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Assignment 1 (To be submitted; on A4 size sheets)

Q1. Determine the frequency of vibration of the systems shown in figure. Neglect the mass of the

Q2: A mass of 0.5 kg hangs on a spring. The stiffness of the spring is 100N/m, and the mechanical
resistance is 1.4 kg/s. The force (N) driving the system is f=2cos 5t. (a) What will be steady state
values of the displacement amplitude, speed amplitude, and average power dissipation? (b) What
is the phase angle between speed and force? (c) What is resonance frequency and what would be
the displacement amplitude, speed amplitude, and average power dissipation at this frequency and
for the same force magnitude as in (a)? (d) What is the Q of the system, and over what range of
frequencies will the power loss be at least 50% of its resonance value?

Q3. Figure shows a two DOF freedom undamped model of a vibrating structure. The physical
properties are: m1=m2=9.8 Kg; k1=k2= 8820 N/m and kc= 3430 N/m.

a) Find the two natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes. Sketch the mode shapes.
Find the motion of the two masses as a function of time in each of the following cases: if b) both
the masses are displaced to the right by 5mm and then released. c) both the masses are displaced
by 5mm; m1 to the right and m2 to the left and then released d) the mass m1 is displaced by 5mm
to the right and the mass m2 is held fixed and then the two masses released simultaneously.
e) Write your observations on the results in b), c) and d).

Q4: A stretched string of length L, fixed at both the ends, is plucked at a position L/3 by producing
an initial displacement h and then releasing the string. Take L=1m, h=0.01m, density=1000 kg/m3,
diameter of string wire=1mm; tension T=10N. Determine the resulting amplitudes for the
fundamental and the first three harmonic overtones. Sketch the wave shapes of these individual
waves and the shape of the string resulting from the linear combination of these waves at t=0.
Repeat for t=L/c, where c is the transverse wave speed on the string.

Q5: Evaluate the mechanical impedance seen by the applied force driving an infinite string at a
distance L from a fixed end. Interpret the individual terms in the mechanical impedance.

Problems for practice (Not to be submitted)

Q6. Set up the differential equation of motion for the system shown in figure. Neglect mass of
the rod. Determine the expression for a) The critical damping coefficient b) the natural frequency
of damped oscillation.

Q7. A machine mounted on springs and fitted with a dashpot has a mass of 60kg. There are three
springs, each of stiffness 12N/mm. The amplitude of vibration reduces from 45 to 8 mm in two
complete oscillations. Assuming that the damping force varies as the velocity, determine the
a) Damping coefficient using the concept of logarithmic decrement
b) Ratio of frequencies of damped and undamped vibrations.
c) Periodic time of damped vibrations.
(Note: Logarithmic decrement is used to find the damping ratio of an underdamped system in the
time domain. The logarithmic decrement is the natural log of the ratio of the amplitudes of any
two successive peaks. For peaks separated by n time periods,

1 x(t ) 2
log e and )
n x(t nT ) 1 2

Q8: The inertial switch that activates an airbag in an automobile can be modeled as a spring of
stiffness s with one end attached to a case fixed to the vehicle and the other end attached to a mass
m free to move within the case. When the case is decelerated, the mass compresses the spring to
activate a switch that releases the air into airbag. The case is decelerated at a constant rate a. (a)
Find the equation for the motion of mass. (b) By direct substitution, show that the motion of mass
is = 2 + ( 2 )(cos 0 + 1), where 02 = . (c) Find the minimum deceleration required
2 0
to compress the spring a distance X, and express the answer in terms of force necessary to statically
compress the spring the same distance X.

Q9: Evaluate the mechanical impedance seen by the applied force driving a simple harmonic
oscillator with an infinite string extending transversely from the mass.

Q10: A string of density 0.01 kg/m is stretched with a tension of 5 N from a rigid support at one
end to a device producing transverse periodic vibrations at the other end. The length of the string
is 0.44 m, and it is observed that, when the driving frequency has a given value, the nodes are
spaced 0.1 m apart and the maximum amplitude is 0.02 m. What are the (a) frequency and (b)
amplitude of the driving force?

Q11: A string of length L, tension T, and linear density L is fixed at one end and free at the other.
Find the resonance frequencies if the string is driven in the middle.