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a. Mass number
i. n0 + p+
ii. isotopes have diff. mass #s
b. constitutional isomers
i. same molecular formulae
ii. connectivity of atoms = diff.
c. resonance structures
i. same placement of atoms
ii. diff. e- arr.
iii. NOT isomers
1. Isomers differ in both i and ii
d. Percent s-character
i. Fraction of a hybrid orbital due to the 2s orbital used to form it
ii. A single 2s orbital is always used
iii. Increasing % s character
1. Hybrid orbital holds e- closer to nucleus
2. Bond = shorter + stronger
e. Electronegativity
i. Measure of an atom’s attraction for e- in a bond
ii. More EN  accepts e- density
iii. Less EN/more EP  donates e- density
iv. Periodic trends
1. Increases across a row (exclude noble gases)
a. Incr. nuclear charge
2. Decreases down a column
a. Increasing nuclear radius
v. Relation to bond type
1. NP covalent same/similar EN
2. Polar covalent  diff. EN; e- pulled toward atom of higher EN
3. >/= 0.5 un bond = polar
II. exceptions to the octet rule
a. hydrogen
i. accommodates 2 e- in bonding
b. boron + beryllium
i. less than a full octet
ii. usu. 4 e- around Be
iii. usu. 6 e- around B
c. Row 3 elements
i. >8 e-
ii. Empty d orbitals available to accept e-
iii. P and S
1. Can have 10-12 e-
d. Resonance hybrid

Why? 1. Determining 1. Most stable = spreads e. 180 degrees iii. Placement of atoms 2. Bond angle a. # groups a. More bonds 2. Major contributor i. Placement of single bonds iii. Four groups 1. Shape a. No 2nd row element can have > 8 electrons iv. pos. Best configuration of bonds + e- ii. # lone pairs b. Bond length i. Remains the same 1. May have diff. bonds 2. # atoms ii. Centers of 2x nuclei ii. Bond angle a. Decreases across row 2. Bond angle i. Shape a. i. 120 degrees iv. Trigonal planar 2. Bond angle . Two groups 1. Increases down column b. Three groups 1. Combo of all resonance structures ii. H must have 2 e- 2. Shape a. types of bonds IV. of mult. Variables affecting molecular shape a. differ in 1. tetrahedral 2. nonbonded e- ii.out over largest area e. Distance btwn. Fewer charges III. Two resonance structures must i. Periodic trends 1. Linear 2. Rules of drawing resonance structure a. Valid Lewis structures 1.

much stronger than pi bonds in double bonds . charged carbon atoms have one lone pair f.5 degrees V. Single > double > triple b. Charge on carbon atom takes place of one H atom e. Wedge = bond in front of plane c. Each carbon is tetravalent w/ H atoms c. Relationship between bond types a. Sigma bonds are usu. Decreasing length i. Pos. Draw in all heteroatoms and the hydrogens directly bonded to them d. Solid = bond in plane b. 1 carbon at jnt. a. charged carbon atoms have no lone pairs g. Skeletal structures rules a. Neg. of any 2 lines b. Representing 3D bond angles a. 109. Skeletal structures often leave out lone pairs on heteroatoms VII. Single > double > triple c. Increasing strength i. Dashed line = bond behind plane VI.