl ashcs, gravel, lind sand. A special typc, the riubon
driven by a motor through gcurs or a chain. The conveyor ill which the centcr portiun of the tLclical
COl! veyors are made in sections from 8 to 12 ft in nn is ah!lf'ut, is suitable for sticky, gummy liquids,
lellgth that may be joined together t.o obtain Ibe such as mO!u"'lC'lI, 11I)t., and ~ugar.
desired length . The tor5ionul$6 devdopcci in Lhe T Il'': hor.~cpO\\f'[, req\liremcnts of ~crcw conveyors
sllUft usually limit<; a single drive to about 100 ft. and of ILl! conveyoN! operating with tl. 1:ICraping a.ction
Diameten; vary from 3 (,() 24 in. may be cstimalHl WI the SUOl or thc power to run the
Screw conveyors are compact, requiring little head- equipment alone, the power to overcome the frictiOD
room and no return mCChWli$.fl\. They urc Ci!o- of the matedu! bcir.g moved, and the power to lift
nomieal ill original cost and muintcnanee. Thc mate- the m ate rial uny vertical height. For screw con-
rial is also mixoo as it passes through the conveyor. veyors t.he hOl"llCpower to run the equipment alone
Thit; i!:l often an advantage. The tendency to crush is essentially thnt required to overcome bel!ring and
friable mate~-jals mayor may not btl an advantage. The bibl'oKr.. phy for thi s chapter appilQllI on p. 64.
rJIlhl N<III.abrui_ H....,. N...... bno fl .,. ,\brui ...

o; __ ,,"r

or 11<.......
~h<eri&l. ~,E-, ... ~ M.terial,
e .... Coal ,-
101.wloJ.... E-

iD. M.,.i_
M_d oM ...i
ow IVIt.

... II/h, mum
.~ II/hr

" ""
= .""" r2.\

"" "" "





,., .',.,"
' 00
' 00
"" .00
00 ... .
'" "

,." ,,.. .,"'"

""" ,w '00 '''''
,,'..'""' '''' ...,

'"" I ,"", "w
" I '"., I "
'''' ""'
'"" '''''' '"
F:!o.61. Flight eon wyl>T wi th flilhta.upported on the trouch.
gear friction IUld is prop!'ftionuly small. For hori~ (LinkRelt Co.)
___ ~ntal movement the total horsepower may be esti~
to 30 degrees. The conveyors are widely ul:lCd for
- - mated ws follows. t
loose material til/lot is Ilonrll)fl\.l~ive, ~uch as grain,
Horsepower food waste, garlmgc, and coal, but Illcy are not !!uit-
able fol' friable al.)rlll; ive material, such lIS clillkers,
(Cocfficient)(Cupncity, Ib/ min)(l.ength, ft) gravcl, or crusl1ro ore.
where coefficient .. 4.0 for ashes .
., 2.5 for coal.
= 1.3 for grain.

Flight CcrWCyorB cOllsi.;t of one or two end l~ chairu;

passing through a t.rouJZ;h or sct of guides (Fig. 51).
The chain~ have plat.e!! of wood or s~eel called flight..; Fro. 52. SecliOl!al diaKrn.m of two-c hnin rol1r-lJ.Upp<'II.< ~d
attaehed at regular intervals. The fligh t." arc shapt'd conveyor.
to fit the trough. The chains pull the Uight8 and the
mster iul along the t rough nnd pass over sprockets at. Capncilips of AiKht conveyol1S may he estimated
the end of the n m, one of the sprockets acting as the from the follow ing formula. ! (80% efT.) .
drive. VariOlls designs are used. Sume flights Re mpe
on the trough bottom (Fig. 5 1). Some with two T- - -
chains support the fiightl! by the chains or wlleB or 0000
whcre T = ton s/ hr.
by arms riding on a guide track (Fig. 52). Qne type
/J = wid tl. or fl ight (in .).
has a pair of rollers 00 each fl ight I\nd a sll1,11;lo eon~
D = depth of flight (in., .
neeting chitin at the cenwr. Either or both the bot
S = s]W'ed of COllyeyor (fpm).
tom and upper run may be used in handling material;
P~ = bulk densit.y of matcrinJ handled (lu/e n
however, it is most common to employ the lower run.
ft ).
Speeds of 100 rpm are common, hut the SI>Cl-d may
"'ary from 25 to 200 fpm . . Thi,. exprc;!jion a pplies t() conveyors
Flight conveyors may be used on inclines up to 45 and t,1 conv(~yuf'll inclined to an Il,nglc not exeet.>dillg
degrees, bu t preferably the incline should be limited the angle of repose for the materiaJ handled.
The horsepowe r required to drive flight conve.ror~ OCCIIPY olily a IKlrtion of the entire cfOf5S..!!eetionai
may be estimated : area of Ihe duct. The duct is kept filled or partially
filled with material. The movement of the flights
_":("1') ) -,-
-,,(,,L,-- +~b,,(W
(S::)-,+_1:0::::.L conveys the material in the duet because the friction
hp "" :-
between the particles uf the material is greater than
in which hp - total h Orl:lCpower at conveyor .tIhaft. the friction between the particles and the smooth
T - material handled (torus/hr). walls of the conveyor duc t. It is used for
L - length of conveyor from center to hani::Hing finely divided or powdered material &lch
center of sprocket ({9. as fl our, cement, clay, and looae material such as
W .. total weight (lb) of chain and flightll sand, coal, xrain, a.nd brcakflUlt foods. One of its
per (oot of distance bet'o\"eeu r.en~ majllr adVtUlL!Lge8 is its ability to cleval.ti vert.ically
ters (both runs). Ul:lually about (Fig. 5-1) as well lUI to convey horirontally. The
equal to- T _x/ 4. See Table 1M. "lOlled duct may also be, important.
S - speed (rpm). Sial or drag ccmt<efJurB (Fig. 55) consist of one or two
. a _ constant for material (Tabkd4) . cha ins to wbich are attached c~ bars, us ua lly of
b '"" constant for conveyor (Table 14). wood, whicb drlij!; on a flat-IKlttom t.rough. They arc


o I "'.

Inclination with R orir.ontai S W 25 ' 30" 35 40 W

Anth",eite 0.343 0.42 0.60 0 .586 0.66 0.73 0.79 0." 0." 0 . !i45

Bituminous 0.00 0.69 076 0.83 0.88 0.% 1.02 1.08 1. 13 1.15

,.... 0." 0 .62 0 . 12 0." O.. &'.i 0.00 0.97 1.03 1.06 1.10
1"light.IJ and chain supported on bloelul
... h~h slide 011 the lr&ck 0.03 0.03 0.03 0 .029 0.028 0.027 0.026 O.OU ! 0 .023 0.""
Fli,:hta supported by 3J+in. roller\! 0.004 0.004 0 .001 0.004 0.004 0.004 0.003 0 .003 !0 .003 0.003

Redhr oorwtyOr3 (Fig. 53) Me a special type of used for conveying loose material such as chi ps, saw~
flight conveyor for dry and iooec material. The dust and refuse.
conveyor (Fig. 53) coosi!d3 of a metal duct which The simplest Conn of t.he drag conveyor is the drag
may be circular, rects.nguiar, or St"jUare, through chain, consisting of simply one or m ore endless cilains

which a chain passes carrying f1igbta _ The flights running in a trough, generally of wood.. No flighlll

.... ..... <:000&

or slats Ilre needed, as contact with thf1 c:hain is
8ufficient to move the materiel. They arc primarily
for the handling of aMes and similar material. The

I' ln. 1i.5. Dmg =-onveyor for 1lO! /'ement clinker cuI .tool
dOl, chili". (r,\Q"~ B,-.u en.)

Carr ien. /lell contocyora, as the name "Suggt'flU,

~onsist of endless belts, suitably Kupported and
drivfm, which carry or transport wl ids from place
to place. Belts are made of canvas, reinforced rubber
or balata, l\.Ild strip steel. Strip stt':('1 is abo em-
ployed for cOllveying mal,erials through furnaces.
Belt conveyors are adapted to wide varieti!5 ami
quantititll! <)f material!>, require relatively low power,
and can tralUlport solids for long distances. The
initia.l costs an; usually higher than for other tYI*S
of conveyors, but thi~ is IIOt the decidin~ farlo!' in

FIG. 54. Phllntom '! .... WIIlR of lteUl~r elcv:t.1Or. (Sl~

.-trlellvon. Mh- Co.)

depth of material conveyed depends on whether the FIG. 56. ~ed belt conveyor. ((.'ilai" Btli Co.)
ffiaterill.l is tine or lumpy. The capacities when mate-
rial is being carried to a depth of 4 in. at a speed of The loaded belt. (Fig. 56) is carried all gnlUJl"I ot
30 linear fpm vary from 400 to 800 ell ft of material !:lmaU idling rollers (Fig. 57), so arrlUlgcd that. tht
per hour for chains of 46 to 54 in. in width. The belt forms a trough. The widt.h of the belt variC!
capacitieR are directly propurlionni to the spet.'<i, but from 14 to 00 in., and Ihe number of idler~ variC!
~I>CI!ds IIhnutd not ex(:t.'ed 30 (pm for Il.brWliw matt"- c'oTl'Cllpondin (Iy. The kllers must be IIplu:ed !>O Iha'
rials. there will lx no sagging of I ht' belt bel.ween them
'This ISPlicing varies hom about 5 ft for nafl'OW belts Unl00iiillrJ th e wnveyvr offers more of a problem
down to 3 ft for the widest belts. The return idlers unless the loud is discha rged by gravity where the
are cylindri<ml rollers, spaced at greater intervals belt passes II.round the head pulley. If discha.rge at
than thOHI'! cun-ying the loaded belL The idlers may an. intennffiiatc point is required, one of tllrt.>e
be equipped with "nntifriction" (bull or roller) bear- methods may be followed.
ings or ordinary bushed bearillgl>. Power require- I. The simplest method is to arrange the support-
ments are considernbJy lower for I:I.Iltifriction bear- ing idlers horizontally so that the belt runs f1a.t, and
ings, but original C06t.s are higher. to iDlltai! a scrape at an angle of 45 degrees acr088
the belt, at the point. of di~harge. The bad features
of thi,; method are incN!ll.<;eQ belt wear and the
tendp,ncy of the loud to spill over the sides of the
belt before the semper is reached.
2. The belt may be rUIl over groups of idlers set
obliquely w tip the belt !!O that the load spills over
the edge of the bE:lt. Tills dot:;;! not deliver the load
at onc definite spot but the method does have some

FlO. 57. l:mpty belt conveyor, showin& supportinc a.nd guid-
ing itl k!r pulleys. (Lint.RtlI Co.)

Belt conveyors may be drh"p.n from any point,

although t.he head or discharge end is the best from
the standpoint of stress ('ondition!! in the belt. The
driving power may be applied through 0. simple
bare steel pulley, a rubber lagged pulley, or a tandem
drive com.isting of two pulleys connected tQ the
motors through reducing gears.
Chongcs in loading, temperature, and humidity
affect the length of the belt., and some provision must
be made for keeping t.he belt from sagging and be- FlO. 58. Cmvity take-up pulley (or belt conveyor. (SltpIieM-
coming loose on the driving pulleys. . The simplest Acianuon Mf,. Co. ) "
form of such "" consista in mounting the
Shaft of the head or tail pulley in a bearing block 3. The "tripper" shown in Fig. 59 is the" most
which may he moved back and forth. A s().{:alled positive means of unloading at intermediate points.
gravity take-up is sho ....'Il in Fig. 58. This take-up The tripper runs on rails which aN! installed along
consisu of a pulley mounted in a f rruncwork which each side of the belt. It is equipped with two pulleys
is free to slide up and down between I-beam guides. over whieh the belt runs. The lower pulley is placed
The pulley and its framework are supported by the below and behind the upper pulley 80 that the belt
belt between two return idlers. Weights nrc fas- ill doubled back, allowing the load to fall over the
tened to the framework to control belt tCru!ions as upper pulley into a chute which may deliver the
Rqllired. With very long conveyol1l it is often load all on one side of the belt or on both sides. T he
nl'!OllSl;8,ry to remove ~tions of the belt. and repllU:e tripper may be placed at any desired unloading
t.hem as the Reu.:'lOn1! dmnge. point, or it may be (~onstructed 1:10 that it will move
~lt ronveyoI'S mliY be loaded hy any .type of back alld furth , uistributing the load evenly in a
f..ting d."vice already UetlCribed. long storage bin. Th" Uiw. of & tripper increaHeS the

FlO. 59. Belt conveyor tripper that may be !lelf-propelled and revel1!ed, -Ioaa; tripper track f(W di&t.ributing diIeb&rIed material.
(StcpMv-Adameoa MI,. Co.)

power required to drive the conveyor, but this is 4.. Total (sum of 1, 2, and 3):
offset by the convenience and flexibility of the unit F(L + Lo)(O.03WS) F(L + Lo)T T OZ
in unloading the belt. hp-
+ 090
Capacitiu of belt conveyor8 are indicated in Tables
15 and 16 on p. 68. F(L + Lo)(T + O.03WS) + T .Z
PfJtO(T requirel'\".enU for beU CQnt>eyor8 involve a 090
number of variables and may be estimated by means
of empirical fomtllias such as the following. where bp = horsepower required.
L For empty belt conveyor (minimum value): F = friction factor, 0.05 for plain bearings,
0.03 for antifrict.ion bearings, depend.
_ --,-) ing upon iWJtallation mailltena.nce.
he - 990 L = length of conveyor between tenninaJ
2. For material (excluding belt) conveyed hon- pulleys (ft).
IOntally: Lo .. 100 for plain be.rings, 150 for anti-
T frictioo bearings.
hp - - 990 S "" speed of belt (fpm).
T = maLeria! (tons/hr).
3. For eievllting material (excluding belt which
AZ = increase ill elevation of material (iL).
balancea itself): W - m~ (lb) of movin,; parb including helt
T.Z ond idlcNC per foot of dil;itmce between
hp _ - - (negative when travel is downward)
900 oenteu of terminal pulleys (both runs).
M __ FliJi:ht con~yol'l

I- 4XIOto 6XI8 0.6 Ib/ ln. of width per runnin( foot

M lm"", ~J' SI>"I"do. rpm

.... ---- 81 ..., m,

__ ,
8 X 18 to 10 X 24
Helt oonVl:lY')nI
1.0 Ib/ in...f width roe" running foot
1.01b/;n. of width per n.lflni", foot

..... ,- ......

DIIi_ With FI,,"';',. A_ Abrasi"" Actu....l dinl(!r\l!i0Il611lui weightR are AVlr.ilab1e 11l mll.nUfllctUTens'
M.~ M.~
"" ~.

.. ... -
Power requirement6 for tripper!! "",y be computed
, ,

'" .. ...
'" .... ...
... -

0 . 14
0. 111


Il.II follows .
bp = YS +ZT
where S - belt gpeed (fpm).
T - peak capacity (tonll/ hr).
'" "
.. .... ."....., .. .....
0.78 ~
,, ,"

~ Y IUld Z are constants from following lauhJ.~

.... ...... ..... ..... ....


"" H 1. 48 "" Wldtlt of B,I" i .

IS ~ H M " U q U
0.0001 0.0030 ' . 00211.0lI2\l 1.0031' 0.0041 1. 0010 O.OOM O.OOU 0.0100
O.otW a.CIOIfi 0. 1IOiII 0. _ O.OCHO a. ~ 0.0010 0. 00&5 ' .001 O.omr

~ iDd"..L. """" materialo ... .,a1" ond ~ ."tb......., An interesting modification of the be1t conveyor
au'" ....
t A _ _ I0<0I.... kIrido ... *. ~ - . ...d. ...d is the zipper conveyor which is essentially a. belt con-
t ,,1>< ...... 'lid..... wdo ....1eritJo .. lOOk<. -""'" ho"" ""*- &1'11'" veyor with the edgP.s tripped qether to fonn an
endless tube (Fig. 60). In Q?er&tion the tube is
TABLE 16. MAXIJ\1PM CA?ACtTIf)3' FOR closed after being loaded and is lipped open at the
CONVEYOR BELTS point of discharge, remaining open until the loading
point iB reached. Because the tube is flexible and
Mllx:mum Capacit.y with Materials of completely encloses the' material, it may travel .

Cu Ydj
Hr 3t
Various Bulk Densi ti es. ton~/hrat l00fpm around corneN!! at any angle and in any plane.
Apron fXlnveyor, are similaT to belt conveyors in
I . that solid materials are cllITied in a moving trough,
Fpm 25 50
100 " I 1"1
lb/ Ft' Lb/ F't.' Lb/ Ft' l.b/ Fr' ! Lbi Ft'
I but the trough is fonned of articulating sections of
woOO or metaJ instead of a continuous flexible belt..
. 2:1.' 8 .. 24

., "
Apron conveyol'fl are frequently employed when the
material to be conveyed ill lumpy, abraaive, hot, or
" 31.1 10 21 31 42
otherwise injurious to flexible belts. Their weight


18 39.6

49 .3
72 ..



restrict6 apron conveyors to relatively !hart hauls
and much lower speeds, but they are capable of
carrying much heavier loads than belt conveyors.
79 '58 237 The only discharge point is at the head end of the

36 173 . 3
242 . 2

24 7
, .
1 330
Aproo conveyors may appear in several types of
con~truction, but the usual form, shown ill Fig. 51,

..." 422 .2

. SO
I """'" "".
I " . ""

(:(Il).Sists of two endles.<! strands of roller chain whict>
arr ~(mOO(~ted hy dnnblf'-hrarl/'rl ~1 4\f' 1 paM. The
idea of the beadiDJI," iI! til maintuin a cfmtmuol1S
trough to prevent leakage in tran",il, tt.nd to prevent
Operating capaClt_ ()f flat belt eot'Ivuyul'tl an: taken llt
material from being wedged between the aprons
one-half of thO!!e Ii!rl.ed. Capacit ~ 01 incliDt.'<i oonveyol"$ IU'I.!
6 to 10 pe r ""nt m than lilllN!. Fo r mll.terial weif;htR a.nd when the load is being dischargoo at the head end
8pt....'c.IS ulll",' tlHm shuwn above, UI!O direet. proportion ror of the clJllvoyor. The !JoI'adiug also pl' nul.h..'-
thnnag.l <1Il.lculatioDS. rial from slipping backward when the conveyor is

Jo'IO.OO . Druwing inoJl~l1ting the ~'>llli lructlon und opcl".ll ioll r:/1i llper encklllCd-hdt ronveyor-o!ievl!.tor. (Sl~- I\damf(ll\
Mf,. Co.)

jllltined. The head with the larger nliliw. is loca~d

on the leading side of the apron or Plln and rotates
about the bead with thc smaller radius, which is
located on t he rear edge of th.e apron just ahead.
Thc curvatu re of the beads is concentric with the
line of articulation of the ehain joints. Otherwise-it
would be impossible for the larger lJead to rotate
:smoothly around the smaller bead 00 the ad jacent
The contours of the aprons may bc varied until
thcy become a continuous serie; of bW.lkets pivotally
sllpported between two endles;; chiLins. This is a
very flexible type of conveyor and is known all thc
Puk carrier (Fig. 62). Thc buckets maintain their
('j\r' po!!ition hy gravity and l$O may COllvey
mnll'rial- huri:wnLally, vcrti('ally, and again hori-
zuntally, or in any de:iired path in the !\arne vertical
plane. The buck.ets may be readily di~t:hargcd at
any JXJint by the tripping dcvi(~e indi(;ILtt'(i; calu,linl(
FIG 61. Apron COIIVl!yor viewed f,..,m point c( d each bllckd, to t.unl thru ugh 90 fl<'gl~ and dump
(CMin IkU Co.) ils luad.
In the cenin'jugal~idarge type (Fig. 63), th~
buckets are bolted through the back onw a single
strand of chain or belt. The buckets Me loaded by
material flowing through a chute into the bllckets or
by scooping up the load under the foot wbeel. The
load is throl\'n out of the buckets by centrifugal
force as the buckets pass over the head or upper
wheel. In t he po.tih"ue-di3charge type (Fig. 64), the
buck"ts IU"t carried on two strands of chain which
are 8Ilubbed under the head whools and sfi'ord Il more
poeitive discharge. ContinuoUll.:distharge ~leootor"
(Fig. 65) are built with the buckets so close tocether
that each bucket discharges by gravity, with the
load flowing over the front of the preceding bucket
FIo. 62. Peek eatrier .nd elevator fihowing the operat.ion at into the discharge chute. COlltinuous-discharge
the tripptlr (It point of di$Charge. (Link-BeU CQ.) bucket elevators operate at much slower 8peed~ t.han
the centrifu@;al-discharge types. Centrifugal-dis--
Bucket ekvalcra are used when the only direction charge type!! are well adapted to light mat.erials snch
of travel required is vert,ienl. Three common types of as grains, ashes, etc. Heavier and niore abrasive
bucket elevators are illustratOO in Figs. 6:f, 64, and materials must be handled in the continuou.s-di&-
65, charge types of elevators.

Flo. 63. Drawing'i11ua- Fla. 64. Drawing illua- Flo. 66. Drawina illW!trating
tratinll; & oentrifugttl-di8- tll!.ting the "poiYtive- the oontinuoWHiiechargl'l buck-
chArge bucket elentor. discharge" buclcet ele- et eleVAtor. Buck~b a r e
The bucke\.6 ate alliubly vator. The buckets II.m mounted elOlle to one anoLhur
spaced on & chain or l.>elt "end-hunK" bet.WOOD two to fonn A oontinuOWl row of
.... hich ie driven with suf st~18 01. dwn aDd are bucke"'. High CApacity is o~
ficient ~peed to discll&rgo inverted as they pw!S tained by the ~ numbe~ of
the bo.''lketA over the Over the head sprockets buckets &nd not by speed.
head wheel by CCntrifll- a.nd behind the idler Theile elevators ma:' be in-
Ral foroe. It. may be .... hocJs, thereby effeo- dined ~ well AS vertical, and
U&i'J {or alm(.Jo!.t My ma- tiV'eiy diaclt&rging mat&- the~ cpc;"te MtiafACk>ril:r at
terial tha~
i, di9Clut~ rial!. not ~1l handled by 4.S or more ~ rrom the
r~ly from t he buckets.
(CMi" /kit C'q.)
oeDtm ugal <.fuc~ el&-
vatora. (C""",,, &ll Co.)
boriaonlAl. 'MfA Bd# Co.)
The Cl~itie6 of apro!1, pan, and ' bueket oon WEIGHT DETERMINATJON
veyon and bucket elevaton vary from a. few tona
The OOIItrol of material as it .Rows through a plant
up to IWPut tQO tons/hr for material.e: ha.ving a
is essential for i!lOOounting, for"inteJ:plant records, or
density uf 50 Ib/cu ft. The capatity varies approxi-
for control of the operation or p~ Measuring
IIl.II.teo/ dil'!'l'ltly wjQl ~ denaitr of the lOad.
weight is an important methl In the selection of
The power reciW'ed fQr ~rivin8; these aproo and weighing equipment not only mU9t the process or
bucket COIlV~~ Pl3Y be estimated by tbe exP,re8- method of manufacture be coDsidered, but vari()U.!,
.. (GrQ88 turning eff9rt)(Bpeed, fpm) outBide !;Iogencies,
, .laws, and reKuIatioos. must fre.
pp - . quently be corurulted.
33,000 A scale is a device which measures the fon:e of
The l'fJISiatanoe \0 turning RI in pounds at the pitch gravity OD an unkll()wn mass-by balancing a known
radiul of the I:!eacf or driv~g sprockets may be ' force agaiD.l!t the ,unknown force. Except in small
ealr.uiatOO : scales the various elements of the scale reduce the
f(lr bucket elevators applied force: 80 that a relatively small balancing
force Dl&y be applied. '
If the balanciIm force is supplied by the force of
For hori!llootaJ apron ~ bue~t conveyors grayity on any mass, such as a weighbeam or pendu-
R, - '(M " W)(LJI,l 14m weights connected to a'dial, any change in the
gravitational field has, .... similar IUld proportiooal
For indi!led apron and bqeket conveyors
Ht - L(M + W)[(R, toe a) + Irin al + WL[(C08 aRI) - ain al
where At of mal-erial conveyed per foot
= mass (lb)
effect on the unkno",'U weight and .t he balancing
of conveyor or elevator.
weight, and the scale correctJy 'measures the un-
, W = mass (Ib) of chain and aprons or buck:eta
per foot (both runs).
known mass in any gravitational fi2Id. If the bal-
ancing foroo is supplied' by a spring, the scale does
L == length of conveyor or elevator from
not measure the unknown mass but ilie force 0&'
head abut to foot shsIt (ft).
gravity on the unknown mass which varies with the
1:~) + (0:)

RI = (,rolling friction) == local aooeleration of gravity.
Generally 8(laies and other weighing devices are
.t: _ 0:33 for metal on metal, not composed of three essential parts; the load-receiving
elemen~, the load-bearing members, and the indiCAt-
= 0.20 for metal on metal, greaseg. iDg element. The indicator may be a weighbeam, a
D = diameter of chain roller (in. ). dial, or an automatic recorder. The selection of the
d '# diameter of blll!hing or pin upon indicating device depends on the application, the
which roller turl'.S. operating per8(lnnel, and the cost. of the ins~
/1 coangle of inclination of conveyor or ele- tion.
vator (degrees).
C - force (lb) rcqujred to drag the buckets Load-Reccriuili& Element
of a centrifug9.1 discharge elevator When an object is weighed it is usually nec:eesat)
through the material beiDg loaded. to support the weight on an independent e1emeJl'
It need not be included in oomputa- entirely supported by the load-bearing members
tiotul when the elevator is loaded by a In nearly all large scales this indc~ndent elemen1
feeding device. Even when uSed its consists of 8. weigh bridge supporting various super
value must be estimated. structures such as railroad tracb, a platform rOl
The turning n...;istanoo HI calculated in this man- trucks, a hopper, bin, or tank perma.nenUy built or.
ner should be increased 10 per coot for friction of the weighbridge. On smaller scales the load-receiv-
head and foot shafts; and 15 per ce'nt for eaeq pair ing element may be a IIJIl8iI platform or pan, or the
clsear reductions to obtain t he gT068 turning effort. objeet may be bung directly on the lood-bearin,

Fill. Ma. CutllWtly Yiew of Iypicll j r:,il roo J h,,~ k ~.. l(!. i'our.......:t i"n I<Nlle, 4.... ""i~li nll: of Inu T &:I ~ nl m." n l.. vcn\. TIle I.N]
iIs ddi vcreo.l to the j",lie5t<>r h.\" lt1c lra"~vc"", IcYe. {'x , .,ndi ,,~ ou t at the " .w:llt of t he Jl',;l ure. (J-'aiTwmh, M"r.t u: Cu.)

clement. Variol1s types nf conveyors are frequently buil t into the ",all:; uf lhc scale pit, or they may be
platl'(i directly on the lood mcm\:lIm . horizmltai rnemOerti between the weigh bridge and
the wulls or the l'cule pit .
Lotl(J.B~!fIri"g Jl!embers P ivots and bearings of bardened tool steel arc used
The irnvlwbearing members generally CUn!:!ist of in rnUl:!t scales 1,0 cnrry the load, as they are prac-
!!everal interconnected levers. In simple systems tically the only parts of the lever system t.ha~ are
only two levers may he required to carry t.he 10&1 suhject to wear or damage. They nre frequent ly
and reduCfi the ballUl-cing force required. III heavy- inspected and must be continuously protected from
duty railroad sr.ales there may be as many a!i thirtt)en corrosion. In ~ales tha i. are sUhjected to heavy
or more levers (Fig. Thp. lwul from the weigh- tI;;ug<l tJlf~y mu~t. be repiar;e.:l or resha rpcned period-
bridge is transmitted through lillks to the mllin levers, ically. f 'U:ture plate, arc lrequently utlCd in place
which reduce and transmit the lood to the end ex- or
of the m9ft: conventional pivots knife edges. They
tension levers, \vhieh in turn t~allsm i t the load to the consist of relatively thi n plaWiJ of meW restrained
transverse lever and fina lly to the indicating device. in a vertical position so t hat they are subjected to
The conncction between the wcighbridge and the nearly pure compression. The slight amount of
lever lJystem is important lot accurate weighing. angula r movement is pro ...ided by the elasticity of
Only the vertical comJ)Qnents of the load must be the metlll. Flexure plates are gcnernlly COt nd in the
delivered to the levers. Any horizontal fo~ due largest ty.pes of sca1e:; but are also used in laboratory
tn impact, temperature, ()t similar factnrs must be and small capacity s(,IlIf!~.
r.iimiuo.ted. This is gene.rally accompliMcd by sus-
pension .Iinks) or by bnlll'J or rollen between the lndicotillg Eknl flnl.~
bridge and the lever system. It ill also necCSSilry to The indicating element inc\udel:! the method of
rest rab the weighbrKlgc from cxce&\ive violent dis- appl ying a calibrated force \.0 ballUlcc the applied
pl.wcment. Variolls "checking" systems nrc used load and m ust. indi(~ate by vlsUa.l or ut.her nlf~ans the
to limit horizontal motion... These may be bumpers magnit ude of tile balalwing f!)l'Ce.

' h l p~'m lllluill .Iinl" Ihl' Inad t.. balancec.1 by I"levat-

ing nnt' ur mm" pt'ndllium w('ighta. Although rather
complex in d esign pendulum dials are generally accu-
rate an d df'[><;,nclahle if properly installed and main-
taincd, ~pr ing-operatcJ. dials are ~impJel' in d~ign
all(1 muin tcnru}(!f!, hut not so accura te unlcr:!lS springs
Ot'f' !'Olmpcnfllltf"(1 for temperatllTe changes. They are
alSo'! !\\lIJjee t t o efror because of changes in grnYlta-
ti OlI/I.! f,m:e II it h change; in location .
.1uWllllllic rCCOrtJ('T1; may be separate nni l" or l\SS()-
r i11.1ed II'it h ri ther a dial or \\'cigh heam , ThE'Y ure
uS('(1 on railroad lSeales to aIlOl\- weighing or t he cars
as Iher ro ll lu:rU'S3 the scale withollt stopping. Helt
eOIl \'cyor !l(' al{'~ (F ig. U5b) eontinllollsly intcgrate the
w('ip;ht of materinl on the comp.yor with the speed of
travel (,f the These aft> wiJcly used in miDcs,
po\\,f'r p hm t ~, or in industrial plants where larRc
(luuntitiC'S (If bulk material are ha.nd led on belts.
C onn'yu!' i:K'lIlcs an" the only slril!tly continuous
ol.ll'mtion in w{'igh ing .
A IIllmwlic balch controllera are of Rrcat importance
in the proccs industril"S wherever rat es of production
FlO. 660. Belt--ronveyor ,;calc. .\ "~ i i ... n of is ....~, .. )( ..... "d are high. They ma.y be uSt'd to proportion solids
by ~he lever system, and lbo, ..."iSM ;S l'Oll linuoo..Jy in ' t'gmlro ( Fig. l\,)c) , lielilids, or combinlltions or
hath. Speeial
with hell 8peetl . (M l'rritk S(QK .III,. ro. ) inllicators on I'mll'entiona! dial or j)t>ilffi !j('nles, such
11." photO('It>f'lt'ie devices, ma~' l)fl 1lst'(1 to operate
The weigh beam consists "f U ('It1i\)I'atC'd bar with a
mnvable poise. Thf' poi~e il; 1ll)~iti1)ne-d :.d ong the
beam ulltil the IoiHI on till' lel'l')' ~.r8tCIll i~ lmlnnt'eJ.
The position of tlle IJQise 1l1 ny thrll Ilfl !'on\"('rt cJ.
into the amoun t of load on th e 8('nle. The wc igh-
ocam is thc basis of mus t indira! ing l,lt'ment!l, and in
itself is widely used for scal~ of 1111 ~i7.CI:I. It. is fre-
quently associated with other indicat ing deviees,
being used for tare eomPf'.nsalioll, or as a sta.nd-by
unit in c~ flf failure of the other indicator.
/A'all! llIay he used on ull t.ypes of lever systems.
They are eaSy to ,read, requirc no manipulation on
the part of the operator, and indicate the result
rapidly, However, they seldom have more than 1000
graduations. around the periphery which limi :.s the
readahility of dials to >1000 uf their total capacity.
This limitation is overcomc using the dialw indicate
only t.hat part of the wl'igh t ()ver the weight balanced
hy drop weights applied to the lever system. Fur
exllmple, a 5(X)()..lh d ial with a minimum graduatinn
of.5 Ib mAy be u~ for loads it! excess of 5000 lb. An
added tW'igh t balalwing 5000 Ib it! addAd to the beam,
ant! the rllnj.,'tl of tht' dial iw.c)umel:l Will to IO,()(X) Ib FI<'. 1;;,1('. Tyllit':l1t IlO!.l.cJ,ing unit... Two '!:fr.. "~nt malt,""I,'
:n... pl'Ol~,ri i,,"ed hy weiKht in IIJ() weigll hnpprl1l, V'ilrui."..
without :mcrificing readability. AmdCa.j
batch eootrQ\Jer~ i\l~re, yftcn spedal autuma\ic PROBl.E.I\IS
cont.rQUers KOVeTQ the en..tire prpcess.
1. A J::Je of crude wlfur". t be moved from one plant
~ P~ and"bagging ~le8 are ~pccialized forma to another by dump 'ruck. 'J'rU8U IlIiITyinc 6' t().. each can
of bat;eh controllers, generally incorporated as inte- make 000 rowxI trip 6V1Iry_r, ~.e or "~lnc time..
gr;a.I'porUons of qthcr machinery. I The I'J08t. of f-!UeJ..jnc iii etltUn.-ted ~~ ,",oo/hr for .the t.ruek
C~ng . scoles for counting large quantities of and driver. A comtruetiol1 . ClGmpllllY will load the aulfw-
with II pII\\er ehovel at .,.40/w yd and suuantee loAding at
~l object. have ratio beams that allow rapid derer-
Ui 1oOM/hr but .nth a minimum eh!lr&e of 1160. The lrucb
mination of !ID\lJlt w},en the klentical objects are osed may be.1oaded by ~ labor ,t." eo.t of 11.30/ hr per laborer.
88 oounterbalancin wejgbts. (11) What ~ the rrw:imunl , volume of the pile for which
Electronic BCtJiu tp.a~ climina~ leven are becoming hAnd 1oa4iq would be n:KIlt ~t t
(6) Mitt" the _~. ~ to move 10 tons, 11'10 tons,
increasingly im,pO"rtant in speeial wejghing _appJi~
tions large tanks and bins. Tbe load-bearing
1000 ~!by too more et'lI)QOmloa1 methodt
element consists of a calibrated member with strain 2. ii()W~ ~ ~ ~ M!I required~to 100d a freight
pge8~ or 'other sensi.:ive ~evices a.ttacbed. The load car with 40 ~of ~ ~ iD. IOO-Ih I-cs if the
produd JJ1UIt. lie ~ UIO y,I by , hand t rifoli -wbich
is m~red by tPe de~on j)f tbe column _88 ~e a bAt:! per 'WiD7;~~M
l~ is applied.'fhe deflection ij! measured 'elec-
~ :~~..
3. One ~red t.oll!~r qI~te -'- ....~~ be moftl!!
trically and through the use of servos is iDdieated
~u!'nl "distallC6 of tOO k; . ~~' ~~ of"il,.:b
by. dial or automa.t-ic recorder. of the three eliwiee 1iBud, _.nq ~a.tcuijJ.fe lhe~"fl" requi,m
Hydraulic scalea also form an increasingly im- i to' opera~ \h!! a)'\ltf:rn. ~ ~be runallMt eonYe)'or that
portant type in which' the leve", of a eoov~nt.ional ..m do the job. > "

scale replaced by a hydraulic system, ba,l- mat, (II) Screw eonve)'il'.
(b) Flight OOD7tl)'ilr.
anCe8 the applied load .. The force or weight is indi .
(el Belt conveyor.
c8~tedfby.. a ~i,Jor rec~er. Hydraulic scales have
been ~ul in small compact crane scales, wbere the .. 'For' the conditiON of problem 3, ospeeiIy the typl! of
conveyor an4 i$B .ue that 'Jill -reQuire tlU! minimum power.
load on me hook of.. a "rane D).U8t be ,q~~f1nined. Th{:
accurate dead-weight tester foc measuring higb .p~ . 6. A belt conveyor is rcquirtld to dell,.",. eru><hood Wmt>fltoDe
sure aDd calibrating p~re sages is a form of having a bulk. denaity ol75lb! eu ft at the",~ of ~ toBllAu".
hyaraulic scale. The oonveyor d; to be 200 n bP.tween ~nterl Qf pulleys with
II. rile of 2'5 ft.. The largest lumpo! are 4 in. &Ild OOMtitute
15% of the total. TIle conveyor -.rill d1!.cbarce QVW lhe end..
BIBLIOGRA,PHY FOf a bel~ ~ of 200 rpm, what ill !.be minimum width of
belt tbat can be U>Ied? Calculate the hmiW!PQwer fQr the drive
1. CliAIN BEl.T Co., Catalot!: ~6 (1945), Milwaukee.
2. HAWLlGJ:, R. 8., M~ H~ a'l f.Ii'r T,~
~. UlrIch 'a Book Store, AII-n Art-- (191 1). 6. What is the ~ty of. rl.ight OOI1ve)'Of of 12 by 24 in.
:J. l,IIU.-Bt:l.T ~., Ca1.4ol ~
f,,? _.-
tra~ling at ,100 rpm and handlin, the crW!hlld limestone of
I.roblem 6. '
7. A Bel"f!W ooo'Y'llyor is to be ;nsl&l\ed to convey 800 bushela
',~ of whe.t per hour QVeI' . distance of 80 ft. Determine the
!lise (diameter), speed (revniutiOM per minute) aIM! honJ,r
.power requiremen\e for the u.t&Ilatioa.

.., .; ;.. -
j.'-'c- "

..,, ,


THOUGH all, our activities arc completely surrounded by the fluid

X atmosphere, those operations previously considered in Part l can be

calculated and conducted as though ill the complete absence of
fluids. In the variOUs unit operations to be discussed fluids are involved_and
the properties of the fluids have an important influence on the operations,
particularly as they aff~ct the relative motion between solids and fluids.

Properties of Fluids

F.NS'TY, specific gravity, Rnll other simihtt (force)(time}/ (length}2. TheI;e dimensions of vlflOOli-

D properties haye the !:lame Hignillcance for

fluids ~ fQr IK/lids, The definitions of th.~
properties are given in Chapter 2.
ity (p.) !luggeilt correctly that it m ay be eVliluated by
such meansaJ:\ timing the flow of a given mass of ftuid
through :. sta ndard apertul't: as well &8 by measuring
the resistance to motion of two parallel surfaoos.
VISCOSITY In the met ric system viscosity is defined a.~

grams m ass/(cent imero r)(<:!CI.'OIld ) and the unit is
Visooeity i8 Il unique and rn08t important property
of all aetual Rum. It is 80fllewhat anaJogous to
resistance to shear in 801m The principal re&IIOIl

....yerDof_ A
for the difference in tlie How ch8[&Cteristics 0( IVater ReialNe wIocity .w
and of mol8l:lHeti is tha molasgefl has a much higher
villCOlJity than water. The analog;- to, shear fftlu:;t-
anoe in solids may be referred 1.<1 in establishing the
units of viscosity. Assume two parallel layers in the
flu id. a.g indicated in Fig. {if)(l, ('ACh hu.ving an area
of A SQuare cent imeters and with a diAtance of dy /
centimeters between them. One h~yer is oon.-;idered
stationary ; the other layer moves at a constant ,t I--------,y/
velocity rela tive to the fi rst layer of dv centimeters
per seeond. A force of F dy nes is req ui red to main-
tain this relative velocity of the moving layer.
F or the general case, with II. number of layers,
Velocity, It

when the velocity v is any funr:tinn uf the diRtllnce y,

FlU. 66. (II) Two IIIY'~ of Auid in lamhlllr How; (II) velocity
&Ii indicated in Fig. H(jll, at '''Iy pnint of multi]lI\: IIIY\:1'!1 of fluid in I!l. miull r flow.
P dv
...... ... ~- ( I) I'a-Ilet! Il poi~. Thit\ ullit i!l Iat her huge for mOl>t
A d, appliea!i(ln!:!, a nd viscosities are frequen tly reported
where jJ. is a factor representing the characteristic of in centipoh;cs. One poise "" 100 centiPoises.
the fluid called th(' viscosity, which is the &lear In English uni ts, the dimeruions of vi.;oosil,y a re in
modulus for the Auld. ::;;u/ving for t he vi!lCOtlity pounds mass/ (feel.)(lICCOIIds). This unit has no name
P dy d(me) dll as yet, although it is widely used. To coovert rrom
, ~ - - - --- (2) poises to the Uritish viscosity unit, which may be ab-
Adr Adl.dv breviated as BVII, multiply by 3OA8/ 4S3.6 or 0,0072.
Vaatosity is thE' tim(' rat~ of dl:\II~ {If momentum per
Vi8CQ8ity in centipnilW>l X (6.72 X 1O -~ )
linitares. nnd VE'locity gradient. l t lul,iJ the nt't, dimen-
.itlll8 of m a&l/ (length)(time) or the dinlPnsions of - Viscosity in Arit.ish uni t I:'
.. Specific ~ty is
the ratio of the abeolute vi&- RELATIVE MOTIuN BE"J'WEEN
C<J6ity in either poises or Hvu to the absolute ViSC08ity FLUIDS AND SOLIDS
of a sla.nciard fluid expressed in the same units and
taken at the same temperature. There are many practical situationa in whieb reI..
Kintmahc MosilV is the absolute viscosity di- t.ive motion exisU! between fluids and solid bound~
vided by the density (p./p) and has the dimensions uf aries. In some cases these solid boundaries are at
(volume)j(lengtb)(time) . It it! freque!ltly deter- rest wit.h rospect to the earth while the fluid is mov-
minerl by meB6uring the time required for a specified ing. In other C~ the fluid is more or leM at rest
volume of fluid to flow thropgh a st.andard aperture while the solid boundaries move with respect to the
or tube under specified conditions (88 in the Say- earth. Engineers encounter problems which fall
bolt visooeimeter). Tht! unit corresponding to into either or both of these categoriee; 80 it is necelt-
the poise is the stoke, having the dimensions of sary to develop 8- generalized treatment for the rell!.-
, (centimetenl)2/ (geOOlId). tive mot.ioo between a Huid and a solid.
An ideal fluid is & hypotileticaJ fluid w"hich haa a
viscoe.ity 0: zero and interposes 00 resistance to Geometric Similarity
shear. -t\ll aetual fluids po88El8II vleooIrity. The The different shapes and BiIe8 ofBolidll are a1moet.
viscOflity of a liquid decreases and the viscosity of a infinite in nUPlber. For convenience, solids may be
gM inCre&eei! as the temperature increases, two grouped according to their shape!. When every
becoming identical at the critical point. lineM'dimension of a given member of a group OCCU1'8
The viscosities for a few common fluids al'f! listed in a definite or constant ratio to the cOlT'llHponding
in Table 17. linear dimension of any other inember of the group.
all members of that grm.:p are geometrically similar.
TABLE 17. VIsa>sITI~ OF SOME FLUJDS AND A Geometric similarity is the property of having the
SLURRV same shape and differing ooly in size and position.
The scale models of airplanes or railroads and the
'i"~mperatu~. VWloaity,
Mate rial 'C eent.ipoWee
corresponding article Me exceUent examples
of geometrically similar &ystema. Perfeot spbere&

1. 7921
are all geometrically similar, as Me cubes, regula
4Q.' t.etrahedron.8, and a h{l6t of other objects. Reo-
' .1156
"' ..
00.' 0 ..... tangula.r parallelepipeds are not neceesarily geo.

metrically timilar unless multiplying the length of
every edge of the lWl:l.1ler one by a constant factor
will yield the lengths of Ute colTC8JKlnding edges of
Glycerin 14.3
20.3 ...
1387 the larger one.

Dyntlmk SlmUcuity
Dynamic similarity is ~ property of having
0 .0182
0.0195 motion of the same form and differing only in size
arid JXII4tion. It, therefore, also requirea' geometric
0 .0218
'.036 similarity. Two flow systems possess dynamic simi
Slul'f'ioe or Cl\,~ "'" lan'"J' it the streamlines of fluid flow, or the fluid
in Watl'lr (PartieiCft" AWrtlxilUltte Bulk flow pattern, of one system may be superimposed
.lJlJut .5 Microns), TeffipOll'. ViloooIity ..... directly upon the streamlines of the other system
% by weiht ...... 'C cenupoilBl with no change other the equal magnification

20 I.. in all directions of one oC the systems. C0Q3ider the
20 1. 11 r~ passage of air past two spheres of different di~
10 20 i.~ ametel'5. If the velocity of the air id the same past

OJ '"
2. 7\1
both spheres and a cigarette is held in the air stream,
two d.ifterent Row patterns of the BIDoke around tbe
Seoe Apllffidix r"r .. JJi\io.oIw.l vi ..."""ity dlltll.
spheres are apparent. If the velocity past one of
the sphcl'ClI is varied, a particular velocity is found
. at which the 8Illoke fl ow patterns appear to be sim- sponding points in each of the l>imilar systems may
ilar, If photographs are then made of the two smoke be expressed in terms of two forces, one normal to
patterns and the negative of the smaller system is the direction of motion (FlO)' and one tangential
~laced in an enlarger, it is possible to adjust the to the motion (F ,) (Fig. 67).
en~r 80 that a print OdD be made which wilJ be The fluid is assllmed to be a continuous medium.
identical to the print made from the negative of the This assumption is valid except at very low pressures
larger system. In some How pat-terns which oscillate where the mean free paths I;)et.woen the ffiolecu"lei
with time, it is necessary to take the pictu res at become large IUId the fluid no longer behaves as a-
col"1'ePpODding times. eontinuous medium. The gravitational and elastk:
It is apparent that fluKl How patterns cannot be forces are abo aSsumed to be negligible in eomparison
dynamically similar at points adjacent to solid with inertial and vislxlus fOreel!. These assumptions
boundaries that are not geometrically similar. and are valid when there :11 no f~ 5urfat-e for wave
that geamdrn rimilaritv ia a pri11U requiBiIe far motion and the vclocitictl &.re con!>iderably 1e88 than
dynamic rimilarily. If dynamic similarity exists the velocity of sound in the fluid and lead to the
between two systems, the radii of curvature of the following relations.
flow lines or paths at corresponding points in the
two systems occur in a fixed ratio, regardless of the
path or point selected. At t.hese corresponding
I ,

points tl)e velocity ratios are constant, regardless of Any linear dimeru!ion chuuteriJin& the
whll.t particular point is selected; and the ratios of
the accelerations at eorresponding points are fixed
and independent of tbe poeition of the points se-
lected. The directions of the velocity and of the
S iOO of the S)'$wm
A Iinear dimel\.!!ion of the l!JtIali element
MM$ of the BmAli element
Radius 01 path of the snall element
Velority 01 the smAlJ element

.." ,

acceleration at corresponding points in dynamically Volume of the ~ma.ll element " ~

(1 l.s)1
similar systeJIUI are resp&:tively the same. Represemative an::& of the element (fLll t ('~!
Nonn&! fOl"ce acting on the elcrru,nt (P~h V'on
ReynoUh Number, The Criterion of Dynamic Tangential force acting on the elemenl (I',h W,n
Angle of resullant foroe on too clelnCnt

Consider the motion or Row of fluid in two ge0-
Uemity of fluid in L givp.n II.)'8to!nl
Villco8ity of fluid in ci ~n ayltem
"" ~

metrically aimilar syatems, with the time-average "

velocity of the fluid constant at any given point. Because of geometrtc !iimilwily IJetwccn the lwo
The paths of the fluids in the two systems aresimiiar, systems,
and dynamic similarity is said to exist. The forces :. r-aL (3)
&cting upon small elements of the fluids at cone-
.Ll - b['2 and ~I ... ClI2
Path 01 element 01 IkIid
dL, ... - dL,
dVI",, - dv2
(F, I, 0/" - b MJ"J
- - aL2
The normal force acting on element F,ft _ omv 2 / r.
If aL is substitul..ed for ,. and p(oL)3 for om
F. - (4)
- -L, _ The tangent force acting on clement from eo:lua-
t-ioo 2
FlU. tS1. 1)y,I><1I1 ....lly !I;Ulilnr tllI;,1 n"';;',,, wilhi n ct"l,meL- Jt .. do
F, = ~A - ... ~( OI,)- -
" roily llimib.r bounwrtcs.. dL dL
The angle 8 of the resultant force can then be the force necessary to keep the .eolid moving with
expressed in tel'Tns of the tangent of the angle which COl18tant velocity through the fluid. The effect of
is the same for the two similar systems as the solid on the fluid will be to accelerate the flukl
c.r to produce momentum in the fluid . Newton's
lan8 _ p.
_ _ p,("L, )J"1 2 Ia.w, that force is equal to tbe time rate of production
P, 2 dill of momentum, may be applied to the fluid 8!1 follow!!.
aL,,,,(6Ld -
dL, . d(mu) du dm
P:I(aT'"2)a vt 2 F' - - - "' m- +u - (7)
_ --='-'=-"-:- (5) dt dt dl
, d.,
a1'2J'2(61'l) d~ where P' - the force acting on the Hum.
m ,.. the mMij of the fluid.

Sub6tituting (1Ir!1)2) dll2 for du" (I' I/ I"l) dL, for d/~l'
u - the maximum velocity to which the lIojd
is liCCC1emtOO by the action of the
(L.!Lt) 6L, for 6LIJ "nd simplifying,
moving solid.

(6) I{ the IIOlid is moving \\itL a COrIHtant. velooity II,

it follows that the velocity of the fluid due to the
action Qr the IIOlid is a constant independent of time,
In other words, when dynamic similarity exi",1.s in
and equatiun 7 may be simplified to
t\\'O systems, the product of ally characteri.'!tie di-
tnCnsion, allY velocity, the density, and the reciprOC'ai dm
of the viSC08ity is the same for both systems when F' _ 1'_ (8)
these variables are chosen at oorresponding loca-
tiona. Therefore, these. variables (L, II, p, .1') in However, dmjdt h; the mlt,,;s of fluid being acted upon
themselves will determine the flow pattern in ge0.- per IInil of time and is proportional to a representa..
metrically similar sYstems. live area :1 of the solid and to the distance traveled
The dimenaionless expression up/.I' is popularly by the solid in uni t time, which is the ve10city of the
called the Reynolds number after Osborne Reyn- solid. Therefore, with p 88 the density of the fluid ,
olds,' who applied it to the problem of flow iruiide
pipes. The derivation, however, is absolutely gen- J<" ,.." Pltvu
eral for all systems involving relative motion The velocity II of the &oIKi and the average velocity u
between fluids and solids except in the preeence of to which the fluid is aceelerated are related by a
appreciable pYitational or elastic effects. The factor which depends only upon the Row pattern
application to pipe flow is but one of many well. fOf geometrically similar syswlll8. This leads to the
applications. The criterion of dynamic similarity equation
will be found of great utility in all types of fluid flow P' - f'pAIl (9)
problems. It is significant only . when appl\ed to
geometrically similar !!yste:nK. where the fa.ctor f' is a function cl the Reynolds
number alone fOf all systems wbich are geometrically
The UnitlBTMJI RemtGnce <If Ora8 La", similar. The resistance equation (9) is general for
Consider the steady pas.sage of M isothermal fluid all fluid-eolid systems at 110 steady state (with the
past the lIOlid bollndaries of a given object. The aMUmptions of a continl)um of constant properties
situation may be any system whl'TC the soIKi bound- and negligihle gravitation IUId ela.stic effecta present) .
aries may he d~fined along with the ~xtent of & fluid The resistance or drag equation as it is often called
!Ooving relalive to thOlie houndaries, such M ' IUI in ullually appears in the form
finite extl'llt of air pa.':IIing a sphere Of a stream of
F' _ j'pAtI'
watef flowing in"'ide a piPE'. (10)
If th~ IMllid boundariea! are considered to hfo moving 2
lind tht' fllIie! pn":t'Ilillft: tilt' IIoIIMI ill ,,'amlin! "t.ill, a where une direction ia implied. This form of the
pruhlt'1II ufll'TI tllLt'uulltcn,,1 ill' I\lt'. Ic-terminnlion of equatiun is uaed because a derivation involving
The bibl~phy lOt" thill chaplAlr IlllpCal"S on p . 71 . energy yields the tenn ,} / 2, and it hM been found
.oonvenieai to U8e die aame type of' espreMion in the PROBLEMS
ftl8istanee term. FundamenteIIJ t.hie ~ no 1. If model of aubnwiDe -.6ftb u.s IeacLh 01 I",
dil5culty whataoever, for & (Ktot of 2 C&D. be in- protOtype it to be tated in .. wiDd \uImel '-'-l of in wat..
Cluded ill n.. term.r. what .11 Vl)1od~y ahould be ~ .nUl the model .. equlwJent
to .. IlUbmetpd.-peed of , mph fOl" u.., ptOtotypet
Ail' W.tor
~lMity, Ib/eu It 0.07& 'lI' 62.S
t Do-. R. A, aDd M. J, TIIOItPIII)H, rtt.fd M~iu, ViIooIIty, 1)8D~ 0.0175 O.G6
Mca-BiII Book Co. (l937). 2. If tbe length ill IlDDIIideredlbe characterilltie dirneMoa,
2. ~~. "An kperimcntal Inl'tlltiption of what ill tbe Reynoldl! numberfw tbe model. wbkh ilI4 ft Jonc1
u.e C!m....... D(I(IJ' whieh Dotennlnc Wbe\her Ihr! Motam
01 Waa. hJl be Di~ or Bin.UDQI, and of thtI I ... 01 3. If Ule .me ~'1' in eqllMioa 10 .. 1.2 lor Ad
lie i 1 _ in Parallel Channe","," pJril. Tnav. Ro,. &e. pIMeB a' hiah Reynokk "Ilm~. de\ermioe the Imce .,.n.t
u....}f.11.. VM-4I82 (1883). . a licnboard 16 h hicb and 30 n lone when. .. 5O-mph wiod ill
i io-. Hi:II"i~ Nwtu"" 1IIwJt.Ma fJ/ 1'laoidt, .Iobn ~ apilllJt it. '
WUq _ Son. (1g46), At. "hal. wiod 't\IIocity will !.bill furoe OD the lip be doubled!

., ".f ' ...

,.. '1 '


The Flow of Solids through Fluids

HE direction, upward or downward, of the of the fcathers, causes the water to wet the surface of

T {low of pW"tieles of solids through a fluid d~ the feathel'll, and the duck sinks.
pends upon the density of the solid relative to Conversely "flotation agents" may be added.
that of the fluid. This principle is the basis for the These are selectively adsorbed on one of the BOlidl:l
separatton of solid partic~ according to their densi- prestmt a nd enable these solids to adsorb, or cling
ties, an operation known as lK1Ming. If a fluid of 110 to, hubbies of air whi(lh give those solid particles an
dewity intermediate t.o the densitie;!! of the solids is elTective density less than that of the surrounding
available, the solid particles may be sorted by simply fluid, 88 the solid particle plus the adsorbed flotation
introducing them into a body of the fluid . The agent and air is the effective particle. Operations
particles of a density less t.han that of the fluid will of this kind are identified e.s flotation operations and
rist> or float, and the particles of a den8ity greater are of great indUl!trial importance in the sorting and
than that of the 6uKi will fall or sink. If no simple recovery of valuable minera ls and in many other.
fluid of the required density range is available, a separations.
"complex" fluid or s suspension of very fine (through Even if the particles of both solids to be separated
325 mesh) solid particles in a fluid having the desired are more dense than the fluid. 80 that they both flow
bulk density may be used in a manner similar to in the same direction, downward, when pla.ced in
that with a simple fluid having a density equal to the fluid, separation can be accomplished if the par-
the bulk density of the suspension. ticles flow through the fluid with different velocities.
ID8tea.d of a suspension 88 the means of obtaining For ~aw ple, " mixl ur(j ul galena (PbS) and silica
a fluid of the desired density, the surface charac- (8 iO,) rock are to be seJXlt8.tcd. The particles are
teristlea of the solid and t.he addition of material reduced to a uniform size of about 1 em. By u
adsorbed on the 8Urfacee may be um to cause one laboratory test it may be dc.t ennined, or by calcula-
material to float and the other material to sink tion it may be estimated, that galena particles of
independent of the density relationships of the simple l-cm size fall through quiet water at a velocity of
IIOliW! and fluid . We have all observed dust particles 13 fps 8lId that silica particles of the same size fall
floating on water, in.seet<! walking on water, 8lId with a velocity of 7 fps. Then if the mixed solids are
):>O$Sibly the demonstration of a. steel needle " float- introduced int-o a vert ical stream of waler rising with
ing" on tile surface of water. These phenomena are a velocity of less than 13 fps and greater thnn 7 fpi!
possible because of "surface tension" of the water the silica particlCll will be carried upward" and dis-
or the water not "wetting" the solid. If the dust charged. at the overflow, and the galena will .sink
particles or the insect were thoroughly wet., they through the rising fluid and discharge at the bottom.
would !!link, and it is only by placing a dry needle ThilS continuous prooess, oalled elutriatwn~ uses a
carefully on the surflWe that it can be made w float . . cyiioder with fluid Bowing upwa.rd at a. constant
A duck float<! on the water. But the addition of a known velocity. The solid may be introduced till
"weUing 8gt."Ilt" whit'h j... :uL..urhed on the surf!U'e such or a.'S a dispers;un ill the flUMl llw ,uZ& at tJw.
largest part iel~ carried upward by the ri:iing fluid TIlt' pl"l'tiCIICC of allY 8uid such as air \,Ir "'aler intro-
(after Bowing for some time) is the size baying a duce!; two additional forees, the buoyancy effed.
maximum settling velocity just less than the upward resulting from disp~acement of the 8u)d by the saM,
velocity of the fluid. and the frictional re!!islilnoo from relative motion of
Cla.!Jllf~ion is the tenn used to designate the the solid and the fluid. Friction inereases with
separation of solid particles on the basis of their increasing velocity untit the accelerating and resist-
velocities of flow through fluid s. These velocities ing forces are equal. Then the solid continues to
depend upon the properties of the solid (density, move (or fall) at a constant maximum velocity
size, and shape), and the surface or interfacial con- (also called the terminal velocity) unless additional
ditions between the solid and fluid. The relation- forces upset the, balance.
ships hctwC!ln these variables are complex, and the If the following four assumptions are made, the
int..rffU'i&l conditions are generally unpredictable mathematical treatment is relatively simple.
without experimental determination, frequently mak- I. The solid is a nonporous, incompressible spher-
ing ea.lculation impossible. ical particle.
The experimental determination of the maximum 2. The fluid is incompressible and of sufficient
ve10city of settling of small particles can be made in extent to eliminate the effects of tlle confining wall,>.
a simple manner with a deep beaker or, better, 3. The accelerating force is derived from a uniform
a large graduate. The solid is dispersed in the fluid gravitational field.
in the graduate. The dispersion is allowed to stand 4. The particle is freely moving, that is, other
for a known time interval. The upper part of the particles are absent or, if present, do 1Iot lUliCt the
dispersion is then siphoned "off down to a chosen motion of the particle under consideration.
level. All particles whOlie seWing rates are greater The force causing the particle to move may be
than that settling rate which would carry the parti- expressed in absolute units as the maM of the particle
eles to the depth of liquid removed in the known times the acceleration. Since the forte is rell.lly a
time interval will be at the lower depths and will swnmation of several forces the re.; ult.ent /orctl lend-
ntlt appear in the dispersion w:ithdrawn. If the i"fJ to mouf. th" pnrtirh dmtmwaT'd is
largest sille of particles in the decanted dispersion
is determined, the maximum velocity of that I>ize F' - rna - 1719 - wg - FR.' (11)
of "article may be estimated by dividing the depth where g _ acceleration due to gravity.
of fluid decanted by the time interval. m "" mass of the solid particle.
to = mass of fluid displaced by the particle or
having the same volume 88 the particle.
mq - gravit.u.tional force on the particle.
Where the shapes of the particle!! cau he defined 1119 - buoyant fome on the particle.
and surface- (!tmditions are of rginor importance 110 I-'/t' - ff'Sisting force due to friction effects or
that the other variablCII preduminate in determining fC(luired to 8C(~ler!l.t.e ftuid being di..
the Bow characteristics, the rate6 of free scttling lllllY plaoed.
be estimated with satisfactory results.
The basic theory of the flow of wHds through fluids The terms in equation 11 are readily evaluated
is derived {rom the concept of freely moving (or with the exception of the resisting force FR'. New-
falling) bodietl of cOllBtant mass under a constant ton 4 '" developed an expression for the resisting force,
acceleration. already given, as follows.
v= a~

where v represents the velocity of the body relative

N ""
- (f')A - -

to the initihl position, & is the time intel"V& after For a ~ the representative area A may be Uae
starting from rest, under the constant p.cceleration o. projected &rCa TD7. j 4 and
In the case of falling hodicli. the acceleration is , Tl)'lP'"
due to the force of gravity repreeentcd by the lIym- J.'R "'" (fD) - - (12)
hoi g. If no other foree ill 8(!ting on the body, g
may be substituted for 0 in the above equation. T~e biblioiraphy for this <)ru..pter appeal'S on p. 88.
whl'l"f' fD i!:\ the frict,ion flWtor for thil!l "Pf"t'ific Ilppli- fluid becomes leeR important, beeomin& neglisiMe in
cation of eqUAtion 10. detemUninK the resistance wbeo the 80w condltiOll8
U this value of Fr/ is subatituted in equation 11, become C!lDlpletely turbulent.
the IIteruJy-tltiLte mflximum falling velocity may be: Por vi:otu (JIf lamino:r ftqw (Fig. 68-1), Btobe it
l:<Jmputru. --. showed that the force ~ the motion of a sphar-
teal partide is
m - _mg _ wg_PI,' (110) (16)
where D _ diameter of the ~pheril.J parttcie.
(lib) p ... viscosity of the fluid .
II - velocity of the particle relative to the
F.quation I1b Cor a sphere ma.y then be written
)a. of)'
P. - - - g(p, - P,) _ 3TDp&I
6 dt
By dividing both side!! of' t-he equation by TJ.:i3 P1 16

(14) --
(p, - P,)g

At the maximum (or terminal) velocity v",," dl'J/ dt _ 0,


Equation 1.1 is frequently tenncd Newton'li iaw,

expl"ei8ing the maximum (or terminal) velocily Jot' This form oS the equation is tJ'Ie UBUal version oS
failing spheru in terms of a variable factor JD. Stokes' lAw, which is applicable to tbe fall (or rifle)
Solving e<luat.ion 14 for /D, the frictioo factor ol spberie&I particles of .. nooporous inoompreBRible
aolid in IIZl in~p1'eIIJible .fluid in laminar How.
4(P, - P,)gD
(15) U the value for "- ~ equatton 17 for laminar fimv
ID - 3v.'p, is substituted for "- In ~uation 15, tbe frich
The flow may be lamin&r or turbulent, as indicated faetor becomes
in FIg. 68 which MOWS photographs of the wake be- 4(.-. - p,)gD 18p
hind a cylinder. Photograph 1 shows laminar How iD - -'-'::---:""--- .,.,----'''-;-=
31.1.. p, (p. - p,)gIJ2
linm with the 8uid flowing in layers Mound the
cylinder. In 2 a filmall eddy has formed directly 1
- 21 - - -24 - (18)
behind (to the right) of the cylinder, but the flow Dv..PJ Re
is 8till predominantly laminar. All the rate of flow
is increased the eddy becomes larger and more com The expresSion ~I Dvp waa reCerred W by Newton 4
plex 'M the ftow becomes more turbulent, as in as the criterion of flow .. But it is U8ual1y referred to
photographs 3, 4, 5, and 6. The flow lines around a as liRe or the reciprocal of the Reynolds number
filling particle are similar to those shown for the because Osborne Reynolds rediscovered thill crite.
eylinder. If the particle is small the flow is more' rion I and applied it to the flow of ftuids in pipes.
likely to be laminar (Fig. 68, photograph 1), and the Whenever laminar flow prevaiilf, equation 18 may
viscosity of the fluid iH an important factor in deter be uaed directly, or the friction drag factor may be
mining resitltan~. 1 the particle is large, the flow expressed 118 a logarithmic f'quation
W mo~ likely to be turbulent IWd a.cwmpanied by
the formation of etldies and vortices in the fluid log (/J,) - log 24 - log--
bebind the moving particle. Thette eddiets introduce
large re$b!tanl'hl to flow ~ and the viaoosity of the - 1.. ", - IocRe

Flo. 88. Flow 1;1ltlS 01 lIuid II. eyllnder. (Il urtleT Ro_, "Eh~rtlar) MAanica /If F'lu;/k," Jolut Wiky altd s-t,
1946, p. 40, Plah XIV.)

The frict.ion factor in lamina r flow ill then l-epre- cOUlltercd with spheres 01 must mineral!:> if the di-
sent~1 by a straight llne with a slope of - I un I!.mctcr is les.'1 Ulan 50 microns, and turbulent flow iii
logarithmic coordinates when log J is plotted fl.'! a lUmally f'.lleOI.llltf!reU with sph"!res of I mm (1000
function of log Re, lUI in Fig. 69 or Fig. 70. This con- micnI") or more in diameter. Moot oi the s.itt):;
dition exists up to a Reynolds number, Ue, of abo ut involved in commercial sod i m~nt.ation or classifica-
3 when the eddies or turbulence begin to have some tion II.M in lhe range of 0.05 to 1 mm where t he values
effect which incre~ 88 the values of Re becomc of the friction factor In clln be best obtained. only
greater. from the plot, }<'ig. 70.
In the turbulent jfqw region (He greater than As indicated in Fig. u9, the transition from laminar
about 300 or 4(0), the value for the friction fa.cWr to turbulent flow is rather indefinite, there being no
becomes neMly constant, independent of Reynolds sharp break from the Irt.raight sloping line repre-
number lUI indicated by the horizontal part of the senting laminar flow (Ctluutioo 19) to the horizontal
linea on Fig. G9. At II. Reynolds number of ILhuu t line of completely turbulent flow where it) i~ pTa&-
200,000, the friction f!lttor decre~ IShllrply. Thill litally constant. A part.icle always tends to move
ill explained by tho fluid forming immediately in t.hat mlWner which offers the greatftlt resistlUlce.
behind t.he particle an eddy which travels with thc In that region where the friction factor in turhulent.
particle, therlclby constituting a streamlined hody fl ow is not significantly grilUowr than in laminar flow ,
composed of sphere and eddy. any loc.u irregularit ies in r.onditions would tend to
If the fluid is water, laminar flow is usuallv en- causc a ehange in type of How and the flow would


~ Crushed silica
Cru$hed plena

.i .
....0::. '100
~ OJ

6 ,



0. I
001 0.01 1. 2 4 6 10 100 1000 10,COO 10 10'
_ _" " " '''_ D ..,."
"&~,, umber, Blsed on Average reel! - . I'

Flfl.'69. Friction facior, or dmg coefficient, vel'5Wl Reynold!! number for crushed IIOlids and spherell flowing through fluids.'

" II

oJ- - 0.125

1JI .. 0.220

4 "'''0.600
I- I I I

0. I
6 . 'Ji'" 1.000

.001 '01 124610 100 1000 10,000 10' 10'

Reynolds Number, usirlj D,

FlO, 70. Friction factor, or dr~ coefficient, venIWI Reynolds number for p&rticlefi of different BllhericitiefJ.1I
MAXl1\lUl\I VJ:o:LOCITY 77
be' expected to be unstable. Although there may be readily determined from the rlata in Table 18 if tJ-oe
such an unstable region in ~e CMe of an individual particles happen to conform to one of the regular,
particle, it is not evident in data obtained on a large shapes listed.
, number of particles which indicate the relationships
J shown in Figs. 69 and 70. TABLE 18. SPHERICITY A~D THB VALUB OF D.
of Particle SIui,.
The FJ!fJCt
The maximum velocity ".. of IPhtrictJl panick3 has ....... Sphm; city'"
been determined for spheres of widely varying sizes Sphere 1.00 1.00
and densities through many different fluidll.l,l,"I!.11
The results oi these experimental data when plotted
0."" I.,.

on I Fig. -00 Of Fig. 70 determine the curve labeled

"spheres" oJ! - 1.00, which may be used with con-
aX aX,,"
~X2aX3a 0.725 1.127
fidence for sphtrical pl'.rticles uninfluenced by'lIpecial Cylindel"l!l
surface conditIOns.
The shape of the particle may be defined in terms
of thi sphericity f. , which is
" - 21-
/I - 101-
0 . 874
t . l~
It - 20r 0."" 2 .~~12
Sw-{ace &rea of sphere havinf: same v91ume as particle
Burfaee &lM of particle
D' Q (1)
II, _
r 1.33r

1 - r/iO
r/ 3
0 .90'J
-~- --
D, - ,,- r / 15 0.254 0.368
Multiply ecreen sile D.... by the factor indic.tI to pt
where n - the ratio of BpeCific 8Urfacee, the n of eon-ect value for D. to be ueed in the eqUlitione.
Fig. 17.
D.. v. ,;"
average screen ~se.
D. _ diameter of sphere having 8I:U1le volume
U the shape is not regular, ~ would be true for
a mutilated cube, the sphericity and the oorrect '
1108 particle (lor a spherical particle value fOf D. may be approximated ' by interpolating
D. _ D).
between tbe ~r basic ' crystal form and the
The above equation is derived M follows: IIphere, provided extreme care and judgment are
used. The actual shapetl of particles encountered in
Specific surface of pa.rticle
industrial operatiolUl can usually be eatimat.ed only
n - Specifie surfBQe of SPMnl of same diame\el'
by microscopic examination. The curves of Fig. 70
Surface of p&rticle are based on a "diameter" D., which is not the same
MUll of particle dimension as the aize of a particle determined by a
Swiaoe of ~ of _me diaDlilMr screen analysis (the average of the apertures of the
MUll of aphere of 1I&lOO diametef' cooliniog screen.s). The screen size approximateB
the second largest dimension of the particle. For
_ ('rO;'iN) ( ..D.....P~) example a prism a by 2a by 3a has the effective
'rD, ,v6 rD .... dimension 2a 88 its "size" in screen analysm, but
.--D"D,~ the diametef of a sphere having the same volume
(D.) is 1.127{2a) - 2.254a. A cube having an edge

The value of D.
.--- D .... I

u 1M ootWl kJ bt UMJd for D in all flow

of a, which is also the efJeetive dimension in screen
analysis, has 1.240 as the diameter for a spbere of
the same volume (D.).
In Fig. .09, the curves labeled "cnlshed Ailiea" and
~ wing tpltericitll. The friction. factor fD "enlshed galena" were plnltfld from experimental
may be estimated &8 a function of Reynolds number data' covering sizes varying from 0.0008 kl 1.8 em,
as indicated by the family of curves plotted on Fig. with the siZE'! indicated by t.hl" screen analyl:lis &8 Lbo
70, with the sphericity f. used 88 a. panuneter.lI The diamf'!t-t.r Dn ". Thf' IU10ffil\lfl1IM l()('ll.tion 01 theee
I!Phericity '" and the val~ of D. to be I.I8ed may be curves retrults from the 1t$6 uf the dimeru!ioo obtainjld
by' screen &nalysis (D.~ instead of the diameter of occupied by the Buid. Therefore, the viscosity 01
the sphere of equal volume (D.). the fluid may be multiplied by a factor determined
'HoweVer, the curves plotted in Fig. 69 on the 68 a Junction of the volume fr&C:tion X:
basis of IICreen sizet (D .... ) !U'C convenient as they
may be used dirootJy for "cmshed galena," and
~iliea without computing the sphericity or Do_


This reiat.ion:mip tu.H heeD developed for t5pberieal.
part.idel!.' Since the hulk density is also a funotion
When many part.ides are prceent. thflre h~ a I,end \If l.he riI:U1le volume rraction X and t he derulilw. of
t'_n~y for individual partkleit tu agglomerate into I.he 80Iid and fluid, tL eonvenMmt way of estimating
chl!lters or floos: Each floc then behaves milch 81> a t.he velocity of hindered IW!ttling i~ to apply the factor
Kingle particle of larger size and different shape thM F. to the velocity caleulated for free l!ettling. This
the individual particles constitilting the Roc. For factor p. is given 88 a function of the volwne frao-
Ihis rea&on the obgerved rate of settling is frequently tion of the fluid (X) in Fig. 71 and may be used !L8 a
many times greater tban that computed for the
tlJDall individual particle. F1occulatioo agenta which
increase the tendency to fonn BoCa are frequently
added to increase tbe speed with wbich a suspension
settles to produce a clear thUd. Dejocculating
agents which reduce the tendency to form 1\008 bave
the olJPOlllite effect.
Hindered Settlin.8
When many partkles are present there is mutuaJ
interference 'in the motion of particles, and the
velocity of motion or rate of set.tling is considerably
leM than that computed by the equations derived
on the assumption of free motion of the solid par.
ticles. The particle is actually settling through a
slurry or suspeosion of-particles in a. fluid rather than
lhroug)t the simple fluid itseU. Therefore, the bulk
densit.y of the slurry Ph .calculated by dividing the Volume Fraction of
lJl888 of the fluid and lIuspertded matter by the
FIG. 71. Settli", fac:t.or' F. for hindered II81.tling vcou<
volume occupied by the slurry, shoukl be used in- volume of fluid in !!Iurry fOf BIJOheri.-al particl~ in
stead of the density, of the clear fluid In equation 17. t.millllf flow.'
- Likewise, the bulk vtscusity of the slurry I' ~, as ma.y
be determined experimentally, may be used instead multiplying factor ' in equation 17 for eetimating tht':
of the vifll"Ollit.y I' of the elear fluid. velocity of settling when many particles are preeent.
With thetle ~ubstitution!l equa.tion 17 beeomee (I'. - p, }gJJ2
fiN - F, (171/)
(p. - I'~)gD' 18",
"n - v_- 181'~
The value of F, M pven in Fig. 71 for viaoous
where'6 - bulk density of suspension. sedimentation or nonfloceulated spheres may be 0b-
. ~. _ bUlk yieeoeity of 8U8J)(>D8ion (Table 17 ). tained from the equation
fJH - hindered settling maximum velocity. X2
The bulk vieoos:ity ill frequently a function of tOO
P. ---- - liN
~u IOI. S2(1 X I

rate of shear in the C8Be of 8uspensione: and therefore If X is not. greater than 0.7, the following mmpie.-
an indefinite and indeterminate value in 80 far All relationship may ~ qsed:.
equation 17a is <loncemOO. HowevElr, the. inter-- lIH X,
fereDee C&UfIIld by the pn:tlell.t:e of many particles i~ F. _ - - 0.123-- -
a function of the volume fraction of the slurry (X) "-" 1- X
The eft'eet. of particle concentration on rate of IIl't.-. and
tlin: is ~el'ftlt for angu~ particlee f..tian for sphert'S.
Apparently tlle angular ~ides ca:rry with them a (fu) 1,
volum~ of iiq!lij:l which is proportional to the VOI!lmC
fA the lOti!! ' ~ .. flJnctip~ of particl~ IIhape and Thc' intR.l'1'Ie(lt;on of ,the straight line ,,{ ~Iul\t,il)n
degree of fIooculMjon. ThilJ liquid is rmt ad~)rhed 22 when plotU!d on Fig, 69 ' IIr Fig, 70 \\ith thr.
on the I!IOlid but simply held relatively stagnant by proper linc giving fD as a. function (If Re ill f.h"
t.tte anpIuitiM in the particles. The effect of thil! d&lired v"lu,. fur Reynolds numoo!' incorporating
I! liquid may be' incorporated by modifying thp value of ". ""limit is the required *1ll1t10n. 'I1w
~ above equation i:IB follows. value uf ". it! then computed directly from ,the value

, ',._ __II _ 0.123(1 + 4)2 ( x---

of Re, since D. P. and I/. are known.
, ...... I-X 1+0 Ewrcl.e. BJ a amiN pnndure dI'lin: &Iw: 'olIowi1Ic
~~tKm (23) aAd AhMt how i~ CIUl btl ~ 1<, ealeulatl! ~he
BiJIC of. pI&l1ick that. ....ill have" 9pl>ci.fiud maximum VBlncity
where tI _ volume of immobile liqui4 per Llni~ vol-
ume of solid.
The value of a varies from aero for nonftoooulated
Iphcrce to unity or greater for bighJy ftoooulated con- Woll Effect on Free SettUng
oeqtratl !!U8peD8ioos. t If the huid is confined in a cylinder or otherwise
Altbou&h ftoecuIaUon inCtMIIM the rate in free 80 that it may not be regarded as infinite in ~t,
settlirac It ~ the rate in hiDdered eettJing. ow- the projected area of the falling partic~ decre&11e8 the
me to tJps lncluaiOll. of iI:nplobile uquiil with the 8Olid. effective croee eeeti(Jll.ll.] area of the confining veseel.
requiring too. fluid to move with a gre&ter ,veioeity
U. f!!/ f'riedoft Faetor than ir it w&e' infinite in extent, Thi! action baa
Whenever D, p, or'v... is not known, the solution of tbe effect 01' increasing the res'stance tending to
equation 14 ~ a trial-&lld-error procOOure be- decrease the maximum velocity tI... If e veM8l is
cauIe theee U!tmfI appear in both the friction factor
cylindrical, the following empirical "correction"
and tbe Reynolds number. When solving for v., factors by which the maximum velocity tI", ma.y be
the trial..a,nd-error procedure may b4! eliminated by "corrected" or multiplied have been uuggeeted to
meana of equation 22. take into account the w311 effect.
M the friction factor (equation liS) ill written in the For laminar flow 1
klprithmk: form

I.. Uii) - 100. .

, \
Jg(P. - p,)D
- 21.. '. ~) (I -D.-D)""
For ,turbulent flow J
and the Reynolds number
" I,
log He - log -
~ , + log,_ (21)

where D - diameter of the spherical particle.

eliminating log tI... between these equatiofUl gives D~ - diameter of the vessel or container.

Eurciae. Dr.\\' eurvetI Mw1fing the value 01 the vdoei~y

rom!Ct.KKt faetorl for wall effect l1li fu!let.KlD 01 the ,.00 01
U... <1iamrt.-r of ttw. mnl&in".. '" I.... <1WnP~ of tIM< ~
an equation between J and Re in whk,h I/., doed nol; IlOlrti ..!r.

appear and which may be plottl on Fig, 70 1M a

straight line with a sU"pe of -2 p&88ing t.hrouy.. the 'nIE GENERAL CASE
pOOo" In the pl'f'viouR t.l'ffitment. t~ partiel., WAS COll-
l<illf'cloOO to he moviul!: ill Ulte dimeusion 1I111y, U(lWII~
"" - I .ml'd. Hut the motion of the particle m"y have a:-
horlsontal crn:nponent. fI.S well as a vertical. In such SlJperimposed on the other. and the equations may
cues, a bltlance of forces gives be in~ated independently.

dVl , One-VirneruiORGl Motion. in. Abaence of Cro.,'.

m- - -F 008(1 (24)
<It totionol Field
Although such mo~ion is not usually encountered,
dll. P.-PI
m- - WJ-- - P' sin a' (25) the consideration of horizontal or any one-dimen-
dt Po 8i~al motion alone is an important fltep in integmt,..
ing equation 26L.
where (If - ' angle between direction of motion and the
By substituting Re/JjDp for v and ~A in equation
horiz.on ~'8L
26 for the horiwntaJ or one-dimensional componEnt,
'. _ horizontal component of particle velocity.
v. _ vertical component of partic1r. velOcity d(He) ,.<.
COlI a ,.. Vii/V. - - - - - - -<It
ID(Re)' 2Dm
ain a - v.Jv.
,r _ 11,,2 + ",,s. which may be integrated between limits t ... 0 and
t ... t, and He - Reo at ~-O when V"Vo, and
Substituting from equation 10: ~.,. Re when v"'" 17.

(26) ~4 t _
i R

.. d(Re)
de. _ g (Po - PI) _ fDPtAW .
(27) ~ d(Re) iR'~ d(Re)
dl ' P. 2m - Re ID(Re)' - RIO/b(Re)' (29)
Equatiom 26 and Xl are too complex to solve in where Re~ "" Re at any arbitrary reference base.
AMeral Conn here.... But for special cases solutions In Fig. 72 the vfilue of the followipg integra.l
are available.'
Few lominor jIqw, equations 26 and Z1 may be rXI~ d(Re)
Bimptified and integrated directly. lao JD(Rei
c C, is plotted sg:a.inst Re for spherical particles. In
ID - -He - -f),p
using Fig. 72, choose a value of v and compute the
corresponding value of Reynolds number Re.
C c, The right-hand side of equation 29 is evaluated by
UD)' - -(He),.
- - -DIlIIP,
- adding the respective integrals 88 determined from
c c, Fig. 72 wit4 due regard for the sign. The value of
(JD) . - (He), - Do .., the elapfledl time (') for the WOllen one-dimelUlional
velocity (II) can be .calculated directly. The time-
vlD - v.Un) . - V.UD ). diKtanoo relation is then readily obtainable by
graphical integratJon

For lamiMT /lot
,- vdt
-- -
(26 L)
GraphUxll . inkgmtion is readil~' and accurately
dlf. _ 9(Po - P,) _ PrA(fD),p. .
(ZlL) accomplished by plotting the values of v as deter-
mbed as a function of t, a.e: indicated in Io'ig. 73u.
ell P. 2m
drawing a IImOOth curve throngh the points, and
J.:guatiOll8 26 and Z1/~. which apply only \..0 laminH.1' determining t.he area under the curve by .the follow-
flow that the velocity or motion in one dime- ing procedure. . ..
IB independent. of the motion in a -direction Draw horisootal liDeS connecting the ordinates,
.,erpt'1KIieuJar to the first. motioo. 'J'h<>l'1'foro th(' ~11~h as linel' a~!, c-d, r-I, c1Al., I:I() tha.t the areA above
trajectory of ,t\1e particle will be that of one motion each horizontal linc and below the CUl"V'e equals the

...J X IOO " (Re)

fiG. n. " ..lUI'll eliot!: J~ f(Re)' Vl.'.-Iog (Re).

area below the horizont.a.l line and abO\~e the curve,

that i!l, the area la2 equals 2b3, and the a.rea 3M
equals t.he area 4d5, etc. With a. little care this can
be done quite accurately by eye. Tho area. of the
reclangle a,b,IO,O is then equal to the area. under the
curve 1,2,3,10,0 between thE same ordinates. Tbe
I8.IDe is tme for each rectangle so ronstructcd.
The .integral curve representing the value of the
ma.y then be N'.adily dm\\1l

a,.<; indicated in ~'ig. 73b,

o 10 20
" ..

as a {unction of t a,... follows. ,ok I---

Point .!to at t - 0 in Fig. 73b represents the distance
I,)r position of the particle at zero t ime (l - 0). The
- - E

increase in distance 4 . between t ... 0 Ilnd t = 10 is V~- c~
represented by the area a,b,lO,O of Fig . 736. The.
-- A
distance s at I _ 10 is obtained by adding the
appropriate value o( 411 to II at t - 0, that is, layin,l!;
of AB on ltg. 73b numerically equa.l to : ~o
or &qual t{l area. a,b, lO,O on Fig. 730. Like ....i;;e, CD
o 10
" 30
, " .
equals the area c,d,20, IO, and EF equals the area J.'10. 73. Grapbic:al int"l[J"llt wn . (a ) The differenliai 0UlT
tJ,'JO,20, etc. A SIDoulh cun'c drawn through the It V\'f3\I!I t; (bJ tht: i"t.egral nlTVl', ' l'I:'nIU8l.
po~tII 80. B, l6 P, et.c., is t,ht' integra.! cur\'!' giving'l"ing the value!< of Re and.; all civtn above,
the value of for all Vallle!J of t inl'lnded.
In this way t.he posit ion in the horizontal direct.ton w.. - --
.---In f .. - ..) (37)
or dimension may be determined a.t any time. pCA \II.. ~II
Pur laminar /lovJ, equation 29 nu.y be integrated wb...
directi,y between limits t ... 0, t "" I, and II - 110,
11 - 0, since!D ... ei Re.

For ~ in laminar jfhw, equation

t _ 2Dm In (R..) _ 2Dm In (~) (30) 37 reduces to "
C~ Re CpA II

For spherical particle!! in laminar floW ,!D - 2-I/ Re . - p,D'

- -In ('-
- -- ")
- (38)
1~ 11.. -11
(equat.ion ui); A _ ."n'j 4 : m _ "r[)/ II, and
is given by equatioil 17 for epheric.a.I particleil.

. - P.D'
- - In ("')
- (31) Por eotftpl.ele4, turbulent JiJW, where fD ill ~almOllt
IS", 1/ eODBtant :
Pur completely turbulent nwlion, ,I)
is almOflt con- For downward motion, Positive valUf!8 of He and Reo.
stant, and equation 29 may be integrated directly to

t _ ~(~ _ 2)
'_In [('- + ,)(.. - ")]
1/.. - "1/ + 110
(32) 11...
iDP.A 11 "0
For upward motion, negalive values 01 Re and Reo.
For spherical parlicin, 111 i~ ahout 0 .-1 and

t c:>! 3P.D (: _ 2) (33)

. . - - ,- w.-.[("1101/ -'+ )'"1
2Dm.,;J;;i 11..

PI 11 110 where

One.Dimttn.donGl Motion in G,.,.ricotiof&al 2g{P. - PI)m
For II. falling particle, equation Z1 becomes
or as given by equation 14 for spherical p&rticJes.
<Iv _ (P, - PI) _ JDP,A.,r (34) When a particle has an initial downward velocity.
equation 39 may be 1.1IIed directly. When the ~itia1
dt p, 2m
velocity is upward, equation 40 lIbould be "wted,
By substituting &",j Dp for II, during the B.BOent, and equation 39 applied there-
after to the deeoent with &to - o.
.... dl _ ."(lIe) (35) For further treatment of this pro:blem IUld for tw~
2Dm (29PI (P,
-PIlml)2) - ID(RI'l )
, dimeMiooal motion in centrifUgal fielda, the oriinaJ
p",A reference 2 should be eoosulted.
The gen"eraJ equations for motion of a partick in II
29',(9, - p,)m[)2 jtuiIl undnprotng 3impk rotational motion. IU'&
4> "" , - ma.ximum value for ID(Re)'
tor the falling partiele..under oonp;jdernt.ion.
Integra.ting between' limits
:--(';') [, -C:::)] -(Pif:'''') (41)

- f.~
a.. 4>
(36) -dlld
e ""'~ [PtfDAII(VI -
- l--+
, 2m
III)] (42)

p()'r ~inar jWw, ID ,"" ei Re, and equation 36 can where u, - tancential velocity of the ftuid.
be integrated directly to IIi - tancential velocity of the parlicle.
'. _ nodi&! velocity at the ..........
' II _ V 11,2 +
(u, - 111)' - velocity of the par-
ticle relative to the 8uid

For ,pheri;al parmk. in laminar flQUI PROHLK\IS

(~)(U')'l -
2 I. By me~ of equation 17, cmnl>utc the nlll~imum v~luohy
dv, _ vJ [, _ IS."v; (41L) at which PArticles "f ~lli"n (Si(~) O.oo.~ Gill ill tl inl llf)l~ r .... ill
(It r P. VI p.D {lOll t Iorou"h 'I";"'t ... ,,1 (''' :
(a ) W llI.!u I I., "IUIr), i",;o <lilute thai [,n, ...lIlilll/: I',,,v .. ik
(42[.) (to) Wh.lO tloe UUlN< roiL.., or w.. le.. t n ~i li.-.i it! 2,
2. With dau lrom Tablee J and 17, compute vaJOCII fUI"
When the tangential velocity d the partiell' I'J j,; F. fu. calcite Ilnd oompun: t llCiC valUe!! with lb.o1;c "il"<11 in
about !:Qual w the tangential velocity of the fluid HI Fig. 71 for RpherieBI panici.eo.
alld V. il:l relatively smali, equation -4 1 may I~ rc- 3. Air it being dried by being bubbled (in very small
duced to 1mblok."II) through oonoon tl"ll.l<.'11 ~ulfuri" .. eitl (SIM~:ifi" "mvit.y,
2 2mut(P, - PI) 1.84; vi.!lonMity, 15 ccntipoitu; l.t!mptlnLtul"f:!, 100 ' Fl. 1'h"
II, - - (43)
sul{uric acid tilt. a 2+-in. LD.U, Z-in . ID gb..'<I; tubo: 1(1 a depth
tor 6 in . lloe dry air 1Iix.Yl.: t he aeid is a t a press"", u( I Iltm
For spherical particles equation 43 becomes BAd ut IOU F. If the dry air rate ill 3.5, whllt ill the
m.xill\um ;Iiamel-cr Qf II sulfuric acid IIprn)' dml'let ",hi.i.
u/(P. - PJ)[J2 might btl CIIorrieo.l. out of till, uPl'Ul"! by\lot!nl .j"
'.... the lIir etrearn.

4. A thin water 8uspellllion of 8I)il is p...,pare<! at 10 A.III.

At 1>0011, I. sample is drawn f1'OlD the Sl,Ispc,lI<ion. at a depth
BIBLIOGRAPHY of .5 em. What ill the 1:ugest pMt.iele probably removed b)' a
J. t'LUfClB, AlIUO W .... ~' waU F.f[eet. in the Fal linK-RaIi pipeUe at lhill d.,pth (5 em) i{ tile, slJn'ifie gravity of lhe toil
Me~hod for ViscuAty," PA~ ~ 4()3..-406 (1933). ia:l..M
3. WPPUl, C. K,nd C.B. SHl:PKI:IIlI: "CAlculation of Parti-
S. It ill T\!(1l1ired to cb-ify kIl"IIIlI par"t'dC8 of clo.arc.... 1 which
cle ~Wries," Ind. &g. Chen., IS, 605 (May til4O).
may be 1188umed to be di!:lk~ or ~ 1i.r"kl'9 such t hat D. _ D. y.,
with a epeci.fie gravity of 0.8. The charomLl ill t" hi! a llowed
MatMnwtical UtlhotU in Enginetring, p. ISO, McGraw-
tt> fa ll freely through a vertical Lower & II. risin!j: current
Hill Boo -::0. (11:140). 01 air At 20 C ILll<l a~ID(AIpherie proo<llUru. ClLlculaw ~h"
3. MONKO&, H . 5., "The liBh va. the Contil.ent&! SYII/.em
minimum lSi..., of chlU"e:>lll ...bleh ...ill Beale to the hot\,Om of
of Jigi" , -i.s plolc &...nllt Adv!Ull~t" 7'f"IlfU. Am.
the if t l.e air is Mne: t hrou"h the 1.tI",,:er ...illo II. v~locity
l out. M iRing M d. ENp'., 11, 637-6.W (I888-1881I).
4 . NXWTt>N, I Il.lAC, M tJl.M/na1m Prinriplu 01 Na:t<NJl
of 10 'p!.
Phil-.plill, Book II (Engli~h trans1atkm uf 1729). II. A 'Ili.l:lure of fiptleriea! ps.rt.ielo.1I 01 Hiliea ~ntaill8 JWU'-
6. PKIINOLET, V., "A I'~t.ude deli pr6paratinnH I~nique!! ticl...'tI ttl.nciu" in t!i'e from 14 ll1I:!II.b to 20J mesh. Thillluixtun.'
dee minerBis, ou OlI IM!rienI'C'I! propf'-'I! 11. ~tfl,h\it 1& th60rie is to be di vided into tw" frnetiol"lll by elutri&tion, utilizing
dt.a ditfo!,...,nUl BYllti!nld W!litCH ou pot<>rible.," Ann. Mine. the upwArd velocity of o!. 8t1'(.'1I.1II of w&ler I'It M>"~' '001111:
II VI, 10, 379-4~ (1861). throuji:h II. tuhe 4 in. in dia<nll:\tr.
O. RII:TNOWlll, OtIOO!tNS, "An Experimootal i"nvestiption fa, wt..t 'Iuantii.y. of ...lLt<l r, In ~\ooIl PI,r m iuute, ...iII
u( t be C"lreUllIIIt.Ii.,,_, which Del<lnnin" Wh"lher ~he povwbly "" ,.....dc<.I to d ivi<J.., the mi. I.",,", "l ,.. ..i... "'I"ttl w
Molwo of Water 8111111 be Direct or tlin;OOllll, ...,,1 ul ~bc the a l",'1.ure o{ .. 4:;"'me"h _ ..1
I.w of ResilIlanoo in Panallcl ChlInnda," I'lli/. TrOIu. (6) When I hl! waler Ro, ... Ihruu~h Ih" tuhl.' il$ 1.6 IQ"' ~
Hey. &x. (Lmo(l",,), 114., ~ ( 1883). whllt ii! tho, ~ .. ,alle>lt size "f " ilk .. j-"ide which will pl""I.)6l1ly
7. RlCHABDI>, R. H ., and C. K Locu:, 7f~ IJI OU aettie through t he sln,,,m1
Drt.ti1ll}, Fill:. M, p. 129, alG ed. , M cGnL\':-Hill Book
Co. (1940) . 7. CruHhed silica is tn 00 analy~"tl by c\utrill.lion, whh an
8. R' cHARDS, It. H ., "Velocity of GaleD..II. and Quarb F ..1li1l,l elutrn..tor ....IKIIle anslyzing zone u, fI, cy linder 3.5 ill. in diam-
in Water," TmM. Alii. but. ,1,(;Rital} M d. Ji..g" ., 18, 210- eter. Waler a.t 55 F is Lo be .........1 .... the lIu lylil\i ftuid.
235 ( 1007). Wluot !aIel' ,,' Sow,,' that 1I".. ler, n>eA5Urod in pU ....UI jk'r
9. Snll1ll01J1I, H, H., ''Tilt: Rllte of g", lill~nla~ion;. I nd. minu te:, .... ilI be ,u.~1)' tu give A sized frseliuu .. r lhe
Ifn,. C/v.m., 36, 6 18, 840, 901 (1944). crushed 6iiicr. C<I"""IJOnJin,; I" II., - 270 + -400 " -'W. fn".~
10. 8-roKIl8, G. G. , .val~irol awl PIlI/6iraJ Papu~, t :on ol>l.ainlilok. {rulll "l'yl... r ~huMla!"l1 !l<:n.~1~,1
( 1001). Tro,u/.,,~ /'/til. .0.;,,..., 9, 1'lI r! H, PI'.
MtJ (1851). ,',""'\l,,
8. " fa\li n,c-I.... l1 vi.... 'J 1",rn(,,~ loy tilUi,,~ U,e f".U ,,'
II . \If "I>I>I':!., H.\KOS, "Sumo Nel', &.~Ii",cnt ... ti"n .... 'n nllWl,' a st...'tJl booJ.l ..ith " <.\i"IlIt,t.,. ,,( 0.2[, in. (d~I",it.y. 7.!l "m lC)
,.ItV,,~.Ii, 'l8 1-2'JI ( 1~34 ) . through the fluid. Oil .... 1;. "'" '!'I:.o<il.' i.. O.8S 1('" ,.,. ill ;1111,,..
12. WAI>Of::L, HAJ:UIi", '~l'he u"'fficic" l u( K..w.I ..""" "" " ,lu ......oJ illl" the,,~" I" . n ,, ",wi h 11 blls " dill' al"' ,,{
,"'ou ... lio" <lj l(..-y,,,,I,I.; ~'.Illlbt'r (or S"lids ,of \,,,ri,,u~ 10 ill. l.h"I\IKII tI ' .,,1. \\'1,,,, i.; u .. "i..."Ul!ily of lit, va i( all'
.--li",,,,,,,",,".1. I',..."u,,, ",J., 217, 159 .tYU (lI):N ). t i",... "f r.. 1t ... ti.3;; ",.,.~


EPARATlO-X of materials into two or mors be obtained from Table 18, p. 77, and used in
frHctions depending llpon their rates of flow equation 45. '
through fluids is called c/a8Bification. When Solving for the spherical settling ratio,
ttie different fa tts of How are used to separate mate-
rials of the same denl:lity according to their sites (and
D.4 _ (Ph - p) [(fD)A]
shape) , t he operatioll is known lUI sizing. is a DB CP..-I - P) {fD)b
poss.iblc substitute tor screening. When materials
of the same equivalent size are separated according - (D..J' 0, (0",)8]
[ -- ~- --- ---
(D.... )8 (D.... )..-I Da
to their densities, the operation is called 80rli1l!'.
Under turbuknt C()nditio1IS, the value of in for each
Since it is impossible in actual operation to obtain a
solid is COTlBLant over the range of conditions in-
feed of absolutely uouann size, sizing is always in~
volved, and equation 45 may be readily solved. In
volved to a greater or JellS degree ill every sorting
many cases, as with particles of the same sphericity,
the values for in are the same for each material and
UD) 4/ UL )B - I .
"!!:QUAL FAUING" PARTICLES' Under laminar conditions, in varies inversely with
the Reynolds number Re, from Equation 18.
The effectl'- of size and delll!ity of particles can be
considered in combination to compute that l'aOM;e of 24, 1
sizes of a mixed food that can be sorted .... r separated In = - --
V", p D
aeoonling 1.0 density, This is done conveniently by
For all materials having tbe same maximu::n
the concept of the "equal falling" par liclc~, the sizes
velocity v'" in the same fluid in laminar flow! equa-
of pMtieles of the tIVO different materials to be S(jrtoo
tion 45 may be written.
whieh full through the fluid at equaJ. velocitie;;.
Prom etluat ion 14 , t.hc two different maleria ls, A
and B, will have t.he ~amfl maximum velocity t'", when -- D.t
In the
(PR - p) Ds
(P A - p) D.4
., D,)2 PH - P
( -Da - - -
P" - P

betv.. ccn l..rnilllU" an..~ completely turbulent

con'lition~, ,,00,,: ' ,Jany oouimeut&\ion problcll'llil occur, f
VlI.rieM lAS A Sll\Alif,t ne,ltlltive vo",,r of Ru. T he
L-qu:ltiun, with 1111 eXpor>Cnt &...:lI ter ths n I but HIlI 1hBII 2 fOJ"
t h" 1),,,'0 ,, term, may he UIIO ''\ for Pflrticles (If the same
where P - ucn!fity o f fl uid , and s u b:>c riptfl A alid B
sphericity or w!;en LI~ valU6 for J may 00 repreSmled in
indicate propertie!! or condili(ms fu r mli.t.erial~ .1 terll"lll uf D ILlld v 811 the on ly v!l.rilLhles.
andB. (DM - (1)11 - 1
The ratio of the diameterS of spherical particlClS (l)1) )- - (I>.t _ 1>1 (47)
of the two d ifferen t ma terials DA I Ds having the ...hc!'e I min08 the slope ,,/. the "curVl!: for the corre-
Il _

same maximum settling ve,l ocity v.... may be called .pulldiIllt solid on Fiil. 70 OVl!:r the nwge cove~ by oper-
the qJ>uica/ aeUling ratio. The IlI.tio D/ D ..v, may atin, conditions.
The ratio (D.v.)A/ (Duc)B, 88 obtained from equa- of the 8uspen.~ion Pb becomes the effective Jensit,y
Lion 45, may be called the MUiing ralio and represent.':! to be substit.uted for " in the equation. Similarly,
the ra~io bet ween the ~ maximum and minimum as the concentratiun of the muterial being separated
"screen diameters:' of pm:ticles that may exist in a builds up in the fluid , the hulk d en~i t.y of the "uid
bCfrened or sized rni.xt.ure ol, U~ rnatcri.a.b .1 and B. if approuchcs t he dell!:lity of the 801id m a terial and t he
a clean separation between these two materiall! is to selt.ling ratio inere:ll:ICs, giving a sh arper sorting of
be made fication, using the fluid in ,quCI.tion. the t wo m aterials. This principle i,. lI :$Cd in hindered
A large sdtling ratio is dceirll.ble to JXlrwil. separ settling.
ration of material having wide Ilize limits. One way
of &ccomplisbiDC-tthis i.s the use .of a fluid of high
detlllity. M the ~ity of the fluid approaches that The simplest form of c\lISSification equipment is
of one of the 901id materials the settling ratio ap- the 5O-rolled surface oolocity cla.~,~ifie r which, in. it3
Pl"OOCbfts infinity "od particles of any size rallge can elemental. form, consisti:I of. a tank pro vid ed witl)" an
_ . ~"'11 of I~gest partie],,) _
H the Size ratio 18
.... of smallest particle
equal to or less than the settling ratio, a complete
separation can be made.
The density of the auid may be Increased by add-
ing solutes such as' salt or calciu m chloride to water,
but this expedient introduces oorl"O$ion problems.
The effective density of the flu id may be increased
by suspending fine part.icles of a hcavy solid slIch
118 galena. in water, in which case the bulk d en~ it.y

inlet and an outlet opposite each other at or near inlet and a solid outJet at dle bottom and a feeding
the top of the tank. The feed, corusisting of a pulp device and an overBow launder /a t tbe top (Fig. 75).
of Solids 8Ul:Ipended in water, enters with a relatively By adjusting the fate of flow of fluid (hydraulic '
high horizontal velocity. After it. enters the enlarged water) into the tube, any predetennined upward
er<ll'W section of t he tank, ita velocity is velocity of the fluid may be obtained. The feed
decreased and gravity lendis to cause the solid enterillg the rising stream of fluid teoda to fall;
particles to sink. The path of each. particle is a particletl whOlJC termi nal velocities are greater than
resultant of the su,.f'aoe velocity in the horiwnt.a1
direction and the velocity of settling.
If the tank is provKled with perpendicular parti-
lions placed pormlLl to the direction of How, several
fradions of solids e&n be oolle(U!<i, particles having
the greatest settling velocity collecting behind the
partition nearest the feed inlet, and the exceedingly
fine or 5lowttling particles being carried out in
the overflo\v. F;quipment of this type is also fre-

quently used {or eeparatiilg or dewatering slurries or
suspensioIlll. ....... . ....
A commercial 8daptatiOQ-of the above surface flow
principle takes the form of the Spilzlrostm. in ita
original fo"fm, 8.9 used in !>re d~g (Fig. 74), it
consiata of II. series of connected ,wooden pyramidal
boxes of increasing size pla.ced in thc"""stre&m of the
pulp. The feed enters the smallest chamber and
overflows from the I~t. Each Kasten or chamber
is provWiOO with a sp.q,;ot at the point of discharge of
the solids; too spigot is extended upward in the
form of a gooseneck in order to reduce the hy~
static head. at th"! point of diecharge and hence the
velocity of the discharge.
Modern Spiukastens fr:equently consist of a series
of welded or riveted steel shee~ cones. They serve,
for example, to classify the polishing abrasive WIed
in polishing plate g[alII:! where the polishing abrasive
is recircula.ted and reclassified du ring t-he operation.
FIG. 75. Di~rarnm&tJc lepreeeut.. tion 0( 1e.bonltory f"",
All such ijurface velocity cllLSSifiers are limited W ~tttlinl dusifier.
sizing operations. They are not adapted for sepa-
ration of one minoral from another, and they have the velocity of the hydraulic water ~11 sink to the
the following di~~ vllntag('s. bott~ of the device; those whose',tenninai velocities
1. The fr.aclion~ nrc not sharply sorted. are less will overflow into the launder.
2. HelatiVf'ly lurge quantities of water are re- The feed to a free settling device may be dry, but
(juired. usually it is a "pulp" or suspension baving a solids
3. The fractionl:' withdra.wn from the spigots con- volume concentrl!.tion. of about 10 per cent. The
t.ain large amoun.a cl water required to prevent rate of feed must be 80 adjusted that the volume
plugging of the spigo~. concentration of the soJida in the suspension is not
Free Id/.lng chullijic, accomplish sharper sePIV over I or 2 per cent in the tube or analyzing column.
rations as they make \ll:Ie of the natural falling veloci- A free settler may be used 88 a si&ing device to
ties of the soI:iJ partie~ without tbe complicatioo sep/l.rah~ a given material into two size fractioll8, or
of the horiwn tal or surface velocity. A simple as Il lIOIling device w sepllrate twu or mo:e different
e..uulIlJle IIf a free )j('u ling ci&:silier ill a verl iedl tube ffill\erillill by virtue or the differenl'f!>! ill their dens.:-
called t ile lUutl.vitiug ',,[UIIIII (lrll\'id.:d wilh :t flui ..1 lit">!. TLetUlloUut or Huid required per too 01" ltOOd.tI
the height of the inner C<olle p.nd COIltrfll of th~
amount of hydraulic fluid rletennioes the velocity of
fluid in the space between the cones which functions
&8 the analyzing column.
The operating characteristics of a dO\lble-eone
dassifier are determined by the minimum C!"OdS-
sectioo&i area. of t,h.! annular space between cones.
From this minimum area A and the volumes of feed.
and hydraulic fiuid introduced per unit time, the
significant velocity of the anslyring column and the
volume fraction of solids Y can be oomput.ed, The
capacity of the classifier in tons of solid per hour
muy he estimated as follows~

Caplteity of dl!uble-cone c1iLS11ifier "" L8A Yvp.

--- """" I

Flc;. 76. Di"-lr;;.mmntic t"1lpre1lent~ti"n

lliaine by free lIl.'ttiilli.

treated it! large although considerably less than with

or elutri ~ tion or
w here A = minimum cr~ tional area (sq (t),

Y - volume concentmtion, - - - -- - .
v - velocity (fPl:!).
volume total

p. "" den~ity of &llids (lb/eu t).

volume solid

surface velooity classifiers. Thizs item may be a The double-cone classifie~, as well 118 the free set-
major consideration even when the fluid is water. tling eiutrial.or, is also operated with air or other
Many air classifiers are in service where the cost of fluid . Since air is much less viscous than water
operating them iii less than for competing methods a nd also much less deJll:le, the particles have much
IICch as screening. greater settling velocities, approximately one hun-
Elutriation is the name given a sizing classification dred times !\.ll great, in air than in water.
Ilperatiun conduc~ in a similar devil:fl of laboratory The GlJ"gro pllellmalic cl.aMijier (Fig. 78) , although
lIise for the purpose of determining the grain !lise di[,t- having the appearance of a cone clll8Sitier, operAtes
tribution in the range below the finest screen size. on a different principle. The dry w lid feed enters
By melW8 of a t1er)es of free settling tubell as ind}-
cated in Fig. 76, the weighed sample originally placed N,
in ilie first tube of smalle.,st diameter il! cl~ified int.o _____L.."."."'__,~AdjUStlblt
'\ iMer cone
fractionl! according to their settling vducitics. The
fractionl! are thP. successive tubes 11m.l
may be dried and weighed. Care mllst be taken
that the pu rticl~ are no t agglomerated but well
diiJpersed in the fluid if reliable results are to be
The doubkame clmsifier (Fig. 77) con:;ists uf a
fixed external cone provided with s. source or Auid
(hrdruulic water) , a spigot at the tip, and a ~riph
era! overfiow launder around the open end. A con-
centric inner truncated cone is so :;upported that the
height of t!lis cone reiJ.~ive to the outer cone can be
u.djl,sted as uy u ho.ndwheel. ',t he feed flow s down
within the imler cone lind out of the opening lIogIloi u,;t
:~ ~IHe, The hyJ nwlic wttlf-r or lither .fluid ttnd I he
h"f'1.1 ttll' mix('1.J ill' viduity "f tue tmifte Itnd ri'll' ~'1I.1. 17. 1)iHtr;no,um"ti(" "'j!!"""""t~\.io!l "r dUIlLI&.~)1 1('
ill tllt~ !!lJl',"t.' t... ,,,,'11 tl,t! t W\I " Ollt::;. AJ,iU:!tllltlDt. "I" cL.!Isitw .
through a hollow shaft and falls upon the rotating which the fine material which does no~ settle flows
feeder pla~ which distributes the particles across the in a continuous stream, The coarser materiall3inks
cylindrical classification section. The circulating to the bottom where the rakes gently move it wward
fan causes air to circulate upward and 'outward the upper or coarse discharge end. The upper end
throug}. the inner cylinder, carrying the fines into 'of the tank hl open and extends far enough
tht; outer cone w)l.ere they setUe.out and are removed above the' water line to provide drainage space if a
from the botrom. The circulating air ret urns drier coarse pulp is desired .


1<'10.78. Cut.away view of Gayoo pneumatic classifier. (Un-.v~nal Rood Madoinn-y C.j

through slots in the inner cylindrical section. The At the beginning of the stroke the rakes are
oversize material settles down through t.he dropped t-o [he bottom and slowly drawn toward
air into the bottom of the inner cone and is separately the UIJPer end. Aftu movement of about a foot or
removed. two the rakes arc lifted clcar of the floor ant! moved
The rake clasgifier consists of a settling tank whose parallel to thc bottom toward the fine discharge end.
bottom is pl~ at an incHDe' and in which are sus- At the completion of this part of their t.ravel the
pended movahle rakes (Fig. 79). Feed in the form rakes are dropped and the cycle is repeated. The
of pulp or slurry enters continuously through a feed movement of the rakes stirs up the solids. The
launder placed about a third of the length of the heavier or fru;ter settling particles collect on the
tank from tl16 l(>wer end. The lower or fine dis- bottom and un~ (:arried along with the upwa.rd
charF end is provided with an overllow liy over movement of the rak..:>. The. filler particles are

FIG. 79. CUtIlW:J.Y dl"lll';ing of:J. rake da!!Sifi,... (l:mrr Co.)

th rown a.bove the r8k~ and travel in suspeltsion eOll",i;;l,; of a. trough uf scmicylimlri('sl :Shape, set at
t.oward the fine discharge end. nn incline of about 2}i in.jft. Revolving within the
Classifiers arc built with one or ml)re I3CtS of rll.kes trough is a shaft carrying a helix. Feed is introduced
si d~ by side. For closer :;izing of the fines &. IIpray !Jolow the watf'r level. The ht>nvit'r solids sink ami
of water may he added at. I.he fine d ischnrge end, are "arril'ti li p the slope hy the hciix. TIlI'y are
diluting the pulp and pt> the operation to di."lI"hlll"g('(i lit. the ttpfX'T rnll thrungh an op"lling in
approach free settling ; or the fine (Ii:<charge may be tho of the trough abovo the water level.. The
furt.her ela.ssifil.'<.i in s 00wl cWSljijU'r built. as an ex- fine materiul ovorHo\\"s at t.he lower end.
tension t.o the rJ; classifier (Fig. SO). The l/arJi/Uje cowtlerC/trrcnl clamfwr IS Ii simila r
The CY088-flow or A kinlJ clauifU"r (Fig. 8t) jW'r forllLS clevicc con .~isling of a ~lowly rcvoh-ing drum, tJl(~
in much the &line manner rd~ the rake cla.~sihcr. It inller surface~ of which earry IL helix. ;\iotjon ilS

FiG. SO. Bowl cJ:.o.!;l!ificr wurki"ll '''' uv"rrl"w of r"kc d"""ir~r. (I)."rr Co.)
Imparted through a trunnion, thereby eliminating For Clauifying Fine Material
any submerged bearing. T he bt>wI. da88ifier (Fig. SO) consists of a short
Power nnd operating cosls on t hcsc classifiers arc cylinder with a bot tom sloping toward the center.
n'latively iow. A rake clas.'lifier 18 in. wide by 15 ft The feed enters at the center through a loading well
long requires about 1.5 li p on light service, and 25 I1p and haffle- plate placed ju:;t below the surface of the
is sufficient fOT a elll&'ific r 16 fL wide and 30 ( t long. .Iiquid, direeting the fceJ radially oulwaro. The
The sizc or mesh of the &,puratiun point , i.e., the tines overflow into !' launder !It the periphery of the
largest size in thfl fines or overflow and the smallest bowl. The oversize material is raked to the centcT

:size in tlle coarse frtLction, il:! cuntrolled by the by the slowly rotating vanes and discharges in an
operating conditions. A finer separation point is annular opening. When the classifier is operating
obtained by (1) greater dilution of the pulp, (2) lower on the fines from a rake classifier, the uv~rsizf' from
tilt of the tank, and (3) slower speed of the rakes. the bowl is fed back to the rake classifier. The howl
For a fcod of constltnt quality the capacity of t.he classifier is designed for more dilute pulps than the
c1as.'iifier is decreased by those changes in operating rake classifier. The large overflow permits the
conditions whi~h givf\ a fmer separation point. For handling of large quantitk'S of water with low
this rca.',on other types of classifiers are generally vclocitil!8 as required for the more slowly settling
rmployod whf'n 'a line Sf'paral,ion point is ro- small particles.
(Illireci. The spiral-uanc r./1VI8ijirr (Fig. R2) is a device
These sloping c1!L~i fif'f"loi have a prneti(:al advan- cons isting of a. cylindrical tank , a ~ntral ahart, and
tage since they elf'valt> tl,e oversize in the act nf spirnl or radial arms which sweep the bottom. Feed
da.'I.'iifit'Ation, thpN'hy fl~IIlN ( l ly I'lim inating thi' is pllml)('(1 in :1>< II. )jlllrry. The ~()I idi!. ~f.t lc llnd Itrt'
1lt'(.'t'!,ISity v a ~pm:I I,t! (Ievatvr \\"llcn udOd with a :!-wel'L 1.0 !lIe center und removed conlinul)ol.llsly. Tile
mill in dOlOed cirouit operation. fines overflow into a. launder as shown.
When it is desired to de-8iimtJ ~'. to remove very of different. densities by repeatedly affording a vcl'}
fine part.icles sach as clay from the coarser sand thick suspension of the mixed particles an oppor-
particles, the feed in the form of R suspension is fed tu nity to settle or fall for short periodli of timc IIlld
to the center of a.n inverted cone. The sand settles tben removing the stratified layers.
out, and the water carrying the fine~ overflows into a In the clBSSification equipment mentioned above,
peripheral launder. The feed is supplied at a rapid the maximum or te rminal velocity of the particle ii'l
fate, and the vertical velocity of the water is rela- the significant characteristic which determines the

F lO. 82. Spinll VAne el:t.llllifie.r a nd adjusta bJe.strokc diAphragm pump. ( ~JlVU Eq uipmmt C".)

tively high anrl will carry in suspension moot of the separalion of particles. If t he particles arc lll10wed
&.>lids of ?OO mesh and smaller. only very short settling periods, hey will never
These cones are generally of 6O-<Iegree a ngle, 9 to develop the maximum velocity and the separation
10 ft in diameter at the top. T he sand is discharged is made on the basis of the initial settling: velocities
through a spigot at the bottom, either by manual ur of the part icles. At the outset of settling the velocity
automatic means, depending on the type of device. is extremely low and no resisting force due to friction
A typica.l cone will handle from 50 to 100 \.ons of effccts has heen developed. Therefore, since FR' is
solids per 24 hT. The feed will contain about 90 practically zero, equation 11 becomes
j>Cr ccnt water, the spigot discharge 30 per cent, anJ
F' = ma - mg-ux) - O
the overflow about 95 per cent.
On the basis of the same standards as in I'II:reenillK,
the effecti venes;; of JO;u ch Ii device can be alxmL 70
per cent, wi th recovery around 90 per cent. a'" (,n - ,,)g = (" - ') u - (1-;:') g
-~;;- - ~,-.-

The initial acceleration a given a I'artir.le a l. t,he I;t,nrt

JIGGINC of settling dppend~ on j,hc force of gravity ami t.he
Jigging is a l'lJ:'M}Cial form uf himJf'red settling which densi ties of the part.ide and of the pilIp 01' fluid. H
=onsists of stratification of the particles into layers i8 independent of the size ur shnJXl of the particle.

This means that IIOrting of t wo materials. o.ocording
integral! .- Iv dt, or the area under the eurve on
to density may be p088ible, almost regardless of tbf: , 0
size distribution of the.material, if the settling periods .Fig. 83 from t - 0 to t .. t. If the time is short.
are of extremely short duration. such: as II , all slate particles will have settleo. a
The relative acceleration or relative initial velocity greater dist&nce than all coal particles, and the
given particles of t\\'O different materials A and B sized feed can be completely sorted or separated into
is 'obtained by dividing equation 48 for material A slate-free eoal in the tops or " fines" and cool-free
by equation 48 for material B. slate in the bottoms.
If the time of sorting or settling is allowed to
a,t ( p.t - P) PB extend to ~, when the area under curves 2 and, 4'
(f II dt) are about equal, it is impossible to separate
The difference between sorting on t,he basis of the smallest slate particles (curve 4J from the largc:;t
initial velocity and on the basis of te rminal or maxi- coal particles {curve 2} 88 they are equal jigging,
mum vcl.JCity is ind icated in Fig. 83, which shows ~ that is. tney settle equal distances in the allowed
relative velocity of settling as a functioD of timefor settling period: The ratio of the diameters of these
(lifTcrent particles. For example, a particle of ila.te particles is called' the ftg(lin{} ratio and, similar to the
(curve 1) of the same shape and .size as a part~ of Itdtling ratio, indicates the maximum size ratio that
can be com.pletely sorted under the conditione indi-
catoo.. '
For ~ttLing periods greater than l3 tbe tenninal
velocity controls the separation, fUld it is impossible
w make an Cffec.\ive Eteparation between coal and
slate with the size diBtrih}ltion indicated for this
feed. The limit w the rangt of partide size that can
be 8Orti un~er these conditione is the settling ratio
g!ven by equation 45.
As iodicat.ed in Fig. 83 the jigging ratio varies
enOl'lllously with changes in the dura~ion of settling,
inc~ing approximately fourfold as the duration
n falns decreased from 0.50 to 0.10 sec, and more
'. " Time, I '. " than tenfold as the duration is decreased from 0.5
to 0.0.5 sec. If jigging is practiced ona feed of a
rIG. 83. lWlstive eett ling vclocit iell of slale and 00&1 as Ii wide size range, a very sbort settling time must be
funetion of time from the moment ""ttling ....u ~tarted. used lor stratification.
eurveo t a nd 2 are ror particles 01 the flame sb e. Curve 3
is for smaller p8rtiel~ or
slat.!! which have tbe sarne terminal Ji{Js are essentially tanks of rectangltW CTC88 sec-
tiettling velocity M the ~i cles or -.I reprelll!D.t.ed by !.ion, fitted with a &Cree., placed a short distance
curve 2. C)ll"VeII" a.n d 5 are fOf" II. still Ilmaller aile 01 particle. below the. rim or~overflow ' in & horiwntal or slightly
sloping position. The screen or the water is given a
coal (curre 2) will settle faster than the particle of pulsating or "jigging" motion, which causes alter-
coai, owing w ita grea.ter deMity. A smaller particle nate upwani and downward surgee of Ute fluid
of slate may be select.ed (curve 3) which will have a through the screen 80 that the solid particle~ are
maximun. settling rate exD.CUy the same as t hat. of lifted free of the screen and allowed w settle for a
Ihe larger particle 01 coal (cur ve 2). A still smaller short time interval, then compact.ed on the screen in
particle of slute (cu:-ve 4) will have 8 st.ill slower layerl, in a series of oycles.
~ Inaximum or terminal velocity. Coal of the same The feed, usually usa pulp, although it may be dry,
!lize as the smallest slate particle will always settle is introduced over the screen at one side and sub-
more slowly (curve.5) than the slate. Rut the initial jected to a series of IIhort. set.Hing pt'riods as it movPli
velocity or acceleration -of all slate pa.rtic~ ill greater across the screen w the overflow. The screen open-
than that of the coal. ings are ap proximately twice the diamettlr of lhe .
The dist.ance a partiele faUK in timc t equals the largf':8t particle to be passed through thf' IlCn'lCn . A
bedding .of larger particieg of de~ material is When jigging on the screen, the overfl.ow and t.he
usually built up on the screen in a few hours of oper- upper layer may be removed over a weir or dam
ation. If this bedding does ll'-,t develop naturally and the lower layer (or concentrate) t.hrough a gate
from the feed, bedding material should be added, or well on the screen. The proper removal of this
made of sired matetw too large to pasS
through the lower layer is esscntial for successf4l jigging and is
screen: and of a dei'tsit)" ~pproximating that of t.he frequently a difficult problem.. ~
heavy material to ,be con~entrated'in 'the !o;""er layer In hutch jigging or jig!!;ing t.hrough the screen, the
on the 'sCiieo~aoo 'in the hutch". Steel shot of twice Invcr layel"' is drawn through the screen into the
the ~~.thi; screen opening8 is frequently used hutch and removed therefrom. A bed is required on
for thi~ -purpoSe. the screen of particles of such size as to remain on the
Particles- of different sizes, of either the same or screen and support the light product., and the screen
different" densities', an not sett'", the same distance openings mUf!lt be coarse enough for ready passage
durin~' one of the 'short settling' periods. A coarse of heavy product.
parhc'Ie may remam suspended, or It may settle for Fixed-screen plunger jigs arc exemplified by the
only O.05~sec out of a cycle of 0.30 sec before it is Harz jig (Fig. 84). The jiWng motion is obtained
supporWd -by Bridging with other large particles by the plunger reciprocating in the compartment.
resting on the screen. A small particle may settle
for 0.20 see' during the same cycle, part of the time
on top of tbe\ hM ?!f.. eoarse material and part of the
time through ~ ~~tjces between the large par-
ticIes. This actIon, called consolidation /.rid;ling,
represents the settling of fine particles, whereas
coarse particles are self-supported and do not settle.
The settling of fine particles is much" slower during w,,'
consolidat.ion than 'during su~pension, hut the' effect
may be important if cont.inued for sufficiently long
time. It is observed not only in jigging but also in
stra~ification caused solely by lateral vibration
without vertical movement and has been called
"reverse classification." ! ...
In jigging, the first ~tratification occurs while the
bed is open (solids 8uspended) and is essentially
hindered settling all controlled by the initial velocl
'''' 0
ties or accelerations. ThilO tends to put the coarse Water leVilI Partition
heavy grains at the bottom and fine light grains at
the klp, with the coarse light and fine heavy grains "'''
.1 I
in the middle. The second stratification occurs '"Ii"
while the bed. is tight (coarse solids self-supported
and not suspended) ana' is essent.ially consolidation
trickling, which tends to put the fine heavy grains
at the botklm and eOOl"se light grains at the wp
with tlie coarse heavy and fine light grains 'in the
middle. By proper control of the time allowed t.hese Hutth valve"
two actions !Itt almOst perfect'stratification according
to density can' be obtained." The 'products from a FIG. 84. Fixed-ereen plunger jig.
jig are usually, in order of position, (I) the overflow
of fine light material; (2) an upper layer above the The upper layer is discharged over a weir at t.he side
screert or"medium and coarse 'lighC m4ferial; (3) a opposite the feed: The lower layer flows into the
lower layer on the screen of medium and COllr5e heavy well on the screen and is withdrawn 'through the gate.
material; (4) hutch material of fin~ hoo.vy material. Such jigs may be constructed of wood, steel, or con-
The bibliography for this chapter &ppe:l1"5 on p. ':11. crete and are built With several compartments' in

(,) (b)

F .IJ, S!i. Di"K... mmalic repre!!Cllbliull nt a Ii%OO-$Croo n dinphragm jill. (I~ EquipIMIII. Co.)

The adjw;tment between the WIIter vll ive and the openllion of t he diaphlUjtJl1 may be varied to pJovide dil'ferenl intenllitias 01
jigci ng Ill! inoJic:o.t'-".l in <I aoo II. I .. <I t he ovat~r vllive is ,.d jU9l.00 to ....ork against lhe diaphragm, giving a m il d aetion, and in
b the tu.ljWltm~1lt iIIlSUeh as to Il.(j(I the effoot of wllter fio";" to that of the dillphmgm.
All. shown in 11 the wa ter valve opelll! 118 the diaphragm begill8lo rise, and the lIow of WAter into the hutoh neutralize!! the
action of the dii\phmgm, provi ding a quil't jig bai. The ovater .....Ive clol!et< as t he diaphraa:m desoondB, givinc an upwaru fiow
through the bed.
With the tu.ljustrncnt indicated in II the w'lter "lIlve dl,llleS lIB the dia phl"llllil ri- . and wllter is d",.n into the hutch from
lhe jig bed. A.s the diaphmgm de'lOends, tbe water valve opell6 a nd the enterio,g ovater augment.!! ~he el'fe.::t, of the jig stroke 01
the, increasiug the velocit y of water up.IIM through the jil bed.

lleries, the tailings or overflow of one compRrt.ment 85) exemplifies this type and shows how the hydraulic
passing as feed into t.he ne.xt compartment. The water may be autom8.ti('~ly cont.rolled.
am~! itude of jigging is greateit in the first cell and Power requirements vary from about 0.1 to 0. 15
least in the last, making a coocentra.te of heavy hp/ aq ft of &creen area, and capacities range from
nmterial in the first and middlings in the others. about I to 4 tons/(aq ft)(24 hr).
Varial.jbns in the pulsion (upward flow ' of water Moooble acrem jig., &8 the name impli05, move the
through screen) and suction (downward flow) ampli. screen in order to get the jigging acti()1l. The motion
~udes 'are controlled by removing mawial through is usually not only reciprocating up and down but
the hutch valve or admitting extra or hydraulic also fore :,....d aft, with greater acceleration on the
water to the hutch during pulsion or suction. In return stroke 80 M to cause the bed to move forward .
hutch jigging the dense lower layer is drawn through The Hancock jig has 8. capacity up to 300 to 600
the screen and discharged through the hutch valve. tons/24 hr for a ~reen 25 ft by 4 ft 2 in., or aoou~
FixedKrun diaphragm jig. are similar to the 3 to 6 t(llUI/tq ft.
plunger jigs except t.ha.t the plunger is sea1eJ to the Heavy suspensions may be used in of water
frallle' by a rubber diaphragm which pl"event.B leabge when jigging relatively c.oa.rse ~clea with all the
of water arou nd the plunger and gives more positive advantages of a high density fluid.
pulsion and suction. The Denver mineral jig (Fig. Air is also used in pneumatic jigs when a dry
product is desired or the matelial cannot be tt1'a!cd the !look, the particles are impelled forward h~ri
by warer without damage. The separation ill always zonl3lly (from right to left in Fig. 86).
inferior, due to the lower density of the fiuid . Materials of low density have a greater tendency
to be carried in suspension downstream with the
water than do particles of higher densit.y which
tend to settle into the grooves or riffles and respond
The "panning" nf the gold miner to separare the to the motion of the table.
more dense gold from the less dense rock or gnngue AB a result, the material of high dewity ~ravels
has de,,-eloped into the modem ~1I{J kWk. The forward toward the left and is discharged over the
operation is the separation of two material:! of differ- left edge or lower left comer of thtl table, and the
ent derulities by p8l!8ing dilute pulp over a table or material of lower density overflows along the lower
deck (Figs. 86a and 86b) inclined about 2 to 5 degrees margin of the table into suitable laundors.

FIG. 860. Duplex di .. gonal-deck watiliillg table. (DrialQ' Conuntrolor Co.)

from the horizontal. It is given a reciprocating Provision is made to alter the degree of tilt or the
horizonl3l motion or shake at the rale of ISO to deek. The drive bas a variable speed mechanism,
375 per minute, with a slow forward motion and a and the coupling t.<l the table provides a means of return, causing the material kl move fonvard incrcELlling or decreasing the length of the jerking
in the same manner a.s for a movable screen jig. stroke from a fractional part of an inch to somewhat
The feed and water are supplied to a launder at ovcr 1 in.
the right upper &ide of the deck. The surface of the Although tables are used for sorting materials from
table is covered with canvas, wood, linoleum, cement, about 6 mesh to 3O(l mesh, sepa.r:'.tions of particles
or otherwise roughened, and usually provided with of below 48 mesh are usually mor" economically
grooves or deaLs kl form riffles which may be parallel accomplished by Rotation. Successful tabling is
to the direction of table motion or at an angle therckl. dependent upon a wide difference in densities of the
Cleats ~ to ~ in. wide Me fri" (0 to ~ in. high are minerals fed.
usually spaced >i to 2 in. apart, covering most of A small table about 15 in. by 30 in. will separate
the deek a.s shown. from ~ to 2 tons of ijQlids in 24 hI'; a large table
The net movement of thc particles is the ('('sult.ant about G ft by I.') ft will handle 15 to 00 tons of solids
of two foreC/:l applied kl them. Under the influence in the same period of time. HOhlepower require-
of the tilt of the table and the velocity and thic.knelltl men ~ are low, in t.he neighborhood of ~ to 2 hp per
of the film of water flowing over it, the partides of table. Water requirementg vary from about 3 to
solid tend to be wrulhed straight down the KI!/pc over 30 gpOt per table.
tbe lower edge but are irrllxlded in t1li.~ flow hy the A dry taille opernt('ll by a blast of air pl\llHing
riffles UlL(l~r Ute influcnoo of !.tte jerkin!!; monon of upward through an indinoo. perforated tahle or

;,creen. The feed is introduced near t he top 01 (he thllt lbe te;ulting mol ion cau!<CS n decrease in the
inclined table. The less dense particles are sup- llnfl'ltV of Ih e system. The for<."(,'S are due either to
ported oy the nir above the ~urfacc of the tablp. and an f'lectric charge 011 the pa.rticle or to a dilTf'l"e nee
flow down ward to discharge over the lower end. bet.ween the d i~l~ckiu coniltall t~ of t.he partide nnn
The table is gi~'en an otosdlllLting motiou similar t.o the surrounding medium.
that described for Fig. ...8 which call~!I til(> mort.' Forces due lu an electric charge tHO parnHcI 1(, the
dense particles contacting the surface of the table field . rorcc:s due to dilTerences in dielectric conlltnots
to move upward -and discharge over the higher are pftnlllci to t he dirt:etion of maximum varilttion in
end of the table. Dry tables are used to remove field intensity and are zero in uniform electric fields.
stones and other dense materials from light prod- In conductance separawrs a conductive particle
ucts such asSl'eds with capacities of % ton/hr !lcquires a r..harge by cominl!: into with a
for tables about 1.!1 by 3 ft up -to 16 tons/ hI' for surface or screen. Forces ereated by such
taMes ~t 3~ by 7 ft. The power required is chrges are relatively large and ea.sily produced.
about one hO~J:-owcr per ton per hour. Such r;ep"ratorS may be (:onstnlctoo a.'l 8hO\\'n in
Dry tables nrc also used to remove a rtilative\y Fig. 87.
large quantity of light material from a nerl AA pnxiud. A ig t1lf~ initial material, B the loss conductive, iLnd
(,' thc more conduct.ive. The devit'c8 in Figs. 870
and 87b arc repTfflented as having roll" beneath
hoppers. In somp CU$t'li these rolls are replru'fld hy
Small partic1~ of different 8'Jlids may be separated inclined chutcs. The attruding electrode, indicat.ed
on the basi ... of I.heir different l*ha"iur~ in nn electric a.~ hcing dlargcd negatively and of cylindrit!al form,
field. The>le 1Oe1P.!!live forces act. in such a mann~r iR r;ometimp;; of nl hllr shape and polarity hut is
ah\':J.}'s the opposite or the roll polarit}', In.;;te.tu.l of 11 d ipped ill a liquid bath to clean the m. Such equip-
d ividing edge to !lCpan.. te the ehar~'(j Hlid nn('h~ me nt is from 85 to 100 per cenl cffcctive in SE!pa.rating
particle:;, the formcr may be collected ~IO'(:t i \'ely by _ the s,lIspended l)art icieS f runi Ihe gas .
adhesion to a surface, Simpk ehargi!tg hy conduct- Contact polential separator, act in mtl~h the same
ance is iIIU.':itruted in a, Fig, 87, whereufi ill b addi- way bill dilfer in t he method of charp;inl!; t. he solid
tionAl churging hy ion:; rrum a pinpllint ell'drlKle i~ pUI't.idl~s. Thi!! ill d"n~ hy :<lII'{:f'Sf!iw) cont u.ct be-
"hown. This cau'*lS_thc nonc,mdlletorll to auhere tWl'i'n !.Il() par!ir:lf1K ami ;~ .~!lrft(,(:c of c1~ctri~ally
more firmly to the rolk l:ondlldiv(\ nla1t'wi,,[ wl1o,",(' (onl:I.I'I 1)()t.~nli!l.1 liell
In Fig. 87e mawrial i.~ movC'1 mt't.:IHlllilu.i!y frum ]1f't.wPf'n !he enntad pntenliab of the c (ln~litllent.
I to II on a Ha.L-surial'e, such a... a ~rOlilldt!d vihrl1.t ing particl{,; tu be ~Iul.ra ted. Thc ~urfllce or plate is
1!;;1)1e or a moving Ix-It., A ;;\lpcrim,~~J el~ t. rode po.:;iliw! to one l,mstil1tent and nC,l1;l1.tivc toward the
l'8UI!CI:I the mol'C tondueti ve mll.leria l to he IC\'ilaled ot he r. The c/JRla~tif(g may be done by a llowing the



(oj ('J (,'
Fl(;. R7. Uiugl'anul\a11<: n"retiCllla t io" ..r .." ... loct.. "..., :;oo'paralo....

a nd alTf!eh:d Ie;:,; uy t he mechanical move ment. With particle:; to How over tl.n inclined SlIrface which may
proper tilting thitl more c onduct ive materia l is re- be vihrated.
mo \'OO at tIt. Pyroelectric Pjfecl8 may "Iso be utilized in which the
The applied potcnt.ial in Fig. 8i c may be constant heated material is fed onto a roll, the drop in tem-
!n ml1.KTJitude and polarity, CO(l;;tll.~lt in polarity but perature after depo;;ition on the roll causing electric
intemlittentiy reduced to zero, or a lternating in polar'ization t() appear on some minernll!, such as
polarity . .Interruption and altcrm~tion of potential quartz, I which then adhere to the roll and may be
cause ma.t.erial to be repeatedly fIJId re- separuted as B in Fig. A7b.
dpposi~l on the table and l'Psulta in tI. numhl'r of Eloctrostntic method~ are not so widely used for
succeAAive separation!:! durin g one pMlmge over ' the separating d ifferellt solidt; as the other methods
table. The altemations and interruptions m~y a.lilO described . But tlley luwe proved effective in pre- with the table vibrat ions. The effcct cipitating o r ijCpa rating fine partide:l from s uspen-
of t.hese repetitions i:>; to give higher select ivit.y and Rions in gases.
hi p;her efficiency of separation. Tho ~Ieetivity of
the separator! just described rlelltl~Ja not only on BIDLIOGRAPHY
conductivity difTerenp,p;; of the cOnlltituenta but aIM
I . Dn:f\, Ff\t:D 0., "The Scope for Rcvcl'!Ie Chl.9l1ifieation
on differences in t.he densit.y, particle Si7,c, and par- loy Crowded Settling;' E"g. Min, J., 12'7, 1030-33 (1929).
ticle shape. 2. FRAAS, .... , f.nd O. C. RA' 05T1JK, "F.ledl'Of!tatic Separation
Some separators or precipitators for the removal of HotitllJ," Ind. Eng. Cllnn ., Ii, 600 (l940).
of ~spentlcd solids (smokes) or liquid (mists) are 3. OVEAATIWM, G. A., U. S. PBtcnt 1,679,739--40 (AUi. 7,
1928) .
so constructed &II to cau~p the sUilpen ~ion to pass
through 0. &":teen charged with either positive or
negative polarity, which ehnfKeS t.he particles in t he
g8ll, and then through a ma7.fl of me tal bafHps I. A mixtore of silka li nd ga lem. pMticb (u eruebt!d)
charged with the opposite polarity. The p.!irtides ranging in ei~ from 0 .0074 ~m I<> O.()6.!i2 dlI is Iw.p&I'a Ced by",
rising stream of I\'a te r a t OO~ F.
are attracted to the platR.s from which they are (0) Wbllt velocity of wlfl,tcr flow will givp an uneootaminat.eri
remlJ'ocd IlIJri<'"iitally. OIW typo< (l t"qllipmf'nt \If'(';< pm<iud of 1i:"It'DIlt
It sluwly mo ving endles,..; dlUin of hltffle ~ wbidl :lrc (I,) Wh,,( i~ the nl .. ~i,"um size ra"gu 0; this !,nxlo\Jt~
(e) If benzellC (apecifie gno"ity 0.85, vW:oosity 0.65 ce nt!. The discharge from Ule crusher ie to be ~"'oed with 810
poiee) ia subetitut.ed lor d ie ...lIttr, how .viii this separation O.08-in. scrocn. llnd" both t he ovmtise snd UDUeI1!i~ f~
be~f . to be IICnt to lroo 9Cttli~ hydl'1l.uli!l e\ll89i.fierll.
(!l~ Thtimate the rated. hOl'9CpoI';er of the motor roquirod
2. A mi:o<turo d ~ru~hed l!:.. k~I\Illlhd Hilk./l flinging (t<>ln 28 to to tlrive ttoe" cru.~hcr.
200 mNh ill 10 be 8Il~rat.ed cleanly lind completely hy 1!oC~11- (h) Will t l", rmpor;cd serwwr anti clllSllification opcrati.."
iIll> aM dlll' the """~II aiM:!! !lilt! the
""WI" velocities (at :zoe C) fn t vertical cllUll'lificrs \.,hi"h will
clfce~ oomplctc I!eP&f1I.tion 0' tungsten oxide and silica! If
80, ""hat waler vdociti<J!l are required in the clait!Iiflers! H
accomj)lb!h t his l!epi'r .. tion . . 1'I<Jt. ~pecify SCl'I:!en aizcs and eL'.!!flifier conuiti{'llUl which. will.
3. tn the miniog of sllh&lcnl.c (Z,'.';), II part ieul:u- ennoom Slate aoo explain any MSUmpu.:m. lut are made.
eepante8 the ore IMJD .Lhe q\Ulrl a gangue by a hytll'1U.llie 6 . A 0081 oompt.lly wlM:Mlc rePutation h&e boon built UI'''f1 a
cl:aeeificalion 00 one Nile 'fl'lUltion in freo) IOIlttling ciasRifie.... ]"",-Mh ~Jean product plans to open .. new mine. All 00111
using an upward current velocity of water of 50 f"m. Suit- from the new mine is to be Wa.f!hed to eliminate froo IlJ!h.
able oonOllntraLKm ia ubtained fU! J.on,: II!! tho si.e rnngc is 'fbe mine-ron 00Il1 will be firl!t seroelM)(\ OWl' a 6-in.,
be!d \O~' in. by X .. in. It" propollCtllo tIP4II a heavy m..'tlium Mol the oversit.e will be pMIICtI to " <:l'\I!her ..nd eruahOO lu
I!IeparattoD. in oroer to obtain hirulcnxt .!!et11ing ooodilions. too following Mr.c ,malym.
The medium being oonsidcrod ill a 61urTy oontainin,; 6b per
ee~t by "-eight of finely ground magnetite. Magneti w may
be usumed to h&ve dePsity approximatinlt that of tho!
beavieT fOlTl'l8 01 hematit.e. MUlC Rur" c.,.bod
' (a;) What "ill be the maximum !lCTeen size that may be Size, in. % Coa~ %
UIled with the new rnuJium!
(b) Eetimale tIM! upward velocity of dense medium that
8boukl IJo: .-I.
St.a.\c and explain al\ &SiIWJIl>tioD8 made.
-.-,-. +6

4. Soap ill to be I[rQund t.o produce !l Ci/&lt!l) IIOIIp pb .... oor - I +)4 20 40
which it a a::ranular produet "'ith a IlllOximum perm~bJe -~ 10 10
size of 14..--h. It ill proo;:eo!I!ICd in a 1\lI .... mer mill run in
eklaed circuit .,I'i~h a ,louble-ooM Itir clMeificr '1IIiol[ 0001 air. 'I'he crusher product is then blended IMck in ""ith the 6-in.
The analYling :zone of tIM- clBNlifier is the annular zone be- undersize and double-8Cmened to three eiJC8. The tW{) larr;er
toreen the <.IUter and inner ones ,,"[,ich have rna ~imum diam- sil()ll are 10 be I\'B.8hOO by meBIl.'! of hydl'1l.ulie clMaificatioo.,
d en of 48 in. and 36 in., ~tivcly. Tho " ir in t his ~me . 'hik the uodel'Oli-e from the fmeet acroon (1\"bicb baa M-in. 0.2 per cent. of lIOiida hy volume. The dcnai t) of boleoo) ill JlW'Sed t.o .. filii.! ooal launder.
the _p is 1.3 linlms/ cc. . 1'1(lat-a"d-$ink tcStl\ on the /'0111 indica.w tluLt an average of
Ho,,' much air in ~ubic feet per miuu!!: U\~I, be 8uppUcd? !t~ 1"" oonl of the mine product ill co&l of 1.5 epecific gr.... vity
m lil(l' I('I', and ]5 per ~nt is free ash of 1.711pC>.,ilie II'l.Ivity or
5. A ao&d millin, rompany is installil\& " plant for II...
aepan.tiou 0' l.unp\cn o:ri\le (density 446 ]bf cu It) I.mll ,.
iM , ~ ,;"r. ThUll, "'ashill,; should be 00nA In tu!O~r all the
] .51!", vity or Hghter and eliminate the 1.7 or ocAvier.
mixtul'l:l of 15 per oont by "'eight sili~a and 85 per ccnt IU'II(- (II) In t,he uo uble lICreI!!nlng of the - 6-in. coal and ash, a
steu ,,:oiid,. Fif ty toM / day of tliiR mixtul'lJ (o.vCTagc ~ixn i~ M-i n. fine SCrt.'l ln has been "fIl'<!ificd. What &lould be the
2 in. Ih di&JIlll't,oCr) loll to be cr'l~h"d t o til(! following lICret:n !II!I'J~'" ~i:oc or I."" OOIU'IICI' IW!TOOII which will a llow oomplcl"
....".., C\i,.,inll.liOll uf '1'00 asb ill the hydl'lluli~, dMsi6er, at lit<, SIlme
Scrocn Ma&'< .. (hol,h I" .. "",h", tinlC permitting as larw & weight fI"l\Of,ion "" poI!I!ible ill the
SilW. in.
- 0.32
- 0 . 16
+ O. IU
+ 0 .08
, Fraction oxiuc and ~i1 i' :a)
0 .3
li . 7
medium .... ized highcr-pri<:eoJ ('00.1 product?
(10) If 300 to ... of mi f'll."-run ~ I a n: pruoo_>d I." hour.
hUll" much of ncb !Jl t he fin.'li l lln.", Ki~ l.rutlue<.8 a'ld (rw
- 0.08 + O.Ot 03 ~.5 IIIIh an.' I'rllduo:o....1 pcr hour!
-0,.04 + 0.02 0.'2 3.' ,,"d t~ p"Ull 1I11l11!1lUI!l(ltlon~ mwc.


LOTATIOX includes any operation in II'h i('h pl)!;l~ of the conditioning tank il:! to hring about. t.IIt'

F one solid is !Sepal'&t('(i from :mothcr by /louting

one of the m at or on the surfacc of a fluid . In
modern froth" flotation the solid partides aN' Ci)l\-
coating of Ilw solid to bfo flonlt"(i with th" prUIWr
flotation L"t'1IICl'Ll I. The flot:llitlll re'lb'l.'n~ is ft<u con-
tinll()u"ly 10 till' '~ llIdjlitJLlt' r . ~ 'Lffi t;,'nt t inll' Ilf'inp:
tinuously R!l:i1utoo in water np'.m which u. thit'k
layer of froth is maintained. llecnu,.;e of di!Tf'I,(>IlCCS- '
;n the surface propert ies, one solid more l'f".w:lily
adsorbs the wlLter pha..'Ie, bcc()m~ lSurroundt'l'i by
water, and sink8. The other solid more readily
adoorbs air and bf!com e>; at least \lll.ftially snn-ouode.:!
or covered hy 1ur. The ILverage or bulk dcnllity of
the solid and ad.wrhed air ImbbleR is ll':-;'~ than that
of water, and the whole mass of air and solid
Aoats to the . to fonn a minernl i7A).i froth
which continuously overflows the side of the W!s:;cl.
Becaultle separation by froth flotation depends upon
the surface characteristic!; of the materill.l,., it is
capable of !Separating materiaJs regard lC!SS of their
The equipment and operation~ fvr flota tion Wl~re
de\'elopcd in the mineral industriei!, and ove r 80 per
cent of mineral concentration is accompl i:!hct.l by-
this method. The operation ilS being extended into
other fields, such as separating the hull~ of wheat
from the kerne ls,'~ ink from recla.imed news-
paper pulp a nd even potal:lsium chloride (KCI) from f lO. 8&. So'l:tioJUli drJ"'inll; ~h",,"inl( 01"',,, I""I ..r t"UlklittCl"'UI(
sodium chloride (NnCI). tlonk . (Ot~r Eq,, ;plIIfIIl CO'.j
BecaIUle of the import.a.nce of surface conditions
a.nd the necessity of the air bubbles !Supporting the ullowed to CU IL'lC complete "filming" of thl! solid hy
-;oIid in the froth, flotation is rerfomed on finely the n>agent. Soml' filming may be d one in the bill!
divided material, usually varying in ~ize from 20 mills when a portion of the reRgentl:! are Rdded the["('.
melih to under 200 mesh. The material, reduced by The overflow from the conditione.f is fed .to a
the ball mill or other fine crusher to the proper size Rotation cell terl"llE'd the rougher, whert' thl' first ur
nnd of the d~lIil"1 pulp del1:3ily, i" fed hI a condi rO\lgh scpnml.Loli by flotation is IIl.Ll!,'. Th(' mUh'l"ial
tioniliK tank (Fig. 88) \\'h ic h is esI:ICnlilllly a t~y lindrjenl /ltllLted off is cRlied the conccntrat" as it contuin" 1hI'
lW equipped with an efficien t agitator. The pur d esired mioeru.1. Thc other mater ial which lIink.~ ill

the waler alii is remo.ved from the bottom is called The mineral concentrates are generally subjected
the tailings. to sedimentation, filtration, and drying prior w
Since tbe tailings from the rougher may contain smelting. The tailings fed to a tailing pond
8UlDe material desired in the concentrate, they are where the solids settle out and the clear water is
, frequently treated in another cell called the scav cycled w the milling and flotation units.
enger, as indicated in Fig. 89 under condit ions that

favor the flotation of the maximum quantity of

A flotation unit or cell is the equipment. in which
the material is actually separll ted or floated from the
residual tailings. It consist5 essentially of a v~1
or tank provided with a feed at one end, an overflow
for froth removal, and a discharge for tailing5 at t.he
opposite end, with a pruvision for introducing air for
frot.h fonn alion and agitation. Pneumot~ cellA
depend upon eompreK.'Sed air for agitation , give a
relatively mild agitation, and produce a clean frotb
relatively free from gangue. In general, about 50
per cent longer contact time is provided in pneu-
matic machines, and the pulp must be fully condi-
tioned before flotation . Mechanical cell8 incorporate
a mechanical agitator that draws in air and beats it
into the pulp. Bei:ause of the more violent agitation
all......... that can be obtained with mechanical cells, they may
give more thorough flotation, and tailings more
1'1<.1 IN. J:!j"lple flow d~ showing eeparaLion by Botalion
ueing roucher, IICIlvenger, and cleaner (or finisheT) cells. nearly free from material desired in t.he concentrate,
but t.he concentrates then contain more gangue than
material desired in the concentrate even if a large those from cells with less violent agitation. At high
amount of tailings is alsO floated . The floated prod- altitudes auxiliary air under moderate presSure is
uct from the scavenger is returned or cycled to the frequently supplied to mechanical cells. Mechanical
rougher with fhe feed. The tailings from the cells have a greater capacitv for the same volume
scavenger are the final tailings. and also ' help condition the pulp, giving greater
The product floated from the rougher may contain capacity to t he conditioner.
more gangue than is desired. This may be reduced The Callow eeU is one of the oldest and simplest.
by feeding the overflow from the rougher to a third but is now practically obsolete (Fig. 90). It. consists
flotation cell called the cleaner, 1:10 operated &8 to
give the desired quality in the concentrate. Under
these conditions the tailings from the cleaner contain
material desired in the conCentrate and cycled
with the feed w the first cell or rougher.
Under f$pecial conditions extra f5eavengcrs or
cleaners may be used in serie5.
If the oro contains several valuable minerals. a
process of consecutive or selective flotation (Fig. 98)
may be used to recove r the minerals separately. The
Fla. 00. Diapm repreeenting the I5i mple Callow ftot.lioa
feed from the first conditioner is treated ,,;th the .:en in aect.ion.
proper reagents to float one of the desired minerals,
leaving the others in the tailing! with Ihe gangue. of a t rough 24 to 36 in. wide and 18 to 22 in . high at.
These tailings are fed to a second conditioner and the overflow level, and as long as required. The feed
treated with the proper reagents for floating the enters at the high end, the tailings being removed
second cI{'~il"l.'d mineral. lrom t.he ,other. A " blanket," frequently several
layers of canyas fMUlned to square open-topped cast- sides of t.he trough into a launder. The feed enters
iron blanket frames or "palUJ," covers the bottom at one end of th.p. trough and receives successive
of the trough. ('.,ompressed air is admitted below treatment as it pru..'tCi:l along the trough. The non
the blanket to each frame by pipes projeding floatable particlelJ settle in the rela.tively qubt zone
thr.)ugb the solid bottom of the t rough. The small aiong the sloping sides of the lower part of the oell.
bubbles of air passing upward from the blanket in- The method of fceding and discharging the tailings
duce a mild agitat.ion and become adsorbed or at- is :;imilar to that ulled in the Callow ~ II .
tached to the j>Articlcg to he Hoated. The froth, The rur supply ig conI rtdled hy a mai n valve to the
uBUally maintained to It, depth of 8 to 10 in. in t he header, which may he di vided into section!! a.hout ..
tank or trough, overflows in to the concentrate ft long, each one having a.n individual valve that
launder surrounding the cell. can control anyone section. If the air supply ls
The air consumption ave rages 8 to 10 Cli ft/ (min)
(IIQ ft) at A pr6S8Ure of ahout 4 psi until the blanket
OOeor,lCS blinded when higher pressures may be
nfleded. Horizontal Clt,nvas blanket!! have the dis-
advantage of clogging due to sands and to precipi-
tates of calcium salts in the fibers of the cloth.
Carelessness in cleaning with a shovel may rip t.he
cloth . Neverthelesl>, Callow cells have been satis-
factory for many "res, especially those thatare easily
floated without great ugitu.tion.
The Cal/fJw...1 / (lC l lltush ('.ell, Fig. 91, carries a
hollow revolving rotor made from a steel tube about
9 in. in diameter and perforated with ~-in. holes.
Canvas or perforated rubber sheet is fastened to the
surface by means of steel bands. T wo scraper bars
made of 2in. angle iron are bolted the full lengtb oC
the rotor.
This machine does not. blind easily and can hand1e
heavy slurries with a ratio by wright decreased slightJy at the feed end or tbe tank, the
of 1: 1. These cell~ are usually made 10, 15, or 20 ft concentratE> can be made to overflow in large part
in length and 24, 30, or 36 in . wide, ret!peetivcly, but nPAr t.his end. Air is usually supplied at 2 psi at
larger ijizes Ujl to 30 ft long and 48 in. wide are the blower. For roughing operation.e, 75 to 100
availabk, provided With two rotors. cfm/ ft of tank length is used. For cleaning a lower
The '1uanti~y of air necessary tor: operation varies quantity .45 to 70 efm/ ft will hve a gentler action
from 4 to 8 cu Ct/ (minHsq ft of rotor surface) at less liable to raise gangue into the frot.h. The app rox-
2 to 2~ psi. A ~hp motor is generally capable
of turning the rotor at 10 to 15 rpm. TABI,E 19. POWER REQUIREMENTS OF LOW~
The "air-hll" cell is pneumatic but does not
employ a. blanket and is free from moving parts. Appro:dm.ltu Horaepower
It consists of a V-bottomed. trough divided into Ai. at PT1l$6YreI! of
;!!lctions by vertical baffles, as shown in crvss section om 2"; 3 pili 4 psi 5";
III Fig. 92. Air is supplied from a heade; running 500 6 0.5 13.5 17 .5
:.he entire length of th~ trough to the air connections 1000 12 18.& 26 33
at the top of each a-II as shown. The air flows down
w the bottom of the vertical air pipe within about
6 in. of the bottom. The air bubbles carry some



pulp upward through the perforated apron, thereby
agitating the slurry and fonning froth which is

dcfJec!-ed by the do~ against. the sloping bafBes. 0100 96 16, 225
Ute froth ()v~rftow~ over the overflow li!)K along the The bihliosraPby for t loi <:I.......... -.:.. _ .... 0<' p . lOB.
102 F LOTA TlO~

imalc power required to dcliv(\r air at. titese ],,1\" titatuT ...".;(!mbly for Il.git.ll.tiulI !tnJ aeration of the
pre58UrC!:I i~ indictu<.'<l by the datil of T!lh!e 19. pulp. The stator com.itit.:; of cylindrical spaeen;
The mechanically agitated machilllJ. (Fig. 93) con- mounted between two rinp;~ rigidly fasten6ld to the
sists of A. square C!'08!1-Sf!clioned tank provided with tank. The rotor construction is 8imilar to that IJf
an impeller which violently agitMes the pulp, the stat.or, eXl-ep~ iM upper and lower bladed im-
effecting some cond itioning. T he rolation of the' pellers mounted within the rings. It i" suspended
impeller suck!;' air downwaru through a sleeve sur- on a short drive ghaft and fOla\e~ within the stator.
roundi ng the impeller shaft and urenk15 it oJlP into Tbll pulp enters directly i.lto the tank through a
fine uubble:;. Figllre 94 shows !'he frot.h OVPl'Aow suitahle opening. The pulp if; drawn by the im-
ur1d adHal aPPclIrun<.:c of olle of th('.-;c ~~ll~ in opera- pelle! hlarlCti intn the ml.r)r. Rapid pulp displar:e-
lion. The feed enters at ono end of the battery ( )f ment create" n partial Vat;lIum whie:, causes air lo
cells and pal1SC8 through the desired number of {.~II,., enter into the rotor through the !;tanrlpipc. Thc air
to tailings diS('harw':\1 the Ollpo;<ilf' f'nd. is d ispcrst>d throl.ljl;h the pOll) in t he form of fine
Ai lull" phs,.un",. 1'1\\';. li"",,, abm"(' 8000 ft., hnhbll':l. In pll..;'...;1I1( 1"'\\\"1'1'11 the (ylillllri('t\1 "'I}:l{"crs
a tieflua l e ,lir j.; sup plied ulI l,v h.\' 11id of a b lower. of the roto. nn,1 slat.n, the pulp_waler_nil' mixture
T he Fuyervren I1Il1Chine (Fig. 96) features a rotor- is high ly agitated, giving effective actation.
-'1 ~:::


F lo. \r.\ Cr~tioool ro ..... lng of UK.' lknver mechll.ui",,1 flotat ion Jllilcl.tinc, intli..,.:;,,!> il.; pet ion. (l~lr: K~ J.'-J IInIl CQ.)

Ai; many lUI six muchine;; muy be combined into

one unit ha\'ing ;t common tank sep:}.ratc<i Ly suit-
able panilioll pi:UI'I5. In such a ('Me, the pulp flows
from one cell to another '~"ough opcrungs providcrl
in IIl1' pUI"lil ion p kt u'~; lit the end of the string is a
d i~whul"gc box. Thf" froth is removed from each uuit
hy 11 rot ntin~ .!'kimmer. The power requirements fc.r
1I1f':<t' mcchnn tcul mnchltle8 may be estimated hom
T:Lblc 20.

T.\HL J.: 20. Al' PHOX1:>. IATt: pO\n:1t HEQUIHEMENTH

FOlt MH'H .\!\IIC.\[. F'I.OTATlOr\ CELLS
J lur""lwwer c.:.uI!umed
Size, ~u It Ll1'u I... ' Flljl;pr)!:I~'Jl

"" I. :l
1. 1
1 8- 2.0

:.I . ~ ,
:I.:, 1.0
;;0 1.2 'J
"'1<'. !I I. 0<>0"'-. !lot" ti(>n m"d.i,,<, in aN "'n. (",.mY"
I?q!llpmn,/ c.. .'

FIG. 95. St.-<:tionai tlro"ing 0( Fagcrgron IIoWtiun IlWchine. (Weat_ M!ldtirwk Co. )

FLOTATION AGENTS balance of forees para1lel to surface of the IIOlid gives

1<10tl1tlOn depends upon the relative ad80rptioo "tS(I "" "(Sf., + "(I.() (COH 8)
or " wetting" of the solid surfaces by the fluid. This where"( "" interfacial tension "$ indicated.
in tum i~ controlled by ~urface O!" interfacial energy 8 ., contact an.ll;le.
of which interfacial tension is the inten ~ive f::.ctor.
Any surface lOuch as lhat between water and air The cont.act !:lngle may be dctcnnined by placing a
reSists extension and behaves exactly w; if it were in polished specimen of solid in the bottom of a flat~
tension. It is this intctfadal tension which tends to
make !'lnuil ffi!1f:1&l!! uf water in air take on a spherical Gn
SL ... ~u.
shape or l)fll:omfl drf)r~, find ~mfLll masses of a ir in
water t.ake on a spherical shape and become bubbles,
as the sphlJre hlUl the le&.'\t, swface per unit volume.
FIG. 96. Diagram ()f ~urflj.(.c
!.elISions involved in Ihree-ph8.lle
The inIRrfnciaJ tension Cdn be measured as the force oontao1.
resisting the ext.ension of the interface. Its J1!btivc
values may be determined by the angle fonned be- sided vessel, as indicated in Fig. 97. The ISUrface of
tween surfaces or interfaces when three or more the solid may be clean, or it may carry a film of
pha.o;es are in contact Itnd a.t equilibrium. adsorbed material, depending upon the conditions
In general the 6um.of the components of the it is desired to measure. The liquid to be investi-
facial tensiOI1!l equals zero If one of the phlijle8 is a. gated is poured into the v~ until the solid is at
IIlllid Im-.;(nlinjl; It rigid plant" !It:rrace, 8M- indicated least 1 in. undcr '.he liquid. A flat-endcd capillary
ill lo'ig. ~i, mId lht! vtlter iwu ph_ are ttuids, the hi introdm:ed I'CfI.II'ndicula rly uve r lIle :!Sol id, 11.nd
air is cautiously blown through the capillary lIntil Since
the bubble inakes contact with the solid. "(00 - "(SL + "(w(cO!! 8)
'If the solid is easily and completely wet.ted by the
liquid (lig. 97a), the liquid exists as s' skin between "(51.. - -raG - -"Yw{c(88)
the solid and air and there is: no point of contact of -OE
the three phases. The angle formed by a tangent - - - "tw(l - 0(88)
at the apparent point of contact between the three
phases is zero.
This loss in energy ( - tlE) is a IDC8.'lure 'of the
If the surface of t.he solid is not complewly wetted, wcttability of the solid phase by the air and there-
the liquid is forced to recede to an equilibrium pot!i- fore an indication of t.he f1otability. It represents
tion, as indieatOO in Fig. 97b, where the forces of the the work required to separate the air from a unit
surface of sOlid.
CoIb.dors and promoter8 are reagents which are
adsorbed on t he surface of t he sOlid as very thin
films nnd which because of t heir properties thereby
phase increase the contact angle. The tenn promoter
is particularly applied to agents _forming fi lrrs

one molecule thick, such as sodium xanthate,
NaS(CS}OR, which is adsorbed on lead sulfide and
oriented with the xanthate radical (---8CS-)
toward the lead and the hydrocarbon part (R) out-
'.J ward. This gives the surlace of the solid a char-
aeteristie appii->aching that of a hydrocarbon which
Flo. 97. Diagram repretlCnting contact an,l" between 8 is not wetted by water. If t.he adsorbed matel'ial
liquid And Ii solid.' (a) Solid completdy Wilt. by liquid;
(b) I\(.lUd Il.u.rtially wet by liqui,l.
fornu! films several molccuies thick it is called a
colleetor. Petroleum is an example of a true col-
three interfaces are in balance. A tangent to the lootor. It has the d iiW.Ivantage of making IL gl"'C'&8y
gu-liquid interlace at this point forms !.he angie 8, froth containing a st.icky mass of bubhles difficult
defined as the contact angle (always measured to break down in the sUbsequent sedimcntativn
through the more dense phase). The angle muy be operation, and in some C9J'AlS a t race of oil in the
measured by projection of a magnified shadow of the concent rate is undesirable. Pine oil, generally
bubble on a screen. cla.'IFIed WI a frut~ing agent, also acts 8.<; a collect-or
In flotation a .><>lid p8J'ticle is attached to a bubble and is not so sticky WI cresyJic aci.d and petroleum.
in the same way sa the solid and bubble arc in con- Thc more commun pl"lJmoters used if!. minp.ral flota.
tact in Fig. 97. The only difference is that the solid tion are tllp. xantlliLtcs, the aerofioats, HS(PS) (OR)2,
i.e extremely lImall and the air bubble is relatively and thiocarhanilide, HSC(NCeHt,)(X"IIC6 H 3 ) . The
Iarr;e. The force of gravity and the agitation tend quantity of these reagents used is about 0.05 to
to dislodge the solid particle from the bubble.. If 0.15 Ib/ ton of solids treated. Somewhat larger quan-
the contact angle is small, the liquid will advance tities of collectors, up to about lib/ tun, may be
over the surface of the solid, and the surface fornes used. The greater the length of the nonpolar or
holding the solid and bubble together are weak. hydrocarbon ptlrt of tbe molecule, the more the sur-
A large OOIltac.. angle means easy flotability. When face approaches that of paraffin and tbe greater thl'
a lJOlid particle attaches itself to a bubble, there is a angle. The R group in the xanthates is
loss in surface energy - 11E per unit area u[ Sllrf~ tT, frequently the methyl or isoamyl group. In the
equal to the 1088 in aurface tension or aeroffoats cresyJ or phenyl as well as the methyl
radical is frequently used and the hydrogen, H, may
IlE .. 'Iso tMtSG + '18L f.qSl.. + "(w /lgL(] be replaced by a metal.
/lgSL - -/luSG - tMtw F rothi1l{} agen18 are required to prevent coalescence
-OE of air bubbles when they reaeh the surface of t he
- - ., (-'Is.'. + "(LO - "(ao) water, thereby maintaining a pcJ"1'.lIrtent frotil . The
agent mus~ be sparingly soluble in water without
apl'rt,t'i:lhle i'lilizalinn Hnd 1)(' 1U1"'lI'bfld in Ihl' ia lt'r- k-t'tnr!lr prnmol{'r). ThE'Y n:'acl. 1\;l h the tjurfare of
f:u't' 11('11\'1'(>11 waif'!" IUlcl air I(,lltiing III n'C1U(~' HI(' Ih(' ,<ulill. E'iltiPr iI.v (' llI'm i('Il I I~' lion or hy adsorption,
surface It' nsion uf \\'stf:'r.. The heavy alcohols 10 change the chal'l\der of the lIurface of one or more
( b('x~'l alcohol e 6 H 130H) possess these properties. of the solids, thereby preventing the adsorption of
If two air bubbles ct)llidc, the "skins" (interfaces the collector or promoter on the solid. The addition
I;tJllt:lining water and alcohol) stretch but do not of eopper sllUatc (CuSO~) act ivate; the surface of
!Jrt. ak ann tlw bubbk'l> do not conlCt>Ce, because at zinc 8ulfide (ZOS) 80 that the latter is readily 800ted
if a small quantity of copper sulfate (CuSO() is
added in the conditioning tank. This may be due
A Rouaher
to the formation of copper suillde (CuS) or perhaps
c. ae.oer metallic copper (eu) on the surface of the zinc
sulfide (ZnS).
The acidity or pH of the water is an important
fact or controlling ur modifying the ease of filming,
and in many easeg flotation is possible only within a
narrow range of pH, Fl)r t-his reason sodium
hydro:,;ide (NaOIl) or hydrated lime (Ca(OHh)
ma.y act as either activatoI1l or depressants, depend-
ing upon condit ions. Sodium I;yanide (NaeN) is a
depressant for iron sulfide (FeS 2 ) if the laUer is
present with lead sulfide (P bS). Hut, after the PbS
is floated, an increase in concentration of xanthal.e
will floot the FeS:t.
&:.m tok:. The ~Dt pI'O&1Wll for the Opcnal.i<ID Q/
Fill:. 9R '" indi CAted .. follows where the num bers correspond
to the numbered ~trealIll! in Fig. 98.
L 1'0 gliadin" cireuit
NatCOt 2.. .( Ib/ ton of eoIidil
:x..nthate (oon,~tor) 0 . 06-<1.15 Ib/ ton
"2. 1'0 PbS conditioner (5-15 min)
:-laCN (depreIIIIEfJ FeSt) O,I-(),.( Ib/ ton
ZnSO~ (depreseea Zn8) 0,3- 1.2 Ib/ ton

Ff'S. concentrale 3. To rb.<; rougher, L/ S _ 2 .. 11/ 1 to \.1i/ 1 (t.hiek pulp)

FIIi, 98, ,,'!ow , li"I':f'J m of llelllCLivc flotation fur rt',',wNing Cresylic .. cid {frothed O.. 02--0.16Ibft,on
f'b,'-I, z~q. And F<'8t. Xantw..tA! (oolleetor) O.02-(), IOlb/ ton
4. To znS nooditiooer (5-15 min)
the point or contact strel.ching of the film 1illows
water molecules t.o come into the interface, increW:ling CuS0 4 (a.ctiVllte8 znS) 0 . 5-2,0 Ib / ton
C.(OH), (depree!!el FeSt) 1-4.0Ib/ ton
the surface tension ILt that point.. Alcohols !.lelow
amyl are too soluble, and those above octyl are too 5, To znS rougher, "U 8.()-9..o
insoluble to make satisfactory frothing agents. Pine oil or ~l'(!IIyli~ AL-id (frother) 0.M-() . t 5 tb/ ton
Cresylic acid produces an unsatisfactory brittle Xantw..te (ooUeetor) 0.10-0.20 Ib/ ton
froth unlCllil used with a trace of petroleum. Pine Naaeroftoot (ooU ector) (ifnocell'l"ry) O.02-O. IOlb/ ton
oil, a mixture of compounds, and eucalyptus oil are If it '" tlo:siretlw 1!'.,~UI'll FeSt. uw..lly unw .. nLetl . N ..!CO:. mUll~
good frothing agentt! requiring no additions. About be U IM:d to ..."'" the pi t. Anuther cycle is then ruquin;tl .no.!
0.05 to 0,3 Ib of frothing agent is uJOed per ton of t hem is IUld,!tl
solids treated . G. T" Fe.% ,:<>"uitilln"r
Modifyinfj agenl& ma.y he used to "activate" (Ir to N ..rC<h (JIU ,,,,"1,,,1 ) 0.5-2.0 Ib/ ton
" deprt'!llll" the ~ption of the filming agent (1;01- x.""t,h,.I .. (....It...<"I.or) 0.05-0. 15 tb/tao
~MIJlU su ch a.s sodiulIl .. iiicat<'. !\I..Hum ml't3- _Y'I'Jl!il"r t'('lb wi~h " 'Iurn "r II'R'<t'ng,-r ''9fIl'ftlt.rat~ to tJ.e
phosphate, or soluble starch may he actctE'li Id)t'n nlUgMr .
neee&eary toO break up agglomc~tion8 of minerul and 1..abol-lOtury findings indicII.l\, t hll\. if wRi~lid8 I"IItio
L/S - 2, and the contact time i~ 8 min in the rouaher, and
gangue. In such caseS the mineral becomes coated L/S - 4 fOf 15 min in scavenger, with mechanieally 65itated
\\'ith a slime of silicates and becomes unfloatable. mll(lhine.s 01 the Denver type, tbe following oompoeit>ona will
tJe found (or the Vari0U8 product8.
Feed, Q 10% 00%
PROCESS Concentrate, 6
TIle faetori:'-'-t;OntroIling II. tiota.!ion process are cOln-
plicatfm ' and noi readily susceptible of calculation.
Rougher tailings, r-
SoavCD(eI" concomtraw, d
fjlllli tailings, t 0.' 99.'
Sufficient data to serve a.s a guide in the computa-
Tho; dcnsitieti ..r PbS and SlOt lin! 1.!"; Mtl 2.65 m/ ce, ~
tions may be obtained. by laboratory tests on stand-
ardi&ed laboratory equipment, either at the plant. or
in SQ-CAlied "ore-testing Iaboralorie!!" conducted Solu tion .
comrneMially by equipment and chemical companies. A . Com lht/.cllion of dewm " J ufl lolilU.
When the best combination of operating condi- In feed ; PbS: 10 &rams - 1 .33 ee
tions haa been decided upon, the following pertinent SiD,: !lO illam8 .. 34,00 cc
data will be obtainable for each flotatidn1unit. 3,5".33 ee
1. Densities of both minerals,
L 100
Avcrage ", IMI~y,. .. 35.33
2. Pulp density of the material in the flotation - 2.83 prniI/ cc "" 176,5 111/ <:\1 It
cell, expressed either as the volume f~tioll of solid,
or as 1./S, the \\'ater-VHIoiids ratio by weight. S imiIMly , " .. 5.5 grainIs/ cc co 30 lb/ cu ft
' . .. 2.682 gra.rm;/ cc co 167.31b/ cu f t
3. The oompo&\iOll of the feed and of the prod- ,,~ - 2.8M gl"ll.lllll/ cc co 178 Ib/~... ft
ucts. P. - 2.679 gI'\l.JIlI'I/ oc ... 167 lb/cu It
4. The reagen"bJ and quantities of reagents to be
B. CompwuliO'll oj 1M mUM oj prollil.cU by maunu! l.cUOl,ICt.
utted, determined by experiment in each indi\idual
problem. Onnlll lJa.laInCCi ba.sis: 100 lb of nd foecd
S. Too contact time, usually expressed as too a - b + e- IOO
average time in minutes thal the puJp is in the flota- b _ 100 -
tion eell.
6. The type of flotation cell, mechanical or Q .. nOO - t} + t
pneumatic, in which the laboratory test WIlB con- All overall P\.I.~ balllJlOO :
ducted. "'.
(0 .1)(100) .. (0.8)(100 - t ) + (O.OOw_)
To these data mwt b:i added:
7, The desired"eapacity, ususlly expl'e:llted in tuns 10 .. 80 - n,s,. + O.~
per hour or tons per 24 hr of 90lids to be htUl(Ued. 0.7'.1;'"... - 70
8. The type of flotation equipment to be 11IJCd, e _ 88.1 II.> b .. II.~ It.
" lit!
"'' rom this information, one may compute :
:. 't he capacity of the cell banks and the number
of individual machines req uired. PbS "n.H.lntl t he 8CtI.vellJtt'r:
2. If pneumatic equipment is used, the amount of '" e _ d+e
compressed air required and the borsepoI\'er for the
comjJressors. (O.02)(,/ + 88. 1) - (0.1I)(d) + (0.005)(88. 1)
3. If met:hanicul equipment is 1l9llCI, til" h/)~ 11.02<1 + 1.702 .. 0 .11" +o,44Qa
power 1l!<luired. 1I.0000J .. 1.3115
1I1t". lr .. ljv~ E"'''lnpl~. It if! Ue.<irod to nmoVllf ),*,1 from d .. 14.57 II) ".d c .. 102.67 III
lin ore ~"'" llOjning 10 FJIlf co'nlletid !IIlifide (Pb.'-I) lind Lloc lJ.lIOnt'Ol . '(0.8)(11.9)
lll1>UlneU to lx, miiCII, 500 wlUlof ore being tfl!.lltcU IV 24./lr day, y...,w .. "i"0 , 1)(l00) .. 95.2%
It ~ ...l.un...J Ih,,~ tho: l... n~fltr&t<l truru IL ";nlille l'l! l! i~ of
_VWiIe I>Urity ... u~ Lilt: l.ooilinVII lin: to be n;treIOl-tU in Purity tJl Nncefll r& Le '" !It%
C. COIrIputation o/l4nk WIlu"",.. D. Coml'\d<diDn of n!lm1w o/~.
Rovaber \auk mUll. bokl. and d.:llid.: AaHume Denver No. 24 macioinot .. hich have 50 cu ft ut
.o/ume ami nJquire 4.2 hp per o:t.," t.u ope!ate.
II" 100 lb 178.5 '.. 0 ,5650 cu It For rouaher I: W - 4.82 Uee S OC)U.and21 IIp

14.67 For _venger I : W - 15. 13 Uee 16 ccUs an.:J 67. 2 hi)

d .. 14.671b 178 .. 0.0818 eu ft
~lb o:&i68 eu n olllOlliM Total 21 OllUa and 88 . 2 lop

The average deMity PM for this mixture of (I an~ d .. 178.8 Air-Lift Ma.ehinc. l1li manufaetured by tbe SOUth ...(lStcm
Ib/ cu ft, ..... ith LIS .. 2/ 1. 114.67 Ib of BOUd feed require Enginoering Co. have .. standArd ~_ 'etional t.reIL or
m .141b or 3.675 cu It of ..aloer. 9.% 8Q ft Ind , o.l'ing to the gentler action. UllUa.lly I'/lquim
t.bout 50 per cent longer OODtact time for operatioo.
Volume fractioll of 801ids in pulp .. 0.6468 .. 0.14.92
. 0.6468 + 3.615 241 X 1.5 _ 36.7 rt Iooc
For rouper II :
Capacity per 1 cu It of rou&her lank volume: 9.85
, X 0.1492 X 176.8 X 60 X 24 752 X 1.5
For _venser II : .. - 114.2 ft long, prefert.bly
"'" X 8
.. 2.378 toIIlI per 24 hr IkilidB handled
brolum down into '"0
uni t.!!

The buiB for all computations waa 100 Ib of net feed; if The amount of ~r required may be &I!I!IlIIIOCI to be 75 cImJft
!.he ooL feed is 500 tons/24 hr, the rou&ber lank muat bandle In ~ and 100 cfmJ ft in _venger iLt 2 psi.
100 X 500 .. 572.8S I.ons/24 hr. Air for rouaber: 75 X 86.7 - 2 , 750 elm
Air for _venger: 100 X 114.1 _ 11 . 410 elm
Required capaeity for hAnk of rougher oe1lB:
14 . 160 elm
2:378 .. 241 eu it of tank voIUIXIe The powtz for the air com~ m...y be mad from Tahiti 19.

Scavenaer oolla:
c .. 102.67Ib - .. 0 .613 cu It of IIOhdt
1. #'lotati(m lftda, Grea~ W(!fttem Division, Dow Cbemieal
410.68 Co., Sau Franeilco.
at LIS .. " HtO .. 4.10.681b OJ" - , I .. 6.690 cu ft of water 2. GAUlIIN, A. M ., PWWion, McGraw-Hill Book Co. (1932) .
6 .1
a G.!.llDIK, A. M ., Principla of Mirurnl ~, McGraw_'
Hill Book Co. (1939).
4. RAlIOKr., PHILIl'. PloI4lWfl P/(Jn.! ~, Mining Publica-
t.ioooI Ltd., Lor.doo (1939) .
c.r-city f .... 1 au It of _V. '''IIl'' tank : G. RAUI'I'OH, OLI n a C., "FIotatinn and AQ:lonvrate Con-
oentration of Non-Metltllic MillO,.... "" .. (I . :So Bu.r. Minn
I X 0.0841 X 167.3 X flO X U &pl.. IIWUl. 30m (1938).
UIO X 16 6. WAJU[, I. W. and A. B. Cox, Tnma. A .... lfUl. Mi,ai...
.. 0.682 tuna fIOlid6 handJed/ 24 hr Md. 111, 245 (1934).
",. _..:. 102.67
.........-...ty required .. """"iOO X 500 .. 513.35 tons/24. hr

VoI.wne of \auk requi~ for _venaeI' ~

1. Ground Iud ore la to be conoentrated by allinglf. flotation 2. For a IkItation operation, ~h as that in )ow.
89, the
_na: 1.6 oaof reacen t lit!" ton of - . 11le feed, concentrate.
aDd tailinp have the foUowiltC compollitioOll by ....eight on
net feed is 1000 tonII/24 hr to the~. From tM folio'll'
iog dIo.ta, oompu .... the eapacity aoo number of flotation cells
dry bMiB: in each llRit and the poo ..~ t eomumlion.
F.... eo-...... Tailinp,
~I- %
% %
,.'" CuB
0 .'
57 .9
Tailing!! fmm ~
ltoop'f conoenlrale
III ...,
10 13.9
Tailinp frum _vcnt;er
11'.1.6 0.'
Water '- fed to the cell a t the rate of 1100 gal/ton of dry
CODOentrate with 90% of the ..... ater lelwing ...ith the tailinp
and 1.0% 'IIith the concentrate. Calculate: CO<l~nlrat(l
Tailing:s from t leAnet
Finlll eutlecn1.rute '"I ..

(0) lot . . of wei. ooneentrate produced per hour when 8perifie Water_I .... ("()ntaet
10 toIlS of ore are fed to the cell V"'" 24 hr. Gno.Vlty S..lid Ratios Tim... , min
(II) Total water required in pounds per hour.
(e) The fraction of lead in 01"11. in tailings.
' .00

(cO !lAtio of liquid to IIOlid hy volume in l'lOIloootrate. B", 1.0 C'OODC!' 0/1 Cleanl!l' 10
(~) Ratio 01 liquid to.olld by YOI_ io IaiJiDcII. Conditionct' 8

(It) Vie Denver No. 24 celli! ....hoIe cubill is 50

cu hand 1Oih,*, po .....,., oonsumpl ion ill . 2 hp per cell.
(lJ) Vie Air-Lift 11e whoell cl'Of!I'HeCtic>ra1 :uea up tn
Iroth overf!o" is 9.86 Iq It and compute tho !eRst" of the
trougb& aud air roquired a\ 3 pai.




HE separation of n suspension into a SU~)I" natant clellr liquid (zone A) and the slurry (zone B)

T natant. clear fluid and a rather clrnse slurry

containing a higher concent ration of wlid is
called sedimentation. Commercial sedimentation of
8l:I the process ('.ontinues. In a slurry containing ,
part icles of different sizes, including very fine solids,
the larger particles will settle faster, the line of
water suspelU!ions i5 eo,nducted as ' a cont inuous demarcation is not sharp, and the supernatant IiquKi
process in "thickeners" or
large tanks which receive may be haty or milky. In either case, the part icles
the suspension or dilute slurry at the center or side, near the bottom of t.he container begin to pile up
permit the O\'crflow of supernatant liquid, and p ..o- on the boHom, building up the concentrated sludge.
duoe a sludge from the bottom of the tank. (zone D) as indicated in Fig. 99. There may not
be a well-defined interface separating zones B and D,
bill, in all cases the concentrated sludge builds up as
the ;,edimentation proceeds. So It'lng as the two
Before the continuous operation is considered, a interfaces are relatively far apart, the solid part icles
general conception of the operation may be gaineci in zone B continue to fal: at their con~tant mf'ximum
from simple batch sedimentation, illustrated hy sus- velocitleJ and no change in sedimentation rate is
pending some liM;Y divided solid in water in a observed since thc density or concentration of the
grAduated cylinder nnd allowing the contents of the solids in the suspension near the upper interface
cylinder to stand undisturbed. The time ratc of remains constant.
decrease in height of the visible interface between The concentratit'lns of r;oncs B Bnd D arc al~)
supernatant. clear liquid and slurry containing the plotted in Fig. 99. Zone B maintains a conllt.ant
particles is the "sedimentation rate." This smsll- composition until the interface between wnes A and
Ke8.1e experiment must be cunducted at s un.ifonn B app~es the interface between zones B and [).
temperature to Hvoid movement. of fluid or convec- As the upper interface approaches the sludge build-
tion due to density differences resulting from differ- ing up on the bottom of the container, the density
encefl in temperature. The oheerved height. of the and viscosity of the suspension surrounding the fall-
interface is plotted as a functi on of time in Fig. 99, ing particles increB8e, with a corresponding decrease
which also indicates the prrogress of the sedimentation in settling velocity. This velocity eontinues to
in t.he cylinder. decrease during a so-alled transition period, after
At t.hc start. of a hakh sed imentation the concen- which the slurry appears uniform M It heavy sludge
tration t'lf !;()Iids ~ Hniform throughout the cylinder. (rone D ) , the settling zone n havinJC disappe!:LrOO.
Soon after the pnl(.'CIOij begin:;, all the particleil of The sec:limentation Pf( 1CeIi!> frum then on eonsisU!
suspended solid fall through the Huid at their maxi~ only of the continuation of the slow compaction of
mum velocities v'" Ilnder the existing conditions uf the solid in zone D Durintz; this compaction of the
hindf'I"'t.Lseu,ling. Fur II. c1Ol!ely liiZl.'(1 So,)liil, all pur- ,,!tIllite the Auld may l)(l C()llllidereti to be flowing
ticl<'S full at ahout the 'lSI\me velol.'it,y and a "harp through a porous bed of decreasing penncability.
line of demarcation is observed between the supcr- An ultimate height of the suspension is reached
which represents the maximum compaction of the of particles or simply inerease the effective siR by
solid when surrounded by the given fluid. the additiona.l matl>rial aruorbed. Apparently som('
EqU&t.ions 14, 17, or 17H, when prnperly inter- ..'Inch act ion was caused by the nlLCConal in the tes'-'!
p~'etoo , 'Ising bulk.. density and bulk viscosity for reported in Tahle 21 . In vicw of th e complex natuI'C
hindered seuling, may serve to exprel;8 tile rate of set-. of, rcliubl{' 1lllculationll ca n be madf'

:Ii; Crt/iut
POIl'lt -'"'--
, ,"
,m !:-:' I :Ill

Time, min

tling of particles in sedimentation. But ~ther varia- onl.r whf'n ha..~ un nut\mJ m('tururcment l!- ur fhe rate
ble& are frequently of great importance. Small par- of ~imentaliun under cart-fully controlled cundi-
ticles m&y be di!lPflnsed or agglomcralcd intu larger tions.
particles. The effective size and ooo.sity of the par-
TAHLE 21. 1:'X I'EII[ :\lt-:NTA t , 8~; ])Ji\l~:NT.<\TtON
tides may aJso be affected by adsorption of or from
the fluid. These changes in the effective size (D) and 1)a'a on pulp "lInlain.["1; 7.44 1)I~r l'Ilnt, <If C,,~ ()( "n av..n...,
uen!iity (P.) may change the sedimentation rate by a sUI! ,.s:I,jma"~1 t.O II<: al)lR,Lt .~ mil-rolll! in di.'!.mo."~r and 2.26
I'Bm8/ ee dcMity in n,o at 20 C.
relatively large factor. For example, Table 21
repGd.s the observed data on two batch sediments- HI~jlht nf In Wrf/I.CC, em
tion3 nm on slurries of the same material uf the same
Time, min "'~
Freshly A.. rlt~1
concentril.tion and starting from the !!arne height.
0 30.8~ 30.88
The only difference is the addition of a amall amount
01 \\"cHing agent t.o the second test,.
4 21J." 27 .21
8 29 . 10 21 .!\.~
'11lr. pret<en(',e of t.he I!-mall amoun t. of na.('('onal had 12 2l! .>' Iii . R!;
II prullullnt'('ll I'ff~t, nn the vel,~il,y of settling, in- 16 Z7 . .'"4) 11. '111
27 ..... . 2\1 IZ.1l7
1'l'f'IlIling the nilll I)f lit!diment.atiun during t.he fin;t 37 23 .34 12 .2a
third of Ih(' d;~t nlu.."Il and retarding the rate during
compll(linn as wt'll a.'" pn>wnling d oec compaction. "n 20.3<
16 . 48
11 .-18
II .42
9 .\12 .
'I'h,' t<In't' 1i " il'A ..f l h, .Ir.\' l'I<>lill (1:41' . id, ~ ii< ill~uffi .. jt'nl '02
infurlllatioll 'I, J cllrmiliC ~It lillg \'docitil'l:l. :\d-
sorptiun on the par' id~ may Ctl.1I1!e agglomerution
'SI ,.'"
!1 .62
W. 13
Il2 SJo;Ull\IENTA'rtUN
Ell.....,.. From th<! datIL of Table 21, prepare .. plot ~ereiee, C<lmp6l1!l tM pb!erved oooetant-ra.te aettliD,
ahowifll the velocity of eettling In centimetel"l )X:f minute vdocitieB reported in Filt. IOQ with ma.ximum 8e1tlin&: veloci\\M
.. a function of the "fraction l!Ieuled" (t he di~.noe ... ttled estima.1.ed by equ&tion 14 or eqU&uon 17, ulling the bulk
at the indicated time dividod by the diatance uJt;mately density of the Bluny for the density of the lluid, &nd tM
RUled). bulk vi8oo8ity of the slurry (or tho v\eeoo!ity vi the fluid.
Fraction IleUlood .. -
z. -
--Z AIeo, Ol>mpanl t'-e velodtiee with ""'-1118 ealeulated with the
Z. - Z.. facw F. from Joig. 71 .
when! Zo - initi~l hei~t.
Z .. height!l.t t.he indi~.a"~ time. The results of sedimentation of identical ~l\ll"ries
Z., .. ullimal~ hciPlt 11k. infinile time. from two initial heighl:.& are given in TabJr 22.
The m9ul18 of sedimentation of slurries of four These data indicate that the constant rate of sedi-
different concentrations of fhc same ('alcillm car- mentation a t. t.he beginning is the same independent.
bonate are plotted in Fig. tOO, each from the same of the height and also that, the rates of settling are
the same at the same fraction settled.
The ela.psed timerequiredto obtain a given r~
tion settled is proportional to initial height. too
'", II'
'''is'i> Data on 2.91 weigh t % Caco, in PU"' water; particle ,ille
20 about 5 mierons.
~I 8 Height of Interf_. em
't~ Time (I), min T.., B
6 TEilltA.
0 48.33 22.00
2 46.17 2:0.63
0 {>'t~ 43.22
17 . 86
t.~.O I

, ~-:a::~ "'"" 37 .5 ' 12 .28

M.a.'i !1 . 63
12 31.72 7.&1

- Caco, "
6 .1;2

o 20 40
Time, mill
80 100 IZO 10)_ ,.
21 19.30
' .05
3C 13 . 5.'> 3.28
flO. 100. Height of int"rf,,~~ ,Jurin!! hitch .... Um~n l "tJon.
10. !l2
original height of slurry. The more dcnoo slurries
settle at a slower rate, .indica! ing the mutual inter

'ferene... of particles:n mOldered settling and the devia
tions to be expected fmm settling rates enimated Exen:i.... Plot t he rate of !leUli"" for I.eIIUI A a nd B
from the behavior of individual particles in free of Table 22 .... a funct ion of the fraction eett.ll'd.
The inilial constant. rate ill dearly evident in
It has beeP suggctltcd ~ that equat.ion 17 for lami
e8.cb of t.he cu rves of
Fig. 100. Elurries of very low lIAr flow coidd be used to compute the rate of sedi
mentation as follows.
concentration may scUie wit.h a velocity approxi-
mately that of free settling for the first few minutes, dZ klJ2(P. - P6)
but a slower ra te is usuall y t.o be expe(:ted. v. '" - ,- "'"
df ~b
The t.ransit.ion from the initial constant rate of
settling of a KluTTY of the 'properties of the feed Rearranging and intep;rll.ting

J:' "
(original eorustant rate) to tlie compression or thick-
('Ring of the pulp takes rapidly and is followed - -- -- dZ _ k 1)2t (17))
hy t.he slo\\" cOlnJlTl..~i()n \X'1'iod, ua indi- z. P, - P~

('lIt!<! in Fi~. Of! lwd 100. 'fh .. l>ihli"l-(r"l'h.l" r""ll,;~ ,h"I,1o'1" nl)I ~':"'" ,," I>. 120.
wMl'e Pi - bulk density of slurry. for the small-~e laboratory graduate. The tank
"'. - bulk viscosity of slurry. is filled, and the slurry is allowed to settle for the
" - 8. factor whose vsJue depends upon con- desired time. The thickened material may be re-
centration ollloli<J fUld other proper- - moved through a valw in the blllloffi of the lank, or
ties of the systemll. In Hlokes equa- the cl!t.rilied iIOlutioo Inlly lie withdrawn, either by
tion (I7), k - g/ 18, a oonst.ant. lowering a swing siphon or by the su~ve opening
of draw-oll' connections, starting with the uppermost..
nus equation may be integrated over various
When the decanted solution begins to show the
limits 01 t.imf:.. If integrated over the CQIllItant rate
presence of sludge or thc sludge level is expolllld, the
period, the value of k so found may be used for
decantation is stop~.
compUting eed:mentation from other heightt! over
ContinUQUII udimenliltion is conducted in inverted
the COIllItant rate pericxl as the properties of the
CODes, or in cylindrle!U or rectangular tanks or vessels
8USpeIllIion remain constant during this interval.
equipped with slowly revolving rakes for moving the
'!be equation may also be used to estimate changes
to be expected from varying the particle diameter thickened sludge to the cent.ral discharge (Fig. 101).
D, the densities P. and Pb , and the bulk viscosity "'b. In iurge concrete tanks the mechanism for moving
But if the integration is conducted over the time the rakes may be so constructed that the rake arms
interval corresponding to the whole process the value _are automatically raiAed to lift tbe rakes off the
of A: 80 found will be of no value as it does not corre- bottom when subjected to an overload, as might be
spond to the properties of the l:IUsperu!ion at any caused by tl.n interruption to the discharge, and
time and ma.y not be used for any other calculation. automatically lowered again to the normal operating
condition when the overload is passed. The feed is
E~ereI.e. Usin( the data f.". tEl!t B, Table 2'2, for the introduced through a feed. well at the top cen.ter of
!!edimenlAtion of c..ClOJ, OOll.8truct a curve of hcidlt VCl'SW!
time for the _ fIIurry fIl:ullil& from an initial heigh t of
the COIle or cylinder. The slurry settlp.8 directly
-tS.33 ern and compare ... ith data for ~t.1; below the feed well , forming a sludge which is
I. Assuming equ.aJ eettlins: veJoeit;e. at e(jual fr&cl.iowr; withdrawn from the bottom. The clear Huid BoW8
l!etlled. to the periphery and is withdrawn by overflowing a
2. Jntepatma equ.a.tion 170 OVIY' roostant rate period only circumferential weir.

to find .1:, ADd oompuuD( Z .. a fo.uaction of time (I).
3. Inlllgalin equation In over the toLid time interval
A tray thickener is an ill8tallation of ODe tbickener
and ueina the vt.Iue of ,I; I!IO delermino,d in equation 170 for directly above another, which may be operated
. oomputin&; Z M a funelion of t ( not &ood pRdice). independently on the same or different feeds. or in

EQUIPMENT A fil.U:r thickt:nl't', as the name implies, is the com-

bination of a fi lter and a thickener. 1be feed is
SiMpk btJkh ttling tanka have been and still are introduCM into the tank. The solution is withdrawn
wKiely used. These operate in the manner deacribed through a submerged filtering mediwn or cloth. The

~=>.- 'T hid! sludae dilduo,..

Fill. 101. Sectional .-liacrammlltic drawing of ........ pL;puou. thicktraer.
114 SIillL\lENTATION that collect on the filtering medium IIIl' \\"(,11 and is introduced about I to 3 ft below the 8Ur-
periodically removed by mechanical scraperg or by fut(, uf the liquid in a m!lnner 10 ereate a minimum
low pre88Ure air or water on the rever8e side of the of dillt urbance. The entering fluid flows downward
filter. 1bey settle to t.he hottom where they are with the suspended solids in the feed well, then
removed lUI II. tlludge. Nidially outwanJ from tJ1C center and upward to th::
overflow. The lIuspended solids ~nd to settle down
through the liquid wh ich is relatively stagnant, al-
though actuaJly moving II10wly radially and upward
'The operation of COIltinuous gedi.m.entation tanks and rising from the compacting sludge. The sludge
or tAickenn. depends upon tbe same ch&racteristics is compressed or Uiickened in the lower part of the
of the slurry 81!1 indicated for batch sedimentation. cylindricaJ tank and is moved toward the bottom
The differeneee between continuOlls and batch opera- center by slowly rotating rakes. The action of the!le
tiOWl are indicated by the concentration of the solids rakes in pushing t.he sludge to the outlet is to com-
a~ different heights in the thickener. p~ or thicken the sludge to a greater extent than
Tbe operation of batch sedimentation st&rt8 with a ill accom plished in 8imple or batch sedimentation.
column of slurry bavinK uniform concentration, as A major tlifTerem:e between the OOlltinUOIlli and
indicated by the long dashed line ~, representing batch sedimentations is the com.,1ete absence of any

zero time in Fig. 102. Shortly thereafter, the inter- zone B of the same composition as the feed, unless
such conditions are approximated directly below the
feed well when the horizonta.! interface bet ween the
clear fluid and sludge is well below the bottom of the
feed well. UDder these cooditiOnfJ the feed IIlurry
, ~ j-o, appears to settle in a cylindrical column directly
below the feed well. When the feed rate is not
excessive and a properly clarified effluent is produced,
the upper or clarification zone in the continuous
5 process is a region where the d ids are present at
such a low concentration that the mechanism ap-
" proaches that of free settling. Immediately below
this clear zone is the zone of sludge compaction.
" Figure 103,' run I, indicates the concentration of

o " 100
" r-:::: ~ " 1'\
200 300
calcium carbonate as a functioo of height in a con-
tinuous thickener which was producing a well-
Concentration, . .~/1iIM clarified overflow. The high clarification zone pro-
Jo'ICl. too. Concentmtion as a fum:tiun ul !>dltht, at vur;oW! vided plenty of distance for the free settling therein
lime inlervuis in batch eo:dimenlation,' to produce a clear solution overflow.
When t.he feed rate was increased (same composj
fuce settles to a level indicated by the line lit with tion of feed) by a moderate amount with the unde r-
the com:entration throughout the settling slurry flow rate (withdrawal of sludge) maintained approx-
prlictically identical with that of the original except imately constlint, was 8. slight increase in the
at the bottom of the column where the ptl.~ticles are height of the compres;ion or thickening zone with
accumulating to fonn the sludge. The process con- the overflow remaining clear.t
tinues R.\I indicated by the' curves l:z and t3, with the When the feed ru te \\"38 still furt her inereased to
upper interface 'settling and the lower interface 1.<l2 times that of run I, a definite interface or line
rilling until it merges with the upper interface. 'Phe indicating .a sharp increase in concentration rose
single interface representing the level of the compac\.- slowly from the top of the compn::sllion zone toward
ing sludge having the concentration diflt ribution th' overflow. After tlll~ dllYIi Ihi~ interface l"f'A.Chetl
IIhown by the curve ~ I.hen ~tt le:l slowly during final th~ approximute level of the <I\'erflow which t h,,
comp~on of the sludge. 1.I('(llmt" doudy , wit h lilt" Iolu",ntral.i"n uist ributetl
In a continuous thickeller, such !iX that illdi(~att'tl 'l."' iudktl.ll'Il uy run 11 in Fit(. H):! . With .the thitk-
in Fig. 101 , lIlt' feed enle~ through Ihe 1~'l"ltral fet'(i +:llI~r opcratiul!!: in this 101111111::1". giving Il doudy O\t'r-
flow containing 4.6 gm of calcium r.nrOOnll.te pel' level in the continUOIlS classifier) must be somewhat
liter, from 8. feed containing .J.5 gIll of calcium car- gr('aler than the I'erlicalvelocity of the fluid at that
bonate per liter, \-he appro)o;imate constant composi- level. If the settling velocity is less than the upward
tion indicated by the almost verticnl line of run II ftu id veloci ty, the particles will pass out in the over-
Willi abou t 70 gIn per liter. Under th~ conditions flow and there will be little clarification. If
the concentmtion-verslls-height curve hM much the sett ling velocity e<1\lItl~ the upward fluid velocity,
same appeur.mce as that for tl in Fig. 102 reprc::!Cnt- the partidc:; will neither' rise nOf fall and the con-
ing batch eo:I.imentatiOIL. However, t.he practically centration of solidij in the clarification zone will
constant concentration in the eontinuous sedimenta- increase, therehy rcrlucing the settling velocity until
tiqn is not the same M that of the feed.
After continuollll flUlning without further change
in cOlll:entration distribution, the cont.inuous lhick-
emir Wa.!! s'nut down and the hatch rate of seJi~cn ,
tation of the sltspensicn ill the thickener IVa." deter-
mined. The rate of settling W88 eonshUlt but Cb,ifation lOtle A
l!OmeI\~hat letil:l than the rate oilsen'oo in thfJ batch
t!ettling of the foed slurry. This is to be expected as "'wI _~u nU
the concentration of solids in the suspension was
higher in the thickener than in the feed. On the
other hand, the rate of batch llCdimentation of the ,
feed slurry was always leN thBn the rate of free
!:Ieltling in the clarification zone when the contin\lOU~
j,hickener was operating to produce a clear overflow
(nm I) .
The capacity f!.f continuous thickeners or sedi /RunD
mentation equipment is buood on their ability to
perronn two functions:. to clarify the liquid overflow , R,,, I -:t .-
Con!ptft5ion moe D
by the elimination of slIllpended solids, and to
thicken the sludge or underflow by the elimination 0
R.1le acti~nl
100 200
~ 300
of liquid. The area of the sedimentation equipment
controls the time allowed for settling p.articles out of
Concentration. ~/itet "'"
PIO. I03. Coooentration &Sa func lion o:lbeigbt in oon ~inU()W;
the-liquid for a giVen rate of feed of liquid aod is aedimen14tion. ~hQw ing ll~ effect. 01 f-.l I'1I.te. Run II _
important in determining the clarification capacity. rnlio with feed rat~ equal to 1.{2 time!! that 0( run 1.1
Th~ depth of the thicy.;.ner controls the time allowed
for thickeriing tile sludge for II. given ra te of feed of the particles are carried out in the overflow as
solid and is importan t in determinipg the thickening indicated. TIlerefore the !:!ettling velocity of par-
cupacity. ticlCl:l must be suffieiently greater than the upward
The clarification capacity of the thickener is deter- fiuid velocity to prt:vent any increase in OOIloontrttr
mined by the settling rate of the suspended solids, tion in the clarification zone.
This rate may be estimated from the rate of settling Usually the constant rate of settling observed in It
of thc UppIlf interface in a hatch sedimentation test. balch sedimentation test of the fMd slurry may be
By a material balance, 'the total quantity of fluid uS(,'(]. us a reasonably conservative value tor the set-
in H.e reed is equal to the sum of the fluid removed t-liog rate in tbe Ie$:! eoocentraterl clarification zone
as a clear overflow plus the fluid in the thick sludge for purposes of design. But under some OODdition8
removed from the bottom. The vertical velocity of at a luwer level in the thickener where the concen-
the fluid at any height. in the thickcner is equal to tration of solids is so high as to greatly retard the
the volume or fluid passin~ upward at that level rate of settling, the upward velocity of the fluid may
dividw by the aTCa of thp th ickener. For s lI eces;d'1I1 exceed the ra te of settling of solids, even when thill
clarification, lhe >leltlilljl; velocit.y of the part.icles condition is not encountered in the upper zone, with
(or of the uppet interface ill the luoorutory batch rel!\Ilts!lS indicated in Fig. 103, run II. In making
~mentation aL the pulp deusity exi~tillK at any ck~ign C1li('uiatiollJl it ill therefore lIecCHSary to con-
sider the rs.tes of settling at different concentrations t he constant rate of settlin~ of hatch !!ediments.'i"nll
IlIld the corresponding verti('.al velocity uf the water of murriet! of increa.sing L'OI\eentn..tioos.
or fluid to be certain that the area of the thickener
Example . . A feed cont.inin, 6 Ib of w.ter per pound 0(
is adequate (or satisfactory clarification.
I!Olids i5 w be thickened to a ooncentration COTTClJJlUndina; to
When th~ feed rate to 9. continuous thickener 1.12 Ib of "",ater per pound of aoIkis "ith t he produetlon of a
exceeds the maximwn which the thickener ean clear overftow. TeI!Iu should be m&de on slurries eontainin&
handle and produce a clear overllow, the solid par- hi&hcr eonocntlatioM thaD that of the feed to be ocrtain that
licles are unable to settle down out of the normal thl! velocity of ~ttliD& ia paloer than the upward Bow of
fluid at &II COIIccntratKlnl nonnalIy encountered in t he thieken-
clarification zone and tlwrefore build up a higher ing of the required feed. In thiIJ _ the following five eon
concentration therein. This causes hindered set,.. oemra.tions of the IIOlida to be thickened ....ere teIIted in bateh
t1ing, with a. corresponding decrease in the rate of sedimentation "-ith the result. indicated in columna I and 4.'
sedimentation belolV that observed for the feed

...~~-;:r~=l Minimum
.5 60 A_
1 I" M~ Fluid
for Clear
il30 Run IV,,:, l~ .L ''''' "'" Re.tio, R isi ng Overflow,

~20 r-- Fluid

Calcuhlted Obl!e rved
Fluid Ratl' of
I Ton of
Settling, Solids per
j,o Run I i', l'\. \ Solids,
eu ft ;br "/I>< 24 hr, aq ft
8 ,I--t-
, 100 200 300
Conctfltr.tion, grams/liter
400 ..' .00'"

3 .61
3 . 72
2 . 88
2 . 39
' .96
3 .85
2 . 180
1. 190
0 . 758
' .0
4 . 16
. 31
FlO. 104. Concenll'tltion aa .. function of height in continuous
3:00 1.88 2.61 0.000 4 . 18
llediment .. tion, showinl the effPet of underflow rate (rate 01
sludge I't:mov..J. The rILle of 8lud~ rernov/Ll decreued from The &roll of 4.31 aq ft/ kln of IIOlids i, the COl'J'e(lt mi nimum
run I to run V.' area to be U$Cd for design purpoees and not 3.0 tq ft/ ton III
caleulaWd from .lIedimcntation tdt of the feed.
slurry. This condition leads to the concentration
distribution indicated in Fig. tOO, run II, which The above data clearly indicate the need of check
shows an in.'ldequate' clarification of the overflow. ing the calculated area against all concentratiOI1l to
The feed rate which iU!lt fails to initiate this hindered be encountered anywhere in the tank, including not
/!eWing is the limiting clarification capacity of the only the clarification zone but also the Lhickening
thickener as it is the maximum feed rate at which zone.
the 8I.ab.. _nded solid can reach the compression zone. A1though the above tests and ('~culations indicate
that all area of 4.3 1- sq it/ kin or solid3 .is adequate
to produce a clear overflow with an underflow ol
$ho,.. th. t lim foilOVo'illl relaliorurhip m&y be uaed to eeti- 1.12 Ib of water per pound ol solids fOl' feeds con-
m&te ~IM: required area of clarifier
taining up k, at least 6.00 lb of water per pound of
A_Q (F-D) solids, it must not be assumed that this area is
,R satisfactory for all feeda regardless of water content.
where.A. _ ft) required to thicken t he diecharge
&rea (tq At high water contents the fate of settling is more

tlurry to consisleney of D.
D - p&rta fluid to one p&rt IIOlids by weight in under-

F - p&rta fluid to ope p&rt aOOd8 by Inligh t io feed .

Q - rtUII!II of ....lid. treated per unh of time Ob/ hr).
nearly independent of water content and may not
increase eo rapidly with the water to be removed
as in the relatively concentrated slurries used in t his
R _ rate of 8I!ttlin, of pulp of conei8teney F (rt/hr). The thicktning capacitv may be illustfated. by con-
" - deruity of fluid (Ib/ cu ft).
sidering the effect of varying the underflow rale WI
It ill ofteil desirable to check the estimated crOBS- indicated in Fig. IOV The overflow from all runl'!
deC tional area of the thickener by calculations for shown was praetically clear. The thickness or depth
different concentrations, using as the rate of Bettling of the compression or thickening :wne increased Il.II
t.h~ underflow rate was decreased, as indicated, and The s-hape of this compressiun eur\'e indicates It
the concentration of the underflow increased with gradual decrease in rate of settling all time increases
increasing depth of the thickening zone, at least for and may be represented by the equation J
a comrt.ant rate of feed. dZ
The curves indicating concentration as a funct-ion - di-k(Z -Z.) (50)
of depth in lhe compression zone in Fig. 104 are ,
substantially vertical . displacements of each other, where Z ""' height of the compression zone at time I.
and similar in shape to those for batch aedimenta~ Z '" = height of the compression zone nt. infinite
tion (compare 13 of Fig. 102 \\ith r of Fig. 104). The t.ime.
action of the rakes appears to be effedive in breaking t - a eonstan t for a particula r sed imentation
up a semirigid structure and the accompanying sysWm.
channels in the concentrated sludge. This action
If batch tests are available with t he illitial ~lurry at
extends for about 3 to 4 in. abvve the top of the
its critical concentration (or critical dilu tion), tlwn
rlikes and is important in producing a more concen-
a plot of In (Z - Z .. ) vemus t should give a str[light
trated underflow.
line with slope equal to -k. I ntegration of CQ ~ul t ion
Thc concent ra tion of the underflow or sludge from
50 gives
a. cont.inuous thickener depends on the depth of
the thickening or compression zone and the time
that the oolids are in this zpne. The total height or
f dZ
Z - Z..
... In (Z - Z",)] Z .. -kt] '
z. 0

depth of the thir.kenerdepends in large measure on

In (Z - Z",) .. - kJ. + In (Z~ - Z,,) (51)
the required depth or time in the eompre9l:!ion zone.
The required h<ight of lhe COntprtSMon zone mAY be where Ze is the height of the compression tone at its
estimated from data on a bateh ~imenta critical conoentratio~ (in thi~ c.~ Z< = Zu). Z ..
tion under the following condi\.ions. may be obtained by experiment or by trial ami Crrot
Consider a batf.:h sediment.ation ~tarting wit.h a to mnke this plot a strtlight line.
slurry at it-!! entical CV11ccn/ratitm, that ill, t-he slurry 1.0
z;- .Z... . z.- z",
has an initial concentrat ion equal t.o the concentra- o
tion of tile top layer of the compression zone (D ) -:!" - ....
during 'the period of constant, rate settling. The o.5 , Z'r
sedimentation curve will at, the criticnl point
(nOrmally a point of time between the constant rate
;: 0
, ,
settling period and the compression period) a nd will
, 0
, f\ / ' Slrai&hl l'f\e IS
obtained ,f !.light
COll~!jt only of a compression curve, with all particles "::-0.2 " \ pos~ co.-re<:~ -
in compression for the same pe.riod of time. The oJ, to Z oo IS ,ppll~ d
time requited in this batch experiment for 11- slurry
to pass from this '8tat~ uf critical concentration to
01 0 I\.
the desired underflow conccntratjo~ may be IAken 0.06
as the retelltio'l time for solids il!. a cootinuous
thickener. Tl ti ~ Wi8umes that the col)Centration of
solids at the uuttom of the compression zone of a
continuous thickener at any time is the same as the
" "
Time. min
.. 80

average c:olicent. ration of the compression zone in FlO. 105. Plot itIu"rrll ring th,.' eXlr:.polnri<\!I of "", lim" nll.ri-ull
curve from data of Ta ble 2'2 I., obtain lImot for Critil-&! ~"Un'
the batch test. d~ribed above at a time equal to the C('nlrali-o...
retent-ion time of the solids in the continuous thick~
ener. In other words, the concentration at the bot- If the available bateh test.s al"e on an initial ~Iurry
tom of t.he thickener is a function unly of the t ime of concentration lese than the c;it.ical, during the set..-
thickening. tling period the oompression zone will be formin g.
This retentio n t ime can be obtained from a single and at the time corresponding t o the critical point
batch tC!!t, irrespective of thickness of sludge, simply (when the two interfaces meet) the ave rage concen~
by observing the hf'ighl. of the oompm:l!lion zone as a tration of the compression zone will be greater than
(llllct ion of time. the critical concentration sin('R. it will be c:om~
of layers that hllve been in compression for varying Rather than apply equation 53 to the whole sedi
lengths of time. A suggested method c.l obtaining mentat.ion zone, more reliable results may be ob.-
the t ime required to paas from the critical CODoon- tained by divid ing HIe compression zone in parts and
tru.t.ion or critical dilution (LIS). to any desired average conditions over each part as sug
underflow cOIl<.:e ntration ' is to extrnpoillte the com- gested by Coe and Clevenger. I For thickening of
pm;sion curve uack from the critical point to zero the sludge corresponding to the previous ~xample
time and then locate the time when the upper inter- (p. 116) the observed frum a batch thickening
face (between the supernAt.ant liquid and t he seWing operation were as follows .
slurry) is Ilt a height Zo' halfway between the initial
slurry hei~ht Zo and the extrapolated zero-time CoMiliteney F1uid-to-Solhl, futio
compre&sion-wne height Zo' (Fig. 1(5). Thill time Timeol Average <)V~ tlx
t. reprerents, in effect, the time when all the solids Thickening, hr Determ!ned I ndicated Period
were at their critical dilution and went into com-
pression. Acttl4l1y, part we nt into compression ,,
i: ro;i~ 1. 70
sooner and parllater. The extrapolation back to the 1.59:1\ l.47
9 1.36 : 1\
time axis !>bould be made on iogarithmic-arithmetic 1.276
1.20 :1

plot as the line is then nearly straight, or with the aid 1.16
of equation 50. With this value of t e , the retention
time is obtained as t - I., where t is tbe time when
In order to produce a thickened sludge of. 1.12: 1
the s()lid ~ have reached the desired underflow con
fluid to solida, 19 hr of thickening retention time is
indicated. Since an areA of 4.3 1 sq ft is required per
The dctennination of the necessary volume for the
ton of solid:; per 24 hr (previous calculation, p. 116),
compressinn wne of the continuous thickener may be
the solids per square foot in the thickening zone for
obtained from a considerat.ion of the time each layer
1 br of retention are calculated as 2000/ (24 X 4.31)
of solids has been in compression.
- 19.4 lb. For 19 hr of retention, 19.4 X 19 or
The vuhmlf' V requirt'd for the compression, zone
368 lb of solids will be in the thickening zone covering
in the contillllout! th kk!'l1cr is equal to the sum of
an area of 1 SCI ft. From the above data a total of
th(' v"llIme occupic<i hy the solids plus the volume
Ig hr of retention is the sum of 5 hr of retention of
occupied by the asso('iaHxl fluids.
each of the pulp coosilltencies averaging US, 1.275,
v _ Q(! - I,) + ('LQ dt (.2) and 1.47, and a 4-hr supply of a pulp averaging 1.7
p. JIo SP, in consistency. The solids per oubic foot in ,'he above
where V .. volume of the compression zone. pulps are calculated or dctennined as 43.2 Ib,
Q .. rna&! of solids fed per unit time. 37.6Ib, 33.7 I:", and 30 lb, respe<:tively. '!'he depth
t - t. "" retention time. of each class of pulp ill then calculated as
L =- m ass of liquid in compression zone. hOllTS X 19.4
or 2.23 ft, 2.57 ft,
S = ma.'>8 of solids in compression wne. pounds solids per cubic foot'
This calculation is based on the assumption that 2.87 ft, and 2.58 ft, respectively , making & total
the time required to thicken the sludge to the desired depth 01 10.25 ft.
concentration is independent. of the tbieknCl:l8 of This method may indicate thick compression
. the sludge in the compressirn zone. zones &8 it is based on the average concentration of
By assuming a constant mea:-. value for LIS so that the thickened sludge rather than the concen tration
equat.ion 52 may be integrated with LIS const.ant, a.t the bottom of the sludge. Also, an increase in
'.hc following approximate relaliornohip is obtained. concentration of the iSludge is brought about by the

V - Q(t - t,) [~p. + ~P, ("-)

1' " (~') action of the rakes. These facwTl:I probably more
than compensate for the turbu'.mce introduced by
the rakes. 1n some cascs it may be ~ssihlc to esti-
where (!~)
,", ,,It
- avcrap:e mMS ratio of ftui d to I'IOlid
in the thickening zone from top
mate the desirt.>d com.'entra.t ion just abon the zone
of rake action by making proper allowan;~ for the
to bottom. etTen of the mkCfl.

The total depth of the thickener may be estimated is similar to the !!IUrface velocity c1assifier (Chap-
by adding to the estimated thickness of the com- ter 8).
pression zone the following allowances. A cyclom!ep(JT'll1.or (Fig. 106) is a vertical cylinder
wlth the inlet stream introduced tangentilllly near
For the of the bottom 1-2 ft the top, giving the suspension a spinning motion
For eto~ capacity to cover illtenuptiona or the cylinder. The centrifugal force acting on Ue
ir~gul&ritiell ill di8eh&r~ 1-2 ft particles tends to throw them roldially (equation 44)
For eubn>ergence of feed 1-3 ft to the sides of the cylinder as they spiral downward

This makes a total depth of thickener about 3 to 7 ft

greater than the total compn:lSijion lUoe including
both the zone of rake action and the SODe of thicken-
ing by simple settling as estimated:
There is usually an economic balance involved in
''''''I -

! I J_ _
determining the total depth of the thickener, which
involves consideration of the C08t of the equipment,
intereilt on capital represented by the material re-
tained ill thickener, and desired sludge concentra-
-r-r I

tion. If the solids are valuable, filtration is likely '=~'=i=~'=l

,, ,, ....
I I Access
to prove more economical. , , ,
L ___ ..I


Equipment for the separation of suspended solids
(or liquidll) from gases may be divided into two
general classes: (I) those which work "dry," acting
on the slIlIpension as received, and (2) those which
work "wet," using an additional fluid , usually \\-ater,
to facilitate the separation.
The mOf!t common type of separator is a filJer
which passes the gas and re~ins the solids on a bed FlO.
106. Dir,gramm.i.tic drawinc of cyclolH! lII!pa.rator.
which may be cleared or discarded periodically. A
mat of gl888 fibers,-~Iluloee, or metal mounted in a to a conical bottom where they are removed. A
light .frame is used in and home damper may be used to increase the velocity Il, of
heat-ing systems, the mat being easily replaced with the entering stream. The clarified gas leaves t he
a fresh filter when the old one to operate cyclone through a pipe extending down into the
effeCtively. The mat of fibers is frequently wet with oenter of the cylinder and passes upward and 'out of
a nonvolatile oil to assist in retaining the dust the cyclone. A modification in this unit is the
particles. In industrJ a battery of cloth bags is "shave-off," a slit in the cylinder placed ne-ar the
often used, the bags being mounted in groups on top, one full tum from the inlet, which removes the
independent frames whieh can be vibrated at inter- fine particles im'mediately without letting them
val~, shaking the accumulation of solid:J into a dis- spiral down below the level of the gas exhaust to the
chanl;e hopper from which they may be re-used or cone where they might be re.entrained and carried
discarded. Some systems have groupe of bags out in the discharging gas..
mounted in compartmenl.'J constructed to permit A cyclone is quite effective on large particles,
scavenging air to be blown backwards through the removing 99 per cent of the solids coar:ter than 30
bags for cleaning. microns. Finer particles are only partially removed,
A dlut collector is essentially a simple enla~ment with less than 50 per cent of Ih08e I:lfl'UI.!ler than 5
in a pipe line which reduces the velocity enough to microns being retained in the separator.
permit the solids to settle out in the enlargement. It A cyclone may be inverted, the suspension entering, .'

near the bottom and the clean gas being removed collecting eledrode, The velocity of these particles
from the top of the interior through 8. pipe extending is much less than t.hat of the ions of the gas.
through the bottom. The effectiveness o! the in- In the ordinuy one-stagc method, corona dis-
verted cyclone separator when working dry is geD- charge is maintained, giving a high-intensity pre-
erally poorer than the normal cyclone desclibed cipitating field which exerts a pressure on the
above. This construction is convenient, however, precipitated material, thus preventing re<iispersion,
when water is sprayed int<! the cyclone. The sug.. It alw causes some chemical activity !Ouch as pro-
pension passes upwam through the spray, and the duction of ozone and nitric in air.
soJid5 are trapped in the liquid drople ts as well as The tW()-fitage method USI'S corona-fonning elec-
thrown out along the walls. The sludge is removed lrodes in the first stage only to form tbe necessary
from the bottom and may be recovered or dis- gas ions for charging the dispersoids. The second
carded. stage has nondischarging prccipitating t'l~tr"Je&
lVrt uparator, utilize impingement actit)1l in com- opposing the collecting electrodes between which is
bination with water spra)'l:l or sheets. A bajJfe-pW1 maintained a corona-free electric ficld for precipi-
tcrubber is primarily a tQwer with cross plate5 set tating Ihe partirlM ionized in the first chamber.
one above the other and with perforations staggered The precipit alion or collection efficipncy of an
to force the gas stream to change direction in its electrical pr~ipilator is a function of the time that
upward path. Water flows .down the tower and the lI;as remains in t he active field and can be made
across the plates, and the gas stream must pass to approach 100 J)('r cent if desired. But the size
through successive sheets of water and impinge upon and cost of the e<ll1ipmcnt. usually places an economic
wet platcs. The solids are retained in the liquid and limit at. abe)u! 90 II) !)9 J)('T N'nl.
washed down and out. of the wwer. For any ~iven disJ.l(n;oifl of unifonn size and char-
A ro!ary-,tprayer scrubber is often used before the acter in a ~ivrn prf:'eipitatoT, the precipitation
baffle-plate IICrubber to remove the coarser particles efficiency (ell) is n'lat('d to thf' time / (~ond>!) that
when the ga8 is heavily laden with solids. A rotating the gM remuinfol in the activr field of the precipitator
spray creates a dem;e fog across the tower through by the equation
which the gas p8S8e8, the liquid and IIOlid being col-
log ~ l - rfT) = t log K = tEC
lected and u8ually recirculated through the same
sprayer when several sprays are used in succession. where K _ the ~u-c'ull('fl plwipitation constant,
Liquid droplets in suspension in gases may be w!llall~' 0.0.'5 \0 0.50.
removed by cyclone separators, by electrical pre- E _ the vtlltnllt'.
cipitators, or by simple impingement baffles. Such C - a conslnnt.
devices are frequently built into wet separawrs as
the IMt stage through which the gas passes, thus IUDL10GRAPHY
removinp; any liquid picked up in the wet stages.
1. ("..oE, H . ~ , '1Il<l (:. H . rLl:n:)iGt:lI, TraM. Alii. 1M/..
Ekdricalprrcipitation of entrained solid or li<!'clid ~fi"i"9 Mr!. E"gr., 66, 3fj./i (1! IHiJ.
particles consists in mainta ining a high unidirec- 2. CoMIO/GII, K W ., 10,11. r."IJ. ('M ...., 32, (lI';a (:\"'y 1~).
tional differenre in potential between two electrodes 3. RoI":~ E. J ., "!1l;'-k<>TIillj(-.\ rl Or St-icnre?" MiPliFif
and passing the gas between t t - electrodes. One El1{Ji'-""IJ, 1, til ( :\Innh l!I-I!lJ.
4. R..1BtNSON, C. fi, '",I. Ellu. C~' m .. 18, 8(j!) (1!l'l6).
of the electrodes, the diRCha~ electrode, is of small
5. ScHMIDT, W. A ., " ",\ K .\N"':'''''));, f!lerl. Eng., liT, 332
cross ~tion, !IIlch as a wil"(', edge or point., to make a (1038).
high electncal field at. ils surfare nece;;sary for ionis-
ing the gas. The other e:ieclrode, the collecting PRUULF.\lS
electrode, hall 1f'8S or no cu rvature and servCll to
1. Compull' I.he nrCfI 1"Ci1uil"l.'<i Q( II thi ckener to hsn<lle
collect or precipitate most of the separated dis-
20 t<ln~fhr "I slurry (Tnoll' 22), prooJudng II clellr overflow
persoids. The ions formffi near the discharge elec- and an undcrll",," or ~ludlt~ amt!l.inint( 20 pcr cent by weight
trode are carried throilgh the gM to the collecting of IIOlirb. A..umr. that I.he (l\)1\il~nt rale of ""ttlint( in the
t:-lectrod.e at velocities of the order of 100 fps. When balch eedimenlation is the rat.c of setlling in lhe clarifie.lion
K<)fIl' 01 the coDtmlM)UlllhM:kener.
the gas between the electrodes carries susJ)('nded
particles, (he ions attach themselves to the pl!.rt idc~ 2. Ulling the fbi .. 01 TlIoht., 22 lind II. deMity If\!" water of
which then become charged and are attracted to t.he 62.35 Ib / ro it wilh II ~perific II:Tllvity of 2.7l for e.en..
eetifl16te the area and dept h of a thickener to treat 4000 Ib Specify the dimensioN!. of the W\k to haodIe tbe ooooitiom
of lk>Iidt per llUUr in lI. f ... ~1 eonlll.iliil\i 33.3 p6rt.I of '/I'ate, pet" stipulated, MSuming a feed COIlClentratlon limi!&r W that
I part. of CII.Co" ddivcrinlll !!, c\e!!', overflow and Rn underflow uiICdiu the bBtch test. H~'l \, 'A1J ,
containing 3 PfUU of water per 1 p.!.rt of C&CO"
4. Two Dorr thickeroefll Iln! t.o be WJed ill pI"f!pa..,.c pit,.
3. A ,,;et slurry of mix to 00 bunll....1 to make cement is to {roe milk 01 lime from 50 !OlllS of bum ira8Bt<ine pel' hOUT.
be t hic kened to 60 pe.- .:ent eolids in a conventional thlckPoner The unsJllked lime Rnniy!cs W! folloW$.
at the rate of 50 tons/ hr of dry ..... Iid~. A butch lIellimcntarK.tu
tcst made under Ilppropritt.' e l:.t:.,r..tory .... nditions pve the Material "'-f __ % ~~
foU"....;ng resul l.ll.
Cir,wuat.., lkmliug, enD 91.5 100% - 200 mesh
Time, hr ml V,>lUUlO SlOt I 0.01
0 l()17 AlAfGrit
F"o, 1.'
100% +200 meab

0,25 ,
~. ().6 >ltl , , 81.5, " \
" 0 . 75
700 "
:ntet and recycle
milk of lime to Innn II. milk 01 lime lI\I.~ pelllli?1l oonta,ning
16 PI'f cent by wcighL oC lime I!Olio.l8 (exclusive of griLl. Tbt-
1.2.''; '28
BI;lkiuK ill CUfried out in the finL elru.sifier with the overflow
;th ';o90j,;,(l 11.7.5 120
II. ' .0
4 .71>
all the pit "'1
h(lyill~'" ol:>x;OIum ~ 01200 me&h. 'rtic under&.. cro,n,~
U -lb of mapension per pound
JlUIIi'OIS tn tile &&cond ~ where it is dU':!t.ed "I": rniJk.M

1 liuUJ,.IIW!IJCRllion oolltaini1)lF 2 ~r ~ntor lime IIOIidl. Th,

oyc,fi,,"" ,,( thw. unit is u8IitI'lIII recycle ~llik of lime, while the

28 em
220 .,
1111.... 'r60\, is discm.lcd; containMI/i 1.6 Ib or !lUSpension pet
'p<JUfld Afl(rit . '. '. '
Drn,.- iI ft"'i" ~hL..!t (,;r the prot'"f!I!I~ ' ilxlielifllll re.t.e a and'
'"CiradUllte height _ 35 em '0' ~090 mL .000IOCnlmliu.,. of :til ""'Illl,lil. .
, Dry ",>lids in 10'" - Z36 l(r.lDl.... {el) C.,..kulntc the perc.:)"'a,;"!' ....r liu,,' I<..t. ~
SJ,II!dfic gruvity of ~ ry - 2.09. (b) Specify the dlWJlOwr rkl'th of ,the t ...o'clasaifiers. ,
.. ".
~ :1
,. "

t.' h" ). ilJt; tT

, r ,j~
... ,'
..,' ..,
, 1
,. .'
'" r


Transportation of Fluids 1 - Pipes and Fittings

ATERIAL is frequently stored and handled larger than 12 in. is rarely threaded, and the ouuide

M in Ihe fluid stati!o The fluids in most

process engineering problems cannot be
handled in open channel1:l but req ui re closed ducts.
diameter corresponds to the nominal pipe size,
Standard lellgths of pipe are from 16 to 22 ft.
Sud pipe is made by longitudinal shaping of hot
In ancient times these ducts were hollowed iop', and steel strips with the butt or lap joints welded to-
later they were made of sections of wood or of gether by pressure in the mar:bine.
pottery. The development of iron brought about Steel pipe W&8 originally cl..assed in three thick-
the manufact ure of CUlt-iron and wroughlriron pipe nesses for different operating preesures, standard,
and permitted some standaldization of dimensions extra.-strong (or extra-heavy), and double-extra--
of pipes and fittings. strong. These three classes are now obsolete; and
Any stnlctur31 .material now employed in the thicknesses follow a set fonnula, expressed 11.8 the
engirteering profession is used for pipe in applica- "schedule number" as estbblisheC by the American
tions where its peculiar advantages are most valu- Standards Aa8oci&.tion. Ten schedule numbers are
able., ceramic, steel, nickel, lead, rubber, in current use : 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, SO, 100, 120, 140,
brass, copper, concrete, and asbestos pipes are and 160, t he figures being the approximate value of
encountered in many processing pianta, and wood is the expression,
still found in many large installations. The methods P
1000 -
of joining sections are generally similar for all S
materials. The principal methods involve threadoo, where P z: internal working pressure (psi).
bell-and-spigot, Ranged, and welded connections and S ., allowable fiber stress (psi) for the par-
fittings. ticular alloy under the conditions of
For example, the schedule number of ordinary
T hreaded pipe is mOl!t ('ommonly encoun~~red in steel pipe having an allowable fiber stress of 10,000
industry because practico.lly all small of pipe psi for use at A. working pressure of 350 psi would be
are joined hy this method , '\Yhether fab ricated of 1(0) X (350/ 10,(00) or 35. This would be the
steel, wrought iron, east iron, brass, or plastic. This pro~r schedule for welded joint" and steel fittings
s)'atem is simple berause the outside diameters of but not for threaded connections aDd cast-iron or
the pipe are kept constant with &. tolerance of maUeahle-iron fittingi'!. In ,rllCtice, sch('(i\lle 40
H ,,-in. ovcrsi7.e and ~2 -in. undersize, and the inside would be used for welded construction and schedu l~
diametcI"l'l of fittings are kept within the same limits, SO (about twice the computed value) for iron fittinil;s.
regardless of material. Typical standard dimcllBions The higher schedule is required because of weak-
of pipe joined by seren' threadis are given in Table 23. ncsaes in the thMads and iron fittings.
The tolerance for the wa1l thickneBl! of the different For 0.11 pipe below 10 in., schedule-40 pipe
materialll varies but is usually 12.5 per cent. Pipe i, identical with the fonner "standard" pipe, and

l ........-C.rbun Slrel Pipe (ASA 836.10)

BTU." nml Copper
l 'ill" (A8T~1 1I~2
NOIll- Ou, Underground Iron and n~3 ),
innl ~id"
Tllieklle8>l, [n.
IMide Tran8vene Intenuil Water Pipe Pille
Thkknc"", in.
Pi!M' 1)[,11.,- Dillmcl Qf, in. Area., IKj in. (AWWA 7A .4), (ASA
Si:w, elCf, TbicktlC$ll, .'1.40.5),
in. in.
.. Ie
".,~,. Ule 110
uk, 40
,k 80 .,
Schedule Schedul"
in. Thiek-
I"If!II'I, in.
SI Mnda1"<.1
Sl roll!!
II 0 .40.\ 0 .008 1 0 ,09S 0.269 0 . 215 0 .1I56!l 0._ 0.008 0 .002 0 . 100
li. O. .'HO I 0 .088 , O . II !~ 030< U" 0 . 1().t 1 0 .0716 0 .088 0 .082 0 . 123
0 .615 ' O.O!II 1 0 . 12l> 0 . 1113 0 . 423 O. HIOO 0 . 1405 o.ono 0 . 127
li O.S1O I 0 . 10\1 0 . 1-17 0 .(;22 0 . 5-1(, 0.3030 0.23-11 0.10\1 0 . 107 O . I~U

, .'~ 1,000
I. 31.5
: 0.113 0 . 154
0.133 0.179
l .o-tU
0 . 742
0 . 113
0 . 12(\
'M 1. f>tl0 0. 140 O. !!I I
I."" I.'"
1.278 1.4.95 I.m 0.140 0.187 0 . 146 0. 1114
lli 1.900
0 . 145 0.200
0 . 154 . 0.21S
1. 610
2 .067
I. 767
0 . 14.5
0 . 211
O. 1.50
0 . 150
0 . 221
'li 2. S76 0.203 0.276 2 .469 2 . 323 4.'" 0.203 0 . 24\ 0 . IS7 0.280

~l in ~laJI:

3 3.500 0 .216 0 .300 3.' " ' .900 7."" 6 . 605 0 . 125 0.300 0 .2<3 0 . 21~ 0.'"

.000 0 .226
0 .237
0 .258
0 .337
3. M8
4 .0"..!G
5 .(H7
3. 826
" . 813
0 .888
12 .73
8 .8IJ\
II .:10
IS. 1\1
O . I~
0 . 1511
0 .318
0 .337
0 .375
0 . 2tH
0 . 328
' .2!.0
0 .2ro
0 .32\
6.625 0.280 0.4lt2 0.' " .5 . 761 28.89 26.07 0 . 188 0.432 0 . 378 0 . 250 0 .437

10 .020
::1 ".03
45 .00
7I .S!
0 . 188
0 . 188
0. 438
0. 312
0 .'"
". I ~2.700 0 .400 0.687 1I.038 11 . 376 Ill. 93 101.64 0 . 188 0.000 0,438 0 . 375

schedule 80 is idf'ntieal with the fonner "extra- CMt-iron pipe is made in t;.' \mi mulds Hf eilhc!r
strung" pipe. 'l'hcre is DO equivalent 8Ched~.J1e baked or green sand, or it may be c~t l.'f.ntrifugally .
number for "doul>k.~xlra~trong" pipe, and. sched- Centrifug'.ll ea:sting is 1Jl.'Coming mure p ....,)ular, <'>Ipt'-
ule-loo pipe iR the only other weight in which cially by mr>an ~ of metal muldll lined with a sprayed
pipe I!mallf'r than", in. may be obtained. refractory materiaL
Fittings for sltoci pipe systems are usually of gray IVrouglr!-irVlI Tripe IS made of iron made by me-
cast iron or m~II('",bic iron. chanical puddling, or of a low-('arl.Jon steel made by
For m/)dr:l"II.i.p.iy high pressure, up to about fiOOO the ByeNl prtlr':Cll.~ in which slag is added to molt.en
pili, stainlc!;li-.'!tCl'i tubing may be used with threaded iron, foll owed l.Jy refining ill a Bessemer converter.
forgcd-I:lteel fittings of heavy walls. Fur higher It is elaimed to have superior resistance to corrosion
pres!!tl~. part icularly at high temperatuTC8, alloy and is used particularly in some hot-\\"nt(' 1" piping and
steels and I:lpet'iul l.'Ompression fitti n ~ and needle underground installations. The dimensions are prae-
valves arc nJ(luired, as iUustTlltoo in Fig. I~. tica.lly ideutical \\; th those of low""1:arbon ~teel pipe.
Ccut-iron pipe is Dot threaded gcne ndly, but it Fittinp arc usually east iron.
may be in some 1:l1Jl.'(!inl applications, particularly 00 BrG3' pipe and copper pipe are empioyed where
high-presiJllre water mains. When threaded, the grel\ter registancc to corrosion is desired. Fabrica-
dimensions are alm~t the same .as th()8e for steel tion is similnr to that of steel pipe, nnel dimC'nsio~l~
pipe, t.he thi,1kness being different ir.. some cases. arc t>imilnr. Sysklms of hmss or copper pipc' 1"mall.\
Fittings BI"C of grl'y iron or mullE!able iron. include IJr/1.1:i8 or copper fittinb'l:l.
to a nother fixed point , a /Inion ....'rve:; as a conr 'tOl.
T he two halves of tIl!' IIniO!) ma~' be tighten the,
pi pe ~{'ct ions indepcm\t'n l \y, und the fi nal connect ion
madc by t igh tcning Iht' bonnet of ti ll.' Hilion. If size
reduction is dC!;ired at a InppcJ conzH('tion, 11 rcdllc-
'~'1g bUlfhillg is the !Simplrs t lininI/:. :\ simuhn neous
change ill direction and !'Ollnf'('t ion to u I upped outlet
may be made by u sln ( I (, IJ>I)U' illn-in g male thrcad~
on onc end and female thn>ad", un L:U' other. The
end of n pipt may Ix- closed II il h a cap, and an open-
ing in a pif'('e of cqu\)J menl ma y bc (IOSHI by n p\up;
or, bct t4'r,:1 ('ap pcd nippil'.
~l:iny other special fillings arc normally anlilable
on dcm lUld and ca n soh'I' almost lilly piping problem.

Flow i~ eontrollrd by v ~ll vp~ . Gule vah"'8 RTf!
shown in Fig. \OS. The b urrier to flo\\" is a di~k - or
"'('(\p;e-!>hupp(i dam sl idillil nt. righ t ltng\('s to the
direction of flow and scnling tightly in the vllive

nrn NGS
Sfoctions of t hn'atlt>(1 pipe lITe joined t~ctller by
fittings suth us illll~tr:\t('d in F ig. 107. Couplings
join s\lecc,;.~ivc ~l n), i ght, lc ngths of p ipe with no
chan!!;c in (iin:,('li un (J1' ~ilC, When th e ~i7.c i~ to be
rt.'d uccJ 01' (,lllal'ged, 1\ rrd!(cillg coupliTlg is llsed.
,rhen thc dirf'diol\ ill to be ch anged, an I'lbow,
eitlLl'r ljI)..{i(gree or ..\5-t.icgree, is avnillible; a lLtl if
hot ll uin'('liml and size atc changed, a (Hiuell/O elbow
iii in oroer, I k>caw~ of t he mechanical difficully of
cutting IIharp IIm'ads on IIhu r l pieces of pipe, nipple8
arc mlul(' fit the fact ur y in H series o f st a ndard lcn gth~
fro m aoout. four pipe d ilunele rs in lcn!l;th t.o ci()l;l;
ni p ph-s, whose thr('atI~ merge from each ellli of the
sect ion.
If more t ha n ~wo branches of pi ping nrc t o be
conncctf'(1 at the i>llmc point, Iccs and CT08!ICS a rc
IISf"1I. They may he !)hlainoo wit h a ny rca..' ble
1!l)Jubination of ~iz~ of the openings. Since most
pi ping must, be iJrokt' ll at inter valfi for ma int cnance
and since ~talldard pipe thread s a re tight-hand, t nu'$
ma k ing it i ml)O.~:;iblc to use r igh t-ha nd fitting.> 1' 1". 1080. Seetional vi ew or Kille vlllv,, 'wilh nunrising spindle.
c)Cciusi"f'ly in cOIH\t'C'\inJl; pipe fro m one fi)Ced poin t (J ettkilll IJrooo,)
body, When part ially OPt-'Il, thi:; type of valve
exhibits a Cr(',;I't'nt.shal)("(i opt' ning for flo\\' \\'h idl
ch:mgcs in area extremely rapidly wit h slight a(lju"t
ment of thc vah'c handle, thus making thi~ tylX' of
vake rather undesirable for partial-How control
although quite 6uitab\n fol' ordinary open-nnd-shut
control. Jn the largt'r " i 7.('!S t hc J isk may swing

F,,-,. 10':1. lJuUurfly v.. lvu. (R-S Product. Corp.)

Fu}, 10~ ~, St"tionat vic\\' "r w.le valvE' \\'ilhri~ing ~rindl"

ami outside set"", and yoke. (Jrnki~ lJ'-/)II.)

ralher than slide into pllwe, as indicated in Fig. 109

iIlu~trating the butterfly valve.
The g[(J1~ va/lie, so called because of the bulbous
shape of the valve body, i" shown in Fig. 110. This
falve direct:; the fluid up or dOlVn through a circular
opening;n the central partition, which may be scaled
either by fOl'cin~ a-Nlplal'cable composition-fiber disk
down upon a flat St!at or by inserting a tapered
metallic plug into a conical seat, thc plug and the
seat hcing of diffe~nt Luper hI fumi~h a line contact
for the sen!. The plug-type va.lve 'is emellent for
partial-flow control. This valve may be made with FlO. 110, Seetioll/l.l vi ..", of globe v:ilve wi th ril'>ing spindle.
a slende~ tapering needle seating ill a SIllaU orifice (Jc'.J.:i~ B,......)
(il:i\Jed in the" body. Such a valve is termed a
needle valve (fig. Ill ).
!loth gale and globe valves vary widely in details
of coustraction. The slem or spindle moves outWlI.rd
(Fig. 108b or Fig. 110) or simply rotate~ without
changing its oosition (Fig. 10&) as the valve is
opened. The screw threads on the stem or 8pindle
arc either il}side (F ig. lDBa or Fig. llO) or outsid::!
(Fi~. 10gb) the space under pressure. The seaLs are

Flo. 112. Quick-openi", &lobe valve (.eelional view)

(JmJ;,'.., Br.... )

FlO. Ill. r\ecJl, mlvlI (lIIJCl iono.\ vie",). (Jellki!18 BrM.)

~placeahl(" or pennanent. The valve i~ opened or

ciUl:!C<l by $!veml turns of the handle, or it may be
opcratLd in one stroke of a lever handle (quick.
opening type), Fig. 112.
For simple opewflnd-shut. control, plug cocJu (Fig.
113) arc economical. Inserted into the flow "assage ,
is a tapered plllg through which an opening is cast
or llt-illoo. A 9O-degr-cc turn of the plug will open
or c1uoe the passage. Such valves may be made t.o
a.ccomrrodatc three ur four piping connections and
direct flow through the different pipes. Bya.pplieatior..
of prCl!ure to the heavy gre:u;c lubricant, the grease
is forced through the lubricant grooves t.o the bottom
of the plu!!,. thereby lirti~g the plug free from its_to FlO. 113. Cutaway vie .... or PI'" cock. (WalIllOl'lA Co.)

BELJ...AND-SPIGOT CONNECTIONS stanrlard dimensions for various materials are given

in Table 21-
Bell-and-spigot connected pipe handles more fluid Some typical bell-and--spigot joint.! are shown in
than any other connect ion since it is the most. Fig. 11-1. These joints are usually calked with oak1..ll
praclicru type of Joint in large pipe sizes when pipes and lead, but the meehanical joint is becoming more
lire made or material,. other than sleei. Some
popular because of the tighter joint , simplicity of
installation, and greater lat itude of angular displace-
PIP!:: ment. and expansion. These joinlS may be " locked,"
"ith a groove in the s pigot which prevents puJling
0001-1_ !\po ('_ _ ~y!lt ..... ~.......,..
apart of the joint, " roU-on," wi lh a rubber gasket
-- --~ Pi ... \ UT1I-CIS.cU )
tightened with a bolted ring, or "llCrewed-JI:land,"
,- ........ ,
I'ipo (C)(AWW.!.
with a ring gla.nd drawn up agninst the gasket when
...... screwed into threads in the hell.

("IU. CA(I.!.
... --.-
,,"- ::\Isteriab fur pipe joined in this manner are
T\kt,_. .,," (W.
Dia<oot .... ioo
i .,
loti ...

,... usually cast iron, clay, or ooncrete, although glass,

i., Thi...
1011...-'.1.. _iL
"i. i .
plMtic, and ccmcnt-asbcstos are occasionally em-
-- - - - - -
.. O .11-O. ~
MH. ~ ~ I . ... 1. 13 O.-fI. U
- - --- ployed. Cast-iron pipe is furnished in lengths of
12 to 20 ft, and other materials runge in length from
6tol5 f t.

0. _.t7
7.01- 1.44
. 75
O. lH.1MI
1.76 Fillill{J! of the 8llme material as t hc piIX' are similar
O. l i 1.7~ in type and fun ction to thOl5C for thrcadPd pipe.
"" 11 . 10
11. 211
O. JO-.O.'"
O . ~ ... o. ~
11 . 10-12.00
13. 7$-11.1\
O.M-II."'" "" 1.1~
Typical item ... are shown in Fig. 11 5.
"" 1~.lI!I
If. tO
o . *-O. ~
O.U-O.I' 0. "" 1.73 I 'uivt'! are almOBt al\\'ays of thc gat~ or butterfly

~ " lUG

11 . 74
o .~.n
0.74-1.. 1:
G.ff.... .,


I " ~
2(I.Q-2I. "

St . ~.U

'. (11)-1 .

' .71
types .



" " .M
lUI - I .
1.11_1. 11
1. 11--1
to. 7HI." I . TS-I. el

." S. 1$

The modem trend for pipe in sizes above 2 in . is

I . ....U.
toward more weldt><! ~onnCC I iunl;. Xo threading,
1. ,.1.65 '.00
.. .. .
calking, or is needetl , and no Kus ket s are re-

AWWA Standard AViNA Stari~rd AGA Stend.rd AGA Slalld.rd

(HlP. Preuute) (For Ctmtnt)

FlO. 114. Se<:tMlnaI d ....,,;np Of v:ariouB bell-aoo-flpigot joi nt ll.


90" ~ar" Elba.

Bell aIlf1 SoiJot
Y Branch
8eII and Spiaot
.45' Oecree ElboW
Bell and Spifot

FICl. lIS. Sectional dnl."';'ngs of ~ypi C/l.I bell-arul.-spigot fitting;,.

Flo. It6. Typicellitt.inp fOf butt-welded IirQ. (WolUlO'l"Ch Co.)

Quired when the system is fused into an unbroken line within the hult circle, or the full-fuce ga.~ kd , which
of material. Pipe ends need no treatment other than extends to the outer edge of the fl ange anci is pundloo
scarfing (beveiing), and very few fittings are required for bolt holCij.
if the welder shapes the necessnry pieces from pipe Flanges may be threntled or Iycltlcd to the {'ntis of
sections. the pipe, in which cu..~e the' comprc;;.;ion fnce is a!wayil
Steel is the usual material for welded piping sys- on t he flange . When thrf'fldetl or weldet1 flanges are
tems, with scheduled pfpe for low-pressure work not pract.ical, as in high-~ilicon cast iron, ~, or

. . . . nclf....... Full fact

FIG. 117. Typieal hngecl tointa (eeclion.1 dnt .... ing>! ).

(under lOOG psi) and seamless tubell for higher prClT sheet metal, the flange iii sl imJCd over t he pipe and
sures. Gas welding was univcn>al for some time. but tbc fla red or enlarged end .. of the Pil.IC provide thf'
electric-arc welding ill incfl'Mingly popuillr. compres.<;ion {1tC(l.
Fittings and valves are of stefll and :~re of two
types, bult-weld ami socket-weld. The butt -weld
fittings are of the aame dimeneion as the pipp, and
the socket-weld fi tt ings .ha...oe enlarged end" similar
to threaded fittings, but the pipe slips intQ place and
is fillet-welded. Typienl fittings are ~ilOwn in Fig.
Hrau and tupper pipe are joined in socket-weld
systems, usually known as "streamlined" piping.
The joints are brazed or soldered. _
Plastic pipe, if thehn~C, is
~a;;ily welded
with eie(;tric l((jt'pla~ . The ends are heated to the
softening ~iit,~tbeh-)Oiried and allowed to cool,
making a strong fUfl~on iO'int.....
Fittines of the tlimpler
types are available for butt:.welding.

FLANGED CONNECfIONS FIG. liSa. Droller ooupii"i (800liDI1JI.I dn\";oa:). (Drn_

F1anged connections are used on larger sizes and
higher pressures of viping service where the lines
mUflt be disassembled frequently for maintenan(.'e or
inspection, on larger valve bonnets, and on pipes
being eonnected to equipment. Formerly, steel pipe
in size8 over 3 in. was always connected with flanges
(threaded onto the pipe), but welded connections
have replaced such connections in most new eon-
atruction and in old as m!l.intenancc require8 replace-
ment. 'The various methods of fAcing the flanges are
indicated in Fig. n7. The plain or full-face flange FlO. IISb. Viet.aulic ODUplill(. (Vida,"ic Coonpanll
. ill widely used wiUI Cither the rinK gasket, entirely A~.)
-, "

FiG. 119. Comp ression fi ttings for t ubing (I!eCti.onai drawi ng!l). I n the fitting ehow n at the left.,." corn pl'I!IJIIkn ring le
pI. ted over the tu be as $hOlm . When t he ap is t igh tened, the compression ri ng is preaed against t he eeat llDti beoom"" wedged
api pst the lube, m-.king a t ight joint. If the ;oi nt ie broken, Il new compre!llion rin,; IIhould be woed 1.0 insure . tip,
joint. In t he t,,o fittin,;9 allOwn at the right the t ubing must be fll\nred or spru.d by a llpecia! tool to the form indicated.
Ko com prcllIIion ring is required.

Ga8keu may'be made of a wide range of materials long and adequate clearance is provided between the
from paper to steel. For PI"ell;Ure8 up to abou t 500 ends of the pipe. The Victaulic coupling requi res
psi, impregnated aIlbestos is common. Rubber is that a groovc be Cllt around the pipe and depends
satisfactory over a wide range of pressures at low upon fluid pressure {(It compressing the gllSket.
temperatures. Lead, copper, aluminum, stl-d, &Ild Com:prus1fJ11 fitting! are widely \ lscd for small-sized
combinations of these with asbestQs or paper are tubing at both low and high pressure. These are
used for h jglu~ r pressures. The holding power of con venient and efficient, particula.rly if the connec-
gaskets depends upon their compression. F or a tion is to be broken. Figure 119 shows typical fit-
tight cl08ure it is necessary that the' gasket be de- tings of this type.
fonned so as t o seal all irregularities in the faces of High-pressure fi ttings for pressures greater than
the flanges. F or high operating pressures the com~ 0000 psi are illustrated in Fig. 120.
pression faces of the fl anges are decreased in area to
increase the comprCSl!ion of the gasket. without in~
creasing the bolt tcnsions.
In iIome designs, such as the male-and-(emale
closure in which the gasket is supported on the out-
side, the pressure of the confined fluid tends t o com-
press the gasket indepe nden t of bolt tension. In F lO. 120. Special Bt.eel fittinp and valwe for bi,h presaure
some special closures for high-p reMure oPeratiQllS, (aeetional dl1lwlng). 'The cone may bo t hreaded on the tubing
the pre8SUNl of the confined fluid alone is depended wit.h II. left-hand thread I!O tha.t it will not be t urned 011 the
upon to compress the gasket, and the closure may t ubina u t he threaded gland i$ turned in ib! righ t-hand threadB
to tighten the joint.
be assem bled with the hands and becomes tigh t only
after high flnid pres&lre is applied.
Flanged closures are particularly important for BIBLIOGRAPHY
closing openings in veI\Sels and connecting piping to 1. A MIe RICAN GAe A S$OCIATION, New York, Standards.
vessels. 2. AMt: Il.lCAN Socn :," J'OR TE8TINO MA"I:EIU AU., Phila.-
Othel IlptCial typa of tQupling, or sleeves are widely delphia, Standard ..
used. Figure 118 iliustrates two types. The D resser 3. A 3oI ll.I CA." S rANDARDS Assoc.'1ATtON, Ne.... York, Standanb.
coupling requires no 8peeial preparntion of the pipe 4. A MERICAN W ATE'R WORM AS!IOCIATION, New York.
other than deaning and comprCSI:IC8 the gasket by 5. JENIUNS BROIl., New York, C atalogs.
boI.t tension. This tyt>e of coupling may also be used 6. R-S I'Bonu crs CoItP., Philade1phit., ClI.talop.
as an expansion joint. when the sleeve is sufficiently 7. W AI.WORTH Co., New York , Cat.a\ogB.


Transportation of Fluids 2 - Energy R elations

HE energy balance is a most imporl anl con- inerea:se in velocity (or tlCeei('ralion) of I fps !':Iel!

T sidr ra l iun in maki nl!; engillt.'t;! ring clli(' uillt ium. , I!Ccond. T hi.; unit is 1 pUllllJ ul. If :l. mn!<6 of I 11>
Tn makir.g 11 balance of energy it is eSl5Cnt ial at mean 8('"3 l('vel :l.t -IS dcgn't", lati tude i ~ J.l1ow('I 1 to
that all energy factors- be cxprel!!ed in the same units fal l u;.dc r the influence of gr:.wit y, its lIocclerul iOli
if the calculations are to be correct. 1f energy ab- will be 32. 17 ft per second per !!CConU. T he force
!!Orbed as heat is mea.smoo in Rtll, and pressure is exerted by gravit y on 1 II.> mallS at sea level ~32. 17
determined in pounds force per square inch with pounda1!) is called " lib force. " It is uL-oo called the
volume in gallons, and kinetic effects are calculated "weight" of the mass of l ib a t sea levcl.
with mass in pounds mass and vclod ty in feet per T he use of the same teno pound to repre;cnt mass
second, the different energy terms must be all and force is frequently confusing. The inclusion of a
converted to the same nnits before a balance can be pound weight is always confw;ing.
made. These units may be either foot-pounds or For example, a mass of 100 Ib under the influence
Btu, for cx.o.mple. The relationship of 1 Btu being of gravity at sea levr.l exclls a force (ma) of
equivalent to 778 ft-lb arid the application at' this 100 X 32. 17 - 3217 poundals Qr 3217/ 32. 17 _ 100
conversion factor generally offers no difficulty. But Ib force ; it is also said to "weigh" 100 lb. 1f this
confusion frequen tly arises when pounds mass and same mass is carried to a high elevation where the
pounds force appear in the same equation. aeeelerat ion due to gra\'ily is 30 f t per ~ond per
second, it exert s a force of 3000 .potmdals or
3000/ 32.17 = 93.25 il) fOI"!'!'. If the matS of 100 lb
is now "wcigh<!J " on a sprinlt ""ale (:" lihmt l'~ 1 for
The relationshi p between force and mass may be use at sen. level, its \1C'igll ( (pOllnd hrl'c) I,ill be
p.xpteAAed by Kc\\'ton's Inw: force _eq\lals thc time 93.25 lb. Hut. if a beam hlllmwc i~ u :;lld with stancl-
rate of inc rease of momentu m. a rd " weights" hung on t he l J('llm , t he 100-lh n mss
will "weigh" 100 lb , as this 1.\']"Ie of balanct' compurcs
r--- <it
(7) forces, which are propor t iona l to mass a nd C<llmi for
equal masSes.
T herefore the term weight a.~ di8t inct from mass
Force htu! the dimcnsions (mass)(veiocity) / (time),
will [lot be used in t his le:-t because it is indefi nite
(m){L/ t)/ t, or (mass)(wngth)/ (t ime)2, mL/ f ,
and confusing.
where m _ mas!! in any units, In enginllCring praeti(:(' the uni t (of force is us ua lly
L _ a lin";H distance in any uni ts. I Ib force, and, if the uni t nf m:~ is to be I Ib mass,
t _ ti me in any unit!'!_ n ('ol\vcrsion fac t or mns! Ill) included to con\('rt
p Olln ds fo rc~ to p n1!n ~al ~ ILS foll uw8.
In English units m a.~ is usually expi'esscd in
pounds, Ipnglh in feet, and time in seconds. Then d(mv)
p' "'" g.F - - - (i)
the unit of force is that which gives 1 1b mllS::' an <it
where 1-" - fOfce in absolute un its (as poundals). mass. The dimensions of g. may be determined from
F - force in engineering uni ts (as pounds equations 7b, 7e, or 7d and are mL/ 12 F.
force). When heat effects are included, an additional
gc - conversion factor (32.17 poundaIs per dirnelll!ion, temperature T, must be added, making
pound in English unit!:!). four fundamental dimen:>ions necessary to define
the quantities ordinarily encountered in engineering
Usually the mass is com!tant, and equation 7 may
operations. But the four climemlions chosen ma.y be
be written almost any eombination t hat is motlt convenient at
fieF = rna (7b)
the moment, provided they are all independent. l-or
where a _ acceleration or dv/ dt. example, as iI1~trated in Table 25, ma.&l, lengtl) ,
time, and temperature ; 0 1" force, lel'tgth, t ime, fUld
111e choice of ma.'>S, length, and time I/JI funda-
ikmperature ; or energy, force~ time and Icmpe ...... ture
mental dimensions I("ads to the absolute units for
may be selected al! the fol.r fundlUDcntal dimensiolls
force (pounclal:s) and to the IISC of t h~ cunversion
to express the units and relal.iollships between the
fa('tor g. as indi('atro ul)()ve.
various quantities l i~ted.
Fn'qu('ntiy force, length, Ilnd time arc chosen as
fUTltlumcntai dimensions. In this system , mass has
lilt' thm (' ll il;un~ of (forpe)(time)2/ {Icngth) or Ft 2 jL.

This unit of mass is called a 8lug when force is ex-
S,.."'m I ,h',,,,rn II sr"""" III
prtSl;e(i in pounds force, length in fcct , and time in
secondtl. The coTlvcn;ion facto r g. iI> then a mwti ........., Fo,,,,. I'
r....n.; .... ,.1.
For.... I"
F"~Q", 11
plying factor to convert slUg:> mass into pounds mass. n ...... ' T i . ,, ~, Time,'
Quantlty T ......... ~r T ............ (~ ... r T.... p.,..... ~. r
Rewriting equation 7b T ..... pon. ...... (1') r T r
F-~a-m'a (7,)
Ti.- (,I)
I_ ~ ~.~ ... D.LI
, , 8/'
Ma. ( . )
F _ (I')
..LI' ,
1','/ 1.
where F - force (Ib). ....., U"
V~I<><i17 (I)

m - mass (lb).
m' .. n::'8SS (slugs),
A ..........", (00)
Dena ly (,,)
L/ r'
Il/ I"r'
"" / E'
P,,-ure (I") ./U' Pil.' I"'/ B'
mfg. _ mass (slugs). I!url'oe tenolon (y) oj.' FlO I"'/ Il

The acceleration instead of the mass may be

M_ftow,.", ( W)
M . . . .<Jo,,;t)' (0\
V....,..t.. W
. /U
PIl L'
"'/ 11
I"'t/ ~
divided by the' conversion factQr 9.. In this case the II..t .."...; . y" .1.'/ ,,1' 1'1./ 1' BIT
unit of acceleration is a' when mass and force each !!pM'" hNt Ie) 1.'/ ,'1' L'I ,'T 6I/ 1"I.'r --.1",,11,,
have the same units, such as pounds. The numerical ll oilY (. ) .. W,'T 1"/ 11' '1,T

R.o .. oI hN . ...,..,...
value of a' -is frequently referred to as the number of w,
gees at sea level where the numerical value of g is Co.lllcioont
......... {Io)
..1.'/ "

equal to 9. " ' IlIT

To ..,,,,,.,r,
tho dl <n<1Ulon. of
F""m~ = m'l (7d) 8)'riem II " .,..",m', rn"I,ip!y by k _ _ 1./,"
g< s,v.",ru III ...... "'''' II, multlply by J (_ I"L/ Ifl with tho appropriate
e'l>OO.n ~ (from +2 to _4)
where F .., fon.-e (lb).
m - ffiM!! (lb).
a' _ acceleration (gees). The conversion factor 'Ie has been discussed and
applied in t.he conversion of pound!! force (F)
a/ 9 ... acceleration (gees).
(system II) into pounda1s (mL/ t'" (8Y8tem I) by
Any systcm of fundamcntal dimensions, mass- equation 7b. Pounds mass and poundals force, or
length-ti~e or' force-length-time, or other lIystem, grams mass and dynes force, are the absolute units
may be used separately or mixed togetner and are so usually derived from the fundamental dimension8
found in the technical literature. The conversion of 8ystem l.
factor (I. converts the unit ll oorre!lponding to a Pounds force and slugs mass conform to the units
system including force as a func.lllmenta1 dimension u8ually derived from the fundamental diml:nsion8 of
to the units corresponding to a system including 8ystem II.
The use of pounds force ami pounds mlt.~<;, a.o; i~ sent t. he addi tion of a quantity of fluid into the flow
common in engineering practice, represents the syster:l , in two steps. The fir~t step includes the
simultaneous use of systems I and 11, and the con- quantity of fluid by embracing it within the Bow
version fact{)f g. must be used either to multiply system without moving the fluid. It involves th'l
the units of force or to divide the uni ts of m~, addition of t he int.ernal eller&) V, and the ~nt'.rlO'
When eD3rgy is expressed in foot-pounds, the con- of motion and position of the added fluid to Ie
version factor J becomes unity for systems II and e n e rgy o f the fl ow system. The second step invlJlvC!:l
111. When foree is in pounds, length in fee t, and the movement. of the quant.ity of fluid illt;. t he BOI\
energy in Btu the conversioll factor J becomes 778
ft-lb/Rtu and must be used either to multiply the Fluid
energy expressed in Bh~ or to di vide the force ex- ~ ..
Flo" system to riiht of otrtlc.Iol

11 - pros....,e ot bo,,,,doty 01
pressed in pouncL~. point 1
If any four fundamental independent dimem;.ions V, .........". oj fI..., Ie> 1>0 Jdded
are \I~ , as indiclitetl by any one system of d imen- v,. .. - . r _ . ; ".. Ill
bI_a1l111it1t l
sions, no conversion factor is neces&iry. If any addi-
tional dimen~ion is intrcx:l.uced, the ft'IIult is the
equivalent of \Ising an additional system of dimen-
sions for each ~ueh addit.ional dimension int.roduced,
Step 1
and a conversion rador mUBt be included for each
fju;d 10 be odded Ie> flow
such additional dimension beyond the four funda- syUam is l""ki<Ied 'll'itflill tlOw
oyotom 1<> ..... 01 ...,. - . TlIIo
mental dimensiuns of a single system. _ lbo irrtoriuI_1b' U, MIl


tho _ponyioc
_ _ .........._10_01

The energy relationships of a fluid or other mate--

rial flowing t hrough equipment, plant, (IT piping may
be obtained by an energy balance. EIlt!rgy is carried St.,2
with the flnwing fluid and also is transrerred from fluid has ...,."Iroo:a.- ..
the fluid to the surroundings, or vice versa. _in"""'_
flow ""'"'"
bJ bIinIto"""""
ritN 01
.. IiRo t., ocIditol 01 ~
1. Encl"KY canied .,.-ith the fluid includes: P, V, 10 flow ~
A. The internal enprg)' U, indudin!!: all energy ""hieh is
the peculiar property of the fluid, rugnrdlt)"" of' its
relative l<><:ation or motion.
F!o. 121. Diagram illu~t.T".lting the incl}i.sion of Pre88'1t()
B. The energy carried by the fluid bcCilU,"" of ite condition
energy in a fluw ~Yl!lern.
of flo.... 01" poeition:
(1) FJleJ"gy of motion or kinetic "nerlO': 7IIy/ 2 in
,Ilystem . This is done by fo rcing the qu nntity of
absolute uniU!, or ..11;'129. 1in "n!{ineering Pl'1lcti"",
g. - 32.17 Ib I1\IIoSS It/ Il; foroo (eec){III,e). and the added fluid against the p~ure of the .fluid aJreudy
energy of zMtion ill mr!2 (32. 17) in foot.. poundsl. in the flow syst.em and the addition of the em rgy
where m ill the m&ll'!l of material ul}(j,:r cno,,;derM ion, PI VI to ti}e flow system.
and" is the velocity of that IIm!.!)ria! rcillti~c to
$Orne "statioDtlry" rd"rt",,~,. 2, En~!'gy traMferred lx,t"'een A fluid or flystem iI, flow IIInd
(2) Energy of pnIIition or potenti:fl! c!~,rltY: ",gZ in it~ ~\!rroundings is of two kiuds:

IIhl!olute units, ?I" "'iJZ / fi. (mgZ / 32. 17 in foot .. A. HeM q lIb80rbed by the fIowinx material from the 8Ur-
pounds), where Z is the height o f the rna811 '" above wundinpduring flow (Fig. 122) bet ween points . and 2.
the refcn:noe plane, and 9 is. the aceelcl"lltion due to B. Work ID done by the flowing rnateria1 on the 8UrTOUnd-
gnt.viLHtional fol'OO. lnp durin, fl.Jw bct"'een points 1 a.nd 2. Thi, i8
(3) Energy of pn:8llUr1! PV carried by the material frequently called shaft work w. to distln~i!lh it from
beca.u~ of its introduction int.o or exlt from flow the "" ork done by a Btatiooary batch of mal(:riaJ riOt
under prcIiIIUra, whel"(." P is the absolut.e pressure flowin~ thl'Ough a syatem or not trs.mferred from one
e"erted by the mfltcriai, and V ill thij volume of the state to IIInother.
An energy balance around a fiow system, lIuch as
The neCC8Sit.y of including the term P V may I"*. betwccn pui ... ts 1 and 2 in Fig. 121 and the .mrrouno-
i~d iealed by the diagrams of Fig. 121 , which re pro- in g::s, assumi ng D O accumula~ion of muterial l}r ('nerR"

Heal Exchanger
, r-..", I
P ( -dV) ., increase in internal energy due to
compres..<riGn effecLl! between states
or point.~ I and 2.
Point I
r'Y dll - inc~ufle
i,l internal energy due tl?
r-: Z,
surface effer.t.~ between states 1 and


Z, "'m, -w 2.
" I where "f - FiUrfncc tCIl8ion of the material.
it _ ~ lIrr8CC area of the material.
\22. Diagram iIIu.,Ir:.t"ng" flo.. ~)"~tem between pointe
I 8",1 2.. r1 }.l,j drnd. - increase in internal energy due to
chemical effects or ('hanges in com-
iii !l!ly point in till'" sysle,n, expressed in unilJ! eon- ponent or substance A , between
"i"tent with sy:st~m II or fundamental dimensioIIB, is states I and 2.
giyen br the equation

C2 + --
mll2 2 mgZ2
+ - g, - + P2 V 2
t:.(PV) - r
The energy term 6.(P ~) is a complete differential

PdV +
Combining equations 54, 55, and 56 (inc!uding sur-
t"V dP (56)

By definition

face and c1lllmical effects in the etc. term),

T dS+ tJ.(~ nw')+ (mgz) +
2gc ge
r 1
V dP

_ q _ tD
+ etc.

+ Jo ( - ",) +' (moz)

I "- - .+ ~(PV)
Jo e
2 110 fl.
In any process the increase in internal energy due
_q_tD (54) to heat effects ~ T dB is equal to the sum of the
Since by definition
heat absorbed from the surroundings and all other
t:.H"" t:.U+ t:.PV energy disaipaterl into hcat effects within the systef'l
t hen due to irrevctllibilities such sa overcoming friction
ilH + ~. (~ mil) + (mgZ) _q_ to
(Ma) occurring in t he process,
2 gc fl.
The inetea.'ie in intem.a.1 energy is the sum of the TdS - q + (ltD) (68)
increases due to all changes considered as taking
place in the material in flow, including heat effects, where ltD _ "lost work," energy that cc"ld have
compression effects, surface effects, a.nd chemical done work but WUl! dissipated in irre-

tJ.U - r r
TdS + P (-dV) + ~i"Ydll
versibilities \yithin the fluwing mate-
equations 57 and 58 are cumbined and re-


+ J'A. dm" + t J'B dmB + etc. (55)


f 'VdP + .(m") + . (~.gz) + ",.

I 2flc 9c
where T '"' ab60lute temperature of the material.

r I
S = aiJs.<liute entropy of the material.
T dS - increase in internal ener'r due
. neat effects between states 1 and 2
or points 1 and 2 in the Bow system.
~ f~ V +f +f +
- -w -


dv mg d!.

- -w - (lw)
(lw) (59)

These equations (54 through 59a) contain no limiting :-es:istance foree, asthe product of force tim~ distanee
w;."umptiotui other than DO accumul atiQn of material is energy, and, if fluid i~ moving against a m;i~tin g
in tile unit and are unrcstrkted in application to foree , ' there is always un energy t.enn, III), involVl'(!
material flowing or transferred from state 1 to wld ~h is directly proportional to the ("('!lis ting fo''
s\ ale 2. It is ma inly a matter of convenience as to In particula r eases it is desirable to recognize J,e
which e<luutions arc: used. peculiar properties of the material flowing as a m~an8
,Vith reference to equation 54a, tJ.11 is a complete of simplifying the calculations. For example, a
difi't'rcnti al, and its value depends only upon the liquid flowing thro\lgh a pipe II ill usually be f ree
initial 'and rmal states of the flowing material, being <)( ehemical changes, surracc effects, etc., and equa-
independent of t.he path followed by the Aowing tion 59 may be rewri tten as 59b.
mat.eriul. This is an important advantage in the use
.... of equation Mo. llecau!;e there is no term specifi-
cally representing friction and other irrcvel"5ible
lOil.'ll'll in equation 54a, there may be Some confusion
in handling friction losses with this equation - - w - (lwl (59b)
it. is remembered that the friction losses must occur
Writing equation 59b for JJ. uni t of matel ial,
either within the flowing material, or without in the
surruundings. tJ.J 9 -
If the rrictio<! Ioeee8 a nti other ineve rsibi lil ieos are regarded
IlII ooeu mng within the fIo.... ing materi&l, t hey &re ineluded in
J 1
VdP +-+- ~Z
2ge flc
- -w- lw (59<)

tJ.H ill the term J:!T dB, whh,h u. included in tJ.H Ill! pa.rt of If the flow is also approximately isotherma.l and t he
fl uid is almost incompressible, us ale m(l$t liljuids,
l!.U. but ~hey an! not includoo in cil"'>1"'" or q. t.he volume of a unit mlUlS may be assumed to be
If the l rictiuo 100<."""'1 a re ",~r&..-d "" o:urriOI': ou tside t he
flowing matcrill..l in the ~ulTOUndillg:s, t hey arc i ..c1uded in w constant und equation 50c may be further simplified
sin ee the enerlO' leaVC8 the lIo.... ing mlLw rilli "" work which to
-M' + -0 ("')- + -lJ.Z
is diaU Pfoted into ht."II.l clIL"C11I in the SWTUIIndingll. In t his
~ frictional k:Jeec:s ~ not included in il.H or q. If tllCSO ,. -11;" - lw (60)
heat elf,~u. in the turTOUnd inp caW!'ed by friction "-~ are p 2g. 90
ab:!!urUcd in the lIo.... inl> material &.'j q, lhj ~ UllCrgy ill .. gain in
tlK: ..ystem and iuclud",,1 in tJ./f . In thUs case th., friction 1\11iSe6 Equation 60 is limited to tl. material of appro.'(im~tdy
aro &l9o included in q a nd VI, Cf'nCl~li llg out or the5c t wo !.eons constant densi ty and is frequently referred to tI.S
bee&. ... ., of t be difl'en:nee in ~ign, Tbe",(un! t hey might beller Bcrnoulli'~ equation when w and ftC are wro.
be in cluded only in l!.ll for !limplieity in C/l.lculati()n.
If eqUation no i ~ divided by glo" and pi, the spe-
Equation 59 is applieable whethe r or not tl.''mt is cific weight, is substituted for p(glo.),
tran!d"crred. It is completely independent of q, but
it has u tenn, lw, specifically representing friction oP 0"
-;;- + 2; + ~Z - -to -;
(g,) - lw_(g,)
-; (00a)
losses und irroversibili ties, all of which must be
included in this tenn. This elimina tes any doubt
as to where to ind udc fri ction los.'lCs, but it requires The dimensions of the indi vidual enellO' terms in
that all frictkm IO~l! anti other irreversibilitics be equat ion 60a are energy per un it weight of fluid,
evahmtcd, or that t he e xa(~t path followed by the such as foot-pounds per Pound (or fcet) , or grllm-

incomplete diffClrt!ntiaIs,

on the other side of the equation.

~uch as r
Bowing matel-lul be known in order to evaluate the

V dP, appearing
cent imetef'li per gram (or centimeters), In this fonn
(equation GOa) the. terms havo the dim ension~ (If
length WI of a column of fluid. For this reason these
tenns arc frequently referred to 8.8 " head ," such as
feet or centimeter:> of the fluid. This common

Frietion 106.'le! are a form of energy tronsfer terminology, with prcssure head for the term
represented by the term lw in equutions 59 and 59a (t.l'/P' ), velocity head for the term (lJ.v~/ 2g), and
(incl uded in T dB in equations 00 a nd 57). This stat ic head for ~ ~Z) , must be ap plied " 'ilh caution
~ it is frequently and erroncou~ly applied to the
point of view h:l in harmony with the hasic idea of a terms of equation 60.
FRICTION LOSSES 'The factor f depends only upon the Reynolds
number if goometric similarity cxist..fl. This requires
As indicated, the use of equa.tion 59 or 00 requires
the same value for the ratio of length to diameter
a knowledge of t-he frictionallosses,.lw, which e&nDot
(DI D) for the different systems, and cxactly similar
be accurately dctermined except by actual experi-
surfaces as mtly ~ e)(p~ by the ratio .1DJ
ment, as wa.s also true in determining the frictional
wht:re t repTe!lents the height or depth of the eleva.-
resistance to the motion of solKl particles through
tions or depressions in the !lUrface. Under these
conditions, '; (T>vpl ll) may be lrubstituted for f in
'l1Ie Aow through pipes is a particular example equation 63, giving
cor the relative motion of. solids and Huids, and
U~ general etluo.lion ,0 for the resisting force,
F' - (f'pAtlJ)/2, may be applied. 'The area A, in
C<luu.tion 10, is any area representative of the solid.
For a pipe filled with fluid this area is logically taken
IUS the insidc surface arca of the pipe (If DL). Dl.\lENSIONAL ANALYSIS
The frictional force exerted by the pipe against If the friction fact.or J in equation 63 were not
the fluid in the pi'pc is known to dcpend only upon the Heyrlolds number
in geometrically similar systems, estimation of
P' .}'p1rDLVl
values for f would appear as difficl1l t as estimation
2 of values for Iw in equation 5nc or equation 60.
The energy required to ov~rcorr:e this frictIOnal force Where all the significant variables are recognized
in moving the fluid in the pipe a. distance equal to but the exact relat.ionship between t.hem is nOl
a/., is the product F' aL. This quantity of energy known, becaIDIC of the difficulty of integrating the
would push out of the pipe a quantity of fluid repre- differential equations or for other reasons, consider-
sentoo by the volume '1fJ)2 dL14, or the m8.S..'l of able help- in indicating ways of correlating experi-
Auid P'1fTP 81.14. Therefore, the ellergy required to mental data to obtain an empirical relation between
overtorne friction (or dissipated as friction 10SI!e8) the variahles may be obtained by means of dimen-
per unit m a.':lS of fluid discharged from (or entering) siona] anuiysis. This is a procedure by which the
the pipe ilf known variables are arranged in a number ...f dimen~'
- 1P'.L 2J'W sionlel:;s combinations or groups. The fund:unental
lw/ ... - - - (61) equation may be expressed in tenns of these groups
P7:Fr aL D rather than in terms of the individual variable<!.
where hO/ is the energy in absolute units dissipated 'l'1l.e resulting equation will be simpler, as the number
as frictiun per unit fTULSIj of fluid . of dimensionless groupe will be less Umn the num-
ber of variables, generally by the number of dimen-
lw/ - g.J.wJ lliollll employed.
'The essential principles of dimensional Imwysis
Substituting fur 'iW in equation 60 witli the assump-
are three in number.l .
tion of no change in velocity, no change in elevation
,and no work done by the fluid, the pressure drop due' I. Each and everyone of the physkal QuaRtities
or measurements may be expressed as a product of
to friction ( -tlP/) is ubtained in the form of the
the powers of a very few fundtUllental dimensions
Fanning equation
(see Table 25).
2j'pLv 2
- tlP/ - - - (62) 2. Equations of physical quantities arc homo-
D geneous in the net dimensiOll8 of all additivIJ tenus.
All terms added together must have the same dimen
In engineering practi~ the frictiun loss is UlIIl811y
sions when expressed in terms of the fundamental
written for energy in foot-pounw force per pound
dimelllliollll selected.
1111/ ., -
fL o'l
- -
f' N
- - dL
, 2gcD
3. Any general relation between physic:U Quan-
tities can be expre8l:lCd in a gcnemlizcd ma.-mer inde-
pendent'or sny particular unit~ to in vol. ~ only the
wheref '"" 4/,. The bihli..... phy for thi$ eh5ptu apl*''' on p. 146.

dimensionless products of all the physica.! variahles three equations. If the three equations are inde-
and the necessary dimensiona.! conversion oonstants. pendent, they may then be solved in terms of three
This principle folloll"s from the others and known is arbitrarily .thosen variables,.such as b, c, and , giving
as Buckingham's "pi t heorem." I t is the key to
dimensiona.! analysis. e "" - n
Th e erwryy dissipated in overooming friction is some a = 2 - b - c - 3 +n - 2 +n = -b - c -
function of the pruperties of the flowing fluid and
the confining pipe and their relative motion. The If t.hese values are subEtituted for a, e, and r in the
signifiC3J\t properties of the pipe may be its length D, exponents of equatiun 66,
its internal diameter D, and the roughness or depth Clw)/ = zD- I, - C- HLbtcmp-n,.."v2 - ..
of its surface irregularities f. The properties of the
fluid are its mass m, its density p, and its viscU'ity 1'. The groups int{l which these variables will he
The relative motion between the fluid and pipe is assembled in the functional relation are inditat.ed by
the fluid velocity v. Therefore the energy dist'lipa1R<i the exponents. The variables are assemblP.d accord-
in overcoming friction is some function uf all these ing to the appearance of ew;h letter in the exponent
variables or to assnre dimensional homogeneity. l'or ('A)nven~
ience the groups are usuully made dimensionless as
(lw)/ = IPI CL, D , e, m, p, 1', v) (65)
For'a given point cundition the unknown function,
All variables' i1ftving a numerical exponent yield
equation 65, may be written in exponential form.
the dimensionless group (lw)/ /mv 2
(66) All variables having the exponent b yield the
dimensionless group DID.
where th dimensionless eocffiei~nt z and all the
exponents of given values only at. t.he point
All variables having the exponent c yield the
dimensionless group tiD.
condition. If the condition is changed in any way,
All variables having the exponent 11 'yield the
as by changing the velocity, z and all the exponents
dimensiunless group 1'1 Dvp.
may change. Equation 66 is ~imply another way
of writing equation 65. It. is definitely not to be These dimensionless groups constitute a functiOn of
inferrd that the true relation between the variables some descript.ion to express the interrelation of
is exponential. variables
Application of the first principle by substitution of
the fUlldamcnt al dimensions of sYlltem I, Table 25,
in equaoion 66 gives
If exponents other than b, c, and n ha.d been
mL' _ ,L"'L'm' (",)' (m)" (~)' (57) ch~n for retentiun in the establishment of dimen-
2 D3 ~t t
sional homogeneity, a different set of dimensionless
By application of the second principle, the net groups would have resulted. Intermultiplication of
dimension of the product on the right side must be the dimensionless groups to yield different dimension-
the same as on t.he left, mD21t 2 , and the summation less groups is permissible. In this way some other,
of the exponents of each fundamental. dimension on function of different dimensionless groups may be
the right is equal to the exponent of that dimension obtained which may be more convenient than the
on the left, as follows. first. '
The best choice of exponents for ret.P-lltion, or the
Form l _ d+e+n
manner of intermultiplicatiori t() yield the m()Bt.
ForD 2-a+b+c-3e-n+r convenient groups, depends on the use to be made of
them. The form of equation 68 is readily adaptccl
Fort - 2 - -n - r
to the computation of friction loss for known veloci-
Here are three equations and seven variabies or un- ties. But in thilS form the evaluation of the velocity
knowns. The energy friction is which will result from known dime~sions and fric-
proportional to the mass of fluid transported, and d tion loss (lw), is ell:tremely complex, except by a
i~ therefore unity. This leaves six unknowns for tria1-and-error solution. This may be'" avoided by 3.
more convenient fun ction established by eliminating all values of LI D gree.t ~ r ,than about SO. Therefore
velocity from all ~roups except one, by simply
dividing car,h side of equation 68 by V(lw)// rm?; f - (lw),D'Zg, - - - - - 4>& ;-;;',02g, [(')
- (71)
giving mL,} Li? D II-

The accu rate I!Stim3lion of th e friction energy

l::f -.. [(~),(i'(1J,pV(;')/I""')] (69)

from correia! io n of experimental data has been a
goal of e ngineers for many years. Early work
neglected the cl.araeter of pipe surface, omi tt ing the
- , - .,. IPa
D' (')
D (DpV%
" )] ratio fl D. The data. could not be correlated, par-
liculerly at high values of the Reynold s number,
unlil this variahle was properly included.
Thi-i is all the information that can be obtained Figure 125 shows graphieall" the solution tQ equa-
from the application of dimcm.ional analysis to this tion 71, Qbtained by plotting the experimf'ntal data..
prohlem. The nature of the function <1>2 or <I>~ L<; nut This correlation i8 in eonl;ir.t ent. units and may be
i~d icated in any way. The analysil'l simply slales used with any set of consistent unit!S, English,
that a function exists between thef\e various dimen- metric, Qr otherwise. Similar plots arc found in the
'sioniess groupS, however complicated it may be, literature in which other friction fll(:tors are plotted
provided all the significant phY8ica.l quantit,ic!; have as a functi(,n of the Reynolds number. Care must
been included. 'rhis is an important guide h) the be t.aken to avoid confll:;ion, Il!> the same name lind
procedure of determining the function empirically symhol are used for various multiples of 1 as plott.ed
from experimental data. For example, a series of in Fig. L25. For example,!, of C(luntion 62 is plotted
measnrements of the frict ion energy (Iw)/ taken as 1 in the Chenn&ll Engineer.,' Handbook. FJse-
under conditiona of conatant 1~/ D and constant fl D where 112g, will be found plotted lUI f.
must yield a single function when (/w)!' 1m,} is plOtted Figure 125 I:Ihows t\ I:Itraight solid line, f = 64/ Re,
against the Rp,ynvlds numOOr DpVl 1'_ All experi- represcntin~ thc laminar flow region whic h extends
ment al points lic on I.he same curve, regardless of the UI) to a Reynulds n llmher of 2000. In laminar flow
Velocity, densii.y, viscusity, or mass of the nuid. If Uh~ fluid moves onl y in Ihe direction of flow , as indi-
t-he experimenln( ()Oints do not lie nn a single curve cata! in Fig. 123. 'nle insidfl surface of the pipe is
within the experimen hll error, one or more !rigllificant
pbYEical quanti ties or measurements were omitted
in writ illj!; U.e fiN'O t, equat io n n.'i.
Equa tion ('18 may he writte n as follows, with e nergy
given in foot-pounds (or gram-4:cntimctcrs).

l.artOOar flow Turbulent flow

Equat.ion 70, derived frp m dimcnsional _ analY~~' 1
gives fully M much .information as equation 64, de-
rivffi from a tll(>()!eti~9.l consideration of balancing
effectively stI"l'allilincci by th(~ Huid flowing next to
forces and the principle. of dynamic 8imilari~y. In
the pipe wall, and th~ ('(llIghn('''~ of the pipe has little
either equation , experimental data arc required 1.0
effect upon tht' r('~i!\tan<:l' In How, which is df'tf'r-
detR.rmine thc r('lation b!:ltwcc.n friction energy and mined laq~~'I.v hy the prop('Tlir'l'j r)f the fluid, par-
the physkai quantities. .
ticularly the vis'r",ity. Tltr' loca.l vt'kl('ity of the
In' the de.rivati(!n of e<]lIation tH. the frictio~
fluid varil'!! ar'ro!li-ll th(' pipe d iI Lml'tl'r from zero lit lhc
encrgy was U:S.!:iumro If! vary <,lirt'ltly with the length
of pipe, nnd J.., ac~()nl ingly (\pPf"a~ a.s t he first power. In & .....ti()11 5 or Ih" ( 'Jv", i,.,/I f:"lJi,.~,." II(JNII>OOk (ft""
1 tt,e !>arne MlOumplil)l"I il:l made in e<llIati un 70, it. printi!lIU ' 1' "r ~"l, .... ),m 112 i~ , 1,'1<iJl;"a,,~d by ,hI) symbol J.
In &~t iou 20 " r II,, "-II1ll" volu l1ll', ,,. 1-I2I>, .r or '~I' ...lion 71
fo!lows !.Imt I~/ J) al'lx'ar:- M thc first powe r, as t his is , !,,,;jJ(":u.~..-l h:v ' llI' ~~'ml",1 J, .."tI .Iw M""I I' ..... ~ lt i~ made
is Ihe only d iml.' n:;ionJ{'SS KfOUP euntllinin;r; the qmm- IhMI Ih,' 1,10\' giv, ... vahll.'" r"r I, lI-h hough Ihe "lOt aciual1y
ti.t.y D. This assumption 113." been IVllnd valid lor giv('S ""I..."!! fut J' - 114.
wall to the maximum in the center, lUI indicated in laminar flowing annulus until th(' .turbulent flowing
Fig. 124. core occnpies the entire erOfiil 5C(;tion of the pipe
1.s the Reynolds number is increased above 2000, right down 10 the proluber!l.n(Ocs which make up the
as by increasing tho quantity of fluid fl owing, t-he roughne!>.'S. In the completely turbulent region .t1!t
friction factor will foll ow thil:\ s t raight line into the roughness of t be pipe is the most importan t con-
dotted region only if the fl ow remains laminar. But siderat ion, and the properties of the fluid, viscosity
near this point, Re "" 20)(), ' eddies and turbulence and density, can be neglected in estima ting frict ion
may develop in the core of the s tream, which has 1"",,_
the greatest velocity. Theile eddies d issipate more In Fig. 126 the rf'lative TOughness 4 for vftrious
energy and increase the rridion looses. Since the pip.:s hM been plotted as:\ function of pipe diaml:ter
eddies are local t his increased fri ction loss is local, for different types of pil)t!.
tending to decrease t he local velocity (decrease He), The linear vcloc.ity of Ihe tvtJII Ollid flvwing
and the flow may again beoome laminar. But the through a pipe duel! not huW' a definite \'lI.lue. Tn
laminar Aow the velocity is linear bUI \'l).l"i1'$ greatly
with di~tnm-e arr(1SS thf' pipe (Fig. 12t ). In turbu-
II ,",w
! lent flow the vdod\y is n('ilhrl" lincnr n)l" con.<;!ant

3(!ross the pipe diameter. Tn ma king the (~(lITelation
of Fig. 125, the velocity v \\"n~ lIetC'Trniiwd by dividing
~ the volume of fiuid pnssin.u; n givl:n point . or <li;;.-

charged from the flow , systC'm JX'I" second by the
crOS8--l>CCtional area A ()f the pipe. Thi" i~ frequently

FI(l. 124.
Lotll Vtlocil)' 01 FlUId
(P ...... , 10 A." 01 I'\rItJ

Rehlt ive vdodty distribulion in laminar &nd

rcf('rft'd_10 uS the avprage velocit.y and dco;ly;nuted
by a diff('ft'n r ljymbol. III i!Cjnntions 54 and 59, the
velocity ,, 'i~ the :u:tual lincnr \'c1ocity of the fluid.
If the ;i\'~rage " dlll'iiy i .. usctl fo r v ,n the tcnn
turbulcl1~ Sow.
reprcl:>Cntin)/; k iru~tic. enf'l"gy, 111',212g~, the result- may
local decrease in velocity CU\l!'.efl eor-respondirig local be in erro r. In laminar fl.ow the totAl kinetic energy
incretl&lS in velocity _el!IC here, with format-i on of is more d o&>ly rt'prc!:len ted by ,m,ll g. (wit.houtrthe 2)
other eddies. This fegioo- of incipient- turbulence, when using the a ve rage v(ll t>ci ~y for v. But under
from Re - 2000 to about -:WOO, is t herefore unstable turbulent conditions the U\eroge velocity compu ted
and is &0 indicated on F ig. 125 by the sbaded area in tbis manf\Cr giVe:< tLpprQximn.lely the currect rct!ult
above the dotted line. in t.he exp~on mv'12{h.
As tJ.,e Reynolds number ill increased to values . In laminar flow when! - (}t/ HE', equation 63 may
a~ve 4Q(K), the turbulent Row ing core becomes well be- \\~ittcn
_ , -6P, 32Lv.ll
developed and ifhe velocity distribut.ion across a lw, .... - -- - - of Ole pipe be(omcs s imilar to that indi- p g,D'p
cRtcd in Fig. 124 . The .propepiCl> of the fluid flOW 0'
have Ie!;!! effect upon t.he flow conditions than in :l2Lt,.II '
.trictly JRminar flo\\', n.nrUhfl roughne!!8 becomes of -tlP, . - (63L)
9,D 2
significance, pnrticulu.rly if it is sufficient. toO affect
the turbulent core in the central part of the stream. which is known as Poiscuille's equation.s
Friction 10S8l.'8 arc atubiliwd and can be computed. The frictiOn 100000s computed from Fig. 12:) are for
ThCllC eondition!:l are rep!'flOlented by the transition straight pipe of circular cross ~etion. Tn t.he past,
zone on Fig. 125. variou.<; formula8 have ~n propOI!(.'(l for e;;(im!lting
A small twig or other obiett to&'leC1 into the frietiun 10l>8C8 through bends, fitt ings, ~tc. But
a river or s mall !:Itream nlllning -rapidly, as in flood, the simplcdt prxedurc i ~ to conside r elleh lining or
offcrs an exccllent opportunity toO sec the laminar valvc WI t."tluiv!llc nt to u length of st raight pipe ' 118
flow in the }Slowly Ilowinp: wilter ncxt to the shure and indiCa!I...1 in Fig. 127. This reduce nil pipes, valves,
the turbulent flow in mid .. lrenm. and tittinJF;ll to a common del"l.,minMor, l.!i juivalent
As the Heynold.. numher i... in<-rf'fL..-'(1 fm1l1er, t he len!!:1 h Ilf pilW uf t hE' same relaliw) roughness, for
turbult'nt. flowing core e )( ]Ia nd .~ at th(' ('xpen::;e of th( IlUl"Pt)o;L'S or computing friction IQ&;('!>.



'", '

" _I"

0.02 0.001 ~
0.0008 -m
0.0006 a:
0.0002 ~



10( X 10 3 .. I Iii X 10 4,
_ 1- X 10 5, ~
~ X 107. "
Reynolds Number Re = ~
FlO. 125. Friction faowr III! a function of Reynold!! numoor with remtivc roughness 8.!! 8. psrameter.'



,5 ~

li 'C
8. .; .:!
is: - !
" 0
Sin.ilar equivalent lengths could be preeented for
in which 1/ 0, or fJ/ V2g,JJlIJJ,/ L is prt!8l'lllt.ed &8 a
welded' fittings, but the valves, contractions, aDd
expansions would furnish the same lengths as thoSe function. of Re-vj, or (Dp/ /J.)V2gc D&/I'L. This
18t~r term is frequently called the lU.rm1in number.
givl'n in Fig. 127. Welded elbows are usually long-
radius or short-radius, and equivalent lengths in pipe Figure 128 is exactly equivalent to Fig. 125 but is
diameters as follows for 4s.degrce, OO-degree, more convewent in solving for the quantity of fluid
and l8O-degree elbows of both radii. flowing for a known or chosen friction loss. The
friction 1088 !W, may be expressed 8B the product
Equivalent Length (-lJ.P,)/p, if (- dP/) is the decrease in pressure due
. Weklin~ Elbow In Pipe Di!l.melcl'lll to friction losses in pounds force per square foot
45-degrce 1Ql\t;-i-adius '.8 8JId P is the density of the flowing fluid in pounds
~short.-mdill!l 8.' IDiI88 per cubic foot.
00-degrPe IOllg-radiLIII 9.'
9O-de~ &hort-ra.di\lS 12 . .5 lUuUrathe EUD1p1e. Determine the rate ~ Row of
18IkIcgroe Ionli-radiut 12. 1 lIJI.turaJ. pa <,,"hleh rr \;r be _met! In be methane, e l I.)
l~cJ!l:rw sbort-radiUII 16.8 flo,,illJ!: through a et(,(,j pipe 12 in. in diJI.m'~ I~r lind 3 milCOI
long at 70 f, if tbe p~ure d,-"CI" ~ fmlll 7.~ to 00 psi.
The energy dissipated by "9, fluid emerging from a. The. vieco:lAity of methane at 70 e F is 0.011 '''lItiJllli8e, IUld
pipe into a vessel Of space of large cross-sectional area the d~~ty e.t 70 Jo' and .t the sverage l'" '88ure 1.18. peU.s
0.218 Ib/ell !t.
cannot be computod. a{'cnrateiy. In ' no event will
this loss exceed the kinetic energy posi!C88Cd by the Solution, trcatinli: the gIi3 as .. n jnmrrt" nos.o;ihlu fluhl with