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Chapter 1 Factors and Multiples

Numbers: Prime, composite, (integer, natural, whole, decimal, positive, negative, fractions, etc.)

Prime factoris(z)ation

Class exercises

Homework

1. Factors and multiples

18 = 1 x 18 = 2 x 9 = 3 x 6 = 6 x 3 = 9 x 2 = 18 x 1
1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18 are all factors of 18
18 is a multiple of 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18
When 18 is divided by its factors 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18, the reminder is 0 divisible
2. Prime numbers and composite numbers
Prime number: a number which has only two different factors, 1 and the number itself
Examples: 2, 3, 5, 7
Composite number: a number has more than two different factors
Examples: 4, 6, 8, 10, 15,
The number 1 is neither a prime number nor a composite number
Goldbachs Conjecture: Every even number greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two
prime numbers, verify using the following numbers 16, 36, 64, 98
Two-digit prime numbers with reversed digits: 37 and 73, others?
Twin prime numbers: prime numbers that differ by 2, like 5 and 7, list others?
3. Prime factorization
Decomposition of a composite number into prime factors
Example: 60 2 | 252
/ \ 2 | 126
2 30 3| 63
/ \ 3| 21
2 15 7
/ \
3 5
So, 60 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 5 252 = 2 X 2 X 3 X 3 X 7 = 2 2 X 32 X 7
4. Index Notation
5 x 5 x 5 is written 53 and is read 5 cubed or the cube of 5
5 x 5 x 5 x 5 is written as 54 and is read as 5 to the power of 4
a x a x a x a x x a is written as an and is read as a to the power of n

Exercises: Factorize 100, 125, 147, 216, 225, 360, 567, 648

5. Highest common factor (HCF) Greatest common factor (GCF)

Case Study: How to cover a 30 cm by 36 cm sheet of paper completely with identical SQUARE
patterns? Find the side of the largest possible square.
Can we use 1 x 1 square? Or 2 x 2 square?
The factors (prime factorization) of 30: 30 = 2 x 3 x 5
The factors (prime factorization) of 36: 36 = 22 x 32
So the HCF of 30 and 36 is 2 x 3 = 6, use 6 x 6 sheet to cover the 30 x 36 area
Method 2: 2 | 30 36
3| 15 18
5 6
So the HCF is 2 x 3, there is no common factors between 5 and 6 bigger than 1

6. Least common multiple (LCM)

Case Study: Using a rectangular pattern measuring 9 cm by 12 cm to form a square, decide how
many rectangular patterns needed
The multiples of 9 are 9, 18, 27, 36,
The multiples of 12 are 12, 24, 36
The least common multiple of 9 and 12 is 36

Class exercises: find LCM of 30 and 36

30 = 2 x 3 x 5
36 = 22 x 32
Then the lease common multiple of 30 and 36 are 22 x 32 x 5

3| 15 18
5 6

7. Squares and square roots, cubes and cube roots

Find positive square root of 784 and 2025, find the cube roots of 512 and 5832