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MECHANICS OF

Composi e Structures

Smll:mlm ~.... ...... , ,., .,111Sl1111m


MECHANICS OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

An increase in U1e-use of c-0n1posite materials in n1any areas or engineering


has led to a greater deniand for engineers versed in the design of structures
1nade fro1n such materials. Although numerous books offe.r introduc.tions to
oontposites. few de1nonstrate advanced concepts or emphasize structures.
ll1i~ book addresses U1at need by offerit1g studenB and engineers tools for
designing practical contposite structures. l lte foc us is on fibe.r.re.i nforced coin
posites composed of fibers en1bedded in .a 1natrix. An1ong the topics of interest
to the des igner are stress-strain relationships for a \vide range of anisotropic
mate.rials; be.nding. buckling. and vibration of plates: bending, torsion, buck
ling, and vibration of solid as well as thill\\alled beams; shells: hygrothermal
slr.esses and strains: finite elen\e.n.t fonnulation: and failure criteria. "lbe ent-
ph:asis is on analyses that lead to 1nethod s applicable to a variety of structural
design proble.nts.111e expressions re.suiting fro1n Lhe analyses are e.i ther readily
tL~able or can be Lranslated into a 001nputer algorithn1. f\fore than 300 illustra-
tions, 50 fuJly wol'ked problents, and mat~.rial properties data s.ets are included.
$t)1ne kno,,ledge of 001nposites.. differential equaHons, and 1na1rix algebra is
helpful but not necessary, for the book is self.contained.
l ltis book \Viii be of great practic.aJ use to graduate students, researchers.,
and practicing e.ngineers se.eking to acquire advanced kno,vledge of Lhe
1nechanics of co1nposites and of the applications of composite 1naterials.

Ll.s216 P. Kolli1r is Professor in the Deparil1nent of Architecture-at the Budapest


University of rechnology and Econontics.

George S. Springer is Paul Pigott Professor of Engineering in the Deparunent


of Aeronautics and Astronautics at Stanford University.
C...Af\.IBRJDGE U NJYf!.RSl'rY PRESS
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Contents

!'reface page .xi


Li.<t ofSrmbol.i

1 Introduction
2 Dlsplac:ements, Strains, and Stresses '
2.1 Strain.-Displacetnent Relations 4
2.2 Equilibrium Equations 6
2.3 Stress-Strain Relationships 8
2.-'.I Generally Anisotropic Materilll s
23.2 Monoclinic Ma1erial JI
23.3 Or1ho1ropic Material I~
23.4 Tranovenely Isotropic Material 19
2.3.S Isotropic Material 20
2.4 Plllne-Strnin Conditjon 22
2..4. l Free End - Generally 1-\ nisotropic Ma terial 28
2.4.2 Free End - Monoclinic Material 30
2.4.3 Free End - O rthotropic. rra11s\e1sely lsotro1)ic.
or lso11opic f\<taterial ~
2.4.4 Buihln Ends - Generally A nisotropic l'\1ateriol 35
2.4.S Built.Jn Ends- Monoclinic Material 3()
2.4.6 Built-In Ends-Orthotropic, Traits\1ersely Isotropic,
or IJ01ropic 1'-1a teriaJ 3S
2.5 Plane-Strcss Condition .lb
2-6 Hygrc>1hermal Strains and Stresses 44
26.1 Plane-Strain Condltioo 47
26.2 Plane-Stress Condition 47
2.7 Boundary Condi1ions ~7
2.8 Con1inuity Conditions ~
2.9 Siress and StraJn Tramfornt.atioos 49
2.9. l Stress rransCormation 50
2~9 .2 Strain Transronnation 52
2.9.3 Tran.'l ronnation of the Stiffness and Contplinnce Mauices 53


vi CONTENTS

2.10 Strain Energy 55


2.10.1 111e Ritz Method 55
2.11 Summary 56
2. 11.1 Note on the C.Ontpliance and S tiffness Matrices 56
3 Lammated eomposlles <
3.1 Laminate Code 63
3.2 Stiffness f\.tatrices of Thin Laminates '>5
3.2.1 me Significance of the [A]. [BJ, and [ D] Stiffness Matrices 72
3.2.2 Stiffness fvtatrices for Selected Laminates 74
4 Thin Plates S9
4.1 Governing Equations 90
4.1.1 Boundary Conditions 92
4.l.2 Strain Energy 92
4.2 Deflection of Rectangular Plates 93
4.2.1 Pure Bending and In.Plane Loads 93
4.2.2 Long Plates 94
4.2.3 Simply Supported Plates- Symmetrical Layup LOO
4 .2.4 Plates \\rith Built~ln Edges -Orthotropic and
Symmetrical Layup 107
4.3 Buckling or Rectangular Plates l 12
4.3.I Simply Supported Plates- Symmetrical layup ll2
4.3.2 Plates\\itli Built-In and Sim ply Supported Edges- Ortbotropic
and Symmetrical Layup l 18
4.3.3 Plates with One Free Edge -Ortbotropic and
Symmetrical Layup 124
4.3.4 PJates \Vith Rotationally Restrained Edges - Orthotropic
and Symmetrical Layup 127
4.3.5 Long Plates l32
4.4 Free Vibration of Rectangular Plates 141
4.4.1 Long Plates l~J
4.4.2 Simply Supported Plates - Symmetrical Layup 144
4.4.3 Plates with Built-In and Simply Supported Edges- Orthotropic
and Symmetrical Layup 149
4.5 Hygrothermal Effects LSI
4.5.l Change in n\ickness Due to Hygrothermal Effects 161
4.6 Plates 'vith a Circular or an Elliptical Hole t63
4.7 lnterlan1inar Stresses l 66
5 Sandwich Plates I 69
5.J Governing Equations 170
5. 1.1 Boundary Co1tditions 171
5 ..1.2 Strain Energy 173
5.l.3 Stiffness l\tatrices of Sand\vich Plates l74
5.2 Deflection of Rectangular Sand,vich Plates 178
5.2.1 Long Plates 178
5.2.2 Sin1ply Supported Sand,vich Plates - Onhotropic and
Symmetrical Layup 182
CONTENTS vii

5.3 Buckling of Rectangular Sandwich Plate.s 185


5.3.l Long Plates 185
5.3.2 Simply Supponed Plates - Onhotropic and
Symmet rical Layup 187
5.3.3 Face Wrinkling 190
5.4 Free Vibration of Rectangular Sand\vich Plates 196
5.4.l Long Plates 196
5.4.2 Simply Supported Plates - Onliotropic and
Symmetrical Layup 199
6 Beams 203
6.J Governing Equations 203
6. 1.l Boundary Conditions 205
6. 1.2 Stiffness Matrix ~05
6. 1.3 Compliance Matrix 209
6.l.4 Replacen1e.nt Stiffnesses 210
6.2 Rectangular, Solid Beams Subjecte-d to Axial Load
and Bending 210
6.2. l Displacements -Sy1n1netric.aJ Layup 211
6.2.2 Displace1nents - Unsy1n1netrical Layup 213
6.2.3 Stresses and Strains 214
6.3 Thin-Walled. Open-Section Orthotropic or Syn1me.trical
Cross-Section Beams Subjec.ted to Axial Load and Bending 217
6.3.l Displace.ments ofT-Bean1s 217
6.3.2. Displacements of L-Bea1ns 221
6.3.3 Displacements of Arbitrary Cross-Section Beams 226
6.3.4 Stresses and Strains 233
6.4 1hin-Walled, Closed-Section Onhotropic Bea1ns Subjected to
Axial Load and Bending 243
6.5 l'b rsion of .Thin-\Valled Bea1ns 248
6.5.l Thin Rectangular Cross Section 248
6.5.2 Open-Section Orthotropic Bean1s 250
6.5.3 Closed-Section Orthotropic Beams - Single Cell 252
6.S.4 Closed-Section Orthotropic Beams- Multicell 200
6.5.S Restrained Warping - Open-Section Orthotropic Bea1ns 261
6.5.6 Restrained Warping - Closed-Section Orthotropic Beams 2~
6.6 Thin-Walled Bearns '"ith Arbitrary Layup Subjected to
Axial Load. Bending, and Torsion 265
6.6. L Displacen1ents of Open- and Cosed-Section Bean1s 267
6.6.2 Stresses and Strains in Open- and Cosed-Section Beatns 268
6.6.3 Centroid 271
6.6.4 Restrained \Val'ping 271
6.7 1ransversel)' loaded ll1in-\Valied Beanis 274
6.7. l Beams \vith Orthotropic Layup or '"ith Sym1netrical
Cross Section 276
6.7.2 Beains 'vith Arbitrary Layup 280
6.7.3 Shear Center 283
6.8 Stiffe ned Thin-\Valled Bean1s 28S
viii CONTEHTS

6.9 Buckling of Bean1s 290


6.9. L Beams Subjected to Axial Load (Flexura1-1o rsional
Buckling) 291
6.9.2 Latera1-rorsional Buc.kling of Orthotropic Beams with
Sy1nn1e.trical C...Toss Section 296
6.9.3 Loc~I Buckling 300
6.10 Free Vibration of Beams (Flexural-10rsional Vibration) 306
6.10.1 Doubl>' Symmetrical Cross Sections .iOb
6. 10.2 Bea1ns \\'itJ\ Synunetrical Cross Sections 309
6.10.3 Bea1ns \\'itb Unsymmetrical Cross Sections 309
6.11 Summary 3!2

7 Beams wtth Shear Deformatton 313


7.1 Governing Equations 314-
7.l. l Strain- Displac.e1ncnt Relationships J iS
7. 1.2 Force-..'\traio Relationships 315
7. L3 Equilibrium Equations J20
7. 1.4 Su1nn1ary of Equations 320
7.1.5 Boundary C..onditions 321
7.2 SriCfnesses and Con1pliances of Beaots 321
7.2. l Shear Stiffnesses a nd Co1nplia11ces of T hinWalled
Open-Section Beams 322
7.2.2 Shear Stiffnesses and Compliances ofll iinWalled
Closed-Section Bea1ns 325
7.2.3 S6ffnessesofSand\vich Beams 316
7.3 Transversely Loaded Beams 329
7.4 Buckling of Be.ams _;34
7.4.l Axially Loaded Bean\S \Vill\ Doubly Syn\melrical aoss
Sections (Flexural a nd Torsional Buckling) 335
7.4.2 Axially Loaded Bea1ns with Symn\etrical or Unsyn11netrical
Cross Sections (Flexural-lOrsional Buckling) 341
7.4.3 Latera1-rorsional Buc.kling of Beams \\'ith Sym1netrical
Cross Section 345
7.4.4 Summary 346
7.5 Free Vibration of Bean\s ~47
7.5. l Beams \\'ith Doubly Symme.trical Croos Sections 347
7.5.2 Beams \Vith Sy1nmetrical or lJnsymmetrical Cross Sections 356
7.5.3 Summary 359
7.6 Effect of Shear Deformation .359

8 Shells 365
8.1 Shells of Revolution with A.'\.'isynunetrical Loading 367
82 Cylindrica l Shells 368
8.2.1 Membrane lbeory 368
8.2.2 Built-In Ends 370
8.2.3 Temperature- Built-In E nds 379
8.3 Springback 380
S.3.1 Springbac.k of Cylindrical S hells 380
8.3.2 Doubly Curved S hells 384
CONTENTS ix

8.4 Buc,kling or Shells 384


8.4. l Buc.kling of Cylinders 387
9 Finite Bement Analysis 395
9.1 '111ree-Din1ensional Elen1e.nt 396
9.2 Plate E lement 3'17
9.3 Bea1n Eiement 397
9.4 Sublaminate 398
9.4. 1 Step 1. Elements of (J) due to l n-Pla neStresse.s 400
9.4.2 Step 2. Elements of (J) due to Out-of-Plane
Normal Stresse.s 40J
9.4.3 Step 3. Elements of (J] due to Out-0f-Plane Shear Stresses 405
9.4.4 Step 4. 'l'he Stiffness Matrix 407
10 Failure Criteria 411
10.J Quadratic Failure Criterion 413
10.'l.l Orthotropic f\.1aterial 4 14
I0.1.2 li'ansversely Isotropic ?vtaterial 420
10.1.3 Isotropic Material 421
10.1.4 Plane-Strain and Plane.Stress Conditions 4"'"
10.1.5 Proportional L.oadlng - Stress Ratio 423
10.2 "l\.1aximum Stress"' failure Criterion 425
10.3 ''Maxi1nutn Strain'' Failure Criterion 426
10.4 Plate with a Hole or a Notch 430
I0.4.1 Plate \Vith a Circular Hole 431
I0.4.2 Plate \Vith a Notch J34
I0.4.3 O \aracteristic Length 434
11 Mlcromechanlcs 436
J 1.1 Rule or ~tixtures 436
11.1.1 Longitudinal Young Modulus 1 438
11.1.2 liansverse Young ~1odulus Ei 439
11.1.3 Longitudinal Shear Modulus G12. 439
11.1.4 'li'ansverse Shear ModuJus (;2.1 440
11.1.5 Longitudinal Poisson Ratio 1112 441
11.1.6 Uansverse Poisson Ratio "23 442
11.1.7 rh ennal Expansion Coefficients 443
11.1.8 "11oisture Expansion Coefficients 445
11.1.9 111ennal Conduc.ti\lity 446
11.1.U) Moisture Diffusivity 447
11.1.11 Specific Heat 448
11.2 Modified Rule of Mixtures 448
J 1.3 Note on the Micromechanics Models 449
Appendix A. ernu,Sectional Properties of Thin-Walled CMtPostte Beams 453
Appendix B. Buckling loads and Nall.ral Frequencies of 011hotmplc Beams
with Shear lletonnation 461
Ajtpendlx C. Typical Material Properties 464

Index 469
Preface

The increased use of con1posites in ae rospace, land, and 1nnrine applications has
resulted in a growing den1and (or e nginee rs versed in the design of st:ructures
n1ade o f fiber.re inforced composite materials. To satisfy this demand. a nd l o in ..
troduce engineers to the subject of composites. numerolL~ excellent texts have
been published dealing with the mechanics of composites. These ICJ<IS deal with
those fundamental asperu needed by engineers new 10 lhe subjccL Our book
addresses topics nol generally covered by existing texts but that arc necessary for
designing prac1ical suucaures. Among the topics in this book of special interest to
the designer. but thnt usually are not included in standard texts. are stre,s.s...strain
relationships for a wide range of anisotropic materials: bending. buck.Jing. and
\ibration of plate5: bending. torsion. buckling. and vibration of solid as \Veit as
thin\\alled beams; shells: hygrothe nnal stresses and strains: and 6nite element
formulation. The material is presented in s ufficie nt detail to cnnble the reader
to follow the developments leading to the finaJ results. The expressions resulting
from the anolyses a re e ither readily usable or can be translated into a computer
algorithnl. Thus.. the book should be useful to students and researchers \\ishing to
acquire knowledge o f so1ne of the ad\'anced concepts of the mechanics of con1pos
ites as \\'e ll as to e ngineers e ngaged in the design o f structures 1nadc or con1pos ite
n\atc ria ls.
The en1phasis is on analyses built on fundamental concepts thnt are applicable
10 a variety of structural design problems. lo presenting 1hc material 've have
strived to follow lhe outline commonly used in tex1s dealing wi1h the analysis
of structures made of isotropic materials. \\'e have consciously omit1cd empirical
approaches.. Test results are certainly of \TaJue to the engineer. Ho\\ever. for com
po.sites.. the~ mostly apply only under specific circumstances and cannot readily
be generalized to different materials and different applications. We have included
material properties data lo help the designer perform calculntions 'vithout the
need to search 1hc literature.
The book i self-contained. Nevertheless, the reader will find it helpful to have
a background in n1c.chanics nnd in compos ites and son\c kno,vledgc of differential

xi
xii PREFACE

equations and matrix algebra. Weha\1e made a.n effort to keep the notation as uni
form as practicable and reasonably consistent 'vith accepted usage. The principal
syn1bols are summarized in a list ofsytnbols.
\Ve are grateful to Professor Istvan HegedUs for his constructive comme nts.
We thank Dr. Rita Kiss. Gabriella Tarjan, and Aniko Pluzsik fo r proofreading
portions of the manuscript, Gabriella Tarj3n for preparing the illustrati~ns, and
E.r ic. Allison a nd Sarah Brennan for their help in co1upiling t he index.

Laszlo P. Kollar
Budapesl
George S. Springer
Sta11ford
List of Symbols

\Ve have used, \\'ht revcr possible, notation standard in elasticity, structural anaJy..
sis.. and composite materials. We tried to avoid duplication, although there is son1e
repetition of lhose syn1bols that are used only locally. In the following list \Ve have
not included those symbols that pertain only to the local discussion. BeJo,v. 've
give a verbal description of each symbol and. when appropriate. the number of
1he equation in \vhich the symbol is first used.

Latin let1er1
A area
Jti tensile stiffness of an isotropic laminate (Eq . 3.42)
[AJ. A;1 tensile stiffness of a laminate (Eqs. 3.ll\, 3.19)
(a l "i inverse or the [Aj matrix for symmetric laminates (Eq. 3.29)
(BJ, ~' stillness or a laminate (Eqs. 3.18. 3.19)
(CJ,C11 30 stiffness matrix in the x 1, x1 x.i coordinate system (Eq. 2.22)
fCJ.c,, :\D stiffness matrix in the x, )', l coordinate systc1n (Eq. 2.19)
c moisture concentration (Eq. 2.154); core thickness (Fig. 5.2)
IDJ. D11 bending stiffness of a laminate (Eqs. 3.18. 3.19)
JDJ'.Di, reduced bending stiffness of a laminate (Eq. 4.1)
Di* bending stiffness or an isotropic laminate (Eq. 3.42)
D. D. i5 parameters (Table 6.2, page 222, Eq. 6.157)
(dj . it, inverse or the I DJ matrix for symmetrical laminates (Eq. 3.30)
d. ,r."" distances for sand"ich plates (Hg. 52)
Ei. ,. , Young's moduli in tbe x1 x1 x, coordinate system (Table 2.5)
[) stiffness matrix in tbe FE calculation (Eq. 9.4)
0. tensile stiffness or a beam (Eq. 6.8)
f[I bending stiffu._.. of a beam (Eq. 6.8)
f[I_ warping stiffness of a beam (Eq. 6.244)
F,' F,; mcngth parameters in the quadratic failure criterion (Eq. 10.2)

xiii
xiv LIST OF SYMBOLS

/;; constants in the quadratic fa ilure criterion (Eq. 10.25)


/ , /;; fre.quency (Eq. 4.190)
f,, J,. J,, b<Xly forces per unit volume (Eq. 2.13)
G13 , Gu, G 12 shear moduli in the xh x 2, XJ coordinate system (Thble 2.5)
Ci, torsional s tiffness of a beam (Eq. 6.8)

h b, /tl" plate thickness


distances of the botto1n and top surfaces of a plate fron1 the
reference plane (Eq. 3.9)
i 111 polar radius of gyration (Eq. 6.340)
[J] inve rse of the material stiffness ma trix (EJ (Eq. 9.16)
K nu1nber of layers in a laminate; nun1ber of \Vall segments;
stiffness para mete r of a plate (Eq. 4.153)
k rotational spring constant (Eq. 4.149)
k equivalent length factor (Eq. 6.340)
L.x. Ly din1ensions of a plate
L length; number of cells in a multicell beam (Eq. 6.222)
I.;. I!; load a nd failure load (Eq. 10.42)
Ix . I~ half lmckling length (Eq. 4.142), hal! buckling length
corresponding to the lo\\est buckling load o( a long plate
(Eq. 4.173)
bending and n.vist moments per unit length acting on a
la mina te (Eq. 3.9)
hygrothermal moments per unit length (Eq. 4.247)
bending moments acting on a beam (Fig 6.2)
bimoment acting on a beam (Eq . 6.232)
in plane forces per unit length acting on a laminate (Eq. 3.9)
inplane compressive forces per unit le ngth (Eq. 4.109)
hygrothermal forces pe r unit length (Eq. 4.246)
buckling load of a uniaxially loaded plate (Eq. 4.141)
axial fo rce acting o n a beam (Fig. 6.2)
buckling load and buckling load due to bending deformation
(Eq. 6.337)
buckling load in the x- z and x- y planes, respectively
(Eqs. 6.337, 7.110)
N..T,, buckling load under torsional buckling (Eqs. 6.337, 7.1JO)
[P], [P] s tiffness matrix of a beam (Eqs. 6.2, 6.250). Without bar refers
to the centroid; \.\'ith bar to an arbitrarily chosen coordinate
systen1
p transverse load per unit area~ distance bet\veen the o rigin and
the tangent of the wall of a beam (Eq. 6.190)
axial and trans\'erse loads (per unit length) acting on a bean1
(Fig. 6.1); surface forces per unit a rea (Eq. 2.166)
[QJ, Q;; 20 plane-stress stiffness n1atrix in the x1, x2 coordinate system
(Eq. 2.134)
LIST OF SYNllOlS XY

(QJ, Q.; 20 plane,stress stiffness matrix in the x. y coordinate system


(Eq. 2. 126)
Q., buckling load resulting in lateral buckling (Eq. 6.359)
q shear ftow (Eq. 6.189).
R s1iffness parameter (Eq. 3.46)
ii s1ress ratio (Eq. 10.42)
R,,. R,., R. 1 radii of curvatures of a sbell (Eq. 8.1)
I Rj. R.1 compliance matrix under plane~strain condition in the X1 .r2
ooordinale syste m (Eq. 2.79)
IRJ, R., compliance n1atrix under pJanestrain condiLion in the x. y
coordinate sys1em (Eq. 2.65)
ISJ.S1, 30 compliance matrix in the x1, xi , X3 coordinate system
(Eq. 2.23)
[SJ. s,, 30 compliance matrix in the x. y. z coordinate system
(Eq. 2.2 1)
Si, shear stiffness of a beam, i. j = z. y. w (Eqs. 7.13. 7.36)
s., shearstiffness of a plate, i , j = 1, 2 (Eq. 5.15)
;;, shear compliance of a beam. i. j = z. y . ., (Eq. 7.38)
si. st. sj lensile strengths (Eq. 10.13)
s~. s;. s; compression strengths (Eq. 10.13)
SZJ. SIJ. SIZ shear Slrengths (Eq. 10.15)
f 1orque acting on a beam (Fig. 6.2)
f~ rosirained warping-induced 1orque (Eq. 6.235)
T.<oJ SainiVenan1 torque ( Eq. 6.239)
IT. J 20 mess transformation matrix (Eq. 2.182)
lt.J 30 mess transformation matrix (Eq. 2.179)
(r. J 20 Slrain transformation matrix (Eq. 2. 188)
(1; J 30 strain transformation malrix (Eq. 2. 185)
lorque load acting on a beam (F'ig. 6.1)
thicknesses of the top and bouom facesheets (Eq. 5.26)
strain e nergy (Eq. 2.200)
displacement in the :c direction: varies '"'ith the x and y
coordinates only (Eq. 2.50)
II dilplaeement in the x direction
u displacement of the reference surface in the x direction
111. Uz. llJ displacements in the x1. x2 and x3 directton
v displacement in the y direction~ \aries .ith the x and y
coordina1es only (Eq. 2.51)
\'Olume of fibers, matrix, and void
ou1-of-plane shear forces per unit length (Eq. 3.10)
1rans verse shear forces acting on a beam (Fig. 6.2)
displncement in they direction
v" displaccnlent of the reference surface in they direction
volunle fraction of fibers, 1natrix. and void
xvi LIST OF SYMBOLS

d isplacement in the t direction~ varies with the x and y


coordinates only (Eq. 2.52)
(II'], (II'] compliance matrix of a beam (Eq. 6.17). No bar refers to the
centroid; bar to an arbitrarily chosen coordinate system
UI deHection in the t d irection
;;, maximum deHection in the x direction (Eq. 4.29)
w deflection of the reference surface in the t direction
1.11 8 , wS deHections due to bending and shear deformations (Eq. 7.85)
)'c:, Z: coordinates of the centroid of a beam (Eqs. 6.54, 6.73)
Ys.:~ coordinates of the shear center of a beam (Eq. 6.311)
l.k. tk -l coordinates of the top and bottom surfaces of the k~h ply in a
laminate (Eq. 3.20)

Greek letters
parameter describing shear deformation (Eq. 7.253)
paran1cter desc.ribing shear deformation, i = u;, 1/1, 1V, (JJ
(Eq. 7.244)
[a].<>1; compliance matrix of a laminate (Eq. 3.23)
OI , fJ parameters describing buckled shape of a shell (Eq. 8.78)
ti;; compliances for closed-section beams (Eq. 6.156)
"ii;. 'CX;; thermal expansion coe ffkients (Eqs. 2.153, 2.158)
{J. A parameters in the displacements of a cylinder (Eq. 8.30)
[fl), /11; compliance matrix of a laminate (Eq. 3.23)
Ji;; compliance of symmetrical cn10ssec tion beams (Table 6.2)
P1; compliance of c losed-section beams (Eq. 6.156)
'ii,. 'iii; n1oisture expansion coefficie nts in the x , y. t directions
(Eqs. 2.154. 2.159)
property of the cross section (Eq. 6.360)
shear strain in a beam in the x- y a nd x- z planes (Eq. 7.2)
engineering shear strain in the x. y, t coordinate system
(Eq. 2.9)
YlJ, Yu . Y12 engineering shear strain in the x1 x 2, x.l coordinate systen1
t.h change in thickness (Eq. 4.282)
t.T temperature change (Eq. 2.153)
lJ, ~.; compliance matrix of a laminate (Eq. 3.23)
'ir; compliance of c lose d-section beams (Eq. 6.157)
7_,_., . . average strains in a sublaminate (Eq. 9.14)
~_,_. , f y , Eit engineering normal strains in the x . y . .z coordinate syste m
) , 21 4'3 engineering no rmal strains in the x1 , x 2 , x3 coordinate syste m
(~. ~. y;~ strains of the reference surface
0.hl f<i.bl .,.o.ht hygrothermal strains in a laminate (Eq. 4.250)
X y t T J:!f

parame ter of restraint (Eq. 4.152)


polar moment of mass (Eq. 6.411)
UST OF SYMBOLS xvH

ply orientation
rate of twist (Eq. 6.l)
rate of twist due to bending and shear deformation (Eq. 7.5)
cuntures of the reference surface (Eq. 3.8)
hygrothermal curvatures of a laminate (Eq. 4.250)
load parameter (Eq. 4.109); buckling load parameter
(Eq. 4.121 ); eigenvalue (Eq. 4.225)
l l1Ji , Gi , .Si parameters in the calcuJation of natural frequencies
(Eqs. 6.398. 6.400, 7.203)
Poisson s ratio
coordinates attached to the wall of a beam (Fig. 6.13)
parameters in the expressions of the buckling loads of plates
with rotationally restrained edges (Eq. 4.151)
potential energy (Eq. 2.204)
"
/>..,. P,.., P:: radius of curvature in the y-z , x- z. and x- y planes (Eq. 2.45)
p,. frl , p, radius of curvature in the x 2-:c.,. x 1- x;h and x 1-x.2 planes
(Eq. 2.53)
Pi:Qmp. Pr, Pm densities of composite, fiber. and 1natrix
p n1ass per unit area or per unit length
normal stresses in the x 1 x2 , .~'J coordinate systen1
normal stresses in the x , )''. l coordinate system
average stress
r:u. r13, r12 shear stresses in the x1, xi , XJ coordinate system
shear stresses in the x, y, t coordinate system
rotation of the normaJ of a plate in t he x- x and x- y planes
(Eqs. 3.2 and 5.l)
rotation of the cross section of a bea1u in the :c- y and x- x
planes (Eq. 7.2)
angle of rotation of the croos section about the beam axis
(twist) (Fig. 6.3)
bending stiffness of an unsymmetrical long plate (Eq. 4.52)
potential e nergy of the external loads (Eq. 2.203)
circular frequency (Eq. 4.190)
circular frequency of a beam due to bending and shear
deformation (Eq. 7.1 98)
circular frequency of a freely vibrating bea1n in the :c- z and
x- y planes. respectively (Eq. 6.398)
circuJar frequency of a freely vibrating beam under torsional
vibration (Eq. 6.400)
dislances bet\\een the ne"' and the old reference surfaces
(Eqs. 3.47, 6.105. 6.107, A.3)
CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

In this book '"e focus on fiberreinforced composites composed of fibers en1bed~


ded in a 1natrix. TI1e fibers may be s hort or long, continuous or discontinuous. and
n1ay be in one o r in n1ultiple directions (Fig. 1.1 ). Such materials offer advantages
over conventional isotropic structural n1aterialssuch as steel, a luminum, and other
types of metal. These advantages include high strength, low weight, and good fa.
tigue and corrosion resistance. In addition. b) changing the .arrangements of the
fibers, the properties of the material can be tailored to n1eet the requirements of
a specific design.
The excellent prope-r ties of composites are achieve d by the favorable char
acteristics of the t1A'O major constituents, namely the fibe r and the maui..x. In
lo\\'perfonnance con1posites, the reinforceme nts, usually in the form of short
or chopped fibers (or particles), provide some stiffeni ng but very Jiule stre ngth
ening; the load is: n1ainly carried by the matrix. ln high..perforn1ance con1posites,
continuous fibers provide the desirable stiffness and s trength, \Vhe reas the matrix
provides protection and support for the fibers, and, importantly. he lps redistribute
the load from broken to adjacent intact fibers.

Long-fiber 001nposite Sbon-f'ibcr con1posite Partic:ulate composite

Unidirectional Jan1in:a ( J>ly) \Vo,en fabric \Vovcn &bric:


(b1a.x1al \\'Ca\e-) (triaxlal weave)
Figure: 1.1: Composite n1aterial S)'Slcms.

1
2 INTRODUCTION

l.an1iMc fonning a Jan1inatc Laminate


Figure 12: Lamjnatcd cumposit~.

The arrangen1ent of the fibers in a structure is governed by the structural


requiren1ents and by the process used to fabricate t he part. Frequently, though
not always. composite structures a re n1ade of thin layers called laminae or plies.
Within each lamina, the fibers n1ay be aligned in the same direction (unidirectional
ply, Fig. 1.1) or in different directions. The latter configuration is produced, for
example. by \Veaving the fibers in t\\'O or more directions (\\oven fabric). The
lamina may also contain short fibers either oriented in the san1e direction or
distributed randomly. Seve ral laminae are then con1bined into a laminate to (orm
the desire d structure (Fig. 1.2).
The mechanical and thermal behaviors of a structure depend on t he prope rties
o( the fibers and the matrix and on the amount and orientations of the fibers. In
this book, we consider the design steps from micromechanics (\\hich ta kes into
account the fiber and n1atrix properties) through macromechanics (which tre.ats
the properties of the composite) to structural analysis. These steps are ilJustrated
in Figure 1.3 for a structure made of laminated oon1posite.

~-Mattix
~--- Fiber
I
~1icronH.:chanks

'+'
l aLn1ns 1plyJ

I
f\lacrom<:chan ics
'+'
~Laminate
I
StructuroJ analy.s1s

iJ? Stn1cture

figure J.3: The le\cl:> of an aJysts or a structure made of lam.in atc-d composite.
CHAPTER TWO

Displacements, Strains,
and Stresses

\Ve consider cornposite ma terials consisting of continuous or discontinuous fibe rs


embedded in a matrix. Such a composite ls heterogeneous. and the properties
vary from point to point. On a scale that is large Ylith respect to the fiber diam-
eter. the fiber :ind matrix properties may be averaged. and the matcri:il may be
treated as homogeneous. This assumption, commonly employed in m:icromechan
ical analyses of composites, is adopted here. H ence. the material is considered to
be quasi-homogeneous, \\ilich implies that the propenics a.r e taken to be the same
at every point. These properties are not the same as the propenies of ei1her the
fiber or the matrix but are a combination of the properties of the cons1ituents.
ln this chapter. equations are presented for calcul:uing 1he displacements.
stre.Mcs, 3nd strains Y+'hen the structure undergoes only small defonnations and
the inateri:il behaves in a linearly elastic manner.
Continuous fibcr-rcinforced composite n1aterials {and s tructures 1nade of s uch
n1ateriab) ofte n have easily identifiable preferred directions nssocinted \Vi th fibe r
orientations or s:ym1netry planes. It is there fore convenient to c1nploy two co-
ordinate systc1ns: a locnl coordina te system aligned, a t a point, either \Vith the
fibers or '"'ith axes of symmetry, and a global coordinate system attached to a fixed
refere nce point (Fig. 2.1 ). In this book the local and global Cartesian coordinate
systems are designated respectively by x1 x2 xl and the x.y. z axer.. In the x. y. t
directions the di.splBcements at a point A are denoted by u. u, w. and in the x1 Y2.
x, directions by 111. 111 , 111 (Fig. 2.2).
ln the x. y.:: coordinate system the normal stresses are denoted by a,. a.-. and
" and the shear stresses by r,,. r,,. and r,, (Fig. 2.3). The corresponding normal
and shear strains are' t,. '~and Yr~~ y,.~, r ..,.. res:pecti,ety.
In the x 1 X?. XJ ooordinale system the normal stresses a.re tie noted by ai. a1.
and .,., and the shear stresses by r 13, ~13 and r 12 (Fis- 2.3). The corresponding
normal and shear strains are t1 ?t2. 3. and YD. yu, Ytz respectively. TI1e s:yn'lbol y
represents engineering shear s train that is t\\~ce tJ1e te nsorial shear str::iin. Yti = 2;;
(i. j = x. y. t"' f. I = I, 2, 3).

3
4 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

z x,
figure 2.1 : The global x . y. z a nd toe.al xs. xi. .t) coordinate S)'SlC-m"-

A stress is taken to be positive \vhen it acL~ on a positive face in the positive


direction. According to t his definition. alJ the stresses sbo\VJl in Figure 2.3 are
positive.
The preceding stress and strain notations, re ferre d to as e ngineering notations.
are used throughout this book. Other notations, n1ost notably tensoria l and con..
tracted notation~ can frequently be found in the literature. The stresses and strains
in d iffe rent no tations a re summarized in Tables 2.1 and 2.2.

2.1 Strain-Displacement Relations


We consider a ti,_x longsegn1ent that undergoes a change in length. the ne \v length
being denoted by 6.x1 From Figure 2.4 it is seen that

11 + llx, =ax+ ( 11 +-a;ax


au ) ' (2.1)

\vhere u and u + ~ax a re t he displacements of points A and B. respec.tively, in


the x d irection. Accordingly, the normal strain in the x direction is
ll.x' - 6.x au
f.t = = -. (2.2)
!lx ax
Simila rly, in they and t directions the normal strains are

v =
av
- (2.3)
. ay
aw (2.4)
<,=~'

\Vhere v and u; are the d isplacen1ents in t he y and z directions. respectively.

x
figure 2.Z.: The :r. y. z and x1, x2 .t) coordinate syste ms an d the. corresponding displacements.
2.1 STRAll+-OISPLACEMENT RELATIONS 5

l'"
r,.
a,
4

F'igure 2.3: The stre.o;ses in the global x. y, z and the local x1, .f'l, X'.\ coordinate ::1yste.ms.

For angular (shear) deforn1ation the tensorial shear strain is the average change
in the angle between two mutually perpendicular lines (Fig. 2.5)

a+ {J
fxy = - - (2.5)
2
For small deforn1ations \Ve have

(v+ ~ 6x) - v av
a ~ tan a= =- . (2.6}
ax ax
Similarly fj = 3u/ 3y 1 and lhe xy con1ponent of the tensorial shear strain is

fxy =!_(~"+a u). (2.7)


2 ay ax
In a sin1ilar n1anner \Ve obtain the follo\ving expressions for the fy.;. and E.t;:
oon1ponents of the te nsolial shear s trains:

f
,., -
1
- -
2
(avaz + aw)
- -
ay x= :(a" +aw)
' 2 az ax
(2.8)

Table z.1. Slress notations


Normal stress Shear stress
:r, y , z coordinate system
Tensorial stress a.~ 11.i t
"n' "" ""'
U 1.li

Engineering sLre$.S "r a, r,, ,,,


Contrac1ed nolation "'a, a,
t ;rt
a,
a.1 " "'
x 1, x i .t .i coordjnale systein
Ten.>:o riaJ Slres.s O'J ~

Engineering. srress "" "" f1::J O'?J


""
Conlr.1cted nolalion "' "' cr2 f ?J

"
Ttl. fJ !

"' "' "' "' "'


6 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

Table z.z. Strain notatloos {the engineering and cootracted


notatioo shear strains are twice the tensorial she"' slrain)
Normal strain Shear strain
x, y , z coordinate S)'Sle m
Te.nsoria1strain
''" E)y f,.~ .,,
., ,, t"<lt
"' .,1'\v
Engineerins strain
Contr.:i.cted n olation
<,

"
., " ..
Yy, Y,, ?

'
coordinate system
.t_1 , x2, .l)
Tensorial strain
Engine.e ring strain ,,'",, Y?.'
El;! f.U .,. El} f }1

f '!
l'H YIJ
C..ontracted n otation
" " " " "
The engineering shear strains are t\\~ce the tensorial shear strains:
av a 1i;
y,.. = :U,. = -
- - at + -ay (2.9)
au au;
Yx:o
. = ~x , = -at + -ax (2.10)

au au
Y.11y = ~xy = -ay + -ax (2.11)

Jn the x1 , x 2 , x3 coordinate system the strain-displaceme nt relationships are


also given by Eqs. (2.2)- (2.4) and (2.9)- (2.11) with x, y, z replaced by x 1, x 1 , x3
the subscripts x , y, z by 1, 2, 3. and u , v~ w by u,, u2 , U3.

2.2 Equilibrium Equations


The equilibrium equations at a point 0 are obtained by considering force and
mome nt baJanc.es on a sn1alJ 6.x6.y~z cubic ele.m ent located a t point 0 . (The
point 0 is at the center of the eleme nt, Fig. 2.6.} \Ve-relate the stresses a t one face
to those a t the opposite face by the Tuylor series. By using only the first term of
the Taylor serie~ force balance in the x direction gives

y .dx'

u
A' B'
('JU
.4 B " + - .d:r.
Lb: ax

Figure 2.4: Displacement o f the AB line segment.


2.2 EQUIUBRIUll EQUATIONS 7

C'

L "c
L B'r l
:
il: --o ---
v A'
iJ.:
11+-Ll.r
():c
A Llx B

x
Figure 2.5: "Displace ment of the ABC scgme nl.

where j, is the body force per unit volun1e in the x direction. After simplification,
this equation becomes

aax ar)'.l iJ'C:,t f 0


-
ax+ -ay+ -az+ .\'. -- . (2. J3}

By simila r argun1ents, the equilibrium e quations in they and l directions are


&r,, ~ ar9 . f _
ax + ay + az + -' - 0' (2.J4)

ar,, ar,., a.,., f 0 (2. J5)


ax + ay + ax + ' = '
where fr and f.. are the body forces per unit volume in they and t directions.
A mon1ent balance about an axis paralle l to x and passing through the center
(point 0) gives (Fig. 2.7)

(2.1 6}

Figure 2.6: Stresses on the 6.t 6y6,z cubic c lcme nL


''
fl z
,.~ :

,'
''
.. , ,,,,_'' ........
' o r 7
l'l

y
i1T~
~ - -fly
&g .

,, +-- fl x

:&
'' '"
fly

Figure2.7: Strc~<>.<>C$ on the L\x&y L\.t cuhic element that appear in the ntoment balance about an
axis paralle-1 to x and passin~ through the center (point ()).

Byon1ittinghigherorder terms., \\hich vanish in the limit 6x ~ 0, 6.y_,, 0.tJ.z- 0,


this equation becomes

(2.17)

Sin1ilarly, \\'e obtain the follo,ving equalities:

fxy = 1yx (2.18)

By virtue of Eq~ (2.17) and (2.18), the three equilibrium e quations (Eqs. 2.13-
2.15) contain six unkno\vns, nan1e ly. the three normal stresses (ax, ay, a.-,) and the
three shear stresses (ry~ t'.t:= r.1 .v).
In the x,, X2,X3 coordinatesysten1 the equilibrium equations a.re also given by
Eqs. (2,13)-(2.15) with x , y, t replaced by x, , Xz , X3 and the subscripts x. y, t by
I. 2. 3.

2.3 Stress-Strain Relationships


ln a con1posite mate rial the fibers may be oriented in an arbitrary manne r. De-
pending on the arrangen1ents of the fibers, the materiaJ may behave d ifferent ly
in different d irections. According to their -b ehavior, composites may be charac ..
terized as generally anisotropic, n1onoclinic, orthotropic., transversely isotropic,
or isotropic. In the follo\ving, \Ve present the stress- strain relationships for these
types of m aterials under linearly e lastic conditions.

2.3.1 Generally Anisotropic Material


When there are no sy1nn1etry planes with res_pect to the alignn1ent of the fibers
the material is referred to as generally anisotropic. A fiber-reinforced composite.
1naterial is. for e xan1ple, generally anisotropic \vben the fibers arealigned in three
nonortl1ogonal directions (Fig. 2.8).
2.3 STRESS- STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 9

."
Figure 2.$: Example of a g.c.nerally anisotropic nlaterial.

For a generally anisotropic Jine arly elastic material, in the x. y. z global coor
dinate system, the stress-strain re latfonships are

<1.t = Cufx + C12E,. + Cu::. + C 14Yy::. + CtsYx~ + C16Yxy


<1y = C21l.t + CuE"y + C2JE::. + C24Yy.; + C1srA::. +Curx..
d::. = C11fx + C32Er + CJJE":: + c34Yy::. + CJsYx::. + CJ6Yx1
(2.19)
f'y.; = C41E;r + C..2fy + C.t..lf;: + C.uYy::. + C4sY:r::. + c46Yxy
T:u: = Cs1Ex + Cs1Ey + Cs3E:: + C.S4Yy<> + CssY.t::. + Cs&y.-J'
1'.1y = C61x + Ct12fy + C6JE; + CwYy:: + C6sYxz. + c66Yxy

Equation t2.19) may be writte n in the Corm

<1x Cu C 12 C1J c" Cu c,. ...


<fy c,. c,, C23 c,, C2s c,. fey

": = c" C~n


C32 c.,. C.lS c,. <;
(2.20)
Ty;: c.. c42 c43 c... C4s c46 Yy::
'fx:: Csi Cs2 C53 c,. Css Cs6 Yx::.
f'xy C61 c., c63 c.. C6s c,. y .T}'

where C;1 are the e lements of the stiffness matrix (CJ in the x, y, z coordinate
system.
Inversion or Eq. (2.20) results in the following strain- stress relationships:

Su s.. Sis s,.


"
<y S21
S12

S22
S11
s,, S24 S25 s26 ""
<fy
s,, s36
ss"... s., s"
S1..
s., s... ":
S32
"
Yyz
= 1 :S,u 544
S.s1 s~" s~s s,.
r,. (2.21)

ss".. s62
Yxz Ss2 1'.,~

Y.1y s 6] s... s.. s,. fxy

where Sii are the e ten1ents or t he compliance n1atrix [SJ in the x. y, z coordinate
system and are defined in Table 2.3 (page 10). In this table tests are illustrated
that, in principle, couJd provide means of determining the differe nt con1pliance
matrix e lement".
10 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

Table 2.3. The elements of tl1e compliance matrix [SJ in tl1e x, y, z


coordinate system, The elements s, (without bar) i1 t11e x,, x,. x,
coordinate system are obtained by replacilg x, y, z by 1, 2, 3 on the
right-lland sides of tl1e expressions,
Test E~ments of the compliance mabix

ti'

a ,,.
S11
S21
= E,./a,,
= Ey /<T,.
531 = f:/<1,y
s41 = y,~/u...
S;, = r.::/CFt
SM= Y;ry/a.,
Su= E,./ay s.,~ = Y.~?fa,.
~'t:=':> 522 = f y/a,_ Sn = Y.~tfa,..

t~"' S,2 = E~/ay


S1:i = E.:/u,
S23 = f ,./at
Sr.i = Y.ry/a1

Su= y,,fat
Sn = ~1?/at
~ "'~
S,, = E,/ a ( S63 = Yryfa t

tov ~ = E,,/r,.,
S2.i
S,,
= E,./r,.1.
= E1,/ Tyt
~.u = Y>tfft1.
s~ = Y.11./r)'I.
SM= Yx1/ r,t
'T,,_-z
51; = EN/r,,: S45 = y,.: /t.x:
~~~ S2; = Ey/fJ.:
S.1; = E:/T.r:
s$5 = r.,:/r1:
s~ = Y.1y/T.l:..

'T;c'?/ Su;= Ex/rJ.,. S46 = Y1:frxJ


S26 = Ey/fq
SJ.;= E:/ TJf)'
s~ = Y.1:/r1,
Sf..6 = YJ1y/T.vy

In the x 1, x2 , x.l coordinate syste111 the stress- strain relationships a re


Cu c,. C1s c,.
"' c,.
rC11
C 12
Cu ez, Cis ez. ,,
ft

"" C24 ~,

c,, c,. c,.


"'
r,, = l2:: c,,C42
C33
C.u
C34
c.,, c,, c,. Y!.'
(2.22)

t't.l Cs1 Cs.1 Cs" Css Cs Yu


t'f2 C.1 C 62 c., q,, c., c Yl2

\Vhere cj, are the elements of the stiffness matrix CJ in the r


X2. X3 coordinate x,.
systen1.
By inve rting Eq, (2.22) we obtain the following strain-stress rela tionships:
S11 Su s,. S16
,,"
S12 S" O'J
Szi ..~24 s,, s,.
,,
S21
s.l,
S23
S31 .s:" s,. "'
Yl.l
= s.,
S32

S.i2 s., s..


S3.i
s.,, s,,. "'"
r21
(2.23)

Yu S51 Ssi S53 Ss.a Ss.< s,. r 11


Yl2 S.1 S;, .1;;, s.. .1;;., s.. r 12

\vhere S;; are the ele ments of the compliance matrix [S] in the x i, x 2, x3 coordinate
system.
2.3 STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 11

Plan< of symmruy

x, .,

..
~

figure 2..9: 1'"'1attOM o( fibcr-rc1n(orccd moooc.hruc matcruh. The fibcn arc only tn planes
Jralkl 10 t~ X'l- .r'l pane of S)""ft:tmc-try ltop). only perpcodKUb.r lo the: pbnc of S)1'11mctry
(middle). and 1.n the plane of symmetry and perpc:n<hcular to the plane of 1ymmclry(N>llom).

his evident from Eqs.(2.20)- (2.23\ that thecomplianoemotrix ISJis the inverse
of the stiffness ma trix ICJ:

[SJ= (CJ- 1 (2.24)

It can be sho,vn (sec Sectio n 2.11.1} that for an elastic mr.terial the sti(fness and
co1n pliance ma Lriccs are syn1me trical in both the x. y. z and ,\' 1, x2 "'coordinate
systems as follo,vs:

S.; = S ; 1 C, 1 =C11 1.J = 1, 2.. .. ,6.


(225)

Beca\15e of this symmetry. in both the (SJ and the (C( matrices ooly 2 1 of the 36
elements a.r e independent.

2.3.2 Monoclinic Material


When there is n symmetry plane \Vith respect to the aJignmcnt of the fibers, the
mate rial is referred to as monoclinic. ExampJes of monoclinic fiberreinforced
con1posilcs nre shown in Figure 2.9.
For a monoclinic 1nnter inl \Ve spe cify the co 1npliance lSI and stiffne ss lC]
n1atrices in an ,\' 1~ .t'2 .\';1 coordinate system chosen in such a way that x 1 nnd x 2 are
in the plane O( syn11n ctry. whereas X3 is pe rpe nd icular to this plane.
12 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

Generally anisotropic Monoclinic

Plane of synunctry

y't"
"'l. ;f".'..t' "
~ .: . :l}L _.: - >

Figure 2.10: The normal stre.ss a 1 causes shear strain Yu tn a generaJJy anisotropic material ( le(t}
and no shear strain in a monoclinic material (right).
The elements of the compliance matrix for a n1onoclinic n1aterial are ob ~
tained by 1nodifying t he-con1pliance n1atrix o( a generally anisotropic n1ateriaL
We observe that in a generally anisotropic mate rial a normal stress a 1 causes an
out..of-planeshear strain YIJ (Fig. 2.10 left), but in a monoclinic mate rial subjected
to a normaJ slTess O'l (<Yt being in the plane of symmetry) the out~ofplane shear
strain }'13 is zero (Fig. 2.10 right). Consequently. for a n1onoclinic material the S's1
element of the co1npliance matrix is zero. By sin1ilar arguments it can be sho,vn that

Table 2.4. The elements of the compliance matrix for monoclinic


materials. For orthotroplc, transversely Isotropic, and Isotropic materials
S,= S.,, = 0, S,. = Ssi = O, S,. = S., = O, S., = S,. = O
Test Bements of the compliance matrix

ti'
er,
Sn = 1 /a 1
Si1 = z/a1
Sn = f'J. /a 1
Sn= y,,/u1 =0
~1 = Yu/<r1 = 0
Sri1 = Yu.fa,

CT;i, <72 S1.?: = f1/a i ..?: = Y?J/Gz = 0


<-~-+ S2.?: = 2/ai 5.:-2 = Y1J/<T2 = 0
s.'.?: = f:'J./ a 2 '*! = Y11/ai
to-, Su= 1 /a~ S.u = Yi;;/a.1 = 0

~J. Si~= fz /aJ


=
s~'J. f.,/aJ.
~~ = Yu/ a;; = 0
.Sis'!> = Y12/a.'
0'3
<-
...., S14 = 1/T2~ = 0 S.u = YlJ/ri.~
Si = E2/rv = 0 ~4 = YJJifl'J.
to =
S3' f.l/Tl'J. = 0 $s. = Yn/ f2'J. =0
t~~.,.,, s. ~ = 1 / ru = 0
Sti = f'z/ r u =0
Sis = '11,}/ft'
~~ = Yuiru
s~ = f'J./r u = 0 ~ = Y12/f13 = 0

... 7 12
Su. = f 1 /rt~
Su,= f2 / r 12
s.. = Yn/ll? = 0
S.V.. = yu/fu = 0
~
-+ S3r. = f'J. / r 1: ~ = Y12/f1 ?
2.3 STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 13

for a monoclinic material the S.11 S.12 S51, S:i 3, S51 , S64 , .~ elements a re a lso zero.
(Since the con1pliance matrix is scyn1metrical the elements S1.t, 52<1~ Szs, SJ4, Sis,&!,,
S56 are a lso zero.) The e lements of the compliance n1atrix are listed in Ta~Je 2.4.
111e elements of the con1pliance n1atrix may be expressed in tern1s of the
engineering constants defined in Table 2.5. ln Tables 2.4 and 2.5 the types of tests
are also illustrated that. at least in principle~ could provide the elements of the
001npliance matrix and the engineering constants. The relationships between the
elements of the compli:ince n1atrix and the engineering constants are sho,vn in
Thbles 2.6 and 2.7.
The nonzero and zero elements of the compliance matrix can best be seen
when the m atrix is \.\'ritten in the forn1
S11 S12 s., 0 0 s,.
S 12 Siz S'-' 0 0 Si.
Su S1.1 sl., 0 0 s_,.
IS] = 0 0 0 s,. s,, 0
(2.26)
0 0 0 S.u s,. 0
s,. s,. S3a 0 0 ......

Table 2.5. The engineering constants kJr monocllnk: materials. For ortholropk:, transversely
isotropic, and isotropic materials v1e = ve1 = 0, v26 = vs2 = O, v36 = 1.153 = 0, vs = 1.154 = O
Test Engineering oonstantJ
Y-0ung's modulus in lhe x 1 direciion 1 = 0 1/1
Poi..;oson's r.itio in the x1- .r2 plane 1'12' = -E-2/El
Poi.;;son's ratio in lhe .-q -.r3 plt:ine lllJ = -f-.i/ E t
Poisson parameter v ii;= Y1z/E-1
Young's modulus in lhe .t"l direction Ez = 02 /E?
Poi..;oson's r.itio in thex?-.r1 plane l /'21 = - f1/ E2
Poisson's ratio in lhe .t"l-.fJ plane 11'1.; = - f.;/1
Poisson par:uneter 11'2f = yu /E2
Young's modulus in lhe XJ direction 3 = OJ/f-J
Poisson's ratio in lhe XJ-Xt plane l':JI = -E1/EJ
Poisson's ralio in lhe XJ-X2 pla ne 11'J2' = -E2/EJ
Poisson parame ter 11J(J = Y1z/ EJ

Shear modulus in the x2-x.t p1ane Gu = "!?J/ Yl'J


Poisson parameter = yu/ ~J
1'.i!\

Shear modulus in the .t1-x.l plane Gu= r u/yu


Poisson parameter 1"$4 = ~J/)'13

Shear modulus in the .t1-.t? p lane G12 = n z./'Yl?


Poisson parameter llt.1 = E-1 /yu
Poisson paramete.r 11c;? = f2/ n2
Poisson paramete.r l 'to.> = E3/ Y12
''n 11r
; = cl! r,J = I , -? , .3)
('
14 OISPIACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

Table 2.6. Bements of Ille compliance matrix in terms of Ille engineering


constants ID< monoclinic materials. The expressions are also valid tor
orthotropic, transversely isotropic, and isotropic materials with S. 6 = S.1 = o,
S,. = S,2 = O,S.,, = S,. = 0, S., = S.. = O.
Su = E1 / a 1 = E1/ (LE1) = T, So = 0
Si_1 = E2/<11 = Ei/ (1E1) = - "')..~ s~, = o
SJ1 = E3/a1 = E.i/(E1t1) = - ;: -%1 = Ys2/a1 = Y'lli( 11) = "~~
Su= t1 / a i = E1/( 2t2) = - i~ St? = 0
Su = E2/a1 = t1/(1'<2) = i s!'!. =O
SJz = E3/<T? = E;;/ (it2) = ::~ ~a: = Y12/'1? = Yu/ ( /i2) = ,.~
11

S1J. = E1 / <TJ. = E1 / (3EJ ) = -~ s~> =O


Si.; = E2/<1) = E:i/ ( E:;t:;) = - ~ S~; =O
SJ;. = EJ/'1.~ = E3/(3EJ) = -t; Slil = Y12/<1J. = YI!/{ JfJ.) = ",.~
Sit =0 s~ = )'!:;/ r?1 = YlJ/ (Gi;;y._;,) = d:,
S iA = 0 s~ = YJJ/T?.l = Yu/(Gi.iY.n ) = ~~~
s,. =0 s.. =0
S1~ =0 &.,. = YrJ/r u = yi.1/ ( G1;;yu ) = ~~'
Si:> = 0 S~ = Yti/ TJJ = Yl.l/( G1.1Y1J) = it
.lj, = 0 s,. =o
S111 = E1/ r 11 = E1/ (Gun2) = ;~~ s.. =o
Sll. = El IT l! = = ""<;61:z
~j (G U )'ll) s,. =o
SJ6 = 3/ru = J/(G1?YU) = ~:: .S(.e. = YU/ TJl = Y11/(G12Yu) = d,?
The stiffness n1atrix is obta ined by inve-rting the con1pliance matrix as follows:
Cu C12 C,, 0 0 c,.
C12 Cn Ci.1 0 0 c,.
re] = c,,
0
c,, c,, o o c,.
0 0 ~ ~ 0
(2 27)
.
o o oc._,c"o
c,. c,. c,. 0 0 c..
Because the [SJ and [CJ matrices are symmetrical (Eq. 2.25) only I 3 of the
elements are independent (Table 2.8).

2.3.3 Orthotropic Material


When there a re thre e mutually perpendicular symn1etry planes with respect to
the alignment of the fibers the material is referred to as orthotropic (Ftg. 2. JI).
Examples of orthotropic fiberre.i nforced 001nposites are shov"n in Figure 2.12. For
an orthotropic material 'Ne specify the stiffness and compliance matrices in the x 1
xi, X J coordinate systen1 defined in such a way t ha t the axes are perpendicular to
the three planes of symmetry (Pig. 2.11 ).
\Ve apply a norn1al stress cr1 (Fig. 2.13). Because 11 1 L~ in the x 1-x2 symmetry
(orthotropy) plane the outofplane shear strains are zero, ( y13 = Yl.1 = 0); and
2.3 STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 15

Table 2.7. The compliance matrices in terms of the engineering constants for
monoclinic, ort11olropic, lransversely Isotropic, and isotropic materials

- .L _!'.ll !:!l !a -

"
- r.1
''I?
.,
J..
E! -

- e,
1:;
' ''.I!
0
0
0
0
Gu
<iu
..."'
- 0"' .,0
111~ ':.i J.. 0 0
-Ti
(SJ=
0 ..L .,. "''0 monoclinic:::
<>u CiU
''4 ~ ..L
() 0 0 0:> GJ!
0
!Ji ~
'ii' 0 0
t
-"
E:' !

J.. ''!! II.JI


0 0 0
- ! - 1
_2! " f: i 1.'!
I
-~
E;
0 0 0
- '1.'. "!'

*
~, - 6.l 0 0 0
(SJ= orlhotropic
0 0 0 +.
<n
0 0
0 0 0 0 ~ 0
..L
-
- J.
0

-17
0 0

_.::u.
0 0 au_

/:'1

- Ti ''U .,
J.. -L;_
"~
"J!
0
0
0
0
0
0

(SJ=
-~ ,, -~
f:i .,
.L 0
20+:;t)
0 0
trans\ersely isotropic
0 0 ()
~ 0 0
0 0 0 0 ..L 0
G1.
0 0 0 0 0 ..L
G1 ~

. -e 0 .
"

-i
I
-, ~
T: -i
I
0
0
0
0 0
-~ -~
f: 0 0 0
[SJ= " iO + ) isoLropic.
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
llit~
0 -.-
~ l+v)
0

because O'l is also in the x 1- x 3 symmetry plane. the y12 = 0 shear strain is zero.
This implies that St.i- S15 S16 are zero. By similar argun1ents it can be sho\\n that
for an orthotropic material the Su, Sis- S26, S34, $l5. SMi. St.s. S46, Ss6 elements are
also zero. Accordingly~ the con1pliance matrix is

Sn Sn s,, 0 0 0
S 12 S22 S23 0 0 0
S t.l S23 S:u 0 0 0
[SJ = (2.28)
0 0 0 Su 0 0
0 () 0 0 S5s 0
0 0 0 0 0 ~

The elements of the compliance matrix are listed in Table 2.4. In tern1s of the
engineering constant~ the compliance n1atrix is given in Table 2.7. The stiffness
16 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

Table Z.& The nonzero engineering constants for monoclinic, ortllotroplc,


transversely isotropic, and isotropic materials ( = Tf T, ,
see Table 2.7)
Nonzero eng;ineerilg constants
f\laleria.l Independent D ependent
f\lonoc.linic 1, E~, EJ
Gi.i,Gu , G12
vu. ''IJ ~lJ
' ' 16 ''bh \l.j.j, l'.~

Orthotropic 1. E'1 . 1
Gn : Gu. Gu
'-'!:!. vu. \i23
rrans ...crsely ,, Ei
iso tropic Gu
\'12, ''!J
Isotropic E, (= E) ="
Ei = E.; = E. 111) = vn
vu {= v) G?! = Gu = G1i = t<~">

Figure 2. l J: f\fate.rial " 1th t hree planes or symmetry.

+
figure 2.12: Ulustrations or
6her reinforced orthotropic.compo...;itcs.1'be fibers are oriented in
4

three mutually perpc.odicular directions {le.fl): the fibers are distri buted e quall)' in the + Ci and
-0 directions in planes parallel to the x 1- xi plane ( rii ht).
2.3 STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 17

"fu = O -ru= O '"ta:~= O


Pigure2.l 3: A normalstTCs.c;a1 applied ln the.ti -xi and x1-.\) symn1c try pianes of an o rlhotropic
ntaterial.

n1atrix is obtained by inverting the con1pliance n1atrix. The nonzero tern1s of the
stiffness mat rix are
Cn 0 () 0
re"c,, C 12
C22 C21
Ci.1 C33
0
0
0
0
0
()
(2.29)
0 0 c,. 0 0
ICJ =l1' 0 0 0 Cs5 0
0 0 0 0 c..
In the (SJ and [CJ
matrices of the 12 nonzero eleme nts only 9 a re independent
(Table 2.8). Equation (2.29) can be written in the form

[CJ =
(LJ
[~ ~ ~] (2.30)
O 0 OJ
0 0 0 [MJ
[0 () ()
The submatrices (L] and (M] are give n in Tables 2.9 and 2.10 in terms of the e n
gineering constants..
With the compliance matrix given by Eq. (2.28), t he strain-stress relationships
(Eq. 2.23) become
,, Sn S12 () 0 0 .,.,
,, S12 S22
S 11
S:u 0 0 0 <>'2
,, s., s1.., S.u 0 0 0
"'' (2.31)
= 0 0 0 s,. 0 0
Y2.1 1'23

Yl.l 0 0 0 0 S.ss 0 1'13

Y12 0 0 () 0 () s.. ~"


This equation sho'vs an important fea ture of orthotropic mate.rials, natnely.
that normal stresses do not produce shear deforn1ations \Vhen these stresses are
in the x 1, xi .\) o rthotropy directions. Note, however, that normal stresses applied
in the x , y, t directions (which do not coincide with the x1, x1 , x3 orthotropy
directions) result in shear de(ormations, as illustrated in Figure 2 .14. ln this case
(in the x. y, z coordinate sy.sten1) none of the elen1e nts of the con1pliance and
stiffness mat rices i~ zero.
18 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, ANO STRESSES

Table 2.9. The [LJ submatrix In Eq. (2.30) for 0<1hotropic, transversely isotropic,
and isotropic materials
Orthotn1pie
2 (\'Jl + ~ V,,t'l))
Ez (1 - ~vf3 }
1) (v23 + ft1,121ru)
_ 1':1 Czf.J:- 11fu.rt1!.j-~:! 1:J-Z111:1u;.~f:2f.~-'ii".!"2~
D- 1~1'.:, 1'"1,

Tran.o;,crsely bulropic
Et( l -1) ,v,,( t + 1~,J
[L] = ~ Ei v12 (l+ 1>v) E2(l -~vf?)
[
/iv12 (I+ >i.1) Ei (v?J + * vf2 )
D= 1- ~;;-2(1 + vv)~vf1
Lo;utn1pie
v
(L) = Cl+"K'- "'' [ ' : v l -v
I' v

Table 2.10. The [M] s.ibmatr!x In Eq. (2.30) fol orttiotrop~


transversely isotropic, and isotropic materials
Orthutrc).pic

(M) =
Gn0 G,,0 O
0
J
[ 0 0 Gu

[
Triln.'llcrstly isotropic

[M) = ~0
:!(l +V) 0

0
G.,
0 JJ
0
"
!{1+11)
00 ]
0 '
2(J +l')

,~~
6, '
......
Figure 2_14: Ortbo tropic material subje.cted Lo a normal stress. 'fhcr<:- IS no shear strain ' ''hen
the. str ess ts applic-d jn one o f the o rthotropy dircc.tions (le.ft). but t he.re is shc-ar strain when th e
stres,.<; is not a long a n ort hotrop)' direction (right) .
2.3 STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 19

\
Plane uf isotropy
Figure 2.15: Ex.antplc of a tlber-reinforccd. transvcrscly isotropic: composite. matc lial.

2.l.4 Transversely Isotropic Material


A transversely isotropic material has three planes of symmetry (Fig. 2.11) and, as
such, it is o rthotropic. In one of the planes of symmetry the ma te.ria l is treated as
isotropic. An example of trans\'e.rsely isotropic ma te rial is a composite reinforced
with continuous unidirectional fibers \vith a ll the fibers aligned in the x 1 direction
(Fig. 2.15). In t hL< case the material in the plane perpendicular to the fibers (x 2- x,
plane) is treated as isotropic.
for a transversely isotropic material \\'e specify the s tiffness and compliance
n1atrices in an x 1, x2 x3 coordinate syste1n chosen in such a \Vay that the axes are
perpendicular to the planes of syn1metry and x 1 L" perpendicular to the plane of
isotropy (Fig. 2.15). ln this coordina te syste m, because of 1nate rial sy1nmetry four
=
of the Poisson ratios are zero (vu1 ~'26 = IJJ6 = ""!i
= 0). furthern1ore, because
of isotropy the follo\ving engineering consta nts are re lated:

E, = ,, G,, = Gn. (2.32)

For an isotropic mate rial the shear 111odulus is 1

E
G=--- (2.33)
2 (1 + v)
Correspondingly. for a mate rial that is isotropic in the x 2- x3 plane '"e \Vrite

c,_J = 2 (I E,
+ .,,_,) (2.34)

Equations (2.32) and (2.34), together with the expressions in Table 2.6
(page 14), yie.ld the con1pliance matrix in tenns of the engine.e ring cons tants. The

1 E. P. Popov, Et11;irieeririg .\1ecl1a11ics of S()fids. PrcnticcHaU. Englewood Cljffs., New Ji:rsey, 1990,
p. 151.
20 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

results a re given in Table 2.7 (p age 15). The zero and nonz-ero eleme nts o f the
con1pliance matrix are

S11 Su S 11 0 0 0
S 12 S12 Su 0 0 0
S 12 S23 Sn 0 0 ()
(SJ = (2.35)
0 0 0 2 (S22 - Su) 0 ()
0 0 0 0 s.. ()

0 0 0 0 0 s..
The stiffness n1atrix is o bta ined by inverting the compliance ma trix. The zero
and nonze ro e le n1ents of t he stiffness matrix are

re,.c,, C 12 C 12 0 0 0

l1' C11 c,, 0 0 0


Ci~ C22 0 0 0
C!!-Cr. (2.36)
0 0 -2- 0 0
ICI = 0 () 0 c 0
0 () 0 0 c..
Jn te rms of t he e ngineering constants, the e.le ments of the stiffness matrix are
given by Eq. (2.30).
In both the con1pliance a nd stiffness ma trices, o f the 12 nonze ro ele1uents only
5 a re independe nt (Table 2.8, page 16).

2.3.5 Isotropic Material


ln a n isotropic 1naterial there are no preferred directions and every pla ne is a
plane of synunetry. For exa mple, a composite containing a large nun1ber of ran
domly o riented fibers be haves in an isotropic ma nne r. For a n isotro pic ma terial
the coordina te system n1ay be chosen arbiua rily. He re, \Ve present the compliance
and the stiffness matrices in the x 1, x2 , and .t'J coord inate syste m.
Because o f material symmetry fo ur of the Poisson rat ios are zero (vu; = '126 =
11., 0 = V.t.'i = 0). Also, because of isotropy some of the e ngineering constan ts are
related as fo llows:

Ei =E,=E,=E
(2.37)
= l.'J] = 1112 = v
l.'23

G= E (2.38)
2(1 + v)

Equations (2.37) a nd (2.38), together with the expressions in Table 2.6


(page 14), give the compliance n1atrix in te nus of the engineering constants. The
2.3 STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 21

results are in Tub le 2.7. The e Je.ments of the compliance matrix are

rs11 s,, S12 0 0 0


S,2 S11 0 0 0

' '" l1
S12

S11 S11 0 0 0
0 0 2 (Sn - S12) 0 0
0 0 0 2 (S11 - Sn) 0
0 0 0 0 2(S11 - S11)
(2.39)

The stiffness n1atrix is obtained by inverting the con1pliance mauix. TI1e eJe..
ments of the stiffness matrix are

Cu c,, Cu. 0 0 0
c,, C11 Cu 0 0 0
c., C12 C11 0 0 0
[CJ = 0 0 0 C11 -C1~
--,-- 0 0
(2.40)

0 0 0 0 -,-
C11 - C1:
0
0 0 0 0 0 -,-
Cu-C1 ~

In te.rms of t he e ngineering constants. the elements of the stiffness matrix are


given by Eq. (2.30).
In both the compliance and stiffness matrices, of the 12 nonzero eleiuents only
2 are independent (Table 2.8, page 16).

2.1 Exan1ple. Calculate the elc111ei1rs of the stiffness anti corupliance n1arrices of a
graphite epo.'<y unidirectional ply. The engineering constants are given as E1 =
148 x 109 Nim'. 2 = 9.65 x 109 Nim', G 11 = 4.55 x 109 Nim'. v11 = 0.3, and
1'23 = 0.6.

Solution. For a transversely isotropic n1aterial the co1npliance matrix is given


in Table 2.7 (page 15, third row). By subotituting the engineering constants into
the expression in Table 2.7, and by using th e condition that Vi j/ E; = v;;/ Ei (see
Table 2.8, page 16) we obtain

6.76 - 2.03 - 2.03 0 0 0


- 2.03 103.63 - 62.18 0 0 0
2
- 2.03 - 62.18 103.63 0 0 0 10- 12!!...
[SJ=
0 0 0 331.61 0 0 N
0 0 0 0 219.78 0
0 0 0 0 0 219.78
(2.41)
22 DISPLACEMENTS, STl\AJNS, AND STRESSES

Figure 2.16: The x. y. z and the x 1, xi. x~ coordinate sys1cms.

The e len1ents o( the stiffness matrix are obtained by inve rting the con1pliance.
matrix
152.47 7.46 7.46 0 0 0
7.46 15.44 9.41 0 0 0
7.46 9.41 15.44 0 0 0 N
[CJ= rsr' = 0 0 0 3.016 0 0
JO-.
m'
0 0 0 0 4.55 0
0 0 0 0 0 4.55
(2.42)

2.4 Plane-Strain Condition


The.r e are c ircumstances \Vhen the s tresses and stra ins do not vary in a certain
direction. This direction is designated by e ither the x3 or the t ax; s (Fig. 2.16).
A lthough the stresses and stra ins do not vary a long X3 (or t), they n1ay vary in
planes perpendicular to the x3 (or t) axis. This condition is refe rred to as plane.-
strain condition.
\Vhen plane-strain condition exists in a bod}' made of an isotropic material
the x 1 - x2 (or x- y) planes of the cross se.c tion remain plane and perpendicular to
the x~ (or t) a.x;s. In a body n1ade of a n anisotropic n1aterial these pla nes do not
necessarily remain plane.
Plane-strain condit ion may e xist far from the edges in a long body with constant
c ross section \vhen both the material properties and the applied loads are uniform

~t t<-

~
~t t<-
~t J.
Body t<-
Force
~t t<- ! Body Force

figure 2.1 7: Surface a nd body forces lhal may be applied under planc:. strain condition. The
applied fore.es must he uniform a long the longitudinal axis a nd ntusl be in equilibrium for each
seg.mc:nt.
2.4 PLANE-STRAIN CONDITION 23

~,,

''[~'

Figure 2.18: Possihlc c.nd supports for structures a nai)'ZCd by plane-strain condition.

along the longitudinal axis and, in addition. the loads are in equilibriun1 on any
plane segment (Fig. 2.17).
When the afore1ne ntioned plane~strain condition exists:. the threedimensional
analysis simplifies oonside.rably. For an isotropic material, the normal strain f .l (or
E~) in the axial direction (x.l or z) and the out-of~plane shear strains Yt~ and y 23
(or Yx~ and Y>'z) are zero. For fiber~reinforced con1posites these strains are not
necessarily zero. Nonetheless, as is discussed in this chapte r, plane-s train condition
inuoduces s in1plific.ations that facilitate the analysis.
<Jeon1etry. The cross section perpendicular to the axis and the 111aterial prop~
erties must not vary along the length. Both ends of the body n1ay be built~in or
n1ay be free, o r one end may be built~in '"hile the other one is free (Fig. 2.18).
\\'hen both ends are built .. in, the longitudinal axis (x3 or z) remains straight and
its length remains constant. \Vhe n one or both ends are free. the longitudinal axis
n1ay become curved and its length may change.
Fiber orientatio11. On the basi."i o( fiber orientation, the body is analyzed as
generally anisotropic.. n1onoclinic, orthotropic. transversely isotropic, or isotropic
(Fig. 2.19).
lo;otropic Transversely Orthotropic
isotropic

I [Q]
~'(onoclini c Generally
anisotropic

Figure 2.19: IUus trations of pos:>iblc. fibcr orientations for plane-strain condition.
24 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

Out-of-plane In-plane

Axjal s urface Normal surface: Tangcn1ial surfac,e

AxiaJ body NonnaJ body

Figure 2.20: llluslrations of surface and body forces that may be appbcd under plane-strain
condition.

In addition to the fiber arrangen1ents sho\\'D in Figure 2.19, the con1posite


may contain any combination of the fiber arrangements shov.'11 in this figure. The
in1po rtant fact is that the analysis must be performed according to the most com
plex fiber a rrangement inside the body. A body that contains a t least one generally
anisotropic fiber arrange1nent must be treated as generally anis<>tropic: a body that
consists of monoclinic. o rthotropic, and trans\'ersely isotropic fibe r a rrangen1ents
must be treated as 1nonoclinic: a body that consists of ortbotropic and transversely
isotropic fiber arrangements n1ust be treated as orthotropic.
For monoclinic, orthotropic, and transversely isotropic material~ the analysis
sin1plifies considerably when one of the ma te rial symmetry planes coincides v.ith
the .plane of planestrain.
Loads. Nonnal, tangential, and axial forces may ac.t on the surface. and body
forces may act parallel and normal to the longitud inal axis (Fig. 2.20). These

Axial ~fon1cn1 Torque

-> Y
ix,)
!
Figure. 2.21: Poss.ihlc. c.nd loads for plane-strain rondilion.
2.4 PLANE-STRAIN CONDITION 25

Table z.11. Relationships between the stresses and the end toads
Load x, y, z coordinate system
End a:<ial N=fa,dA 1i/ = f ,,,dA
A A
End mo1nent Af1 = f xa,rl A M, = }' x 1a; rl A
A A
Endmomenl M., = J,, y at1IA .~1 = f.t2altfA
A
f'= /(yr,, + xr,,} tfA f = J (x2rt1 +.t1 f'?.~ )1/A
A A

applied forces ( loads) may not vary along the length. In addition, an axial force.
moment, and to rque may be applied at the ends (Fig. 2.21). The forces acting
perpendicular and para lle l to the longitudinal axis are referred to as in plane a nd 8

out-of-plane.
Each of the loads shown in Figures 2.20 and 2.2 1 n1ay act in con1bination. t\ s
stated previously. the only requirement is that the loads be in equilibrium on each
segment (Fig. 2.17) of the body.
The end loads shown in Figure 2.21 a re re lated the to the stresses by the
expressions given in Table 2.11 .
When t\vo o r n1ore types of loads a re applied, the stresses and stra ins can
independently be e-alcula ted for each type of load. The stresses and strains thus
obtained are t he n supe rimposed to obtain the final results.
Displacen1ents. Plane..strain condition requires that the stra ins do not vary
along the longitudinal axis. TI1us., in the x, y, ! coordina te system \Ve ha\'e

a.. = o a., = o a,_ = o


az az az (2.43)
ay,., = o ar,, = o ay,, = o.
lz az az
The {ollo\\ ing displacements satisfy these oonditions2
1

u (x. y) - c,yz - 21 c,z'


,, =

"= V(x. y) + C1xz - ~c,z' (2.44)


w = W(x.y)+ (C,x + C,y + C4)Z,
where U. V, a nd Ware functions that de pend o nly on x and y, and C1 , C,, C.1, a nd
C4 are co nstants. For sma ll displaceme nts \\'e have the folJo,ving re la tionships 3:
(I aw 32u ~2 v
<, = z
o
-Py = - -<Jz2 p, = - v~-
""" (2.45)

2 S. G. Lckhnitski.i. Tl1eoryof Ela.~idty r>fon A11i.u uropk Body. ~tir Pub1ishcrs. 1',fosoow. 198!, p. 104.
;; T. H. G. t.fc.i0n. Aircrof1 S1n1c111resfor ngi11eeri11g. S1uden1.t. 3d edition. Halsted Press. John \Vile)' &
Sons. New York. 1999, p. 2.1W.
26 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, ANO STRESSES

Figure 2.22: Illustration of the rotations of


line clc.mc.nts paraUcl v.ith the x- and y-.axcs.

'vhere E; is the strain along the longitudinal axis: 1/ p 1 , 1/ P.x are the curvatures
of the longitudinal axis in the x-z and y-.z planes., respectively. By virtue of
ay.,, /az = 0 (Eq. 2.43), we have (Eq. 2.11)
(2.46)

(2.47)

As is illustrated in Figure 2.22, i? represents the rate of f\vist of the c.rosssection.


The constants in Eq. (2.44} are determined as follows. From Eqs. (2.47) and
(2.44) we have
01 v a2u
11 - - = - - - =Ci . (2.48)
axaz ayaz
From Eqs. (2.45) and (2.44) we write
au.
f?=
-8t =C4
1 a'11
- = - -a.2 = c, (2.49)
Py "'
t a1 v
f>x = - az' = c,.
\Ve can now write the displacements as
1 1 ,
u = U (x. y) - ~yz - - - r (2.50)
2(>y

u = V(x, y)+llxz - 1 -1 r ' (2.51)


2(>.<
w= W(x.y)+ (2-x+ 2-y+~) z. (2.52)
PJ' l>x
These represent the following five deformations (Fig. 2.23):
Planar - planes perpendicular to the longitudinal axis ren1ain plain and per
pe ndicular to the a.xis
Nonplanar - planes pe rpe ndicular to the longitudinal axis deform out of the
plane
"0f __':'C:::: ) "
"'" "'""
~

~ I Q

""
~
II

~
II II
ll

...,
t>._;"
I
..., . ,,
..;
"~ Q Q
II

\~V ~
II II

" "
~

--------- / "' ...


-1..:
Q;;~_-:_- j~
!l.
-1 ('I
- 1..:
.
-
"-
H

~
Q

~ II

"
I

ll
II

6
..:\ "'
--- 7
"' /' ~

---='
ff

;_~ -------~~~/ - I .:
- I <"
"
<i:
-I ~
\ ..
I Q
--------- II II II
~
" "
~

a
...g ~,'':[]
.
.;

~ ~Fo
~

, Q
s:
~

,', Q

'
II
z I _..;;
... < ;> ~

a ~ ~~
a
Q (}) 0 ''
I o
;.e ;.f
c; 5;;
'\ '' ,' Q

"_,' II I I
"' ~
28 DISPLACEMENTS, STIUUNS, AND STRESSES

Bending - the straight longitudinal axis becon1es curved


Axial - the straight longitudinal axis remains straight and undergoes axial
e longation
Angular - planes perpendicular to the Longitudinal axis rotate about the axis.
The u. u, u; components of the displacements corresponding to each of the
deformations are shown in Figure 2.23.
\Ve again use the .r. y, z coordinate systen1 for generally anisotropic materials.
for monoclinic., orthotropic., transverseJy isotropic., and isotropic n1ateria ls \\'C use
the x 1 t 2 , x 3 coordinate system, v.ith :<;1 being a long the longitud inal axis of the
body (Fig. 2.16). In the :c1. x2 , x3 coordinate systen1 the displac.ements are

I 1 ,
r~1 = U1(xi . xi) - iJx2.fJ - - - xi
2 f>2
L 1 ,
u1=U1(X1.X1) + iix1X3 - -2-:Cj (2.53)
Pt

' .ti) + (-' x1+ -1 x1 + E3 ) XJ,


UJ=UJ(Xt,
/J2 P1

E;
\\/here is the e longation of the longitudinal axis; 1 / pz. 1/Pi a re the curvatures of
this axis in the x 1- .t'.3 and x 1- x 3 planes, respectively; '' represents the rate of t\\rist
of the cross section.
Jn t he fo l.lowing, 1.\'e present the equilibrium equations. the strain-cHsplace1nent
relationships. a.nd the stre.s.s- strain relationships \vhen the aforen1entioned con
ditions of plane~stra.i n are satisfied. 111e analyses are applicable in regions a\vay
from the two encl< of the body.
\Ve treat problems in tv.o groups: (i) \\/hen one or both ends are free and
(ii) whe n both ends are built-in (Fig. 2.18).

2.4.1 Freil End - Generally Anisotropic Material


We consider a generally anisotropic body \\'ith one or both ends free. This body
may undergo every de formation shown in Figure 2.23, and the displac.e ments a.re
the sum of all possible displacements sho,vn in this figure. The strains are then
obtained from the s train- displacement relationships given by Eq~ (2.2)-(2.4) and
(2.9)-(2.11). By introducing Eqs. (2.50)- (2.52) we have

au
( c =-
&.r ' -av
-
ayy -
(2.54)
1 J
E-= - x +-y+ E~ (2.55)
.. Pr Px ..
aw aw
y,,-=
.. -ay +"x Yx
. = -ax _ ,,y (2.56)
au av
Yx
y
= -ay + -
ax (2.57)
2.4 PLANE-STRAIN CONDITION 29

figure 214: The strc:is component.; that appear in the equdihrium equations under planestra1n
condition.

Since the strain con1poneuts are independent o f t. the stress con1ponents are
also independent o f t, and \\'e have

ar,._ _
ai - 0 (2.58)

By utilizing Eq. (2.58), the equilibrium equations (Eqs. 2.13-'2 .15) become

aa, ar,, (- 0
0
oX
+ 0
oy
+ )X - (2.59)

8<,yaa, f, - 0
+.
uX o .V
+y- (2.60)

ar. ary;+ f =.
-ax<z + - 0
(2.6 1)
ay "
The five s tress con1ponents a,.. a1 , l':.ty rYi r,..z that appear in these equilibrium
equations are illustrate d in Figure 2.24.
For a generally anisotropic n1ateriill the stress- s train re lationships (Eq. 2.20)
may be \.:ritten in pa rtitione d form. as follo\\s:

a, Cu C12c" c,.
Cl.t <x c.,
<1y c., Cu c,,. Cis C 26 .,. ell
ry.: = C14 c!4 c.... c.15 c... Yyz + C:w <, (2.62)
f.T<: Cts cl.S c., c5~ c56 Y.T~ c,.
'f.vy c,. Cu c... c,. c,,. Yx.v c36

<x
~y

a,= (Cu c2, C311 c3s z:,.J YJ't + C.u ': (2.63)
Yx:
Yxy
30 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

where, we recall, is (Eq. 2.55)


l I
=-x+-Y+<.
Py P.t
0
(2.64)

111e stiffness ma trix [CJ is the inverse of the compliance n1atrix (SJ defined
in Table 2.3 (page 10). The strain-stress rela tionshi!"' are obtained by inverting
Eq. (2.62) as follows:
R11 R," Ris 'R,. <f., c.,
" fy /?.,
R 12
R12 Ru Ris Ru,
""
C23
c,.
Yy;:_ = R1.i R"J R.s R..
R1.i tyz. (2.65)
Y..-;:_
r.,,
Ris Ris R,, Rss Rs6
R,. R,. R.. Rs R..
rx~

r,,
where R; (i. j = I , 2. 4, 5. 6) a re the in-plane elements of the compliance matrix
c,,
c,. "l
under plane-strain condition calculated fron1 the relationship
Ru R,, R,.. R" R1t. Cu c,, c,4 Cis cl6
- I

R 12 R.22 R,, R.2.'i R 16 C12 C11 C24 c,, c,.


R14 R24 R., R._, R.. = c,4 C24 c..,, C4s c.,. (2.66)
Ris Ris R.s Rss R~6 Cis C2s c,, 'Css c,.
R10 R16 R.o R..... R.. c,. c,. c.. c,. c..
2.4.2 Flff End - Monoclinic Material
We consider a body n1ade ~fa monoclinic n1aterial (Fig. 2..9) \vith the plane of
ma terial syn1metry coinciding \\ ith the x1- x1 plan e sho,vn in figure 2.16. One or
1

both ends of the body a re free. The displacements resulting from specified loads
are sun1n1arized in Figure 2.25.
fllplane /,>ads. TI1e body is subjected to the in-plane loads shown in Fig
ure 2.20. Under these loads the body may undergo only planar, bending, and axial
deformations (Fig. 2.25). Accordingly, Eq. (2.53) reduces to (see Fig. 2.23)
1 I
u1 = Ut (xi, xi) - - -x12
2 1>1
1 l '
112 = U2 (x1 , x2) - 2: I>! x.; (2.67)

tl3 = ( -1 X1 + - I Xi. + '") .t).


Pl 1>1
The strain-displacement relationships (Eqs. 2.2- 2.4, 2.9- 2.11) show that for
these d isplacen1ents the strains are

1= -
au, 2= -
au, (2.68)
ax1 axz

(3= -
t
1 x1+-x2+E"(' (2.69)
3
/J2 Pr
Yi.= 0 Yll =0 (2.70)
au, au,
Yt2= - +-
ax-i
. -.
ax1
(2.71)
~0 -----
r; -------- ~
V-------- ___ 1
------
~~) )
----------- / "'
d:;;:_-_-_-:J\
...~ \"

{~-----------
t I
\I
---~~---"
- - ... - - - - - - -
1/ ~
/

. \;'
il
.il
z
c.
g

~
I
I

a
'' f
"
~ .... ~ ......
"

j ' I

"' ' '' ''


~~ :
e - 'li
j~
3 8
"
~
,.. ~
.,,c
0
s
.5 "
ii!
"'
32 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

Since Y,.1 = 0 and Yn = 0, Eq~ (2.22) and (2.27) give


f23 =0 r11=0. (2.72)

Furthern1ore. since the strain and stress components are independent of x3 ~


\Ve have

(2.73)

With these stresses the relevant e quilibrium equations (Eqs. 2.13 and 2.14) -
in the x 1 x2 x3 coordinate syste111 - reduce to
T

(2.74)

(2.75)

l11e stress components <Y1, <12, rti:, 'vhich appear in the equilibriun1 equations.
are illustrated in Figure 2.24 (top, right).
By substituting Eq. (2.70) into Eq. (2.22) and by utilizing Eq. (2.27) we obta in
the following stress- strain re lationships (or inplane loads:

(2.76)

" ' = [C,. C,, C.1] { :: } + Ci1<3, (2.77)


Y12

where, we recall, <> is (Eq. 2.69)


1 1 .
~.l = - X1
f>l
+ -l2
Pi
+ ~1
.
(2.78)

The strain- stress relationships are obtaine-d from Eq. (2.76) by inversion

:: } =
{ Y12 [~:: ~: ~::] ({=: } - {~~} ).
R1 & Ru. ~ r12 CJc\
(2.79)

'''here Rt; (i , j = 1. 2: 6) are the in-plane elen1ents of the compliance n1atrix in the
x 1, x2 coordinate system calculated fron1 the relationship

R,.] = [c" c c,.]-t


12
R16
R,,. c,. c,. c..
C12 Cu C16 . (2.80)
2.4 PLANE-STRAIN CONDmON 33

011t-of-pla11e laad.<. The body is subjected to the out-of-plane loads shown in


Figure 2.20. Under these loads the body n1ay undergo only nonplanar and angu
la.r deformations (Fig. 2.25), and the d isplacements (in the x 1 xi. x, coordinate
system) are (see E q. 2.53 and Fig. 2.23)

Ut = - OX2X3
U'l = t?X1X3 (2.81)
u, = U,(x, ,x,) .

For these displacements the st.rains a re (see Eqs. 2.2-2.4, 2.9-2.11)

, , =0 2=0 (2.82)
~J =0 (2.83)
au_, au,
Yl:.l = -. -+1Jx1
ax2
Yl3 = -,ax- -
1
''Xi (2.84)

Yl2 = 0. (2.85)

Only y 23 and Ytl a re nonzero. Correspondingly. the only nonzero s tresses are
r,., a nd r23 T hus, two of the equilibrium equa tions (Eqs. 2.13 and 2.14) become
trhia l, and the third (Eq. 2.15) - in the x1 , x1 , .'(l coordinate systen1 - reduces to

(2.86)

The r.n, r 13 s tress compo ne nts, which appear in t he equilibriun1 equation, are
illustrate d in Figure 2.24 (bottom, right).
From Eqs. (2.22) and (2.27) we obtain the following stress- strain relationships
for out-of-plane loads:

l'"l=[c,, . c.,]Jv"l
'!13 C45 C.ss Y13.
(2.87)

The s tra in- stress relationships are obtained from E q. (2.87) by inversion

I I [s.. s.,JI'"l
y,,
Yt l = S.as Sss r-11
(2.88)

where the compliance mattix (SJ is the inverse of the s tiffness matrix in Eq. (2.87)

[s., s.,]= [c"' c,_.]-'


S.u . Sss C4s Css
(2.89)

E11d axial foods. Axial loads are applied at t he ends (Fig. 2.21 ). Unde r such
loads the body may undergo only planar, bending, and axial deformations
34 DISPLACEMENTS, SIBAJNS, AND STRESSES

(Fig. 2.25), a nd the displace ments are (see Eq. 2.53 and Fig. 2.23)

I I
u1 = U1(x1.x2) - - - x32 (2.90)
2 Pi
. I I
lll = U1 (l'.1. X2) - ?- -XJ2 (2.91)
- P1

UJ = ( - I X1 + - 1 .'( ? + 3) XJ . (2.92)
Pi Pi

These displacements a re the same as those for in-plane loads (Eq. 2.67). He nce,
the s train- displacen1ent, equilibrium, a nd stress-strain rela tionships are the san1e
as those given by Eqs. (2.68)- (2.80).
E11d mome11t. A hending moment is a pplied at each end (Fig. 2.21). Under
this loading the 'body may undergo only planar, bending:, and a xia l deforma tions
(Fig. 2.25), a nd the displacements are (see Eq. 2.53 and Fig. 2.23)

I I ,
111 = U1(x 1, x2) - - -x;
2 Pi .
I I
Uz = U2(x1, x1) - - -x32 (2.93)
1- P1

llJ = ( -I x1 + -1 :e:z + ,.3) X3 .


Pl /JI

These displacements are the same as those for in-plane loads (Eq. 2.67). Hence.
the s train-displacement, e quilibrium, and stress- stra in relationships are the sa111e
as those given by Eqs. (2.68)- (2.80).
Torque. A torque is a pplied at each e nd (Fig. 2.21). Unde r this load the body
may undergo o nly nonplanar and angular d efor1na tions (Fig. 2.25). and the dis
placemen Ls are (see Eq. 2.53 and Fig. 2.23)

113 = l/3(x1 , .n). (2.94)

l11ese displaceme nts are the same as those for o ut-of-plane loads (Eq. 2.81 ).
Hence, the strain-displacement, equilibrium, and stress-strain re la tions hips are
the same as t hose give n by Eqs. (2 .81)- (2.88).

2.4.3 Free End - Orthotropic, Transversely Isotropic, or Isotropic Material


When at le ast one end of the body is free, the expressions: given in Section 2.4.2are
also a pplicable to bodies treated as orthotropic~ transversely isotropic, or isotropic
provided that one of the materia l symmetry planes coincides \Vith the X1- X2 plane
s hown in Figure 2.16. For s uch bodies the following simplificatio ns apply:
Orthotropic

c,. = c,. = c,. =0 R,. = R,. = 0. (2.95)


2.4 PLANE-STRAIN CONDITION 35

Tra11svenely isotropic
c,. = c,. = c. = () (2.96)
C 11 = C 12.

Isotropic

c,. = c,. = c. = 0 R1 = Ru, = 0


C21 = C 11 R21 = Rl1
(2.97)
c.. = ! (C11 -
C12) R. = 2 ( R11 - R12)
C13 = Cn = C11.

2.4.4 Built-In Ends - Generally Anisotropic Material


When both ends o f a generally anisotropic body are built-in (Fig. 2.18), in-plane
as well as out-of-plane loads may be a pplied (Fig. 2.20). The body may undergo
only pla nar and nonpla na r deformations (Fig. 2.23). Howeve r, the longitudinal
axis o f the body remains straight ( l / p,. l / p, = =
0), its length remains constant
(<~ = 0), a nd the body does not twist (~ = 0). The pe m1issible delonnations are
summa rized in Figure 2.26 and t he displacements are (see Fig. 2.23)

u =U(x, y) v=V(x , y) w = W(x, y). (2.98)

These displacements are the same as the displacements given by Eqs. (2.50)-
(2.52) for a body with free e nds, when 1/ p,., l /p, . <~. and 1) a re se t equal to zero.
Thus, the strain-displacen1ent. the siress-strain, and the equiHbrium equations
are obtained by setting 1/Py. t/ p.1 , E:,
and O equal to zero in the equations o f Sec~
tion 2.4.1 . TI1e stra in- d isplacement re la tionships (Eqs. 2.54-2.57) become
au av
<x = ax .,. = ay (2.99)
Ez =0 (2.100)
aw aw
Yy=-
' ay Y.t ~ = a;- (2.101)

au av
. . = -+-
)".~
ay ax (2.102)

The equilibrium equations are identical with Eqs. (2.59)- (2.61).

~o m1ation
L..,d ...__ Planar Nooplanar

Out-of-plane

Fi_gure- 226: Oeformatjons of a generally anisotropic. body under plane-strain conditjon for
different lo ads; buih-in ends.
36 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

The stress-strain relationships (Eqs. 2.62 and 2.63) become


Cn c,, c,4 C1s c,. <x
""
"r c,, Cn C24 C2s c,. <y
Ty.;: = Ct, c1A c.. C4s c46 y,.. (2.103)
r.t.::. C1s Cis c. . ..'i Css c,. Y:r .::.
T.vy c,. c,. c... Cs c.. r..,.
...
Er
cr, =(Cu C23 c34 CJs c,.J Yr; (2.104)
Y.r.::.
Yxy

By inverting Eq. (2.103), we obtain the strain-stress re lationships

<x Rn 'R,. Ris 'R,.


~.\' R12
R 12
Ri1 R14 'R" Ru ""
Yyz = R1J RlJ Rw R.,, R.. ""
rf,. (2.105)
Y.T;: R 1:s RB R.,, Rss Rst. r .q:
Yxy 'R,. Ru, R.. R :;f, R.. f.1:y

where [R] is defined by Eq. (2.66).

2.4.5 Built -In Ends - Monoctlnic Material


We oonsider a body made of a monoclinic ma teria l with the pla ne of n1aterial syn1
me tT)' coinciding with the X 1- X1 plane sho'vn in Figure 2.16. Both ends of the body
are built-in. The longitudinal axis of the body remains.s traight (l/ p,. = I/ p.. = 0),
its length remains constant (<~ = 0). and the body does not twist ( 0 = O); hence,
the body may undergo only pla nar and nonplanar d eformations (Fig. 2.23). The
deformations resul ting from specified loads a re s ummarized in Figure 2.27.

D fi
~n Planar Nonplanar
l.-Oad

In-plane F'::'--!V

Out-of-plane
Q-
Figure 2.27: Defo rmations of a monocllnicbod)' under plane-str ain condition for differe nt loads:
bnill-in ends.
2.4 PLANESTRAIN CONDmON 37

frlplane load.<. The b<Jdy is subjected to the in-plane loads shown in Fig
ure 2.20. Under these loads the body undergoes planar deformations (Fig. 2.27).
and the dLplacements are (see Eq. 2.53 and Fig. 2:23)

u.,. =0. (2.106)

These displacen1ents are the same as the displacements of a body with free
ends with 1/ Pi. l / p 1, and r
set equal to zero in Eq. (2.67). Thus, the strain-
displacen1ent, the stress-strain. and the equilibrium equations are obtained by
setting 1/1>1., l/p1 , and lJ equal to zero in the equations of Section 2.4.2. The
strain~isplacement relationships (see Eqs. 2.68-2.71) are

E1=-
au, E-,=-
au1 (2.107)
ax1 - ax1
,, = () (2.108)
Yi. =0 Yu=O (2.109)
au,
ni= -
au,
+- (2.l 10)
IJx2 &x1
The equilibrium equations are identical to Eqs. (2. 74) and (2.75).
The stress-strain relationships (Eqs. 2.76 and 2. 77) become

(2.111)

(2.112)

By inverting Eq. (2.111 ) , we obtain the strain~tress re lationships

(2.113)

The in-plane e lements of the compliance matrix R1; are defined in Eq. (2.80).
Out-of-plane ltiads. The body is subjected to out-of-plane loads shown in Fig
ure 2.20. Under these loads the body may undergo only nonplanar deforn1ations
(Fig. 2.27), and the displacements (in the x 1 x1 x3 coordinate system) are (see
Eq. 2.53 and Fig. 2.2.'l)

U1 =0 U2 =0 (2.ll4)
These displace1uents a re the same as the displace1nents of a bod)~ with free
ends with 11 set equal to zero in Eq. (2.81). Thus, the stra in- displacement and
the stress-strain relations as \vetl as the equilibrium equations can be obtained by
setting 'iJ equal to zero in the e quations of Section 2.4.2. The strain-displacement
38 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAJNS, AND STRESSES

relationships (see Eqs. 2.82-2.85) are

,, = () (2.11 5)
fj =0 (2.ll6)
au, au,
Y2. = -ax, Yl.l =ax, (2.117)

y12 = 0. (2.118)

The equilibrium equation is identic.al to Eq. (2.86).


The stress-strain relationships (see Eq. 2.87) are

J'"I [c..
l T1J = C45 C.s,-,
r"I
c~,] flYu . (2.119)

By inverting this e quation, 've obtain the strain- stress relationships

1I ,,,,}
Yt.l =
[s"' S.s]
S4sS..,s
Ir,, l
r13 .
(2.120)

where t he compliance matrix is given by Eq. (2.89).

2.4.6 Built-In Ends - Orthotropic, Transversely Isotropic, or Isotropic Material


The expressions given in Section 2.4.5 for monoclinic bodies v.'ith both ends
builtin are applicable to bodies treated as o rtho tropic, transversely isotropic,
or isotropic provided that o ne of the n1aterial S)mn1e'lry planes co incides v.1th the
x1- x2 pla ne shov.n in Figure 2.16. Ho\iever, ror such bodies the simplifications
given by Eqs. (2.95)-(2.97) must be e mployed.

2.5 PlaneStntss Condition


lJnde r p lane.stress condition one of the norn1aJ stresses a nd both out~of- plane
shear stresses are zero. \Ve select the norn1al stress to be zero in the z (or XJ)
coordinate direction and the out-of.plane shear stresses to be zero in the x- y (or
x1- x2) plane (Fig. 2.28)

O;; =0 ,,,, =O rx;; =0. (2.121)

Plane...stress condition n1ay approxilnate the stTesses in a t hin fiber-reinforced


composite plat e whe n the fibers are parallel to the x- y plane and the plate is
loaded by forces along the edges such that the forces are parallel to t he plane of
the plate and are d istributed uniformly over the thickness (Flg. 2.29). The plane
stress condition does not provide t he stresses exactly, not even for this thin ...plate
problen1. Nevertheless, for ma ny thin 'vall structures it is a w eful approxima tion.
yielding ans,\ers 'vithin reasonable accuracy.
2.5 PLANESTRESS CONDITIOH 39

-.
"

7:u -= 0
Figure 2.28: 1bc stresses under plane-stress condition.

With thestipulationsofEq. (2.121), theequilibrium equations(Eq~ 2.13-2.15)


beco1ne
aa, ar,, f - 0 (2.122)
ax + ay + x -

ar,, a.., f
17+ay+ .. = .
0
(2.123)

Equations (2.121) and Eq. (2.'21) gi"e

(2.124)

(2.125)

The e lements of the con1pliance n1atrix.S 11 are given in Table 2 .3 (page 10). The
stres..~-strain relationships are obtained from Eq. (2.l24) by inversion

Q,, i?
g12 Q,.;] {<y
<x } , (2.126)
Qi6 Q66 Yr.v

Figure 2.29: In-plane loads applied to a thin plate. resulting in planc.-stress condjtion.
40 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

'vhere Q ;i are t he inplane e len1e nts of the stiffness m atrix in the x . y ooo rdina te-
systen1 under plane -s tress condition:

(2.127)

The stress-strain and stra in- stress relationships s implify cons iderably when
the fiber orientatio ns are such that the n1aterial can be treated as n1onoclinic
(Fig. 2.9), orthotropic(Fig. 2.12), transversely isotropic (Fig. 2.15), or isotropic. In
the follo,ving \Ve cons ider problen1s invol\'ing these mate ria l types and use an x 1
:c.2, x3 coordinate syste m with the x 1, x1 coordinates be ing in o ne o f the s ymmetry
plane s and x3 be ing pe rpend icular to thL" pla ne. In this coordin ate systen1, under
plane ..stress condition, we have (Pig. 2.28, right)

rt~ =0. (2.128)

Mo11oc/i11ic maurials. By substituting Eq. (2.US) into Eq. (2.23} a nd by e m


ploying the complia nce m atrix o f a mo noclinic mate rial (Eq. 2.26). we obtain

Yll = 0. (2.129)

With the s tipulations in E q. (2.128), the equilibrium equations(Eqs. 2.13-2.15)


in the x 1, x2 , x 3 coordinate systen1 become

(2.130)

3r11 a,,, f
- + - + -'= 0 .
axa <Jx2
(2.131)

By s ubstitu ting Eq. (2.128) into Eq. (2.23), we obtain t he fo llowing stra in- stress
relationships:

:: } =
{ Y12 [~:: ~ ~::]
S u; 5'.t. 5(,.,,
{:: }
t 12
(2.132)

(2.133)

The e le n1ents o f the con1pliance m atr ix S;i are given in Ta ble 2.7 (page 15). The
s tress-strain re lationships are obtained from E q. (2..132) by inversion

(2.134)
2.5 PLANE-STRESS CONDITION 41

where Q;; are the inplane e lements of the stiffness maui..x in the x 1 , x1 coordinate
systen1 unde r planestress condition:

Q"] = [s"
Q26 S 12
s,, S16S22
s,.]-' . (2.135)
Q.. s,. s,. s..
l11e expressions presented in this section for monoclinic n1aterials also apply
to orthotropic, transversely isotropic, and isouopic materials. Ho\vever. for these
types of 1naterials the stiffuess and con1pliance n1atrices further simplify, as shown
below.
Orthotropic. For an ortbotropic material the follov.ing e len1ents of the com
pliance matrix are zero (Table 2.7, page 15):

s,. = s,. = 0. (2.136)

Also, from Table 2.7 we have

S11 = -
1
E,
s,.,=
-
- ""
-E, s,,- = -E11 (2.137)

Prom Eqs. (2.135) and (2.136) we obtain

Q,. = Q,. =0. (2.138)

Accordingly, the e lements of the stiffness matrix [ Q) in terms of the e ngineering

l
constants are (Eqs. 2.135, 2.137, and 2.138)
t:, 11:.E:
/) /)

[QJ = [ ' f' "'


D

0
0
G12
. v.here D = 1-
E2 ,
-Vj-,
E, -
=t- V12 "'I
-

(2.139)

A \Voven, or filament wound, layer is orthotropic when there is the san1e num
ber of fibers in the +El and - fl directions in the x 1- x2 plane (Pig. 2.30). Por such
a layer the elements of the stiffness n1atrix are calculated from

Q'{'; """ = ~[( Q;;)., + (Q;;)-.,]. i , j = 1. 2, 6, (2.140)

where ( Q;;)e and (Q;; )_., are the eleme nts of the stiffness matrices of plies ori-
ented in the +e and - 0 directions.. respective ly. The elements of the stiffness

-e~~:,
~ <~~
+e
-Figure 2.30: A laye-r consisting of ti hers in the +e and -<-) directions.
42 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, ANO STRESSES

Table 2.12. Elements of the stiffness malriX of a


woven layer with the fibers oriented in the 0
directions
QiJ"""" =C4 Qu + s4 Qu + 2c2s? ( Q12 + 2QM.)
Q"'.?2''11 = s-1Q11 + c"(h: +2c: 2s? (Qi: + 2Q>J
Q~j"11 =<.2s? ( Q11 + Qn - 4~) + (c:'' + .\..}Qi:
' ' (Qu
Q(',r'1" = cs- + Q12 - 2Qu) + ( c-) - 2')~~ Q 66
.'i

Q'j;:v''" =0
Q"; vn =0
s =sine

matrix in the f) direc6on ( Qi;)s are obtained by the transformation describe d in


Section 2.9.3 and summarized in Table 3.1 (page 70). The e leme nts (Q;;)-<> are
calculate d by replacing f) by - f) in Table 3.1 . By performing these ste ps, we obta in
the e len1ents Qi;v.iw:n ghen in Table 2.12.
Transversely isotropic. For a transversel}' iso tropic ma terial \\le have
(Table 2.7, page 15)

s,. = s,. = 0 (2.141)


S,, = S12. (2.142)

By substituting these values, together \vith the expressions in Table 2.7


(page 15), inlo Eq. (2.135). we obtain the [ QJ matrix in terms of the e ngineer
ing constants. The results are identical to those of Eq. (2. I 39).
l.wtropic. For an isotropic material the following relationships hold (Table 2.7.
page 15):

S21= S 11 s,. = s,. = 0 (2.143)


Su = S 23 = S11 S.. = 2 (S11 - S,,).
From Eq. (2.135) we obtain

Q,, = Q11 Q,. = Q,. = 0


I (2. l44)
Q = 2(Q11 - Q12).

The ele n1ents of the stiffness 1natrix in te nns or the e nginee ring constants are

(QJ= - - " 1
E
l - 1,l () ()
[1 " 0()
!;:
]. (2.145)

'
2.2 Exa1nple. Ca/c14/ate the eletuents of the stiffness tnatri:t: of tt graphite epoxy 1111i
directioual ply under plane-stress condition. The e11gi11eering constants are given as
1 = 148 x 10 Nini'. 2 = 9.65 x IO'Nlm2 , G 12 = 4.55 x t0 Nini' , n = 0.3,
and l'2J = 0.6.
2.5 PLANE-STRESS CONDITION 43

Solution. Under plane-stress condition the stiffne.ss matrix is (Eq. 2.135)

[~::
Q,.
~~
Q,.
(2.146)

The elements oflhe compliance matrix are given in Example 2.1 (page 21). By
substituting these values into the e xpression above obtain

[
\Ve

_,
- 2.03
103.63
0
0
0
219.78 ] =
148.87 2.91
2.91 9.71
0 0
o
4.55
0] io2N.
m
(2.147)

The stiffness matrix may also be calculated by Eq. (2.139) with the e ngineering
constants and with D = 1 - ~: v/2 = 0.994. Equation (2.139) gives

,,
"
[QJ= [
"t 0
0
0 ] 109 -N, .
4.55 m-
(2.148}

This is the same result as that given by Eq. (2..147).

2. 3 Exan1ple. Estilnare tile plane-stress stiffness nu1trix and the engineeriug con
stants of a (45) it-oven fabric layer 1nadf of graphite fibers a11d epo.'C.y resin.

SolutioJL We approxin1ate the \\'Oven fabric by a layer 111ade of one 45e and one
- 45 ply. The properties of these plies are take n to be those of the graphite epoxy
unidirectional ply give.n in Exan1ple 2.2. The stiffness matrix of a ply made of this
material under plane-stress condition is (Eq. 2.147)

~ ~
148.87 2.91
(QJ = l .91 9.71 ] 10 (2.149)
[ 0 0 4.55 m

We obtain the stiffness matrix of the \voven fabric by substituting the elements
of this matrix into the expressions in Table2.12(page42) with(~)= 45. The result
is

Q~," = Qr,' = 45.65 x 109 Nim2 Q'lf' = 36.55 x 10 9 Nim2


(2.150)
""'"
~ 16 -- ,....,
\t'.26 -
- 0 ctt' = 38.19 x 10 9 Nim2 .
44 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

The compliance n1atrix is

s.,
]~" = [~' ~ ]-l
[ s..
~;'
Su
0
00
s,.,.
Qft'
0

61.03
l2
Qt"
0

- 48.86
1 45

= - 48.86 61.03 0 ] 10- 12 01'- . (2.151)


[ 0 0 26.19 N

The engineering constants of t he y,oven fa bric are (see Eq. 2. 137)


,,,.,_, I 2
9N
"l = T
1 1
= 16.39 x lO -
m
vt;'' =- S12E1 =0.801
2
(2.152)
E;''-' = ...!_ = 16.39 x
- S22
10!::!
m
""" -., = -1 = 38.19 x 10 9 -N'.
..,,,
- S,.,. m

2.6 Hygrothermal Strains and Stresses


An unrestraine d composite may change both its size and shape 'vhen the ten1per
ature is increased or decreased uniformly by 6. T. The conesponding strains in the
x, y. z coordinate system are

i[ =iil(D.T
(2.153)
y1~ = ii>'~a T ,. = -a.1.va T
Yxr

Sin1ila rly, 1nois ture inside an unrestrained composite causes a change in size
and shape. A uni(orm moisture concentration c in the material results in the
rollo\ving s trains:

<; = {J,c
{' - (2.154)
Y; y = fi.l.J'c.

Inside a dry material the moisture concentration c is zero. ln Eqs. (2.153) and
(2.154);; and Pare the te111perature and 1uoisture e xpansion coefficients. respec
tively. (Note that(; and ~ follo'v the same transformation rules a s strains.. Section
2.9.2.) In an unrestrained composite the strains induce d by uniforn1 te111perature
and n1oisture disuibutions (referred to as hygrothermal strains) are

Ci, l,
',.
~
Ci,
.hl <i:
,Yxr.
yt,I = t.T + c. (2.1 55)
.'<
a,~ '$,.
y ot.,~ lx:
bl
axy PJ.:y
2.6 HYGROTHERMAL STRAINS ANO STRESSES 45

For a generally anisotropic material, in the x, Y~ t coordinate systen1, the


strain- stress relationships are obtained by combining the hygrothermal strains
(Eq. 2.155) with the stress-induced strains (Eq. 2.21 ):

3'11 s,, Sis s,. "'


.," slS s,. "
S12 S1J x
S21 s,, S.n '524 aJ' "'
y
s" s" S1s s...
:s33 S3.i
"'
Y)'t
= S.n S.u s,3 s4.. s., s... "' 'Cy.;
+ '
yhl
(2.156)

Ssz Ssl Ss.a Sss s,. y"


Y.t:: s" s(tl 1.x.; hl
.T.;
Y.TJ' Sb1 s,i.l s.., s"' s.,. T.x.v
bl
Y.TJ'

where ' x . . . , Y.t)' are the -actual strains in the composite.


By inverting Eq. (2. I 56) we obtain the following stress-strain relationships:

<fx

dy
C11
C21
C 12
C 22
C13
Cz.1
Ci"
C 211
C 1s
C2s
c,.
c,.
<x
<y
.....,.
y

'" C31 c" c 3.l C 3:1 CJs c36


"'11
r,.::
=
C.n C.u
C -12 c4..
c,.
C4s
~<;5 Cs6
c,. "
Yn Yy::
rx:: c"
c.,
Cs2 Cs.l
c6., c6~ c., c66
Yx::
v"
bl
Y.t::
f".l,I' c62 y,>' xy

(2.157)

For a mo noclinic material, in the ,t1 , x2 , x 3 local ooordinate system (Fig. 2.9)
ten1perature and moisture do not induce out~ofwplane shear strains. Thus, the
temperature and moisture induced strains are

lr =U16.T .:[ = Ci21> T ,_r = &3.ti r


y[, =0
,.
Y13 =0
,. -
Y12 = <r126. T
(2.158)

tf ='J1c ~ -
= fi2c li = P3c (2.159)
Yb =0 Ytt3 = 0 Yfi = P 12C.

where~ and Pare the temperature and moisture expansion coefficients, respec-
ti\e-ly, in the x 1 x2, x3 coordinate system (ti and Pfollo\v the same transformation
rules as strains. Section 2.9.2). The hygrothermal strains are
,.,I
c;, p,
l~l c;, p,
Ebt
l
c;,
l>T +
p, c. (2.160)
yfi = 0 0
yhl
ll
() 0
yhl ti12 # 12
12
46 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

"' .,
The stress-strnin relationships are (Eq. 2.22)
......
.,
I
"2 2 1
<13
= lCJ
' (2.161)
t1J Y.?3 0
! i .\ yu 0
r12 Y12 yfil
where [Cl is prescribed by Eq. (2.27). Note that ' " . . , y 12 are the acrua/ strains
W the composite.
By inve rting Eq. (2.161), \\'e obtain the follo\ving s train- stress relall:io nships:
., "'
., I
,~1
"'
,~
"
YJj 0
= [S J
<1J
r21
(2.162)

Yt.l 0 rn
Yll y"
11 r11.

where (SJ is prescribed by Eq. (2.26).


In ortho tropic, transversely isotr opic, a nd isotropic 1naterials tempe ra ture and
m oisture do no t introduce y23 , Y Lh .a nd y 12 shear strains. Thus, for t hese types of
ma terials the te 1n perature ~ and mois ture ~ induced strains are

'T=a,&r ,[ =a2ar ,J = a3aT (2.163)


y~= O y1~ =0 y,~ =0
'1' = ~ ,c ,~=Pie ,~ = P3c (2.164)
Y!J =0 Yf1 =0 Yf2 = 0.

For orthotropic, transversely isottropic., a nd isotropic materials the s tress- st rain


r elationships given a bove for n1onoclinic n1aterial a re valid (Eqs. 2.161 a nd 2.1 62)
with y~ = 0 a nd the [SJ and [CJ matrices specified in Sections 2.3.4 and2.3.5 (see
also Table 2.13).

Table Z.13. The lhermal and moisture expansion coefficients


Thermal Moisture
Material expansion coefficients expansion coefficients
Generally (;.\'a,, (.i~, f.i.H ;;At (.iX\' ft' . 'if,. 'Pt. F,~ F~~ 'if:"
anisotropic
t\'lonoclinic a" i. a~. al? , ,,Ji,.,,
Orthotropic a., 1.a~ -;i, , ,,,
Ttansve.rsely a" ai = a.i , ,-P, ="ii,
iso tropic
lsotr<>pic 1 = <ii = J "ii, =ii,=#,
2.7 BOUNOARY CONDITIONS 47

2.6.1 Plarne-Strain Condition


The hygrothern1al stress-strain re la tionships under plane-s train condition can be
obtaine d by n1aking the folJo,ving s ubstitutions in the stress-strain relationships
(without hygrothe mial effects) given in Section 2.3:

f; ~ ~,. - ii; 6. T - P;c (2.165)


Yii => Yii - a;; 6 T - ft1;<. i ;! j

where the subscripts i j re present x. y, z and 1, 2. 3 in the x. y , t and x 1 , x 2 x3


coordin ate systen1s. respectively.

2.6.2 Plarne-Stress Condition


The hygrothermal stress-stra in relationships under plan e~stresscondi tion e-an be
obtained by replacing the strains<; and y,; in Eqs. (2.124) a nd (2.145) by those
given in E.q. (2. I 65).

2.7 Boundary Conditions


To o btain solutio ns to the equiJibriun1, stress-strain, and strain-displacen1ent
equations, eithe r the displacement or the a pptied force n1ust be spec.ified a t every
point on th e s urface. The re la tionships bef\veen the displacements and the strains
are given by Eqs. (2.2)- (2.4) and (2.9)-(2.1 L). The surface forces pe r unit area are
related to the stresses at the surface as follo\\'S.
We consider a small volume e lement a V (Fig. 2.31 ). A s urface force pe r unit
area p (\vith con1ponents P.i , p_... 11~) is applied on the Ll1\surface of t his e le n1ent.
Force bala nce in the x direction gives

(2.166)

B
11
x
"
Figure 2.3l: Componc.nts of the s urface (orce p on the l.!t.Asurface an d thc slr<:$SCSo n the one.
OAC.~, and OABsurla-ccs.
48 DISPlACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

:r: A
Figure 2.32: 1he angles "''* I.JI_:-, Wt .

By di,;ding bo th sides by ll.A we obtain


1
Pr =
2
.D.A (<1,ll.tll.y + r.,ax ay + r,_.axai) . (2.167)

In the limit, when ll.A, ax, ay, t>t go to zero, Eq. (2.167) becomes
Ps = 1'1.T + H f :,i + lll f y.t (2.168)

\vhere I , 111, 11are the direction cosines of the normal vector of the boundary surface
(Fig. 2.32) as follows:
azay axaz a xay
I = - - = cos('I' ) m = - - = cos('I',.) 11 = A = cos('I',).
2<'.l.A "' 2<'.l.A 26
(2.169)

Similarly, we have

Pr = nu:r,. + Ir>..,.+ urzy (2.170)


p, = 11<1, + Ir,,+ mr" . (2.171)

2.8 Continuity Conditions


When con1posites are made of laminated layers, perfect bonding is assumed be
tween each layer. Accordingly, at the interfac.es of t\vo adjacent layers the norn1al
stresses are equal, the out.of. plane shear suesses are equal, and the displ.acen1ents
a re equal. Thus, a t two adjacent layers, denoted by k and k + I. we have (Fig. 2.33)

(<>',);., = (O'J ; +1.b (r,Ju = (r,,).+1. (r, J;.1 =(r..,);+1.b (2.172}


(11)~1 = (11)<-+l.b (v);_, = (l.tt1.b (w);. 1=(wJ.+l.b (2.173)
The subscripts t and b refer to the top and bottom of a layer, respectively, The
continuity conditions in tern1s of strains can be obtained from the preceding dis-
placement cootinuity co nd itions (Eq. 2.173) together with Eqs. (2.2)-(2:.4), (2.7),
and (2.11 ) as follows:

(<,);.1 = (<., ).o+l.b (y,, )._, = (Y.., J.. 1.b- (2.174)


2.9 STRESS ANO STRAIN TRANSFORMATIONS 49

HI

Figure 2.33: lbe stresses at the top and bottom surfaces o f hvo adjacc:.nl lap:rs thut n1ust match
to satisfy cont1nu1ty.

TI1e dN. <r,. rx.l' s tress a nd the f:., YK<- Yy:. s train components are not necessarily
oon1inuot1s along two adjacent surface~

2.9 Stress and Strain Transformations


\\'e consider t'vo Cartesian coordinate syste ms \Vith axes p, 'l r and Ji. q', r'.
The orientation of the primed coordinate systen1 \vith respect to the unpritned
coordinate syste m is give n by the nine dire ction cosines (r11 , r2 1. r 3 1) . (r12. r11. fJ1).
("3. rn , '3.' ) specified in Table 2.14.
The o.rientation of the prin1ed Ji, q'. r' coordinate system " 'ith respect to
the unpri1ned coordinate systen1 p , q, r can a lso be specified in terms of three

Table 2.14. Definitions ol the direction cosines

r r'

p~
' A
,,
n.,.
~ "1'
q
,,
r u = cos.sl,.p nz= cosQpo) r u =cos!?"'
r ;:i = cos Q1p r 2i = oos n.w ri;.= cosQ,11
r 31 = c:.osO,.., r~ =cos!?,,., r" = cosn,.
50 DISPLACEMENTS, SIBAJNS, ANO STRESSES

r ,.
p: n,.. ., o"
,,
p n.,
q

~
. .e, ~-
e,
q ,, q
' p ~ p ~ p ~

.Figure 2.34: Con.o;ccullve rola tions to <irrr\'c at the coord1nale system ff, q'. and r' .

.angles f-) P eq, er (Fig. 2.34). These angles a re consecutive rotations of t he prin1ed
-coordinate syste1n about the p, q. r axes, as illustrated in Figure 2.34. The a ngles
e,, H., f), are positive in the counterclockwise direction.
The e p t.:+q, <-:+r angles are rela.ted to the direction cosines by the follo\\~ng
-expressions:1:

e. = Atan2( - ' '" jrf1 + rf1)


e, = Atan2(r11/ cos e., rn / cost-)q) (2.175)
fJ, = Atan2(rn/ cos e., r_,,/ cosflq).
"\vhere Atan2(y, x) is a two.argument arc tangent function as ColJo,vs:

Atan2(y. x) = tan - 1 (~) when x > 0 (2.176)

Atan2(y.x) = tan- 1 (.1)


x
+" when x < 0. (2.177)

When fl, = 900, the n fJ, a nd e P are


e, =O e, = Atan2(r12, Tz,). (2.178)

2.9.1 Stress Transformation


T he stresses in the prin1e d coord inate systen1 a re calculated fro1n the stresses in
the unprin1ed coordinate system by t he transfom1atioo
<>'p 'tu 'fn 12 r., 13 'fo14 7;,.15 Ta 16 "r
<>'q 't21 'fn22 T.1.3 7;,24 'fn25 r.,. a,,
<r' T.,.u T.34
'
r~r
=
7;,31
To.st
Ta3!
Ta4! r.., r....
""l5
""45
'fo:16
'fo46
"'
rq,
(2,179)
r' Tosi 'l:ts1 TasJ 7;,54 ""55 r.,56 r,..
"'
r'pq 't6t 4'62 7;,63 r... T a-65 r. .. r,.,

-' J. J. Crnig.. /11t1lduaiot110 R<>horics { AtttJ1a11i" ' a11d Co111rol). 2nd cdi1ion. Addison Wesley, Reading.
~l a.s.s11ch ~ells, 1989. pp. 43-56.
2.9 STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATIONS 51

Table 2.15. The slress transformation matrices

~,
0 0 0 0 0
)
0 cp s1r 2t (ISp 0 0
0 \.:? c'r -2Lsp 0 0 c11 = cose,..
p
[1':] = 0 -<,,s, C:pS p c:~ -s; 0 0 s,, =sin e ft
0 0 0 0 c, -.r,,
~o 0 0 0 Sp Cp

- (..?
0 ,
..,2 0 2c:.,s., Cl
0 I 0 0 0 0
[1;,] = s'., 0 c' 0 -2c;;.s1 0 c" =Cose,,
0 0 0' c 0 -s., s11 =sine,,

-
~
- <.,,s.,
0

c;'
0
0

s;'
0
0

0
.,
(....,...


0
s
~

0
-.r; ,.0
0

2c.s,
...
<,'
.,\' ! 0 0 0 - 2t,s~
0 0 0 0 0 c:. = co,;(:),
(1'; ] =
0 0 0 c. - s, 0 s, =sin e ,
0 0 0 s, c, 0
'--<.,sr <., s, 0 0 0 c:? - \'l
' ., .

Equati on (2. 179) ca n also be written as


d ' = [?;,IO', (2.180)
where I1;;. ] is t he trans fom1ation matrix, which n1ay be expressed as
[1;.] = [t/] [1;.J[t;]. (2.181)

where ( ?'/], [t,;11, (t;] are given in Table 2.15. The subscript t1 refers to t he stress
transforma tion, and the bat o n T indie-ates that a ll six stress cotnponents are be ing
transformed. The superscripts p, q, and r refer to the transforma tions a bout the
p. q , a nd r a.xes. respectively.
Plane-s train attdplane-stress. tJnder plan e.strain and plane-stress cond itions
we are interested only in the stresses in the p-q and p'- qf planes. In this case
the stresses in the prilned coordina te system a re obtained from the stresses in the
unprin1ed coordinate syste m by rotation about the r wa xis (see Fig. 2.35) as fo llo\\os::

(2.1&2)

c = cose s = sin 0. (2.183)

Equation (2.182) may be written as


d ' = (T,,j O'. (2.184)
52 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

Figure 2.35: Rotallon of the. coord1n<1tc S)'Slc-n1 a round


lhc r -a:us.
'
~.
</

111e. subscript a re fe.rs to the stress tra ns fo nnation, and T \vitho ut a hat ind i
c~ues that o nly t hethree in plane stress cotnponents a re trans fonn ed.
4

2.9.2 Strain Transformation


T he s tra ins in t he pri111ed coordinate system a re calculated fron1 t he stra ins in the
unprin1ed coordina te systen1 by

;,
'<'
411 Tc 11
T.21
h.H
7;22
T..u
7;13
T,,,
r,. l 4
T,,.
-,;,.
7; l5
T,25
Tc1ti
'f;zb
'/;Jo
..
<p

y,,"..
'433 '[;35
' = (2. 185)
Y~,. 7;:11 r.~12 f.43 T,44 1;45 'l;ao
Y;, 7;sl r.~2 T.s.l Yc$.t T,,5 7;~6 y,.,
y;"I 7;,,1 T.62 T.tt.1 T.:64 r;,,$ r.~6 Ypq

Equation (2. 185) m ay be wrillen as

<' = [1;] <. (2.186)

\vhere the vector E. re presents e ngine.e ringstra ins. The s train transforn1ati on ma trix
[~] applie.s to e ngineering strains a nd thus is not the sa1ne as t he s tress trans fo rnl:.\
t ion 1n a trix [i;, J. (Tensorial s ua ins tra ns fo rn1 by the san1e trans fo rn1ntion ma trix
a s the s tresses.)
The trnnsfonnntion n1atrix ( '1;J n1ay be expressed as

[1;] =(t/'][t][t.') . (2. 187)

where (it], [7;'1 J, IT.' J are give n in T obie 2.16. Tiie s ubscript < refers to the s tra in
t ransfonna tion. T he hat on T indic ntes t ha t all s ix strnin compooents a re trans
fonned. The superscripts p. q, a ndr re.f er to the transforma ti ons a bout the p .., q,
a nd r ..a xes, respecti\lely.
Pla11esfrai11 and pla11esfress. U nder pJanestra in a nd plane.stress cond itions
\\le are interested o nly in the strains in the p-q a nd p 1- q' planes. In t his case
t he strains in the prin1ed coord inate systen1 a re o btained from the s tra.ins in the
unprimed coordinate systent by rotation about the r ..axis (see Fig. 2.35) a s fo llows:

{:t }
y~1
= [ ::
- 2cs 2cs
;:
2
' -
-~:]
s1
{ :: }
Ypri
(2.188)
2.9 STRESS ANO STRAIN TRANSFORMATIONS 53

Table 2.16. The engineering strain transformation matrices

~,
0 0 0 0 0 .
0 Cl s'~ c,.s, 0 0
\J -c,,s,,
[1;'] = ~ c; 0 0 "." = cose,.
p
-2CpSp 2cps,, c!-s; 0 0 s, =sine,,
0 0 0 0
~o 0 0 0 t:,.

- <! 0 c.,.,q 0
0 0 0 0
~2 0 (.., = ooss,
[?;"] = .0' 0
c,
-cils!)'
0 -s, s9 =sin c~,,
-2c:.,s., 0 c~- s; 0
- 0 s,, 0 c,
- ,.2 si 0 0 0
I
s; c} 0 0 0 -c,s.
0 0 0 0 0 c, = COS(:),
[t.'] = 0 0 0 c. - s, 0 s, =sin e,-
0 O D s , < :, 0
-2c,s, 2<:,s, 0 0 0 c? -si
- ' '-

E quation (2.188) m ay be written as

' = [7; ) E. (2.189)

The s ubscript E< re fers to the strain trans(om1ation. Yr'ithout a hat. T indicates
that o nJy t he three in plane stra in co 1npo nents are t ra nsforn1e d.

2.9.3 Transformation of the Stiffness and Compliance Matrices


The stress-strain relationships in the unprinled and primed coord inate systems
are (Eq. 2.22)
<7= (C] < " ' =(C'] <'. (2.190)

To oblain the relation bet\\een the stiffness n1atr ices in the unprimed lCJ
and prilne d (C'] coordinate syste111s, we n1ul ti ply bo th s ide.s of the s tress-strain
equation :in the unprimed coordinate system lby [t.]

[t. ].,. = [1;, )[C]<. (2.191)

i\ matrix multiplied by its inverse (1;J-' [1;] is a unit matrix. and we may write

tr.1.,. = 1t HCJ rtr' 1t1 (2.192)


o' (C']
"
By compa ring Eqs. (2.1 90) and (2.192), we see that the e le ments of the stiff-
c;
ness n1atr ix (q 1, 2..... C~,) in the primed (p' , qf, r') coord inate system a nd
54 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

the elements of the stiffness matrix (C11 C12 , C66 ) in the unprimed (p, q, r )
coordinate system are re lated by the expression

(C'J = [1;,JlCJlt.r' . (2.193)

The e len1e nts of the con1pliance ma trix (Sj 1, 5;1 . . . , S66 ) in the printe d (p'. q' .
r') coordina te system and the elememts of the compliance n1atrix (S1 I S12, . . . . SM,)
in the unprimed (p,q, r) coordina te system are obtained by inverting Eq. (2. 193)
a s follows:

(S'J = [1;JISl[1;,r' . (2.194)

Pla11e-stress a11d pla11e-strai11 co11diti.011s. Under planestress amd plane-


strain conditions \Ve are interested in t he stiffness and compliance matrices in
the p- q and p'- q' planes.
For plane-suess, the elements o f the stiffness n1atrix in the primed and un-
primed coordinate systems are Qi; and Q;;. where i, j = l, 2, 6. The re]ationship
between O';; and Q;; are given by the transformation specified by Eq. (2.193). The
r esult is

[ Q',,
Q',,
o;,
Q'n
g,,]= l J[Q"
Q',, T,, Q,,
Q,,
Q22 Q"]rr.r '.
Q,. (2.195)
Q,. e,. Q'. . Q l6 Qio Q..

where ( T,, Jand [7; Jare (Eqs. 2.182 and 2.188)

(T.J= [ c'
s' 2cs] s-'
cs]
s' c'
- cs cs
- 2cs
cl - sz
IT.I=
[ c'
s' c'
- 2cs 2c.f cl ~:~ . (2.196)

The elen1ents of the c<Hn pliance matrix in the unprimed coordinate system are
o btained by si111ilar reasoning and a.re

[s;,Si, s;,
.lb
s;,] = IT.I [s"s.,
s;,
s,,
S12
s,.]
s,. 1r.r'. (2.1 97)
s:. s,. s.,, s,. s,. .IO.;
Sin1ilarly, under plane~strain cond itions the stiffness and con1pliance 111atrices
are
c;2 C,,] c.,
[CJz
c,, Ci1 c;, = [T.J [C,,
C11
Cu c"]
c" tr.r' (2.198)
CJ6 Cit. C6,; C1() c,. c..

[ K, ,
Ki1 ,,
K,,
K,]
K,, = (7;] [R:,,
R11
R.,
R11
R,.]
Z;: ir. r ', (2. 199)
K,, Ki. ~. R,, R,.
where (T,, Jand [ 7; ] are given by Eq_. (2.196).
2.10 STRAIN ENERGY 55

2.10 Strain Energy


ln t his section '"e define three paran1eters useful in the analyses of plates and
bean1s. Tlhese are the strain energy, the potential of the external fore.es. and the
total potential e nergy.
For a line.arty elastic syste.n1, the strain en.ergy of volume V is defined as

V=~ .! ff (<,<t, +<,.o, +<,.<t, + y,._r,.,+y"~" + y,.,r,,.)dV. (2.200)

111is expression can be \\ritten as

dV. (2.201)

r.c;
r.1y

\Vith the use of the stress--strain rela tionships (Eq. 2.20) this expression can be
expressed in tern1s o f the strains, as follo\vs:

<x
'r
"
Yy::.
Yx;
dV. (2.202)

Yx,.

where [Cl is the stiffness n1atrix in the .r, y, l coordinate syste.1n . The strain e nergy
n1ust be positive ( U > 0) for any nonzero s train.
The potential of ll1e external forces is defined as

R= - .! JI (f,11 + f,.v + f,w)dV - ff (p,11 + p_, u + p,u1)dA


(2.203)

\I/here. \\'e recall, fx. [,.. /:.are lhe body forces (per unit volunte) and p.r. J1y . P::
are the surface forces (per unit area).
The total potential energy of t he system is

(2.204}

2.10.1 The Ritz Method


ln the R itz n1ethod the displace1nents a re assumed to be in t he fonn
K

u1 =
...L, ck'"" (2.205)
56 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

The displacen1ents u;. v;. uJk are conveniently chosen kno\\n functions that
must satisfy the geon1etrical boundary conditions. \\hereas Ai, Bj, C1:. are yet
unkno\\n constants.. According to the principle of stationary potential energy,
at equilibrium the potential energy (Eq. 2.204) must satisfy the conditions

~
aA; =0 . i = I. .. I

a:r, = o j = 1, J (2.206)
as,
3trp =0 k= l , ... , K.
ac,
The constants are pro,~ded by the solution of these equations.

2.11 Summary
The equilibriun1 equations and the stress-strain and strain- displacement reJa..
tionships presented in this chapter are summarized in 1hble 2.1 7 for ge nerally
anisotropic n1aterials a nd in Table 2.18 for 1nonoclinic materials.. Equations for
orthotropic, transve rsely isotropic. a nd isotropic. materials are the san1e as for
monoclinic n1aterials (Table 2.18) v.1th the e le n1ents of the stiffness a nd compli
ance m atrices s implified according lo Eq~ (2.95)-(2.97)
The unknowns of interest for generally anisotropic n1aterials are sun1marized
in Table 2.19 and for n1onoc.linic., orthotropic., tra nsversely isotropic, and isotropic
materials in Table. 2.20. It is evident that under plane.s tress and plane-strain con
cflitions the number of unknowns is reduced and the equations are sin1plified.

2.11.1 Note on the Compliance and Stiffness Matrices


[n this section. v.e give proof of the in1portant statement that the con1pliance matrix
(and consequently its inverse the s t!iffness tnatrix) must be positive definite , and
s.yn1n1etrical.
\Ve consider a sn1all cube n1ade of a linearly e lastic material. 111is initially stress
f.ree cube is deformed. During this defom1ation the internal energy (in this case,
the strain e ne rgy) changes. Since initially the cube is stress free, the deformation
results in a positive change in thestr.ain energy5 (aU U > 0). This requiren1ent
may be expressed as (see Eq. 2.202}

<x
'<y' fy

l<x y
'~ Yy.;: Y.T~ y.Ty llC]
"
Vy.:
Y.t;
> 0 when
"
V.r~
Y.t .;:
#0.

Y xy Y.ty
(2.207)

5 L. E. ~iahcrn . /111roduaiori 10 1/u J\/ec/1onics of a Co111i1111{)1t.f A1edirdn. PrcnticcH:i.U. Englewood


Cliffs. New Jcri:c\'. 1969. o. 292.
2.11 SUMMARY 57

Table 2.17. The equations for a generally anisotropic material


Equilibrium Strain-displacement Stres;s...strain
Three-dimensional 2.13, 2.14. 2.15 2.2. 2.3, 2.4. 2.9-2.1l 2.20
Plane-strain
Free e nd 2.59, 2.60. 2.61 2.54 2.56 257 2.62
Built-in ends 2.59, 2.60. 2.61 2.99 2. !01, 2.102 2.103
Plane-stre.ss 2.122, 2.123 2.2. 2.3, 2.ll 2.126

Table 2.18. The equations for a monoclinic material. The equations lor ortllotropic,
transversely Isotropic, and isotropic materials are the same as tor monoclinic materials with
the stiffness and compllan<e matrix elements simplified as specified in Eqs. (2.95H2.97).

E"'itibrium Strain-displacement Stres$-Slrain


Three-dimensional 2.1.l, 2.14. 2.15 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.9-2.J l 2.20
Plane--strain. Cree end
Jn-ph1ne loa<l 2.74. 2.75 2.68.2.71 2.76
End axial load
End moment
Out-Of-pla ne load 2.86 2.84 2.87
Torque.
Plane.-strain. built-in e nds
Jn-ph1ne load 2.74. 2.75 2.107. 2.110 2.11 1
Out-Of-pla ne load 2.86 2.117 2.119
Plane-stre.ss 2.130. 2.13 1 2.2, 2.3. 2.11 2.134

Table 2.19. The unknowns in the equations for generally anisotropic


materials.
OislJlacements Strains. Stresses
Three-d i1ne nsional u. v. w Ex. f >, <Er a,,, a.,, 11t
Ytt )"., ~. Y...y r,.t. r., z T.1.y
Plane-strain
Fret e nd u. v. w E., . f 1 a,., a v
Y,:, Y1:, Y..-, r1: r., : r..,.
Built-in ends u , v.w .,._ E ~ C11., <1.v
Y~ Yxt<, Y1.) l y:. l.~~ T-1y

Plane-s1ress u, " _.. E)' y_._., C11.. <1.v, r_,~


58 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, ANO STRESSES

Table 2.20. The unknowns in the equations fnr monoclinic, orthotrople,


transverse!~ Isotropic, and Isotropic materials

Displacements Strains
Thre.e-d imensional a 1. aha:1
r 2.;, ru, T1i

Pla.ne.-strain. Cree e nd
In -plane. load
E nd axial load u1. tti fl ,~;:. }'I? a1.~. Tl ?
Endmomenl
Ou t-Of-p lane load u_, Y.z3', Yu T;:.;, T u
Torque
Plane-s1rain. built-in e.nds
Jn-plane load u,, u2 f t. E?, YU a i, a1. r 11
Ou t-of-p lane load II_!. Y?.t , YU T?_!., TIJ
Plane-stress llJ. U? f J, t~. Yll a1. a1, ru

The preceding inequality requires that [CJ be positivedefinite.6 (Correspond-


ingly. [3l [CJ a nd (SJ must a lso be positive definite.) The manner in which we
can detern1ine \\he ther or not (C] is positive definite is discussed subse.q ue nt ly
( page 59).
First we show that the compliauce n1atrix must be symme tricaL To this end
we apply loads in four steps (Fig. 2.36) to o ur initially stress-free c ube made of an
elastic ma teria l.
(a) A te nsile load p (pe r unit a re a) is a pplie d in the x direction. As t he result
of this load "' = p is the only nonzero stre.ss in t he n1aterial. The s trains are
(see Eq. 2.21)

(2.208)

The \vork is

W' = 1,.
'<r,,d<,, + 1 ,.. 1
' u, d<y = 2S11 p1 . (2.209)

(b) t\n additional te nsile load p is a pplie d in tbe y dire ct ion. Tile stresses in

.
t he n1aterial becon1e dx = Cfy = p. a.nd the corresponding strains are
-
,, = Sup + Sup
- (2.210)

The 'vork is

(2.21 1)

t E. Krcyslig, Ad\atlCt!lf E11g i11etri11g .\ldtJ1011u1itt 7th Edition. John \ ViJcy & Sons. New York. 1993.
p. 407.
2.11 SUMMARY 59

i" !"
P<-
b ~p
x
+
D
!,, +
P-->D<- 1'
+
D
i,,
(a/ (b) (c-t (d )
Figure 2.36: Hlustralion o f the (our load steps.

(c) An additio na l com pressive load p is ap.plied in the x directio n. The stresses
in the ma te ria l becon1e '1x = 0, a.\) = p, a nd the corresponding s tra ins are

(2.21 2)

The \vo rk is

(2.213)

(d} An a dd itional compressive load p is a pplie d in they direction. The stresses


in the m ate rial beoon1ea., =<Ty = O,and thecorrespo ndingstrains arel; = ,;~ = 0.
The \vork is

(2.21 4}

111e total 'vork done o n tbe cube is

11' = W" + W" + W" + W' = (S,, - S11)p'.


1
(2.215}

Fo r ao elasilc ma te rial tbe total work is ze ro. Accordingly, we 111usi have

(2.216}

By sintilar argun1ents it can be sho\vn tha t

S;i = S ji ;, ; = t. 2, . . . 6. (2.217}

Thus, <h e compliance m a<rix of a n elastic m at eria l [SJ


(and correspondingly [CJ.
(CJ, and (SJ) must be symme tr ical.
Next " 'e d iscuss the condit ions t ha t e nsure a con1plian ce n1atrix is positive
definite. A syn1me tricaJ matrix is positive de finite \Vhen each of its e igenva lues
is positive. 7 Th\L~. to determine ""he the r or no t the m atrix is positive definite \Ve
n1ust exan1ine the e igenvalues o f lhe con1plianc.e (or s t1ffness) m atrix.
For ortho uop ic, tra nsversely isotropic, and isotropic n1ateria ls the re is a sim-
ple r metho d fo r detenn ining \\'he ther or not the con1plia nce (or stiffness) ma trix:

1 F. B. Hilde brand. ,\ft 1!1od.t nf Applied Alar/ie111a1ic.t. 2tld edition. Prcnti.x. Hall. Engle1,1,ood Cliffs.
New Jct'SC-y, 1965. p. 48.
60 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES

:is positive definite. The sin1pler me thod utilizes the condition that t he n1at rix is
:positive de finite whe n e ve.r y subdeterminant of the main diagonal is positive.8
Fo r an ortho tro pic n1aterial the .compliance 1natrix is (Eq. 2.28)

S11 S12 Su 0 0 0
s,, s,, Sn 0 0 0
s,_, S" S;u 0 0 0
(2.218)
[SJ =
0 0 0 s.. 0 0
0 0 0 0 Sss 0
0 0 0 0 0 s,..
The follo\\'ing subdeterminants n1ust all be positive:

D1= S11 > 0 Di = S22>0 i), =Sn > O (2.219)


D, = S.u > O Ds =S,,>0 D.= S.. > 0

[),3 =Is,,
- Sn ~:I> 0 Dt .J--Is"
Su Sul > 0
Sn
D12=IS11
Su_ Su
s,,, > 0

(2.220)

S11 S12 Su
D113 = s,, S22 Su > 0. (2.221)
Su s ,_, S;u
'vhere I I denotes the determinant. Since th e stiffn ess n1atrix is the inverse of the
complian ce n1atrix, according to the rules o ( n1atrix inversion the e len1e nts of the
:main diagonal o f the stiffness matri:.x a re
D1-, DI.\ D12
C11 = - - C,, = - - C.u = - -, (2.222)
D12l Di 23 D 1:2J

"\vhere D,J , Du, a nd D 12 are positive \\he n Cu . C12, and C33 a re positi\re,
C11 > 0 C.u > 0, (2.223)
.and. at the same time, D i 21 is positive. Thus. the require ment for positive definite-
n ess is n1et when aJI three of t he follo \\ing cond itions a re me t:

the e le n1ents of the n1ain diagonal of the con1pliance n1atrix are positive
(Eq . 2.2 19),
the dete rminant o f the compliance ma trix is positive (Eq. 2.221), and
the e len1e nts or the ma in diagonal or the stiffness ma trix are positive
(Eq. 2.223).
The san1e conditions a pply for t ra nsve rsely isotropic a nd isotro pic ma te ria l" .
.If the relevant eleme nts of the compliance and s tiffness n1atrices a re presented in

K E. Krcysi.ig. Ad11tutce1/ Eri1:i1tttnng 1\l athentaric.t. 7th e-dition. Jo hn \\'ilcy & Sons.. New York. 199J.
p. 407.
2.11 SUMMARY 61

Table 2.21. The constraints on the engineering con.slants.


Ortho1ropic 1 > 0 E'!. > 0 1 > 0
G-i.1 > 0 Gu > 0 Gu > 0
r, 1 1:, 2 1 t \
I - 1'.?.1 I; ~ 1,
- '1: ~ - P11 n1>:_t "1 - ''11""( > 0
, 1.,
Vit < 'l;
!J.
''i1 < T,
!J.
l 'j1 < f.;

Trans"ersely 1 > 0, E: > 0. G1: > 0


isotropic - 1 < ::.< I - l~ f!
l !!.
''1! < t:

Isotropic , > 0
- 1 <Pu <0.S

terms of the engineering constants (see 'Thbles 2.7 and 2.9. pages 15 and 18) the
preceding conditions can be expressed in ltrms of the engineering constants. De
tails of the algebraic manipulauons are not given here. The results are summarized
in Table 221.9
2.4 Example. The e11ginetri11g co11stt1111s of " grophitt rpoX)' u111dir~ctio11ol pl)'
are givm <IS E, = 148 x !09 Nlm2, E2 = 9.65 x 10" Nlm1 G" = 4.55 x 10" N/11i1.
1111 = 0.3, and l 12J = 0.6. D~ttr1111nt \i'htther or not tllu srt of c.onsuuus is va/ld.

Solution. There 3rc t\VO ways 10 find the nns\vcr to t his problem.
Method I. The complinnce ma trix i (Eq. 2.4 1)

6.76 - 2.0:1 - 2.03 () 0 0


- 2.03 103.63 - 62. 18 0 0 0
- 2.03 - 62.18 I 03.63 () 2
0 ()
io-12~ .
ISi = 0 0 0 331.6 1 0 0 N
0 0 0 () 219.78 0
0 0 0 () () 2 19.78
(2.224)

11\e eigenvalues (A )( IO""V) or this 1nat rix arc


0.0065 0.0417 0.1658 0.2 198 0.2198 0.33 16.
Since every eigenvalue is positive. the specified scl of engineering constants is
valid.
Method 2. For a transversely iso1ropic 1naLcnal Lhe engineering constants must
satisfy the inequalities in Table 2.21. In tcnn.s of the cnsmeering constants these
inequalities are

(2.225)

8. ~t Ltmpnere. J\)woca's Rat.o in Onho1te'lipk ~l*11.1b.. A/AA klwMI. Vol. 1. ll.lfr2ll1. l96&.
62 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, ANO STRESSES

or

- 1 < 0.6 < 0.988 0.09 < 15.3. (2.226)

S ince the inequalities are satisfied, the specified set of engineering constants
is valid.
Let us no\\' assun1e that 112 1 = 0.3. In this case 1.112 = ~! v21 = 4 .601 (see
Table 2.8, page 16), and the compllance matrix (Table 2.7, third row, page 15)
is

6.76 - 31.09 - 3 1.09 0 0 0


- 31.09 103.63 - 62.18 0 0 0
(SJ =
- 31.09 - 62.18 103.63 0 0 0 10.- 12 m' .
0 0 0 331.61 0 0 N
0 0 0 0 219.78 0
0 0 0 0 0 219.78
(2.227)
The eigenvalues (J. x 10') are
- 0.0232 0.0714 0.1 658 0.2198 0.2198 0.3316.
One of the eigenvalues is negative; hence. the specified set of en.gineering
constants is invalid. We reach the sanne co nclusion if v.e use the inequalities given
by Eq. (2.225) since two of the inequalities are not satisfied:

- 1 < 0.6 ~ - 1.76 21.2 ~ 15.3. (2.228)

TI1L< example illll<trates that t'3re should be taken to use proper values of the
Poisson ratios. The v12 and v21 Poisson ratios (re fe rre d to as the n1ajor and n1inor
Poisson ratios} must not be intercha nged.
CHAPTER THREE

Laminated Composites

Composites arc frequently made of layers (plies) bonded toge ther to Com1 a lam
inate (Fig. 3. 1). A layer may consist of short fibe rs. unidircctionol continuous
Obcrs, o r woven o r braided 6bers embe dded in a matrix (Fig~ I. I ond l.2). A layer
containing \VOvcn or braided fibers is referred to a.s fabric.
Adjacent plies having the same mate-rial and the sam e. orientation a re referred
to as a pl) group. Since the properties and the orientations are the same ac-r oss
the ply group. ply group may be treated as o ne layer.

3.1 Laminate Code


An x. y. l orthogonal coordinate sys:1em is used in analyzing lamin:ttcs \vilh the
z coordinMc being perpendicular to the plane of the laminate (Fig. 3.2).
TI1e o rientntior1s o f continuous.. unidirectional plies are specified by the angle fo)
(in degree) with respect to the x-axis (Fig. 3.2). The angle 9 is positive in the
cowne rclock\vise direction. The number of pl:ies within n ply group is spec-ifie<l by
a nun1eric;1J sub.~cri1>t. For e xan1ple, the lan1ionte consisting or unidirectional plies
and sho,vn in Figure 3.3 is designated as

[45J/OJ/'>0,/60J.

This laminate contains (our ply groups. the first containing three plies in the
45degree direction. the second containing four plies in the ()..degree direction, the
third containing t\\-'O plies in the 90-degree direction. the founh containing one
ply in the 6().dcgrcc direction.

Symmetrical lamina te. When the laminate is S)'11Ullelrical wilh respect to the
midplane it is referred to as a symmetrical laminate. Examples of symmetrical
lamina tes nrc shown in Figure 3.4. The lamin a tes represented in Figure 3.4 are

63
64 LAMINATED COMPOSITES

Figure. 3.1: Laminated composite.

Figure 3.2: The x, y. z laminate coordinate.syste m, the X1 . xi . X') ply coordina te system. and the
ply angle.

6-0
90
n
0
n
0
45
45
45
Figure 3.3: Description o( t he la)up in a 1.aminatc consL.;ting of unidirectional plies
[45,/0,/9Cl.i/60J.

-45 45
-45 -45
0 -45
0 "
0 45
-45
"
- 45 -45
- 45 45
f-45,IO,J, (4SJ-45/ 4S),
Figure 3.4: E)'.amplcs of symmctncal lamb1ale$.
3.2 STIFfN ESS MATRICES OF THIN IAMINATES 65

- 45 45
., ..,
- 30 '"
lO - 30
90 - 30
90 30
45 - 45
45 45
[45f 90,130/-30/-451] (451-451301- 30),
Figure 3.5: E:tamplcs of lialan ccd laminates.

specified as

(- 452/0,/- 452] l- 452/02],


(45/ - 45,/45,/-45,/ 45] (45/- 45,/45(, .
The subscript s indicates symme try about the 1nidplan e.

Balanced laminate. ln balanced laminates, for every ply in the +0 direction there
is an identical ply in the - f) direction. Examples of balanced laminates are s hown
in Figure 3.5.

Cross ..pl.r laminates. In cross-ply laminates fibers are o nly in the o.. and 90-degree
directions (Fig. 3.6). Cross-ply laminates 1nay be symn1e trical or unsyn1metrica l.
Since ther e is no d istinction bet\\een the +o and - 0 and bet\veen the +90- and
- 00-degree directions, c ross.ply la n1ina tes are balanced.

Angleply laminate. Angleply lan1inates consist of plies in the + f.) and - e di ..


rections. Angle ply laminates may by syn1me trical or unsy1nme trical, balanced or
unbalanced. Examples of angle..ply lan1inates are shown in Figure 3.7.

n / 4 laminate. tr/ 4 la n1inates consist of plies in v.hich t he fibe rs are in the o., 45..,
and - 45degree directions. The numbe r of plies in each d irection is t he san1e
9() .. ,
(balanced laminate). In addition, the layup is a lso S)'lllme trical.

3.2 Stiffness Matrices of Thin Laminates


Thin Jami nates are characterized by three s ti.ffness matrices deno te d by I A), [BJ,
and I DJ. I:n t his section \Ve determine t hese m.a trices for thin, flat lan1inates under
goingsmaill de forn1ations. The analyses are based on the laminate plate theory and
are fom11.Jla ted using the a pproximations that the s trains \'ary linearly across the

[90,!02] (CW90],
l-igurc 3.6: Examples o( cross-ply lam inalcs.
66 IAMINATEO COMPOSITES

-45
-45 30
45 30
" - 30 figure 3.7: Exumplc;S of angle-ply la minales.
- 30
"'
-45 - 30
[- 30,!30,J

laJninate., (out..of-plane) shear deforn1ations are negligible, a nd the outtOf plane


nom1al stress <1~ and the shear stresses 1'.v~. 1'y z are sn1all compared \\~ th the in
plane ax. ay, and Try stresses. These approxin1ations imply that the stress-stra in
relationships under planestress conditions may be applied. The x. y , .z refer to
a coordinate syste m \vith the x and y coordinates in a suita bly chosen :reference
plane, a nd t is perpendicular to this reference plane (Hg. 3.8).
Freque.n tly, though not a lways, fo r convenience the reference plane i:s take n to
be t he n1idplane of t he lan1inate. Unless the Jan1inate is syn1n1etrical 'vith respect
to the reference plane, tbe reference plane is not a neutral plane, and the strains in
the reference plane are not zero und e r pure bending. The strains in the :reference
p lane are (see Eqs. 2.2. 2.3, a nd 2. I I)
(I auo
<x =IJx
- (3.1)

..:vhere" and u are the x , y con1ponents o( the d isplacen1ent and the superscript 0
refers to the reference plane.
\Ve adopt the Kirchhoff hypothesis. nan1ely, that normals to the :reference
surface re main normal and straight (Fig. 3.9). Accordingly, for small deflections
the angle of ro tation of the nom1al of the reference plane X.t t is

(3.2)

..:vhere w 0 is the out-of-plane displacement of the re (erence plane. The total dis
placement in the x direction is
au:(l
1' = tt 0
-
'=U
Z;t..x
0
- z--
ax (3.3)

Sin1ilarly, the total d isplacement in the y direction is


8uJ0
v= 0
tt - ~ --. (3.4)
ay

Figure 3.8: 1bc coordinate S)'Stcm.


3.2 STIFfNESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 67

\ Xr:

w
I)' .4'

"l . , ~
Reference plillle/
A
Figure 3.9: .Deformation o( a plate jn the :r-z plane.

By definition, the strains are (Eqs. 2.2, 2.3, 2.11)

-- --
.T -
au
ax y -
au
ay Y.,,.= .--+-a
uy X
an
.
au

Substituting Eqs. (3.3) a nd (3.4) into these expressions. we obtain


(3.5)

au 0 a2 w(J
lx = -.- - z--,
ax ax-
ali(J i)21JJU
'=-
' ay - z--
ay'
(3.6)

au 0
au0 2a2 u/ '
= -;;-
YJt~'
Y + 7uX - z-::;--;-
oxoy

These equations can be v.ritten in the following form:

(3.7)

where t;, '~ Y.~~ are the s trains in the refere nce plane (Eq. 3.1), and K., , Ky , and
Kry are the curvatures of the reference pla ne o f the plate (Fig. 3.10) defined as

(3.8)

The inplane forces and mon1ents acting o n a sn1all elen1ent are (Fig. 3.11 )
,,, ,,, ,,,
N., = j a, dz N1 = f a1dz N.t:,. = J fxydl

'"
- /11,
-'" - Ju.
(3.9)

M, = j zr1,dz M, = j ur, dz M.xy = J'"zrJl>'dz.


- - li.
68 IAMINATED COMPOSITES

z
'
Dcformrd
Refere-nee .Plane

y y

Undefomte.d
b Refere-nee P lane b

, _4+/,l- 1.
,...,,, - l
-t ,.;=1>-=0
' ,, ' '
Figure 3.10: 'fbe cunatures K~- .r,.. an d I(~, o f the refere.nee plane.
'"here N and Mare the in ~pla ne forces a nd moments (per unit le ngth), a nd /J 1 and
J,. a re the distances from the reference plane to the plate's surfaces (Ftg. 3.12).
The transverse shear forces (per unit le ngth) a re (Fig. 3. 11 , right)
h, h,

_.f
\I, = \I.,= / r.,dz. (3.10)
,_ r,,dz -/~

\Ve no\\' recall that (or planestress condition the stress-strain rela tionships/or
ead1ply are (Eq. 2.126)

(3. I I)

/
x
-.
~ ... .. .....
.~Jtl!P
- y

Figure 3.1 l: The-in-plan e forces acting at t he refere-nee- plane (left) and !he moments a nd the
L!rnnncn.e-shear forces (right).
3.2 STIFFNESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 69

I:.,;~------~-----~
1 ~~~~2is
Rcfcrc-ncc Plane
- ---=-
- . -. z,_._ " -

Figure 3.12: Oislances from lhc reference plane.

By introducing the notation

(3.12)

we \\rite the stress- strain relationships for a ply as

:; } = [Q] { :; } . (3.13}
{
'l'x>' Yxy

where (Q] is the stiffness matrix of the ply in the x- y coordinate system. The e le
me n ts of this stiffness ma trix a re obtained fro111 the e lements of the stiffness ma trix
( QJin the x , - xi coordinate system by the transfom1ation given by Eq. (2. l 95).
By replacing ( QJand [Q' I by l Q] a nd ( QJ, respectively. Eq. (2. 195) yields

Q,, Q,.]
Q,, Q,. [T.), (3.14)
Q,. Q..

where [T,,) and [ 7; J are given by Eq. (2.196) and are re iterate d below,

IT.I=[:::: - cs cs
_;~:: ]
c1 - s2
s'
(7; ) = [ :: c'
- 2cs 2cs
cs]
- cs .
cl - ..,.2
(3.15)

and c = cos f), s = sin fl \11th fl defined in Figure 3.2. For an orthotropic ply the
Joe.al coord inates X1. xi are in the o rthotropy directions. For transversely isotropic
plies these local coordinates are parallel and poerpendicular to th e fibers (Fig. 2.15).
For orthottropic and transversely isotropic nlateriaJs the elements of the stiffness
nlatrix io the global coordinate syste.m are giveo in T.i.ble 3.l in tern1s o( the
elements of the stiffness ma trix in the local coordinate systen1.
70 LAMINATED COMPOSITES

Table 3.1. The elements of the (OJmatrix for an


olhotroplc or transversely lsoltoplc ply oriented fn
the +e direction (Ag 3.2)

Q11 = c'Q11 +s'Qu + 2c's1(Qi:+2(1..)


Qu ='Q,. + c'Q,, + 2c's'(Qu + 2(1,.)
Q11 = <'' (Qu + Qu - 4Q..) +(c' +1')Q11
Q.. = c's'(Q,. + Qu -2Qul +(<' - 1 1l' Q..
'Q,. = u(c'Q,. - 1'Q,, - " -s1 )( Q u + 2Q..))
Q,. = <s(s'Q., - <'Q,, + (<' -s')(Q,, +2Q..)l
CecC(ld:0 SSin9

By substituting Eqs. (3.7) ond (3.13) in10 Eq. (3.9). we obtain

= J.. {*"! }+ J. :IQ]dz {"}


_,h.,
(Q)1tz
Y,,
.:
- 1r.. Kxr
(3.16)

= Jz[Q)dz <"1, } + .f.. z'IQldz { , ;


J,. { K }
. (3.17)
- 111+ Y,ly ..Jti. K,ty

Tbe stiffness ma1rices of lhc laminate are defined ns

..
[ Aj = f.. [Q)d~
_
..
(BJ= f.. z(Q]d~
_
(3.18)

..
(DI= f i(Q]dz.
_..
3.2 STIFl'N ESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 71

The ele111cn1s of lhese matrices are (i. j = l. 2. 6)


...f f.. xQ,,tlx
b,

,,,, = Q,,tlz B;, =


.
(3.19)

D,, =
...f ::'{1,,tlt.

The IAJ. IBJ, nod IDI matricesarethestiffn.essmatricesofthc lamin.1e. and fQI


is 1he s1iffl1css n1a1rix of 1he ply. Since I QJ is constant across each ply.1he in1cgrals
in the cqualion. above (Eq. 3.1 9) may be replaced by summations (Fig. 3.1 2) as
follows (i. j = I, 2. 6):
K
A,i = ~)011l>(t - <:t- 1)

B., = i1..f-
-
- ' - ,-,_,)
L.)Q.,l.(z; ..2 (3.20)

O., = 31..f-
-
- J - ..._,).
L.)Q,,lt(z, _,

-
where K is the total number of plies (or ply groups) in the laminate: :,a.. ~1 are the
distances from the reference plane 10 the two surfaces or the l<lh ply: and ( Q.,l
are the elements of the stiffne.ss matrix of the k'th ply.
With Lhc preceding definitions of the stiffness matrices. Lhc expressions for the
in-piano forces and mo ments (Eqs. 3.16 and 3.17) become

N,, A11 A 11 A1 8,1 Bu 810 ,;


Ny A11 lb2 Ai 8 12 8 22
8 10 B,.
82
Bo.
"
y"'
i'l..y
M,
=
A10 A16
811 812 ""
8,. Du D12 D1 "
K_.
(3.21)

M, 811 Bi. Du o,.


J\1,, Ba. Bi.
8 21
&,.
'"'
D 11

Di. 0,,, 0.. '"


The ''cctors on the left and right hand side repre.sent generalized forces and
strains. Hereafter. we simply refer to these as forces and strains.
By inverting EqL (3.21). we obtain the strains and curvotures in 1erms of the
in-plane forces and moments:

' "" 01! "b /l11 fJu fl1 N,


1;
y,.~.
au:
" 1
= /i11 /b
tt21
U2b .
0'26
.,
p,,
p.,
fJ22
{J.,
{J,.

...,,,.
{J..
N,
lV....11 (3.22)
"'
.."'',,
Jl<,1 611
/l11 /J22 Jl<.2 &11
/J10 /Ji /J.. S1
&12

"22
Si . ...
M..
J\1
M_.,
72 lAMJNATED COMPOSITES

The (a), [Jl], and IS) mat rices are rela ted to the I A], [BJ, and [DJ matrices by
- I

"" "" " fJ11


flu
{J,,
{J,, fJ1
A11
A12
A 12 /\16 B11
812
B,,
B,,
B1
B,_,,
U"12 <>22 /12 Ai{,
""' fJ., A12

A.. B,. Bu. s..


~:j =
C/1 ci,,, Cl"' /J.2 A1 A16

/111 /321 II ~II


fJ., ~1 2
li11 B11 B 12 B,. D11 D11 D1
{J12
{J,.
/121
{Ju, {J.. ~. 821
B,.
8 2&
8..
812
B,.
812
B,.
B,.
a,,,
D 12
D1
f),..l Dz.
Di. 0..
(3.23)

3.2.1 The Significance of the [A), (8), and [OJ Stiffness Matrices
The [A], I BJ, and [DJ matrices represent the stiffnesses of a lamina te a nd describe
the response of the la1ninate to in-plane fo rces a nd n1on1ents.

A;1 are the inplan e stiffnesses that relate the in .. pla ne fore.es N,, , 1".v,
N .xy to
the in-plane deformations ~;, .:~. Y.~'.w
Dt; are the bending stiffnesses that relate the moments ,\(" ,\<fy. J\.(1 >' to the
curvatures K.r . K y, Kx>"

Table 3.2. llustration of the coupling terms A16, 016, 11,6 , Bi 1, 11,,. B,. for
composite materials. When the element shown in the last column is zero, there is
no coupling. (The coupling terms A26 , o,.,
826 , B., can be illustrated in a similar
manner by applying a force N, and a moment M, in the y-z plane.)
C-Oupfing No C-Oupling Bement
E." tc11s:ion- s:l11:mr
N~..:o,.. ~
.. + N
... ..... ......
,.
No
~: ---------.
..

...........
:..

N
:~
'
t

Bcudin~-1 wi~1; . ...

,11g:::~.. ,('iM,
Extension- t.\\ist
N z.---- --7,
+-1,'
' .......... ,.
Nr
,' -+ .Bu.

.811

-~_.-z ; :z------;z;:.!,
.. . ............ , .Bu

~.-z--z:,
........ .. . ..
_}
3.2 STIFFNESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 73

Table 3.3. llustraUon of the coupling terms A,,, 012 that may be present
both In composite and in isotropic materials. When the element sh<lwn In
the last column is zero, there is no coupling.

Coupling No Coupling Element


Extcu.sioa-extcuslou
~
Iii : o---------.
~-
:-...
-........ .
N
j
'l'D
+-:
./ . .
"fl'
:-.
~

' .!

Bending- bcndiu.g
,., ..... . .. .. ....
M;(....._ji\f, M,,g'. ... _jM, o,,

~; are the in-plane-out-of-plane coupling stiffnesses that relate the in -plane


foroes N.r1 NJ' 1 N.1:y to t he curvatures"'"")'' K.ry and t he n1oments 1\(.0 J\~v 1
M..~y to the inp lane defonuations f;, ' ;~ r:,..

Examination of the [AJ, (BJ, and (DJ matrices shows that different types of
couplings Jnay occur as discussed belov. and illustrated in Tables 3.2 a nd 3.3.

E.xten.\iori-shear coupling. \Vhen t he eleme nts A 16 , A26 are not zero, in-plane
normal forces N1:. N,., cause shear deforn1ation Y:y and a t\\ist force 1V:t}' causes
elongatious in the x and y d irections.

Bending-t,vist coupling. \Vhen the elen1ents D16 , Di,6 are not zero, bending mo
n1ents J\fJ. , J\fy ca\L~e t\\~st of the lan1inate ><.1..v and a t'vist n1oment J\1J.'Y causes
curvatures in the x- z and y-z planes.

Exteru.io11-t" ist and bending-shear coupling. \\'hen the elements 8 16 , 816 are
1

not zero, in ~ plane normal fore.es Nx. Ny cause 1v.~st K.vy. and bending moments J\1x.
11~fy result in shear deformation Y.~y

lnplane-out-ofp lane coupling. \\'hen the e len1ents B;; are not zero, inplane
forces Nx. Ny. N11,, cause outofplane deformations (curvatures) of the lan1inate,
and mon1ents i\1.x. i\11.v, i\1.xy cause in~plane deformations in t he x- .v plane.
The preceding four types o f coupling are Characte ristic of composite n1aterials
and do not occur in homogeneous isotropic n1aterials. The foJJowing l\vo couplings
occur in both composite and isotropic n1aterials (Table 3.3):

Exteru.ion-exteosion coupling. \\'hen the ele ment A12: is not zero, a normal force
f;,
Nx causes elongation in the y direction and a no nnal force 1\J_\. causes elongation
in the x d~ rect ion f~ .

Bending- bending coupling. \Vhen the element D12 is not zero, a bending nton1ent
i\11,. c.a\L~es cunature of the laminate in the y- z plane ><y. and a bending n1on1ent
My causes curvature of the laminate in the x- .t plane Kx.
74 LAMINATED COMPOSITES

::1.2.2 Stiffness Matrices for Selected Laminates


For certain ply arrangen1e nts (layu ps). son1e of the couplings described do not
occur, and the (A), [BJ, [DJ matrices become simpler.
Sy1t1111etrical /a111i11ale. In a syn1metrical laminate the ply located a t a position
+ t is identical to the ply at -t. Ce>rrespoodingly, the stiffness matrix I QJ of the
p ly at +t is identical to the stiffness matrix of the ply at - t:

IQJ(z) = IQJ (- t) . (3.24)

By substiluting t hese stiffnesses into Eq. (3.18), we find that the l BJmatrix is
zero:

( BJ = 0 (symmetrical). (3.25)

Thus., for a symmetrical laminatte there is no in..plane- out-of plane coupling.


.and Eq. (3.21) m luces lo

'} [A" A
{N "] {'; } A 11
JVy = A11 A iz A26 f~ (3.26)
N1.:y A1n A1ft ,i\,(, y~,

{M' } [~'Di6
D 12
M, = ~, Da
D 16] {~y
D,..b
Kx } . (3.27)
A1xy Du. DM 1i:.,J'

\Vhen the laminate is syn1metr icaJ, the compliance n1atrix is generally ex


pressed as

[a"
a 11
& 12
&zz
16
a ] = [a11
&26 012.
0 12
022
a1
a,.] [~"8,2
812
811
8,.] = [d"
826 d 12
d,,
tl12
a,.]
du ,
a,. '126 Ctt-6 O t6 a,. a,,. .St6 {jzo li(,6 d16 d26 d,,.
(3.28)

'vhere

'"fr,
A12
["" a,. ". ] [A"Ai
a 12
a,2 22
16
ll26 =
A
12
A12 Az (3.29)
Ail> 1166
llt6 {/

[d" ~
D12
d 12
d12 th2 d,.
d,.] = [D11
D11 Di2 . (3.30)
d,. d16 d.. Di D26 D,.
3.2 STIFfN ESS MATRICES OF THIN IAMINATES 75

The relationships between the strains and c urva tures and the fo rces and mo
ments (Eq. 3.22) now simplify to

{y1;.E;} [""ll1~
Eu = a1,
ll]l

a22
"'] {,~, }
a2n 1Vy (3.31)
1 1VXJ'

{ Kx }
Ky = [ d11
lf12
d12
d21
d1]
d16
M, }
{:\1y . (3.32)
"'Y d16
d,. d66 ,,,JI)'
Balanced la111i11ate. In a balance d Jan1inate, for every unidirectional ply in
the +f>direction (1neasured co unte rclock,vise fro1n the x coord inate) t he re is an
identical ply in the - H direction. The e lements of the stiffness matrix I QJ are
given in Table 3.1 (page 70). Fron1 this ta ble 've deduce that the e le n1eots of the
stiffness matrices of plies in the +f) and - f> d irections are related as follo \\s:

Q ll(+<>) = Q ll(- <>) Q.?2(+9) = <222(-ft)

Q l1(+0J = 0 12( - 0) Q66(+9) = 'Q.,,._.., (3.33)


Q16(+") = - Q i(- 9 ) 'Q,,,..,..., = - Q,,.,_.,)
By substit ut ing t hese ele ments into the e xpression o( t he stiffness n1atrix in
Eq. (3.20), we find that
A 16 =Au;= 0. (3.34)
111e structure or the stiffness matrix given in Table 3.4 shov.s that there is no
exte nsion- shear coupling in a balanced laminate (Table 3.5). (Note tliat A1. a nd
A26 a re ze ro o nly in the x- y coordinate syste1n.)
Ele1ne nts Au, a nd A26 are zero for syn1n1e tric-al a nd unsynunetrical lan1ina tes.
Correspondingly, for symme tric.al ba lanced la n1ina tes the Ot 6 and a26 e le ments ol
the compHance ma trix are zero (016 = 0 and a26 = 0). However, for unsyrnmetrica]
balanced Jan1inates no ne of the e le n1ents o( t he con1pliance n1atrix is zero (see
Eq. 3.22).
Ortltotropic la111i11ale. In orthotropic lanl.in ates v.e are interested in tv.o mu
tually pe rpe nd icular directions, called orthottropy direct'ions, in the plan e of the
lamin ate. Norn1al forces and bending n101ne nts applied in these directions do
not cause shear or tv.ist of the lamina te. Hence, t he re are no extension- shear,
bendi ng-~'vist, and extension- twist couplings.
A lantina te is orthotropic v.he n every ply is o rt hotropic and the orthotropy di
rect:ionscoincide with the x and )' directions. Fiber-reinforced plies a re o rtho tropic
under the fo llowing conditions:

\Vbe n the ply is n1ade of unidirectiona l fibe rs and au the fibers are aligned \vith
one of the lan1inate's ortho tropy d irections (Fig. 3.13);
76 LAMINATED COMPDSITES

Table 3.4. The [AJ, [BJ, [OJ matrices for laminates. When the laminate Is
symmetrical, the [BJmatrix is zero. Cross-ply laminates are otthotroplc.
[AJ (BJ [DJ
Symmelric.al

[~ ~]
0
[A,'
Au
A"]
A" 0
['' '' D"]
Du
"'"''
An D 22

Bab1nce<l
A.M A" 0
''
o.. D ,. [),.,

["''"'' JJ
0
Au
A,,
0
[Bu
B,.
Bu

B,,,
B"]
B12 Bn lJy,
B w..
Du '' D
[''
o..
o,."]
o,.
D ii
Dir.

Orthotropit

[All A11
1J '' JJ ['''' l]
[Bu Bu Dn
Dn
"''
0
Ai.?
0 0
Bti
0 0 0

Isotropic

["''"'' Au ..~..,] [Bu'' 8,,~~] ['''' Du o.,~~J


0
Au

0 , 0
B12
Bu
0 0
D.,

QuaSiiSOlr<>pi<:

["'' A,, ~] [''


~!
Ari

0
Bi Bu
B,. B,.
Bu
B"]
o,.
o,. [''
''
o..
'DM' D"]
D,.
Du
D,.

Table 3.5. Couplings in selected laminates ("no means that the Indicated element of
the stiffness matrix Is zero and the corresponding coupling does not occu~
In-plane-
Extension-shear Bending-twist Extension-twist out-of-plane
A,. o,. B,. 811
Sym1netric.al 110 no
Balanced no
Orthotropic no 11<> no
Quasi- no
isotropic
Isotropic no n<> no
Layered
Isotropic no n<> no no
single layer
3.2 STIFfN ESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES n

~y

--D - . ,.
--- >

.. ... . 'T:' g . ;r
' -;,s.

:
'
Figure 3.13: l'I)' nrrongcn1cnll11n orthotropic laminates. The pl)''s J)'n1n1etry iixc11 (d1,shcd lines)
must coinc1de with the l11n1inntc's orthotrop)' .r. y axes.

\Vhen the ply is n "'oven fabric and the ply's sy1nn1eLry axes are nligned \Vhb
the laminates orthotropy directions:
\vhen two adjacent unidirectional plies (oriented in different direclions) are
treated as a single layer and the symmetry axes of this layer are aligned \\-rith
the laminatc's orthotropy directions.
For the orthotropic plies described above, the Q1 and 'Q,. elements of the ply
stiffness m otrix are zero (Eq. 2. 138):
(3.35)
With those volues. Eq. (3.20) gives that the 16 and 26 c lements of the I Al. I BJ .
and (DJ matrices ore zero:

A", = Az,. = 0 B,. = Bu. = 0 D1 = D,,, = 0. (3.36)


1\ ccordingly. there is no e xte nsion-shear, bending- twist, or cxtc nsion- t\vist
coupling in an onhoiropic laminate (Table 3.5). On the o ther ha nd, when the
laminate i.s not or1ho1ropic. these couplings are present and rc$uh in unexpected
deformations.
We observe that the 16 and 26 elements of the (A). (BJ. and (D( matrices are
zero only i n the x- ycoordinate system. \\ilere.x and y are the orthotropydirections
(Table 3.4. page 76).
For wuymmetrical onhotropic laminates the complianC'C matrix becomes (see
Eq. 3.23)

~l
0:11 au 0 /In /Jn
,.,, au 0 fJ21 fJ21
0
/Jn p,.
0 a,,.
(J
0
811
0
8 11 P;I (3.37)

"" /Jn
() 0
0
/JM
8 12
0
822
0 i.J
78 lAMJNATED COMPOSITES

\Vhen the layup isorthotropicand syn1metrical, the e len1ents of the con1plia nce
ma trices are (see Eqs. 3.29 a nd 3.30)

11 " 12 0] d11 d 1z O]
0 12 0 12 0 d 12 d21 0 . (3.38)
[
0 0 ... [ 0 0 d,.

Isotropic /an1ina1e. \Ve consider a laminate in \vhich each ply is isotro pic.
(The n1aterial n1ay be dif(erent in each ply.) Since in isotropic n1aterials there is
n o preferred d irection, the [ QJn1atr.ix in the x- y coord inate systen1 is the same as
t he l Q} matrix in t he x 1- x2 coord inate system:

[QJ = [Q). (3.39)

Conseque ntly, the [A], (BJ, (DJ matrices a re inde pe ndent of the coordina te
directions. By introducing the e leme nts of the ( QJmatrix given by Eq. (2. 145) into
Eq. (3.20), we obtain the followi ng .elements of the (AJ, IBJ, and [DJ matrices:

A11 A12 = A 11 A12


A 11 - A 12
A..,= A1 =0 A,. = 0
2
B11 812 = ~ l 8 11
(3.40)
81 1 - 8 12
B,. =
2
B" =O a,. =0
D11 Du= Du Dri
Du - D12
[),,,, = Dio= O Di. =0.
2

Jn isotropic laminates t he re .are no extension-shear. bending- t\vist. or


e xte nsion- twist co uplings (Table 3.5, page 76), but there may be in-p lane - out
o f-plane coupling.
\Vhen the lan1inate consists of a single isotro pic layer, the no nzero ele1uents
o( the [A], (BJ, and (D] matrices are (Eqs. 2.145 and 3.20)

(3.41)

' vhere

[jw = Eh' , (3.42)


12{1 - v2 )
E is the Young modulus.v is the Poisson ratio, an d h is the thickness. The preceding
stiffnesses are identical to the stiffnesses of isotropic plates.. l

3 S. P. T1moshcn.ko nnd S. \Voino.,.,iskyKricgcr, r""'"''ofP/a1tsa11d Slwlls. 2nd edition. J.1cGraw-HiU,


1'1cw Yo rk. 1959. pp. 5 and 81.
3.2 STIFfN ESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 79

Invers ion of matrices [A] and [DJ yields t he compliance ma trices I) and (d]
(see Eqs. 3 .29 a nd 3.30). The no nzero ele ments a re
2(1 + "} l
a 11 = Eh a12 = - van U66 = Eh =Ch
(3.43)
12 , 24(1 +v) 12
d11 =iii ,... = /Jl = Chi'
_Quasi-isotropic /a111inate. t\ lan1inate is quasi-isotro pic \\'hen

there a re at least three fiber diree-tions;


the o rientat ion (fiber angle H} of each ply is f) = i1r/ I , where i is an integer
=
(i I. 2. . . . , /), and I is the total number offiber orientations ( I ;:: 3};
the number of plies in each fiber direction is the sa1n e~ and
each ply is made of the same n1aterial and has the same thickness.

For eJCample, in "/4 laminates (page 65) the re a re fibers in the O. 45. - 45,
and 9(}' directions, a nd I = 4.
For each ply, the elemenl< of the [ QJ matrix a re obtained by substituting fl =
i180' / I into the expressio ns in Table 3.1 (page 70). Then, by substituting these
eleme nts into the expression for the [AJ matrix (see Eq. 3.20), we obtain the
folJo,ving no nzero elements of the I A] n1atrix::

A:u = A,1
(3.44)
I 3 1
A 12 = Sh (Q11 + Q,,) + 4'' Q12 - zhQ..
A;e, = A11 - A12 .
2
The stiffness matrix (A) may be written as

A11 An
[All= A12 Au (3.45)
[
0 0
\vhere Rand v1110 are paran1eters defined as
3 1 1
R= 8(Q11 + Q,,) + 4Q12 + 2Q66
(3.46)
1
v1"' = R( Q11 + Q,, + 6Q" - 4Q66 ),
8
and his t he thickness of the laminate. It is stated here witho ut proof that Eqs. (3.45)
and (3.46} are vaJid2 for all values o! I as lo ng as I ~ 3.

1 S. W. Tsai and Ji . T. Hahn, /11u{){fucrior1 ro CiHJl/XJSit~ .\ldttrials. Tccbnomic. Lanc.as.tc.r. Pennsylvani.a.


1980. p. 145.
80 LAMINATED COMPOSITES

Ne\\t Refe--renc-e Plane-2

OriginaJ Referenc.c. Plane 1

Figure 3.14: Definition of the new refe re.n.ce plane.

\Ve obse rve that for both quasi.isotropic and isotropic la n1inates, A!? and
Ai;r, are A22 = A 11 a nd Arin= (A 11 - A12) /2. Thus, under inplane forces., q uasi
isotropic la1ninates be have in the same way as isotropic laminates. that is, there is
no extension-shear coupling (Table 3.5) a nd the [ AJ matrix is independent of the
coordinate d irections. The [ B] and [ DJ n1atrices do not si1nplify for q uasi.isotropic
lamin ates.
Elen1ent" A10 and Au, are zero a nd ~ = (Ai 1 - A12) / 2 for synunetrical and
unsymn1etr ic.al quasiisotropic lan1inates. Correspondingly, for symn1e trica l q uasi
isotropic laminates. the a 16 a nd air. e len1e nts of the compliance ma trix a re zero
(a 16 = 0 and a 26 = 0) and au,= 2(c.r 11 - a 12) . For unsymmetrical q uasi..isotropic
laminates, none of the eleme nts of t he con1pliance ma trix is zero (see Eq. 3.22).
Reference plane. The stiffness mat rices [A), [BJ , and [DJ refer to R eference
P lane 1. The stiffness n1atric.e s for Reference Plane 2 (located at a d istance ()
from Refere nce Plane L Fig. 3.14) a re obtained from Eq. (3.20) by replaci ng~
b y(Z - 11) as follows:
K
'\"; = L;<Q;;)k [(z - 11) - ( 4-1 - e)J
;..1
K
= I:<'?1;).C~ -z.-1) =A.;
;..1

(3.47)

~
-- ''(Q>['
K
L. ,,
;..1
-'-_
3
J
,-er, - 2r,_, + e'(:a _ , >]
.
J -'
Zk- 1

= D11 - 2q8;; + e'A,1 .


These equations correspond to the parallel axi' theoren1.
3.2 STIFfN ESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 81

The superscript e re(ers to Refe rence Plane 2. \Vhe n the laminate is symn1et-
rical and the reference plane coincides \\ith t he midplane, the ma trix I B] is zero.
\Vhen the la n1ina te is unsyn1n1etrical, the n1atrix [ B] is not zero.
In general, the re is no e value that results in a nonzero l BJ n1atrix for an
anisotropi c composite la n1inate. Jn other \\'ords., fo r an unsymmetrical laminate
there is no reference plan e that is also a neutTal plane.
The compliance matrices [a], [ft], and (8 J refe r to Refere nce Plane I. The
eleme nts of these matrices for Reference Plane 2 are obtained by int roducing
Eq. (3.47) into Eq. (3.23). After algebraic ma.nipulations, we obtain

a~ = ai; + '1 (IJ;1 + fJ ;;) + e28i;


p~ =/Ji; + '1~ij (3.48)
li~ = li;; .

The third of t hese equa tions sho,vs that the be nding con1plia nce n1atrix (S.J is
independent of the choice of the reference surface.
C11ned lan1inates. The stiffness and compliance n1atrices derived in this chap ..
ter for fia t laminates may be a pplie d to thin curved lan1ina tes \Vhen the radius of
curvature is large compared '"ith t he thickness.
Nu111erical l alues of the stiff11es.-; and cor11plia11ce 111atrices of selected /anti
1

nates. Be Jo,v, v.e present nume rical values o f the stiffness and compliance ma trices
of lamina~es with d iffe re nt lay ups. The engineering constants used to calcula te the
laminate stiffnesses and cotnpliances are listed in Table 3.6. While the properties
in this table a re not inte nded to depict a particular n1aterial, they are characteris
tic of n1aoy graphite-epoxy composites. The refore, the prope rties in Table 3.6 are
tLed in the examples in the book.

3.1 Example. Cit/cu/ate the sriffness [A], I BJ, [DJ and 1/re compliance [a L [/l J. [~ I
1natrices of a [010/ 451uJ huni11ate n1ade oj'gratJhite epoxy ru1idirectiotrt1/ plies. The
ply properties are given in Table 3.6.

Solution. The stiffne.ss ma trix of a unidirectional ply \\ith the fibers in the o. .
degree direction is I QJ0 = [QJ. T he stiffness matrix [QJ is given by Eq. (2.147),

Table 3.6. Properties of the material used In the examples


(OJ 45'
Longitudinal Young 's modulus (GPa) E, 148 1639
Transverse Young's modulus (GPa) 2 9.65 16-19
Longitudinal shear modulus (GPa) G 11 4.55 38.19
Longitudinal Poission's ratio .,, 0.3 0.801
Thickness (mln)
" O.l 0.2
82 LAMINATED COMPOSITES

and thus [ QJ is

~ ] 109 ~.
148.87 2.91
(Qf' = [Q] = ~91 9.71 012
(3.49)
[ 0 4.55

T he stiffness matrix [QJ of a ply not in the Odegree direction is (Eq. 3. ~4)

(3.50)

where [ T0 J and [T. J are given by Eq. (3.15). For the 45-degree ply c = cos 45' =
0.707 ands =sin 45 = 0.707, and we have

0.5 0.5 1.0] 0.5 0.5 0.5]


(T,,] = 0.5 0.5 - 1.0 [T, [ = 0.5 0.5 - 0.5 . (3.51)
[ - 0.5 0.5 0 [ - 1.0 1.0 0

By substituting Eq~ (3.49) and (3.51) into Eq. (3.50), we obtain the stiffness
matrix of the 45-degree ply as follows:

45.65 36.55 34.79] N


[QJ" = 36.55 45.65 34.79 109 , . (3.52)
[ 34.79 34.79 38.1.9 m

The layup is shown in Fig 3.15. In calculating the [AJ, fBJ. [DJ matrioes we treat
the ten 0-degree plies as one layer and the ten 45-degree plies as anoU1er layer.
T he ( Aj, I BJ. I DJ matrices are (Eq. 3.20)

[AJ = 1-Ql" (l1 - to) + [-"


QJ. (t 2 - t1)
-1 ' ., '
[BJ = (QJ" ' i - t;i + [ QJ" r, - r, (3.53)
2 2
(DJ= IQJ"z-/ ~ i;: + IQ)" z-i - zf.
, 3

I
~= I mm

I
E;.-~-o-
4510 Zi= O -
,.~~.i_,l~,~,.---,-n1m
....
Figure 3.15: 1be.(0 1o/4S 1fl) laminatc.in Ex.ample 3. J.
3.2 STIFFNESS MAIBICES OF THIN IAMlNATES 83

The [ Q] matrices are given by Eqs. (3.49) a nd (3.52). The dista nces (in meters)
are lo= - 0.001, t 1 = 0, z2 = 0.001 (Fig. 3.15). With these values Eq. (3.53) yields

194.52 39.46 34.79]


[Ai = [ QJ0 (o - (- 0.001) I + IQJ"(o.001 - O) = 39.46 55.36 34.79 t o" ~
[ 34.79 34.79 42.74

O' ( 0001)' 0001 ' O' [ - 51.61 16.82 17.40]


[B]=[QJ" - - . - + [QI". - - = 16.82 17.97 17.40 I03 N
2 2
17.40 17.40 16.82

[DJ
= l-Q.l"0' - ( -30.00li + IQJ"0.0013' - 0' [ 643'.84
I.. 15 I138.155
.4 11.6060] N m.
II.
Jl .60 I 1.60 14.25
(3.54)

The compliance matrices are (Eq. 3.23)

' o/3] = [AB


[{JT B]-'.
D (3.55)

Hence, we have

13.44 - 4.85 - 7.14]


[a ) = - 4.85 41.81 - 21.23 10- ~
[ - 7.14 - 21.23 64.95

lfJJ= [- ~~.l Ul6~~ - =~~


I
1.06
=::::] 10- ~
- 24.05
(3.56)

40.32 - 14.56 - 21.41 ] l


[6] = - 14.56 125.42 - 63.68 10- 3 N."'"'
[ - 21.41 - 63.68 194.86 m

The compliance a nd stiffness matrices of [452' - 45 2 /0 12/ - 452 /45.,J,


[- 304 / 15,/0,]., [02/452 / 90if - 451 [,. [456 / 0, J., and [02/452 /02/452 ] laminates are
calculated simila rly. TI1e result< are in Tables 3.7, 3.8, and 3.9 (pages 84-86). Note
that, for S)'lllmetrical laminates, the following: simplifica tions a pply: l BJ = [,8 [ = 0
and [a] = [a ], [o[ = [df.

3.2 Example. Calculate the sriffness [ AJ. lBf, [DJ and the compliance [a L[/3 L(o J
matrices of a [O,.] lmnimrte made of graphite epoxy tt1tidirectio1url plies. Tlie ply
properties are given in Tobie 3.6 (JJage 81 ).

Solution. The unidirectional laminate is symmetricaJ. and the [Bl matrix is zero:

[B) =O. (3.57)


84 LAMINATED COMPOSITES

Table 3.7. The (A] and (OJ matrices for symmetrical laminates. The unit
ol (A] is 1a6 ~ and the unit ol [OJ is N . m. The malerial properties are
given in Table 3.6 (page 81).
[A] [OJ
lOmJ(orthotropic. symme1rical}

297.75 5.82 0 ] 99.25 1.94

[
5.82
0
19.41
0
0
9.IO [
1.94 6.47
0 0 3t]
[451/012/ 45l J (orthoiropic. symmetrical)

215.17 32.74 45.30 19.52


32.74 48.17 19.52 25.26
[ 0 0 [ 0 0

[45,j - 45,i0 1ii - 45,/452] (balanced. symmetrical)

36~0i]
[ 215.17 .\2.74 [ 45.30 19.52
32.74 48.17 19.52 25.26 4.45]
4.45
0 0 4.45 4.45 20.62

[- 30,/15,/02], (symmetrical)

[ 235.54 32.74 - 10.19] [ 65.42 16.29 - 18.93]


32.74 27.79 - 10.19 16.29 11.60 - 7.74
-10. 19 - 10.19 36.01 -18.93 - 7.74 17.39

[01/45 ~/902/ - 451), (quasi-isotropic. symmetrical)

99.95 31.57 34.6 1 4.58


3.34]
31.57 99.95 4.58 12.34 3.34
[ 0 0 [ 3.34 .l.34 5.14

(45,,JO~J.. (symme.trical)

173.88 46.19 41.75] 34.84 22.93 21.7 1]


46.19 62.55 41.75 22.93 28.90 21.7 1
[ 41.75 41.75 49.47 [ 21.71 21.71 24.02

By treating the 20 plies as a single layer, the IA] and (DJ matrices are (Eq. 3.20)

[ A]= ir(QJ [DJ= :~[Q], (3.58)

tvhere Ir= 0.002 n1 is the thickness of the laminate.


By substituting Eqs. (3.20) a nd (2.139) into Eq. (3.58) and by using the en
gineering constants in Table 3.6 (page 81) (1 = 148 x 109 N/m1 , 2 = 9.65 x
3.2 STIFfN ESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 85

Table 3.8. The lat and [di matrices lor symmetrical laminates. The
unit ol lat is 10-w and the unit ol [d] Is 10-' o';;;. The material
properties are given in Table 3.6 (page 81).
[) [d)
(Oll>J (ortB10Lropic.. symmetrical}

10~89] 32~67]
[ 3.38 - LOI [ 10.14 -3.04
-1.0 1 51.81 -3.04 155.44
0 0 0 Q

[:!:45~ /01 2/ 4SU (orlhoLropic. symmetrical)

5.18 -3.5~ 0 ] [ 33.~0 -~5.59


- 3.52 23.1> 0 -25.>9 >9.37
[ 0 0 27.77 0 0

[45,/ - 45,/0,,/ - 451/ 45, ] (balanced, symmeirical)

5.18 -3.5~ 0 ] [ 33.16 - 25.33 - 1.69]


- 3.52 23.h 0 -25.33 6Cl.51 -7.fiJ
[ 0 0 27.77 - 1.69 - 7.60 50.51

[- 30,/15,/02], (symmetrical)
5.08 - 6.09 -0.29] 26.87 -25.93 17.70]
- 6.09 47.44 I l.70 -25.93 147.76 37.57
[ -0.29 I L.70 3 l.00 [ 17.70 37.57 93.52

[Oi;/451/901/ - 451), (quasi-isotropic.. ,symme1rical)

11.11 -3.51 0 ] [ 31.38 -7.44 - 15.55]


-3.5 1 11.11 0 -7.44 Hl0.06 - 60.17
[ 0 0 29.25 - 15.55 - 60.17 243.70

[456 /0.0], (symmetrical)


7.45 - 2.99 - 3.77] 71.24 - 25.43 - 41.40]
- 2.99 37.81 - 29.39 -25.43 116.82 -82.58
[ -3.77 -29.39 48.20 [ - 41.40 -82.58 153.66

109 Nim', G 12 = 4.55 x 109 Nlm 2, v 12 = 0.3), we obtain

N E2h N
297 .75 x Hf - A,,= = 19.41 x lo' -
m I - vf, e: m (3.59}
N
Ai..= G12/J = 9.10 x to<' -
m
,IJ3
D11 = ( ) = 99.25 N m [),, = - = 6.47 N . m
12 I -
2 E,
V12j - 12(t - v!2 ~;) (3.60}
G12h.l
D.,, = J2 = 3.03 N tn .
86 LAMINATED COMPOSITES

Tabl.. 3.9. The (A], (BJ, (OJ and the (oJ, [BJ, and [6J malrioes fl>r unsymmelrioal laminates. (A] is
in 106 ~. [BJ is in 1031'1, [OJ Is in N. m, [<>J is in 10- W. [.8J is In 10- ~. and [6J is in 10- .,i.;.
The material properties are given in Table :i.6 (page Iii).
[A] [BJ (OJ
(0 10/ 45rn]

[194-.52 39.46 34.79]


3~.46 55.36 34.79
[ - 51.61 16.82 17.40]
16.82 17.97 17.40 [64~
13.15
13.15
1160]
lS.45 11.60
34.79 34.79 42.74 17.40 17.40 16.82 I l.60 I l.60 14.25

(01/4.S2/0,/451]

o .~2
( 77.8 1 15.79 13.92] [ -4 129
l.346
l.392] [ 4 150 0.742]
15.79 22.14 13.92 1.346 l.438 1.392 0.842 l.ISl 0.742
1192 ll92 17.lO 1.392 l.392 1.346 0.742 0.742 0.912

(45~/0.,,)

42~74] -l~.82] [64~


14~25]
[ 194-.52 39.46 [ 51.61 - 16.82 13.15
3!l'.46 55.36 -16.82 - 17.97 13015 18.45
0 0 0 0 0

[a ) [ft) (4]
(Oio/45rn]

(13.~ -4.85 -7. 14] [ 1700


- 6.0l
- 11.06] [ 40.32 - 14.56 -2 1.41]
-4.8~ 41.S l
-7.14 -21.23
-'l64.95"' -6.0J - 5,04 - Jl.06
-I 1.06 - l 1.06 -24.05
- 1456 l2S.42 -63.68
-21.4 1 - 63.68 194.86

(0,/4.S,/0,/451)

[ 17.SS -7.14 -8 79]


- 7.14 96..15 - 69.68
[ 28.37 -9.99
-9.99 - 8.38 - 18.38
-LS.JS] [ .!35
- 134
- 134 - 165]
l 807 - 1 306
-8.79 - 69.68 128.51 -18.38 - 18.38 -39.96 - l65 -1 306 2 410

(45~/0rn]

43~70] 51~60] 131~ll]


[I l.65
-8.58
-8.58
32.94
[-13.97
12.22
l2::22
15.55
[ 34.94 - 25.74
-25.74 98.83
0 0 0 0 0 0
3.2 STIFfNESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 87

The compliance matrices[" J and [d) are obtained by inverting the [ AJ a nd [D J


stiffness matrices as follo;,..,,s:

(dJ = ior' . (3.61)

Equations (3.59)- (3.61) give

~
1 - 9 Ol
"" = ;," = 3.38 x 10- '"' = Eih = 51.81 x 10 N
- = 109.89 x 10- ~
1
ll12 = - V12llt l = - 1.01 X 10- 9 ~ u.., = -
G11h N
(3.62)

12 3 1 L2 1
I' = 10.14 x 10- -N m
du = -E,,. du= -EI' = 155.44 x 10- 3 N
-
2 r 111

o-'. - N
l
12 . _, 1
d12 = - Vii d11 = - 'n
.l.l.l"t X) ti,,, = G , = 329.67 x JO -N.
m 1211 m
(3.63)

3.3 Example. Ca/en /ate the stiffiress and dJe co111pliance 111atrices of (i) a ltuni1Jatecl
co111posite consisting of nvo lttyers of 45-degree lvoven fabric, nvelve
layers of Q.tfegree uuidirectlonal plies, and flvo layers of 45..Jegree 1vove11 fabric
([45\/012/ 45\)); and (ii) a laminate consisti11g jive layers of 45degree woven
fabric and Im layers ofO.Jegree unidirectional plies ([45\/011)]). The marerifl'l
properties are given in Table 3.6 (JJage 81 ).

Solution. First we conside r the laminate with ([45\/012/45\J) layup (Fig. 3.16}.
The laminate is symn1etrical, and the (BJ mattLx is zero:

[BJ =0. (3.64)

The con1pliance n1atrix of a unidirectional ply \\~th the fibers in the Odegree
direction '5 [Q) = [ QJ. The stiffness matrix f QJ is given by Eq. (2.147). and thus
[Q]0 is

~ ]1oN,
148.87 2.91
[QJ" = [ Q] = ~91 9.7 1 (3.65)
[ 0 4.55 m

__::4,,s,,.'._ _-1.ri=0.6 nun

Figure 3.16: The l:1)'Upoflhc laminate in Ex


ample 3_1. The supcrcripl r denotes fabric. o,,
~ 1 =-0.6 nun

ct- 45, zo =- Jmm


88 LAMINATED CIJMPOSITES

For a 45-degree wove n fabric the stiffness matrix (Q] is (Eq. 2.150)

45.65 36.55 o ] N
(-Qf.r45 = 36.55 45.65 0 109 m' (3.66)
[ 0 0 38:.19
In calcu lating the [A], [ BJ, (DI mat rices we treat the twelve Odegree plies as
o ne layer and each adjacent \Voven fabric as one layer. The j'A] and (Dl n1atrices
are

(A]= [QI'"" (ti - zo) + [Q]0 (ti - ti l + [Q]"" (t, - t i )


(3.67)
l Df = [Q)"" z;' - ttl + [Q] zi - z/ + [QJ"" zj - tf .
3 3 3
The (Q) matrices are give n by Eq s. (3.65) and (3.66). The dista nces (in meters)
are zo = - 0.001 , t i = - 0.0006, ti = 0.0006, and z, = 0.001 (Fig. 3. I 6). With these
values Eq. (3.67) yields
215.1 7 32.74
(A] = 3~74 48 17 0 ] to'!::!. (3.68)
[ 0 36.01 m

~ ]Nm.
45.30 19.52
( DJ = 19i}2 25.26 (3.69)
[ 0 20.62
The compliance matrices [a I and Id) are (Eqs. 3.29 a nd 3.30)
5.18 - 3.52 0 ]
- I - iJ Rl
[a) = [Af = - 3.52 23.1 5 0 JO N (3.70)
[ 0 0 27.77
33.10 - 25.59 0 ]
(d] = [Dr ' = - 25.59 59.37 0 10-> N '. m (3.71)
[ 0 0 48.51

The compliance and stiffness n1al!rices of the [45~/010] Jan1inate are calculated
s in1ilarly. The results are given in Table 3.9.
CHAPTER FOUR

Thin Plates

In practice \VC Cre qucntly e ncounter "thin p lates whose thickness is small com-
pared wit h nil o ther din1e nsions. Suc.h a plate. undergoing sma ll displacen1e nts..
may be annlyzed with the approximations that the strains vary linearly across
the plate. (out-01-plane) shear deformations are negligible. and t he o ut-of-plane.
norn1al stress a: 3nd shear stresses r ._, t,.._ are s maU compared y.ith the inplane.
normal"" a,., and shear Try stresses.
Under c:cnain ronditions, solutions may be obtained ror thin plates either by
the solutio n or 1he differential equations representing equilibrium or by energy
methods. 1 Herc \\"C demonstrate the use of the first method "ia the example of long
plates and the second me1hod via exam ples o f rectangular pla1cs either with sym-
metrical layup or with orthotropic a nd symmetrical layup. (For orthotropic plates
the d irections of orthotropy are parallel to the edges o r lhe plate.) We chose these
three types of problems because (i) they illustrnte tl1e anolyticnl approaches and
the use of Lhc rclc \1on1 equations, (ii) solution.s can be obLuincd \\1ithout exte nsive
nu1ne ricul olgoritluns. and last , but not least. (iii) they are o f practical interest.
Additiona lly, and iinportant ly. these proble n1s provide insights that are usefull
when a nal yzing plotcs by nun1erical methods.
Altho ugh the specification o ( orthotropy may seen\ to be overly restrictive. in
fact it does no t unduly limit the applicability of the anulyse:s. The reason for this is
tha t plates arc often made according to the 10...percenl rule. and such pla tes be have
similarly Lo orthotropic plates.2 There Core, solu tions fo r orthotropic plates provide
good approximations of the deflections.. maximum bending moments. buckling
loads. and natural frequencies of nonorthotropic plates that have symmetrical
layup and are constructed according to the 10..perccnt rule. The 10-percent rule

1 J. ~t \\'h1lncy. Str,tflural Auolysu of Lontinated .Anuo1roptc PlfltO Thchn<,nltt. Lancas1cr.


Penruyl"ani1. J9R7
1 L Veres a nd L.. P Kollllr, Approximate Anal)'Sis of ~lid-plane S)innlctric Rcc1oniular Composilc:

Plalcs. JtJu rnal ofC01t11>fJ.~ll(' .~tir1ena/$. Vol. 36, 67~ . 2002.

89
90 THIN PIATES

r equires that the plate satisfy the C<>llo,ving conditions:


The plate is n1ade of unidirectio nal plies.
There are at least three ply orien tations.
The angles bet\veen tJ1e fibers are a t least 15.
The nun1be r of plies in each fiber direction is at least LO percent of the total
nun1ber of plies.

Plates confo rn1ing to t he 10-percent rule have better load bearing capabilities
t han unidirectional or angle-ply lan1inates for the follo\ving reasons.
Unidirectional plies are stiffer an d s tro nger in the 0 -degree fiber direction than
in the 90-degree direction perpend ic.ular to t he fibers. Thus. laminates made of uni-
directional plies are ills uited to carry load in the 90-degree direction. Angle -ply
lan1inates \vith only l\\'O fibe r d irections do not resist \Veil tensile load s applied
a long the symn1etry axis.. Plates mad e by t he JO.. pe rcent rule n1inimize these short
con1ings.
The s pecification of sy1nme tricaJ layup is less restrictive than it m ay appear
because the analyses of symme trical plates (for which ([BJ= 0) can readily be
e xte nde d to unsymme trical plates (( B] "# 0) witlt the use of the re duced be nd ing
stiffness IDJ, defined as u .s

(D) =(DJ- (B](Ar ' (BJ. (4.1)


The de Hections, n1aximum be nd ing mo 111 e.nt ~ buckling loads, and n.atural fre.
quencies of unsymmetrical pla tes can be approximated by replacing fDJby (DJ>
in the expressio ns de rived for symmetrical plates.

4. t Governing Equations
lln this section we sumn1arize t he equatio ns used in an alyzing thin plates. \Ve
e n1ploy the x. y. t coordinate systen1. The o rigin is a t the n1idpla ne fo r plates
' vith syn1metrical layup a nd a t a suitably chosen reference plane for pla tes \\ith
unsymn1etrical layup.
The strains a nd curvatures of the refere nce pla ne (Fig. 3.10) a re (Eq ~ 3.1, 3.8)

&u0 0 auo au" &vi)


fo=-
:~ ax y =ay
- y(I
Xf
=ay- + -ax
(4.2)
2a2 ...,o
Kxv= - - .- -
ax &y
3 J. flit. Whilney. S1ruc111rt1/ Analy.ds of L1111i1w1ffl AnU01rop1c Platt!L Tecltnonlic., Uincastcr.
Pcnnsyl\1ania . 1987, p. 203.
" E. Rcissner 11nd Y. Stuvsky. Bending and S lrctching of Certain T)'pcs of lictcrogcncous Aclo tropic
EJastic Plates. 11J11J'J11JI of Applied AlttJuut.iC$. Vol. 28, 402-408, 1961.
$ J. E. Ashton. Approxin1a1c So lutio ns for U ns)1n1me1rkally Lnn1inatcd Plates. Journal ofCn111pMite
1\l t11eriills. Vol. 3. 189-191. 1969.
4.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 91

Figure 4.J: Forces and loads ac.ting o n an clement of the plate.

where u> and v<> are tbe displacen1ents of the refere nce plane in the x a nd y
directions., a nd wl) is the out-of.plane displacen1e.n t (de.Hection) of this plane. The
force-strain re lat ionships are (Eq. 3.21)

N., A11 A 12 A1 B11 B12B,. <"x


N_,, A12 Ail
"" 812 Bn Bu. f'.;
1\J.yy A1 A26 Ao. s,. B1ti Bo,, y~,
(4.3)
M., = s, , 812 B,. Du D12 v,. 1(,
M,. Bn Bu s,. D 12 /),..2 v,. I(,,
M,,. B,. B i fi B,,,, v,. v,. v Kxy

In the analyses we n1ay e mploy either the equilibriun1 equations or t he strain


energy.
'TI1e equilibrium equations are6

I) N., al\J.yJi
--+--
3x ay
= - p:r;

aNr a1v.T>' (4.4)
a>' + ax = - py
av, av,.
- + - = - p-
ax ay
,, aA(, + -
1'.t = --
aM,,.
- V. _ ~ aM,,,, (4.5)
3.t ay r - ay + ax

where p.1 p,., a nd P:. are the components of the distributed surface load (pe.r unit
area); N.r. 1'J,. and 1\~ty are the in~plane forces (per unit length); \~... a nd Vy are the
transverse shear fo rces (pe r unit le ngth)~ flt& , M>' and A1."'Y are., respectively, the
bending moments a nd the twist moment (per unit length ) (Fig. 4.1).

'' S. P. Ttmos.hcnko nnd S. \Voinowsky-Kricgcr. r1teoryof Plt11esa111/ Sl1~lls. 2nd edition. 1'1cGrnw-HiU,
New York . 1959, p. 80.
92 THIN PLATES

4.1.1 Boundary Conditions


T he conditions along each e dgeo( the pla te n1ust be specified. Boundary conditions
for an edge parallel \Vith the yaxis are given be )o,v.
Along a buili-in edge, the de Aection w, ihe roiation of the edge aw ~/ax, and
the inplane u0 u0 d isplacen1ents are zero:

w0 =0 u" = v> =O. (4.6)

Along a fiee edge. v.here no external loads are applied, the bending n1oment
MK. the replacement shear fo rce7 v1: + aA1Jty/ax. and the in~plane (orces N.,' NJ;)'
are zero:

M,=0 Vx+
ail(,,
=
o (4.7)
ay
Along a simply supported edge, the deflection u/ ', the bending mo:ment J\1x,
a.nd the in-plane forces N.1 , Nx,v are zero:

M, =0 N., = Nxy = 0. (4.8)


\Vhen in plane motions ar e prevente.d by the support, the in-plane forces are
not zero (N., ;/; 0. 1Vxy 0) V"he re as the in-plane displacen1ents are zero:
tl' = () t1 =0. (4.9)

For an e dge parallel with the x-axis, the preceding boundary conditions hold
'vith x and y inte rchanged.

4.1.2 Strain Energy


As we noted pre\1ously, solutions to plate problems may be obtained by energy
me thods that require knowledge of the strain e nergy. For a linearly e lastic material
the strain e nergy is given by Eq. (2.200). Under planestress condition the stress
con1ponenL~ er~. rx~ and ry;: are zero (Eq. 2.121), a nd the e xpression (or the stTain
e nergy sin1plifies to
L., 1., ht

U= ~ J.! .!
0 0 - Jr.
(O'xfx + 11,.<,. + r,,.r.,,.) d ulydx, (4.10)

,..,here h1 a nd hb are the d istances fro111 the re fe re nce plane to t he plate 's surfaces
(Fig. 3.12). The stra in components are (Eq. 3.7)

(4.11)

1
Ibid.. p. 84.
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 93

The stresses and the s ua ins at a point a re re la te d by (Eq. 3. 13)

{"'"'r.vy"' } = (Q] {Yxy


<x }
fy (4.IZ)

By substituting Eq~ (4.1 1) and (4.12) into Eq. ( 4. 10) and by utilizing the definitions
o( the [ Aj. [ 8], [ DJ matrices (Eq. 3.18), we obtain the following expression fo r the
st rain e ne rgy:

T
"x A11 A12 A16 811 811 s.. "x
L, I .., y A 12 A11 A16 8 11 Bi1 8,. y

V=~f J Yx~\ At A,. At.. 81 Bi. B,,, y:, d ydx.


Kx 811 812 Bi D11 D 12 D1 K.x
0
" Ky 811 811 B 16 D,, D12 Di. Ky
Kxy 810 826 s.. o.. D,, Dr,,, K.vy

(4.1 3)

The superscript T denotes t he transpose o f the vector.

4.2 Defl&etion of Rectangular Plates

4.2.1 Pure Bending and In-Plane loads


\\'e consider an unsuppo rted rectangular plate subjected to pure bending and
to inplane loads (Fig. 4.2). The inplane forces and moments are related to the
refe re nce plane's strains and curvatures by E q. (4.3). Six of the twe lve q uantities
appearing in this equation must be specified as folJo,vs:

tV.T or x M, or K,
1Vr or ")'
J\1y or Ky (4.14)
1V.t y or l~y J\(lJ' or ,_;X)"

With si..x of the q uantities chosen (Eq. 4.14), the re.ma ining six may be obtained
by solving the six simultane ous equations give n by Eq. (4.3). Once the curvatures

1-igurc 4.2: Rectangula r plate suhjc-eted to


bending and in-plan e. loads. y
94 THIN PLATES

y A. ~
~ ~
g ~

L,
I
Figure 4.3: m e difere nt types of supports along !he long e dges of a trans\'ersef) l<>aded long
pl ate~

are kno\vn, the deflection of the refe re nce surface w 0 is ca lcula te d by using the
r elationships betv.een the curvatures and the detlection ( Eq. 4.2) as folJo,vs:

(4.15)

T he follo,ving deHection satisfies these relationships:

(4.16)

TI1is expression for w0 does not include the deflection of the re ference plane
d ue to rigid. body n1otion.

4.2.2 Long Plates


We conside.r a long rectangula r pla te whose length L.v is large compared \Vith its
vidlh L,. The Jong edges may be b111iltin, simply supported. or free, as shown in
Figure 4.3. The pla te is subjected to a distributed transverse load p. Neither this
load nor the edge s upports vary a long the longitudinal .Y direction.
\Vben t he length of the pla te is large con1pare d with its '"idth, a\\ay fron1 the
s hort edges the deflected surface nl ay be assumed to be cylindrical (cylindrical
d eforn1ation, fig. 4.4), and the forces and mon1ents do not vary apprecia.bly along
the length. \\'ith these approxi mations the analysis sin1plifies considera b]y. Before
tve undertake the analysis, we es tablish the lengthtO\\idtb ratios (or \Vhtch a plate
may be considered long.
For an isotropic plate the longp late approximation for the deHecti on is re a
sonable \\he o8
L:
~>3 isotropic plate. (4.17)
L,
\vhere [},. a nd L:
are the le ngth and the \\idth of the isotropic plate, res.pectively.
We no'v establish for orthotropic plates the length..towidth ratios a t "vhich the

-" Ibid., p. 118.


4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 95

figure 4.4: Cylindrical deformatio n of a long


rectangular pl at~

longplate approxin1ation may be a pplied. To this eod \Ve obse rve that the deflec-
tions of an orthotropic pla te (\\ith length Ly and \vidth L.1) and a n isotropic plate
(wit h length u, and width U,) a re similar when (page 109)

(4.18)

Thus, f rom Eqs. (4.17) and (4.18) we have that the Jongplate a pproximation
is reasonable \\he n the folJo\ving inequality is satisfied:

l ., > 3
l,
JD::
y/5; orthotropic pla te. (4.19)

TI1is formula, v"hich is established for orthotropic pla tes. n1ay also be used as
a guide for plates whose layup is not o rt hotropic.
We now proceed with the an alysis of Jon.g plates in cylindrical bending. The
gene ra tor of this cylind rical surface is para lle l to the longitudinal y..axis of the
plate. The c urva tures Ky and Kxy of the plate are zero

Ky = 0 Kxy = 0. (4.20)

and K, is (Eq . 4.2)

(4.2 1)

1\ way fron1 the short edges the forces an d mome.n ts do not vary a long the
length or the pla te. Thus, from the last of Eq. (4.4} a nd the first o( Eq. ( 4.5) we
have
tfV, O
- (4.22)
dx+ 1>-=
~

dM, _ \I, =O. (4.23)


dx
The lood is pe rpe nd icular to the surrace, and for simplicity we replace P:: by p.
Thus, by s ubstituting V, from Eq. (4.23) into Eq. (4.22) we obtain the equilibrium
equation
t/2 JWx
-;;;;- + p = 0. (4.24)

We oo te that this e quation. representing e quilibriun1. is independent of the


materia l.
96 THIN PLATES

Figure 4.S: T he plate in Bxampk 4.l.

Symmetrical layup. The layup<>( the plate is symmetrical ([ B] = 0). We now


concern ourselves only with the bending mome nt M,, which. from Eqs. (4.3) and
( 4.20). is

(4.25)

The ele ment D11 o( the matrix [DJ is given by Eq. (3.20).
By substituting Eq. (4.25) into Eq. (4.24) and by using Eq. (4.21), we obtain
the fo llowing equilibriun1 equation tor the anisotropic Jong plate:
tfw _ L = long plate
0 (4.26)
dx' D11 symmetrical layup.
The equation governing the de.Hection of a transversely loaded isotropic. beam
is9
d4w p'
-- -=0 isotropic beam, (4.27)
dx' El
\\here E is Youngs n1odulus. I is tile mo1nent of inertia about the y-axis, and p'
is the transverse load per un it length.
By comparing Eq. (4.26) and (4.27), we see that the equations describing the
d eflections of a long plate (syn1rnetr ical layup) an d an isotropic beam a1e s imilar.
Consequently, the deflection o( a long plate (symmetrical layup) with be nding
s.tiffne.ss D11 is the san1e as the de Hection of an isotropic beam \vith be nding
s.tiffness El when the nume.rical values of the loads are equal (p = p' ). (Note
ho,vever that p is per unit area and p' is per unit length.) T hus, the deflection of a
long plate with symmetrical layup can be obtained by replac.ing El/ p' by D 11 / p
in the expression 10 given for the deflection of the corresponding isotropic bea1n .

4.1 Exan1ple. A 0.1-111/011g turd 0.2nt11Jide rectangular plt1te ls nrade of graphite


epoxy. Tire material properties are given ilr Table 3.6 (page 81). Tire layup is
[ 45\/ 012/ 45\). Tire 0-degree plies are parallel ro tire s/iorr edge of rhe plate.
The plate l\ sbnply supported ttlong all fo1'r etlges and l\ subjected to a rtnifornrly
disrributed 1ra11sverse load p = 50 000 1V/nr 2 (Fig. 4.5). Cal11/ate the 1naxi11uuu

"' E. P. PopoY. n~i11eeri111: AleC'ha11its of Solids. Prcntioc~Hall. En~kwood Cliffs. New JJcr:icy. 1990.
p. 505.
to YI.'. 0. PilkC)', Founulos ftJr Sud.set. St1ai11.t. tu1d Su1u.1u111J Alauict!l John Wiley & Sons, New York .
19?4.
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 97

dejfet'tion, the 111axin1u1n bending 11101ne111s. and tire stresses tt11d strains ilf ead1
lt1)1er.

Solution. The bending stiffnesses of the pla te are (Table 3.7. page 84) D11 =
45.30 N m and Du= 25.26 N m. We may treat this pla te as long when the fol-
lowing cond ition is me t (Eq. 4.19):

-
L,> > -
L.r
~"
Di.2
(4.28)

ln the present problen1 the tern1s in this inequality are Ly/L.r = 3.5 and
3:/D11 /D?.i - 3.47. Thus. the preceding condition is satisfied and t he loogplate
expressions n1ay be used.
The maximum deflection of a simply supporte d be<>m is (Table 7.3, page 332}
_ 5 p' L'
UJ = - - -. (4,29)
384 /
The maximum deflection of the pla te is o btained by replacing El / p' by D 11 / p
(see page 96). For the plate under consideratio n Di 1 = 45.30 N m and L., = 0.2 m.
and \Ve have

_ 5 11L~
w= Dii = 0.0230 m = 23.0 mm. (4.30)
384
The bending mome nts are (Eq. 3.27)

A1x = + D t2Ky + D l61(i:y


D11K.t (4.3 1)
J\~" = D12Kx + D12KJ' + D26Kxy (4.32)

For a long plate K y and K:iy are zero (Eq. 4.20}, and M.x and My are

(4.33)

The maxin1un1 bending n1oment Mx. v.hich arises at 4 / 2, is (see Table 7.3_
page 332)

pl; N m
M, = - = 250.00 - - (4.34)
8 m
From E qs. (4.33) and (4.34) we have

K_, = M, = 5.52 .!.. (4.35)


D11 m

From E qs. (4.33) and (4.34) the maximum bending moment M, (at L../2) is

Di1 M, =
Di2Kx = ,,-- N m
M,, =

- 107.75 - - . (4.36)
'-"I t m
0.4~ 1
98 THIN PLATES

, : :

;t
'
45?

o,1 0.6 E.,


0
500 n ,
0
200 a 11
(% )

t 452 ' -1 -1 -1
figure 4.6: 'l'be nonzero strains nnd slre.ss:es across the thickness o( the plate at L_/ 2 in Exam
p ie 4.1. The unit of a 1s 10" N/m2.

For !he long plate (Ky = K_,y = 0) the strains a l L.,/ 2 a re (Eq. 3.7)
fx = Kx Z = 5.52.t
fy =0 (4.37)
Y.vr = 0.

The strain d istribution a t ~ /2 is s hown in Figure 4.6. Thestressesarecalculated


b y (Eq. 3.l I)

(4.38)

The s tiffness n1atrices fo r the fabric and for the unidirectional layer are given
b y Eqs. (3.65) a nd (3.66). TI1e stresses in the lop layer (where z = /J/ 2 0.001 m) =
at L.,J2 are

"" Q11 45.65 251.95 N


{
dy l = [ -Q12] ~.. = [ 36.55] 109 )( 5.52 )( 0.001 = [ 201.73] 106;;;;
l
~1 ~ 0 0
(4.39)

The s tresses in the other layers are e-alculated s in1ilarly. Tue resulls a re s hown
in Figure 4.6.
Unsy111n1etrical layup. The layup of t he plate. is unsynuuetrical. One of the
long e dges must be restrained along the length\vise direction. \Vith the plate t hus
restraine d, the strain in t he longitucilinal y direction is ze ro throughout tJ1e pla te :

(4.40)

furthermore, we take the shear force N.,, to be zero:


N.vy = 0. (4.41)

Equation (4.41) is valid \vhen one o( the long edges of t he plate is free to n1ove in
the length\vise ydirection. It is only an approxin1at ion \\'he n the le ngth\v~se n1otion
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 99

of both long edges of the plate is restricted, as in the top three configurations of
Flgure 4.3.
By substituting Eqs. ( 4.20), (4.40), and ( 4.41) into the third a nd fourth expres
sions of Eq. (4.3), we obtain

IMJ - [811 8,. o,,]{~'.;'" }


0 _ A 16 l\ir, B it. ~
(4.42)

We now select a reference plane at a distan ce e from the mid plane (Fig. 3. 14).
The strain con1ponents and the stiffnesses referred to this reference plane are
identified by the s uperscript e. (The curvature and the 1\ilx con1ponent of the
moment a.re independent of the position o( tihe refere.nce plane and thus do not
need to be identified by the superscript e.) fur the new reference plane Eq. (4.42)
is v.ritten as

(4.43)

The first rov. of this equation gives


A 9
(J'? = - 0.q -1! - I( ....il.. (4.44)
Y.vy .l A6 .t At,
Substil ution of Eq. (4.44) into the second row of Eq. (4.43) yields

M= (8 - A~. 8~) ..... + (o114


.v ll~x
- ~;,) x K (4.45)

In gen.era!, the be nd ing mon1ent M.x depends both on ,~"' and KJ;. Ho\vever.
there is a reference plane for \Vhich the tern1 :in the parentheses in front of ,;;I? is
zero:
A 9
8~ - ~ =0. (4.46)
11..

We recall that the stiffnesses in the midplane (Refere nce Plane I) a nd t he new
reference plane (Reference Pla ne 2) are related by (Eq. 3.47)

A;~ =A;;
8;~- = Br; - i.>1\ 1 (4.47)
D;~ = D;j - 2eB,, +e 2A;; .
Equatfons (4.46) and (4.47) give

811 - ~ -
A 16B16
o ( A11 - Afti)
A.. = 0. (4.48)
100 THIN PLATES

By rearranging this equation, \Ve obtain the position of the reference plane
where Eq. (4.46) is satisfied:

(4.49)

For a re ference plane at e distance fron1the 1nidplane, the n1oment At/., depends
c>nly on Kx as follo\\s:

D~1 (~~ ]K,.


1

A(,= [ - (4.50)

Equations (4.50) and (4.24), together "1th Eq. (4.2), yield the following equi
llibriun1 e quation for an anisotropic long plate:

long plate
(4.51)
unsymmetrical layup,
11\'here t he S)mbol '41 is the. bending stiffness paran1eter

(B )1
'l'=Df, - -'-;- (4.52)
A
B y using Eq. (4.47), IV may be written as

(816 - e A,.) 2
IV = D,, - 2t>B11 + q, A11 - (4.53)
A"'
where(! is given by Eq. (4.49).
By comparing Eqs. (4.5 1) and (4.27), we again observe that the e quations gov
e.rning the deflections of long plates and isotropic beams are similar. Therefore.
tthe deHection of a long plate with unsymn1etric.al layup can be obtaine.d by replac-
iing El/ p' by 'II/ p in the expression given for the deflection of the corr-esponding
~sotropic bean1.

4.2.3 Simply Supported Plates - Symmetrical layup


We consider a recta ngular plate \Vith din1ensions L.v and Ly simply supported
along its fou r edges (Fig. 4.7). The layup of the plate is symmetrical a nd [ BJ = IO).
T he pla te is s ubjecte d to a unifom1ly distributed load p.

Figure 4.7: RecL1ngular stmpl:r supported


(ss) plate subjected to n uniformly dis-
tributed transverse load.
4.2 DEflECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 101

Follov.ing Whitne)', 11 \Ve analyze the deHection of this pla te by the e nergy
me thod. For a simply supported plate (symme trica l layup) subjected to out-of-
plane load o nly, the in-plane stra ins in the midplane are zero, a nd Eq. (4.13)
simplifies t o

D1] {1<., } dydx.


[),_. Ky (4.54)
D66 K.TJ"

By using the re la tionships between the curvatures a nd the deflectio ns given


by Eq. (4.2), we obtain

For the applied transverse load p (per uni t area) the po tential of the exte rnal
forces is (Eq. 2.203)
L, /.,

Q = - ff
0 0
0
(pw )dydx. (4.56)

We use the Ritz method and select an expression for the deHection that sat-
isfies the geon1etrical boundary condit ions. For the sin1ply supported plate unde r
oo nsidera~ion t he geome trical boundary conditions require t ha t the deflection be
zero along the edges (see Eq. 4.8) as follows:

u/, = 0 a l
,..,
x= L"'
0 :sx _::; Lx
and 0:5y.$Ly
and O!i_y!i. L,.
and y=O
(4.57)
O:sx:SL;t and y = L,.
The (o]Jo\\ing deflection satisfies these conditions:
I l
11'X . pry
uJa = " "
L-L-"';;s1n - s1n - . (4.58)
i I ; -1 L.t Ly
where I a nd J a re the nun1ber or tern1s, c hosen arbitrarily. (or the sumn1ations
and w;i a re consta nts a nd are calculated fron1 the principle of stationary pote.n tial
ene rgy (Eq. 2.206) expressed as

(4.59)

11 J. ri.t. Whitney, Suu rtural Aual_1.,J'J: of Lat11iriared A11tlo1ropic Plat1'$. Tcchoornic. Lane.aster.
Pennsylvania. 1987. p. 13.l.
102 THIN PLATES

We now substitute w" (from Eq. 4.58) into the expressions of U and Q (Eqs. 4.55
and 4.56) a nd perform the differe ntia tions indicated above. Lengthy but straight-
f onvard algebraic n1anipulations result in the following systen1 of sin1ultaneous
algebraic equations:

Ii:
I I
/11 = I. 2, 3, . . . , I
I: L
; .. 1 ; - 1
Gm,,ijWij = P'"''
/ , H=J.2.3 ..... J.
(4.60)

For convenience, we introduce the contracted notation

= I. 2. 3. .. . I
l
i
k = (i - 1)1 + j (4.61)
j = 1, 2. 3. . . . . 1

l=(m - l)/+11 jn=l


= 1 2 3 1
111
, 2 , 3, . . . , J .
(4.62)

Equation (4.60) may now be written a~


I x/
L G.,w, = Pt I= I. 2, 3, ... . I x J. (4.63)

-
where Gkl (= G,.) is given in Table 4.1 a nd. for a uniformly distributed load, Pt
is
. <Ip:~ I.-; if 111 and n are odd
p1 =
l n 11111

0 if 1u o r H is even .
(4.64)

Table 4.1 . Theelements of the matrix [GJ

- 2L, L,~' D1.[(i;)'(J; )(t;)r,.,r,. + (f )'(f;)( i;)r~r.,,)

- 2l,.1..~1 Dz.[( t )'(f )(f, )r,.,r 1 + (i; )2 ( i; )(-/:; )r..,r,,)


I if k =I
'" =l0 ilk,</

P-Uf-;I "f ('I - I') lS odd


-
r,, -
I 0
I
if (i - j) is even

k = (i - 1)1 + j l;. = I. 2. 3. . . . I
J = 1, 2. 3,. . . . ./
m=l, 2.3 . ... , /
I = ( m - J)J + n
l n=l . 2. 3, .. .. J
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 103

In expanded form, Eq. (4.63) is

G11
G2,
(4.65)
[
G\l~J)I

II
By inverting this equation, \Ve obtain the coefficie nts 1JJk

G1(/xl/ i-I ~; (4.66)

Gvx J)\lx J ) POx l /

From Eqs. (4.2). (3.27). and (4.58) the moments are

I J
EE w1; ( I: )2 sin Lil
4
s in l!!:f.
i- l j l ' L,
JI(, }
M,. =(DJ
{ Kx }
Ky =ID] ''
I
t-t....
J
~ w; ('') sin
I L1
2
iir.T
L,
.
sin!!!.!.
1--y (4.67)
{ i - 1 1- 1
M.T_v J(:tf
I J . iT .,,
- ."
'- "
I- w;I2!.!.Lcos
L, 1., ~cos
I'! L.l
I.,
1 l 1 I

For a 1> orthotropic plate D16 = [),_. = 0, and Eq. (4.66) becomes

l6p
wk = w;; = >r6 ij[ D11( t )' + 2( D12 + 2 D"')( i; )2( i; )2 + D22(i; J']'
(4.6S)
where i , j =I. 3, 5 .... (wk= w;; = 0 when i or j = 2, 4. 6 .... ).
Once the deflections are kno,vn, the mon1ents can be calc.ulated by
Eq. (4.67).

4.2 Exa111ple. A 0.11t1lo11g and 0.2 ~111 1 vide rectangular plate i..f 111ade of graphite
epoxy. The tuaterial properties are given in Table 3.6 (page 81). The loyup is
(45i/ 012/45i). The 0-tlegree plies lire parallel co 1/ie shorr edge of the plttte.
The plate is shnply supported ttlong all four edges and is sttbjecred to a u11ifor1n/y.
=
distributed 1ra1Jsverse load p 50 CX>O 1\111112 (Fig. 4.8). Ca/en/ate the 1naxin1un1
deflection and the 111axin1111n bendi11g 1110111e111s.

Solution. The deflection of the plate is (Eq. 4 .58)

'' '' .
I

i I ;- 1
J
w~ = L- L- w;; su1 t11'X
-
L-x
. -
sin l"'Y.
Ly

(4.69)
104 THIN PLATES

Figure 4.S: ThC' plate in txample 4.2.

The plate is orthotropic, a nd the bending stiffnesses are (Table 3.7, page 84)
.D11 = 45.30 N m, D,i = 25.26 N m, D12 = l 9.52 N m, D,,, = 20.62 N m). The
rnaxin1um deflection occurs a t the center of the plate, \vhe.r e x = L., /2 = 0.1 m
and y = l y/2 = 0.35 m. From Eq. (4.68). w;; x l03 a re

i \j 2 3 4 5 6 7
I 24.0389 0 2.9945 0 0.6683 0 0.2033
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0.1181 0 0.0330 0 0.0148 0 0.0075
4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 0.0093 0 0.0029 0 0.0015 0 0.0009
6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 0.0017 0 0.0006 0 0.0003 0 0.0002.

At t he cente r of the plate the de Hect:ion is

1 1 . .
w = LL wi;sin "r-, stn -pr (4.70)
i- t ;- 1 _. 2.

\Ve c hose to perforn1 the sun1ma tion up to i =


j = 7. For i, j = 2, 4. 6, the sine
is ze ro; for i. j = 1, 5 the sine is unity, and fo r i, j = 3, 7 the sine is min us one. The
r esulting deflection at the n1idpoint is

w = 0.0214 m = 21.4 mm. (4.7 1)

\Ve now assess the. lengtht0\\ idth ratios under \Vhich the long. plate a pproxi
1

rua tion is reasonable. To this e nd , '" e calculated the n1aximum deHect[ons of the
plate, keeping the width l;r the same while changing the length Ly- In figure 4.9
\Ve plot the maximum deflections thus ca lcula te d versus Ly. In this figure \\'e also
included the dellection given by the long-plate a pproximation (Eq. 4 .30). The
r esults in this figure show that, in accordance with Eq. (4.19), the long-plate for
mula approximates the deflection \Ve ll (\\ithin 8 pe rcent) when L.v is gre ater than
3l_,~D11 / /J22 - 0.694 m.
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 105

I 20
,-----------------------------------
Long-plate approx

'
.~ 10
ii
c
~

o o ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.694 0.8
Length, l 11 <m>
1-igure 4.IJ: '.Maximum deflection or the plate in E:ta m plc: 4.2 as a functio n of the plate length.

The !>ending momenls at the center of lhe pla le are (Eq. 4.67)

(4.72)

The twist moment at the corne r o( the plate (x = .v = 0) is (Eq. 4.67)

(4.73)

4.3 Exantple. A 0.2-1n-/01Jg and 0.21n-u ide rectangular plltte is 111ade of graphite
1

epoxy unidirectional plies. The 1na1erial properties are given in Table 3.6 (page 81).
The layup is [0,/452/ 90,/-452),. The plare. simply supported a/o11g the four edges
=
(Fig. 4.10), is snbjected too unifor111/y distributed transverse load p 50 CNX>Nltn 2.
Cfllculate Jhe n1axil1u1111 d eflection tnrd the 1110.rinuun n1on1e1us.

Solution. The layup of the plate is syn1n1etrical but is not orlhotropic. The be.n
= =
ding stiffnesses are Dn 34.61 N m, Du 12.34 N m, D12 4.58 N m, =
y
SS

x
Figure 4.10: The plate-in Example 4.3.
106 THIN PLATES

Table 4.2. The maximum defle.:lion and the maximum bending and twist
moments calculated by the numerical solution and by the orthotropic
approximation for the plate in Example 4.3
M., M.,
... M, M, X= Y = O X= L, Y= O
mm Nmim
numerical 17.60 160.65 64.53 - 69.28 36.47
orlhotropic 16.93 154.07 63.21 - 49.56 49.56
itpJJroximation

D.. = 5.14 N m, Drn = 3.34 N m, Di.= 3.34 N m (Table 3.7, page 84). The
rmaxin1u1n deflection and the maxin1un1 bending and nvist 11101nents n1ust be ca)..
culated fro m Eqs. (4.58), (4.64), (4.66). and (4.67). With the preceding stiffnesses
tthe calculations yield the results give n in Table 4.2 (first row).
The layup follows the JO.percent rule (page 89), and we treat the plate as
o rthotropic. The deflection of the pl.ate is (Eq. 4.58)

Wo ""'
I J
11rx l "Y
= L-L- W;jSll\-SJO--
; . 1 ;- 1 L_,
.

i_.,,
.
(4.74)

Since the plate is treated as orthotropic Du:. = Di6 = 0, and the relevant bend
= =
<ng stiffnesses are D11 34.61 N m, D,1 I 2.34 N m, D12 4.58 N m. D.. = =
5.14 N m (Table 3.7, page 84). The maximum deflection occurs a t the center of the
l!Jla te, where x = = = =
L,/2 0.1 m and y L,./2 0.1 m. From Eq. (4.68) w;1 x JO'
are
i\j 2 3 4 5 6 7
17.3628 0 0.3409 0 0.0314 0 0.0061
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0.1439 0 0.0238 0 0.0052 0 0.0014
4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 0.0119 0 0.0030 0 O.OOIL 0 0.0004
6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 0.0022 0 0.0007 0 0.0003 0 0.0001

At the center of the plate the deflection is


7 7 . .

= LL "' '"2
IV
i l f I
IVj; S1n -,s1n -
_.
(4.75)

\Ve per(onn the sumn1ation up t.o i = j = 7. For i. j = 2. 4. 6 the sine is zero.


for i. j = 1. 5 the sine is unity, and for i. j = 3. 7 the sine is mintL~ one. Thus. the
resulting deflection at the center of 1he plate is

,., = 0.01693 m = 16.93 mm. (4.76)


4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 107

The bending mome nts a t the center of the pla te are (Eq. 4.67)

~7~
t- ~
, wI/ (!.:!.)
. l sin !..!.
L, .l sin E!.
1 I
LwJ - J),J 1~ ~
/lr-fx _ Du
[ Du
D 11 il 11

i.,.; t,_,
i I f I
w(b.)2 sin "'-sin
l/ L, l
i
1

= 1154.07 1 N m (4.77)
63.21 m

The twist moment al the corner of the plate (.t = y = 0) is (Eq. 4.67)

(4.78)

The n'kaxilnum de.Hection and the n1axin1urn mon1ents thus calculated are in
duded in Thble4.2 (second row). The maximum be nd ing momeots and the maxi-
n1um deftec.tions calculated by the numerical method and the orthotropicapproxi
n1ation are in close agreen1ent, but the maxin1un1 t\\ist mon1ents differ significantly.

4.2.4 Plates with Built-In Edges - Orthotropic and Symmetrical Layup


consider a rectangular plate \\~th length L.x and \vidth Ly built-in along its four
\ \1e

edges (Fig. 4.1 I). The layup is o rthotropic and symme tr ical. The plate is subjected
to a unito:rmly distributed load p.
The po te ntial energy of the pla te is obtained from Eqs. (4.55) a nd (4.56) by
setting Di.6 and Di.6 equal to zero:

11'p=U+ l'l=2J frL.L,[


. (a2w ' (a2w
D11 a.;l + D22 ayi
'
0
)
0
)

0 "
2a -
+ D,. ( -
2
w)' aax' aay.-
axay + 2D.,---
2
w
0 1
w"
2
- pw0 ] dydx. (4.79)

Figure 4.1 1: R.cctans.ular plate \\ith huillin


edges.
108 T.HIN PIATES

The moments at a point x , y are (Eqs. 4.2 and 3.27)


aiwo azwo
M = - D11--- D1.,--
x axz - ar
()2u,,o aZu;<>
M = - D.,-- - D,,-- (4.80)
r 1 ax - ay?
2a 2 u; 0
J\11v
.
= - ~--,
axay
\.Vbere w is the deflection and Di I .D12. Di.2. D66 are the eleme nts of th.e stiffness
0

ma trix in the x- y coordinate systen1.


The displacements and n1oments can be calcula te d \Vhen the plate s be nding
stiffnesses satisfy the follo\ving Huber orthotropy relationship 12 (see Eq. 4.l53
with K = 1):
I --
D66 = 2(J D, , D,, - D.,). (4.81)
Although this relationship may not hold exactly, we adopt it for calculating the
displace1nents and the n101nents.. Possible e rrors introduced by this re la tionship
are discussed on page 11 I.
\Ve introduce the variable
x ' = -,
x (4.82)
Ct
\'.Vhere a is a constant defined as

(4.83)

Equations (4.79)-(4.83) yield the pote.n tial energy and the moments (per un it
le ngth) as follows:
4
2
1
rr = - j'"!L,
0
.
[),_, [(a'
0
-w-)' + (a-'.-.,)'
axe
1
, + -2 ( fly-
1- IA)
' (w1w")'
---
D11 D,,
---
axay

JY.,_,_
+? __
(4.84)
- / D11 D,,

aw
(Du a'ay'w")]
2 0

M, =a' [ - Du - --
&.rrl

M,. = [
fDf: ( - a'w")
-y~
ax'
- a'ayw"] [),,--
2
[),,--
-- 2
(4.85)

Df, i&lw].
Du D,..1 ax1 ay

12 S. P. T1modlcnkoand S. \Voinowi:ky-Kricgcr, nu~(Jryt,f Plo1est11u/ Shells. 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill.


New York, 1959. p. 366.
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 109

We no'v consider a rectangular isotropic plate with din1ensions L: and L1 .


The potential e ne rgy and the n1omen ts (pe r unit le ngth) of an isotropic plate
are obtained by substituting into Eq~ (4.79) a nd (4.80) Du = Dn = D'm, Diz =
v /j, a nd Dr;,= /Y.,(1 - v;"')/2 (see Eq. 3 .41). In the .r'. y coordinate syste m
the res ult~ are

(4.86)

(4.87)

The supe rscript "iso.. refers to the isotropic plate.


From Eqs. (4.84) and (4.86) we see that the expressions for the potential e nergy
for the Hube r orthotropic plate (\vith d ime nsions L., Ly and stiffnesses D1 1. Du.
Di.2 ) and for an isotropic pla te (\vith d imensions ~and L_,) are identical \vhen
r:, = L..fa (4.88)

(4.89)

The deflections of the plate a re obtained fr on1 t he potential e ne rgy. Hence,


when Eqs. (4.88) and (4.89) a re satisfied, the deHection of the ortho tropic plate
at point :c. y is the san1e as the deflection of the corresponding isotropic plate at
point x', y. that is.

w (x. y) = w;,. (.r'. y) . (4.90)

Equations (4.85) a nd (4.87) show that the mome nts (per unit length) o( a Huber
orlhotropi cplate a re re lated to the moments (per unit length) of the corresponding
isotropic Jl'late by

Mx (x, y) = a 2 ,~ (.r', y)

My (.r, y) = M~"' (x', y) (4.91)

A(,y (x , y) = .,,1~; (x' . y).

By the preceding method. the de Hections and moments (per unit length) of
an orthotropic pla te can be obtained fro n1 the deflections a nd n1oments
110 THIN PLATES

Table 4.3. Maximum deflections and maximum moments of rectangular plates with built-in edges
subjected to a uniformly distributed load p (v;" = 0.3). The loeations p, , Pz. and p., are shown in
Flgwe4.12.

L,
w*-..L "t~c..
- 314 o
at P1
Ml..
. = -nea:
at P2
pL j Ml' - -
1 -
at P,
pLf
1:l
o.i ,, -
Ml -
at P1
..
JJLf 4 ... , t1
M1 = t tCs
at P1
L' c, c. ~
1.0
'
0 .484
"'
0.616
"'
0.6t6 0.554 0.554
I.I 0.576 0.697 0.646 0.634 0.554
L2 0.661 0.767 0.665 0.718 0 .547
1.4 0 .795 0.871 0.682 0.838 0.509
1.6 0 .883 0.936 0.685 0.914 0 .463
1.S 0 .941 0.974 0.685 0.962 0 .418
2.0 0 .975 0.995 0.685 0.989 0 .379
1.000 1.000 0.685 I.ODO 0 .300
""
(per unit le ngth} of the corresponding isotropic plate. The calcu lation steps are as
folJO\VS.

Step 1. \ Ve calculate t he equivalent length L~. stiffness [j.~u, and Poisson's ratio
v"" o( the isotropic plate (width Ly):

. ~ .,
v
vso = 75;;li;;_" (4.92)

\vhere

(4.93)

Step 2. \\'e detern1ine the deHections wij{) and moments (per unit leng th) A~~ .
.1w;I), and M7; of the "equivale nt" isotro pic plate. ?vlaximun1 deflections and max
imum bending moments (per unit length) of isotropic plates (width a, length
I>, be nd ing stiffness D) subjected to a unifo rn1Jy distributed load are given by
T in1oshenko a nd \\1oino\vsky Krieger! 3 We 111odified t hese resuJts and adopted
them for Huber orthotropic plates. The resuJting n1aximum de Hections and max
in1um bending mon1ents are given in TabJe 4.3.

Step 3. The deflection and mon1ents (pe r unit length) M.x, My. a nd M.ty o( the
w(I
orthotropic plate are calculated by (Eqs. 4.90 a nd 4.91)

M.xy =a1';,. (4.94)

IJ Jbid., p. 202.
4.2 OEflECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 11 1

:Pi
~ ------ -+- ' ---- - -
f"1gurc 4.l Z: Locations \\'here the moments and the. deflcc ' P3 :P1
tion arc calculated. I

L,
x

The preceding a pproximate procedure yields the de Hect ions and be nding mo-
n1ents o f o rtho tro pic plates \\~th built-in edges \\'ilhin about 10 percent. 14

4.4 Exan1ple. A 0.2-111./ong and 0.211ltvide rectangular plare is 111ade of graphite


epoxy unidirectional plies. The 111aterial properties are given i11 Table 3.6 (page 81 ).
The layup is [02/452/902/- 452],. The plare, built-iu along rlre four edges (Fig. 4.13).
is subjected 10 a u11ifor111ly di.fltibuced trau.sve7se load p = 50 000 N/111 2. Calculate
tire 11raxi11uun deflection and the n1axinu11n be11di11g n10111ents.

Solution. \Ve ueat this plate as Hube r o rt hotropic. The bending stiffnesses are
D 11 = 34.61 N m. lh..i= 12.34 N - m, D 12 =4.58N m, D, 6 =5.14 N m (Table3.7,
page 84). From Eqs. (4.83) and (4.89) we have

JD,; , L.v
a = fi5; = 1.29 N m L, = ";" =0.155 m (4.95)

IY"' = D,2 = 12.34 N m Df,2 . ,-0?22


-- (4.96)
D11 '-'22

From Table 4.3 (at Ly/ L:, = I .29) we obtain the constantsc 1 = 0.724, c2 = 0.816,
C) = 0.673, c, = 0.774, and <s = 0.529. With the values of these constanl< the
n1aximu1n d eflection and the 111axiluum bending mome nts o f the correspo nding
isotropic plate are (Table 4.3)
. 1 pl:'
w" 0 Ial r, = 384
- ~cor.u 1 = 0.0044 n1 (4.97)

.~"'I ,, ,., =
,,,,, --1_.,; C1 = - 81.21 -
pt: N -
m
(4.98)
. n1

M'..~i = pl~
- -C)
Nm
= - 66.96 - - (4.99)
.> a l ft, 12 Ol

. pla. N n1
M'}"I,, I\ = 24x C, = 38.52 --;,-- (4.100)

11'~1 a1 " -- pt:;


! >'
- ?633 N- m
24 Cs -- .. m . (4.101)

u J. \~crc.s and L. P. Kollir, Approximate Analysis of ti.'1idplanc Symmcutc Rc.c.tanguJar C.omposite


Plalcs.JtJ11n1al ofCo1nprui1e ,l1aurinls, Vol 36, 67.' -684, 2002.
112 THIN PLATES

Figure 4.13: l he plate 1n l!x.amplc-4.4.

The points Pt- i'J are shown in F.igure 4.13. The n1a..xin1um de Hection and the
m aximum bending moments of the con1posite plate are (Eq. 4.94)

w
0
J.al l -'i = w
110
L,, I\ = 0.0044 111 (4.102)

~lat~ = <:i2 "'"I.al ~ = - 135.98 ~


A'lx N .m (4.103)
. N m
M,t" ~ = !\.~"l)L.. ,,. = - 66.96 ~ (4.104)

illl1I 2 lfto j N n1 (4.105)


Mr :11 I\ = ex !Wx iit I\ = 64.50--;-
ii.ul
M,. :u ri = ;~I
M,. a1ri = 2633 N n1
. ~- (4.106)

4.3 Buckling of Rectangular Plates.

4.3.1 Simply Supported Plates - Symmetrical layup


We consider a rectangular plate \V:ith din1ensio ns L., and Ly simply s upported
along its fou r edges (Fig. 4.14). The layup of the pla te is symme trical. I BJ = [OJ.
TI1e pla te is subjecte d to unifonn ly distribute d in plane loads N,,u., N,<1. and
Nx)O a round the edges. These loads are increased propo rt ionally, that is,. the loads
are ),Nxo. AJV)(h AJ\~n ~i. \vhe re). is the load p:iran1e ter. For a buckled plate the load
p aran1e ter is. denot~d by )er Follo\ving \Vhitney, 1 ~ we obtain An by the e ne rgy
me thod.
The strain e ne rgy is (Eq. 4.55)
4
I
U = ?'
- .
r'1 (a'w")' + Dii (a'w")'
-,- +
[ D11 (2a'w")'
--,
ax ay-
D,. - -
axay
0 0

a w" a'w" a'w" W'w"1


a'w" 2a'w") ]
+ 1( D"a;z ay' + 0 1 axi axay + Di ay' axay dydx.

(4.107)

l .S J. ~t. Whitney. S1r11c111rol 11110/)'.~U fl/ .Lor11u1tue1/ AriM>tropie. PlttJCJ. Tcchnomic. Lllnc-aster.
Penni.)'l vani:t. 1987. p. LSI.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 113

Figure 4. 14: Rectangular simply supported (ss) plate sub)tcd 10 comprcss:r.c and shear cdg.c
loads.

A.lr a plate subjec1ed only to inplane loads. which do nol vary \vilh x and Y~
the potential or the external forces is 1()

(4.108)

where N,. N,.. N., arc the in.plane forces (per unit length) inside 1hc plate. These
internal in -plane (orces are related to the edge loads >.N_10 ).N>~ AN~,a by

(4. 109)

We use 1hc Ritt me1hod 10 obtain the deOectioo. For 1hc simply supported
plate under consideration the geometrical boundary conditions require that the
deflectio"' be zero along the edges (Eq. 457):

W
0
=0 at
r .r= ,_
O=:;.rsl,
O~x;::L;1
and O=:;y=:; L,.

and y=O
and y= L,.
s
and 0::: )' l,

TI1e Collov,.ing dcllection satisfies these geon1etrical boundary conditions:


(4.110)

o ~~ itrx . jiry (4.11 1>


W : L.,, L.,, w; Siil - SID - .
,_, 1... 1 1 Li L1

y,here I and J :ire the number of terms. chosen arbitrarily. in the sumn1ations~ w,1
are consuanu and are calcuJated from the principle of stalion:.ry potential energy
(Eq. 2106) expressed "-'

a,.,= a(U+n) =O. (4.112)


aw,, aw,,
\Ve no''' substitute w0 (from Eq. 4.111) into the expressions of U and n
(Eqs. 4.107 and 4.108) and perform the differe ntiation indica1cd by Eq. (4. 112)-

16 S. P. Tinlmhcnko :ind J. Gere, 111rory nf Elturic Stab11i1y. 2nd cdilion. Mc<Jrnw-1hll, Now York.
1961. ,.., J.<I!).
114 THIN PLATES

.t\ lgebraic n1anipulations result in the (olJo,ving syste1u o( sin1ultaneous algebraic


equations:

I I
L m = 1. 2. 3, .. . . I
LL (Gmru 1 - Ab1n11ij} Wjj = 0 {
J. 11 =1,2, 3, . . . , 1.
(4.1 13)
i I j I

For convenience. \Ve introduce the contracted no tation

i.= 1, 2, 3, .. . . I
k = (i - 1)1 +j
I J = l , 2. 3, . . . , 1
(4.1 14)

I = (111 - 1)1 + II l m = 1, 2. 3. . . . . I
11=1,2,3, . . . 1.
(4.115)

Equation (4.113) may now be w.r itten as

Ix/ lxJ
L G.,w, = ), L bktwk, I = 1, 2, 3.. . . , I x 1. (4.116)
k I k-l

where C., (= C,.) is given in T.'ble 4.1 (page 102) and b"' (= b1) is

(4.1 17)

T he Kronecker delta t51t and the paran1eter ri; are also given in Table 4.1. In
expanded fonn Eq. (4.11 6) is

G11 Ga(fxJ) ] [ b11

( [
C(fxJ )I Gu x J )(l x J ) - ). bv~1)1
\Vhen the plate is not buckled. the deflection is zero, whereas for a buckled
!Plate it is no nzero. The values of ). for Ute buckled plate (denoted by ),") are
tthe eigenvalues of Eq. (4.118), and. these can be calculated by comme rcial soft
ware. There are J x I eigemalues, of which the lowest gives the lowest buckling
Coad.
\Ve no\\' consider an o rthotropic plate subjected to N.s.0 and 1~0 e dge loads.
T he forces inside the plate are

1\~ = - A1V;fo N.,y = 0. (4.119)


4.3 BUCKLI NG OF RECTANGULAR PLATES , 15

L,= 100 mm
l<-- " - - - ->I
i ii iiiii

I
SS
F'i~urc 4.1~: 1'he platc-ln 11.xample 4_.;. I/
SS SS L,.= 200 mm
SS

1' t t t t t t
/ \l I (J

For o rt hotropic laminates we have (Table 3.4. page 76)

D1 = >,_. = 0. (4.120)
The eigenvalues of Eq. (4.118) can now be calcula ted directly. T he result is
2 4
!. .. = 11' [Dn(f.:) +2(D12+2D.. )({;)'(t)' + D21(t )']_
( a),,
Nxo T. + N,Q (1..)'
{; )'
L,

(4.121)

(;",),; must be calculate d tor different sets of i and ; . (i.; =I. 2 ... . ). The
lo\\est resulti ng value o( (Ac.);; is the value of interest.
Libove 17 s ho\\ed that, (or simply s upported orthotropicplates, the Jo,vest buck
ling load corresponds to a mode that has a half \\'ave in at least one direction. (In
this directtion e ither i o r j is equal to unity.) \Vhe n the plate is subjecte d to uniaxia.I
co 1npressjon, or to co n1pression in one d irection and tension in the o the r direction,
buckling occurs with a half wave pe rpendicu]a r to the compressive load. ig

4.5 Exa111ple. A 0.1-111-long turd 0.21111vide rectangular plate is n1ade of graphite


epox)t The 11111teri11/ properrie.r are given i11 Table 3.6 (page 81). The layup is
[45\/012/45\ J. The Odegree plies are parallel to t/Je short edge of the plate.
The plate is simply supported along all/ 011r edge.< (Fig. 4.15). The plate is s11bjecred
ro u111for1n co111pressive loads along the long edges. Ca/en/ate J/Je buckling load.

Solution. From E q. (4.121), with N,o = Oand with Ulestiffnesses D11 = 45.30N m.
D,, = 25.26 N m, /Jn= 19.52 N m, D,, = 20.62 N m (Table 3.7, page 84) we
have

N,0 (!,");; =tr' Dn )' + 2(Dn + 2l\>) (L')' + D22 (l.')'(L)']


[ (L ;'
= (11 .t8i1 +2.4Sj1 + 004151:) 10-1. (4.122)

n C. Libo \'c, Bmk:lc Paucm for Bia:ici.nlly Con1prcsscd Simpl)' Supported Orihotropic Rectangular
Plates. l tNuna/ of CQ1up1,sire ,itrueriols. Vol. 17, 45-48. 1983.
I$ T. K. Tung and J. Surdcnas. Buckling or Rcctangula:r O nho tropk Pla 1cs unde r Biaxial Loading.
Journal c>f C-tu"pQ.ti1e Af,11eriaf,, Vol. 2 1, 124- 128, 198.7.
116 THIN PLATES

E
~

~-------=-=i=,-.,..,J
lO

>:... 20
-g __ '\____________________ ------
0
~J O
.s long-plate.approxiniatinn
~ o'--~~~~~~~~~~~---~~~~~--'
"' 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.694 0.8
Length, l\. (m)
Figure 4.J6: The IO\\esl buckling load or the plalc in Example-4_<; as a (unciion of the plate
Ccngth.

T he values of N,o (4.)1; x 10- 3 a re

i\ j 2 3
13.67 21.63 36.57 (4.123)
2 47.17 54.66 67.58
3 103.04 110.46 122.99.

The lowest value is N,o ().");; = 13.67 kN/m, which corresponds to i = j = J.


T hus, the lowest buckling load is

(4.124)

\Ve oov" assess the length-to-,vidth ratios under which the long.plate approx
iin1ation is reasonable. To this end, "\Ve calculate the lowest buckling loads of the
plate, keeping the width Lx the san1 e whiJechanging the length Ly. In A gure 4.16
't.Ve plot the buckling loads thus calculated versus Ly. In this figure \Ve also in
elude the lowest buckling load given by tl1e Jong-pla te a pproximation (Eq. 4.1 70).
The results in this figure show t ha t, in accordance with Eq. (4.19), the Jong
p late formula is reasonable when l, is greate r than 3L,:J D11/ D12 = 0.694 m. At
L_, = 0.694 m the long-pla te fo rmula underestimates the buckling load by about
18 pe rcent.

4.6 Exantple. A 0.2111lo1Jg find 0.2-1tllt1ide rect(IJJgular plate is 111ade of graphite


epoxy unidirectional plies. The n1aterial propenies are give11 in Tttble 3.6 (page 81).
T he /(lyup is 145,/-452/012/-452/452]. The plate, simply s11pported aloug four
e dges, is subjected to unifonn co1npre.r.fi.,e loads along all fo ur edges (Fig. 4.17).
De1er111b1e tire b"ckli11g load.

Solution. The layup of the plate is symn1etrical but is not orthotropic. The bend
i ngstiffnesses are D11 = 45.30 N m , D,, = 25.26 N m, D12 = l 9.52 N m, D.,, =
=
20.62 N m, D1 = 4.45 N m, Di 4.45 N m (fable 3.7, page 84). The buckling
Uoad is calculated from Eqs. (4.117) a nd (4.1 18). With the preceding stiffn esses and
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 117

Figure 4.17: 'Ole plate in Example 4.6.


_, ~1__i-=i_i ,_-'Y'>
--,,. .-
:
JVii> ~
ss
SS

SS
ss :
<E-
I
L.,= 200 n1n11

x
t t t

with I = J = 7, these calculations i;eld the following results for (N");1 x 10- ':

i \ j 2 3
23.47 45.05 76.62 (4.125)
2 61.25 94.61 132.38
3 119.45 164.43 214.29.

The Lowest buckling Load is

(4.126)

The layup follows the 10-perce ot rule (page 89), a nd we may treat t he plate as
orthotropk With N..o = N,,, = N,,, fro m Eq. (4.1! 1) we have

N ). . . = "'[ D11(i;J' + 2(D,, + 20...)(t,)' (tJ' + Dn(t )' ]


o( "),, (L)' + (l.)'
'~ ,..,
(279.4i 4 + 749.5i 1 j 1 + 155 .8i4 )1oJ
= (4.127)
25i 2 + 25 j'

The va lues of 1\ b (J."),1 x 10- 3 are

i \ j 1 2 3
I 23.70 46.16 78.58 (4.128)
2 61.00 94.78 135.61
3 118.14 160.34 2 13.26.

The lowest value is N,, (J.0 );; = 23.70 kNfm, which corre spo nds to i = j = L
Thus, the lowest buckling load is

Na = (J.0 )11 N,, = 23.70 kN/m. (4.129)

This buckling load, based on the orthotro py approxin1ation, is 'Ni thin 1 percent
of the buc kling load given by Eq. (4.126).
118 THIN PLATES

Pigurc 4.18: Re.c:tangular plates ubjccted to


uniform biaxial compressive ecCge loads.

4.3.2 Plates with Built-In and Simply Supported Edges - OrthOtroplc


and Symmetrical layup
We consider recta ngula r pla tes with le ngth L, a nd width Ly (Fig. 4.18). T he layup
o( the plate is o rtho uopic and syn1metrical. Each edge of the plate is e ith e r sim ply
suppo rted o r bui1tin. Uniformly distributed in-plane loads 1V."o a nd N,'(I act along
the edges.
The edge loads a re increased pro portionally to AN...0 , A1V)"O \\he re A is the load
J>arameter. For the buckled plate t he load pa rameter is denoted by J.,,. We a pply
the Ritz n1ethod to find A0 . 19
The e xpression of the potential e nergy is o bta ined by setting 1V.ty and Di 6 and
0,6 equal to zero (orthotropy) in Eq~ (4.!07) a nd (4.!08)
L,I.,[
fr a2w" 2 2 '

tt = U +Q
1
= -2 . C-) + C-)
D11 ( ax'
-) + J),,
8 2w"
-- ay1
2d 1 w0
D.. ax ay
-

0 0

8 w" .-,-+ N, caw")' caw)']dydx , (4.130)


2 2
+ 2D12 -;;-;-- 8 -.- u1 +1\ I,, -
ox ay- ax . ay
'" here Nx and Ny are the in~plan e lo ads (per unit le ngth} inside the plate, which
are re lated to the edge (orces by

(4.131)

a nd 1JJ0 is the deflection of the n1idpla ne, which is assun1ed to be o f the {orn1

,., = AX;(x)Y;(y), (4.132)

where A is a n unknown a mplitude. For the X,(x)and Y;(y) displacement functions


we a dopt t he shape of a freely vibra ting beam. (The X,(x) function is lllus trated
in Fig. 4.19.) For diffe re nt end supports X,(x) a nd Y;(yl are give n in Table 4.4
( page 119).
By virtue of the principle of s ta tcona ry po te ntia l ene rgy (Eq. 2.206), we have

a" =O. (4.133)


aA
1
~ J. Veres and L. P. KoUilr, Budding of Ortbotropic Plntcs Vlith Diffe rent Edge Supporis..Jounw/ of
Coutpo:~i1e i\la1eru1l1, Vol. 35, 625-635, 2001.
4.3 BUCKLI NG OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 119

;;;; ~ ~ ~ ~
..'<, .----------..., ~

x, .--.. ...____,, ------ -----..


_,..,,
...._...-
=C>.
x, "'7 = = =
c-, -C"'>

1-igurc 4.19:: freely vibratjng beam. The dtsplaccmcn.ls correspond to )(t(x). i = 1. 1, 3.


'CJ

Equations (4.1 30) and (4.133), together with! Eq. (4.132) and the e xpressions in
Table 4.4, yield

011 4 [),..z 4
L a 1 + L' a, + - (D12+ 2D,;,,)
, . _I
vv"' _ I"' ( N,o N,. )] -- 0.
L2 a 4 + ''.as
[ ' y xy ' }
(4.134)
The param eters <>i, a 2, u3 , u4, a 5 a re de fine d in Table 4.5 (page 120). The in
tegrations ind icated in Table 4.5 simplify when .X;(.r) a nd Y;(y) are calcula ted by
the approxin1ate expressions of 1 given in Table 4.4. The resulting approxin1ate
expressions for 0t1 thro ugh Cts are given in Tables 4.6 and 4.7. and a2 is
(4.135)
By rearranging Eq. (4.134), we o btain the following expression for)." :

Du~+ O,_i ~ + 2 ( D12 + 2Dfi6) fill


(4.136)
(i."),, = (" "' + 1"v.\~II!'
fYs>II "' )

This equa.tion applies \vhen each edge is either sin1ply supported or builtin. When
all fo ur edges are simply s upported, Eq. (4.136) simplifies to Eq. (4.121).

Table 4.4. The dl511Jacement function X1 ol a freely vibrating beam. The


parameter 1 ls to be determined either lrom the exact or lrom the approximate
r
expression. (Also: { = f;.)For 1 the same formulas apply with{, x, L,, i
replaced lby r1. y, L 1, /, respectively.

" [,, "' X. = si n ( lrr~}

A';= y; c&( ;O- y, eooh( ;O +s in (, ~)- s inh(/'~)


Lan, - tanh , = 0 (Exact)
[,, "' , ~ (I+ 0.25)H ( Appr():<i1na1e}
~111 ,., --h /f,
Y, = <X'!l'h(~o-<!Jt'''

X, = y1cos(;~} - y, c~h( 1~} +s in( , ~)- sin h( ,~)


cos /'-i cash, = J (Ex-act)
[, , 1 i:::: (i + O.S)rr ( Appro ximate)
- C>.l:Olf, - C(u;h,.,,
Yi - $1n 1t,-f.~inh p,
120 THIN PLATES

Table 4.5. The coefficients o 1 through "''

-
a3 = ~
' 1'
r\ .
<"''
.,...., )'
..
dlf

c,.

Table 4.6. Approximate expressions lor the coefficients a,


and"''
(I represents the numbe< of half waves in tlle x dlrecdon)

""
iir 1.2.3....

(i + 0.25)ll a1(1 - I) I. 2. 3.

4.730 O'J (1 - 2)
(i +O.S)rr a1 (1 - 2) 2. 3. 4....

Table 4.7. Approximate expressions for lhe coefficients'-" and,,.


(/represents the number of half waves In tlle y direction)

I
" 0.5

&Jr jJt il:rl 1.2.J....

CJ~ (/ +0.25)JT O"J(J -1) 1.2.J....

wr.
4.730
(j +0.5)rr
a ; (UJ-2)
Cf3 (ctJ - 2) 2.3.4....
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 121

L.,= 200 mm

--- I i i i i y
<--
Figure 4.20: 1'he plate in E:tamplc 4.7.

N,,, _,
x
- t t t
<- L,= 200 mm

TI1e c ritical Load parameter must be calculated for d iffe rent sets of i and j,.
(i. j = 1, 2 .. . . ) . The lo\\est resulting value of A.0 is the value of interest. The
lowest buckling load (as in the case of simply suppo rte d pla tes) corresponds le>
a mode that has a half wave in a t least one direction. (In this direction eithe r i
or j is equal to unity.) \\'hen the pla te is subjecte d to uniaxial con1pression>or to
oon1pression in one direction and tension in the other direction, buckling occ.urs
\Vilh a half \Vave perpe ndicular to t he compressive load.

4.7 Exa111ple. A 0.2tn-long and 0.2111h4de rectangular plttU! is 1nade of graphite


epoxy u11idirectional plies. The nuuerial properties are give1J in Tttble 3.6 (page 81).
The layup is {452/- 452/012/- 452/ 452]. The plare, built-in along tire four edges, is
subjected l'o u11ifor111 coutpressive loads along it/I four edges (Fig. 4.20). Derer111ine
rite buckling load.

Solution. The layup follows the JO-percent rule (page 89), and we treat the plate
as orthotropic. With t he stiffnesses D11 = 45 .30 N m, D12 = 25.26 N m, D, 2 =
19.52 N m , D.. = 20.62 N m (Table 3.7. page 84,) and with N_,o = Nyo = No. from
Eq. (4.136) we ha\'e

/Ji 1f.-' + D.u if' + 2 ( D12 + 2 D66) ffi'i-


'' ( An)
''U i/ = ., '
!!! + !!!. .., (4.137)
~ Lf
where a 1 and "' depend on i (i = I . 2.... ) and a 1 a nd a5 de pend on j (j =
1. 2.. . . ) as give n in Tables 4.6 and 4.7, third TO\\'. Fron1 these tables the values
are
i =l i=2 i= 3

" 4.73
l 2.9l
7.85
45.98
11.00
98.91
"'
j =I i= 2 i=3
4.73 7.85 11.00
"'<>s 12.91 45.98 98.91 .
122 THIN PIATES

- jY
~----"--~
i,

-:=-
-
-> S.'i or built-in Figure 4.2 1: Uniaxially loaded rectan-
:V,,,11=:: SS SS J\irl> gular plate.

'I ss or built-in
~-----~ -->
x

T he values o! t\l, (),"),; x 10- 3 a re (Eq. 4.137)

i\ j 2 3
I 53.80 81.05 122.31
2 I09.16 142.82 188.79
3 185.55 226.18 280.57.
The lowest value is N,, (A,,);; = 53.80 kNlm, which con-esponds to i = j =I.
T hus, the )o\vesl buckJing load is

N" = (Aa) 11 No= 53.80 kN/ m. (4.138)


U11ifor11r co111pressive load i11 flu x direction. We consider a plate 'vith the
-edges parallel to t he yaxis simply supported a nd the edges parallel to the x-axis
-either simply suppo rted o r buihin {Fig. 4.21). The pla te is subjected to a uniaxial
con1pressive load /\1,.it in the x direction. By introducing the notation N x ,a = A.cT. N.o:u
.and by setting N,o = 0, Eq. (4.136) may be rearranged to yield
a~ 1 a~ L! &5
N.w = Du- 2 +Du-, , + 2(D12 + z~.) z ' (4.139)
a 4 L,, a4 1 . Ly
w here '" and '" depend on i (i = I , 2, ... ) and "'' a nd as de pe nd on j (i =
1, 2, . .. ) (Tables 4.6 and 4.7). The values of i and j (and the corresponding values
<>f a1 , U"4, 0>3 , and as) that yie ld the lowest value of N .x,a are de tem1ined as (olJo,vs.
To determine j, \Ve obsene that both a 3 and <ts increase monotonically with j
(Table 4.7). Hence. the righthand s ide of Eq. (4.139) also increases with j . Thus,
the lowest buckling load corresponds to j = l. At t his load the buckled shape
js a hal( \Vave in the d irection peirpeodicular to the load. This is illustrated in
:Figure 4.22 for a simply supported plate.

Figure 4.22: Uuckled shape- of a uni


axially loaded reclangular plate with
simply supportc.d edges .

.x
4.3 BUCKLINGOF RECTANGULAR PLATES 123

Table 4.8. Buckling loads of unidirectionally loaded ptates (ot1hotroplc and symmelrlcaJ
layup) with simply supported, bolll-ln, and rotationally reSlralned edges(/, = L, / /,
=-
I 1, 2, . ( = + .(=1,
f i--10(
.g& ): L,. L, are Ille length and the width, ntSl)eCtively,
and k 1$ lhe spring constant
5'lpports lklcl<ling load 1140

~ (Dut + l),_,~+2(Du+2l\.l)
~ (Dut +2.441Dntt+ 2.3.l(Di: + 2l\.))

~ (''* + 5.1390,, Ji-+ 262(0.2+ 20.+l)

~l ( D117f
,;
+ ( 1 +4.13900.,~. +(2+0.62~ 2 )(D12 + 20,.))

To dercrnline cr 1 nnd tt4 \Ve re call that th e edges parallel to the y-axis are
simply s upported. The corresponding values o f a 1 and o, are given in the first row
ol Table 4 .6 and are

a, = l:r (4.140)

With these values of a 1 and a. Eq. (4.139) becomes

(4.141)

where I, is the lcng1h of the hall buckling w.-e


/.,,
I,= T' (4.142)

111e va lues of a;i a nd a 5 to be used are those give n in rablc 4.7 ror j = I. The
resulting b uckling loads a re listed in the first three ro'vs o f Table 4.8.
111e \'l.:lluc o f JV.,,cr n1ust be calculated (or diffe re nl vnlues or I (i = I , 2, ... ) ,
and. gener nlly t he lowest resulting \alue is of interest.

:!Ll__. JI E
L,

long pl11c appr-oiunution

L,
,.igurc 4.2~ : Buckling lo11ds o f unidirectionally k>adcd rccla ng:ulnr pla1c1w11h 111mpl)' s-upporled
or huihtn C'dgc:11. The plntc's lcngth is L.v
12-4 THIN PLATES

jY
N~ 1 L, lsN~
free

SS
'---"'-----' - ->
L, x

I~ ssl I~
(al (b) <cJ
.Figure 4.24: Supports along edges parallel (lop) and perpendicular (bottom) to the load
direction.

The buckling loads of plates with simply supported o r builtin edges (Fig. 4.2 1)
.are illustrated in Figure 4.23. For each value of i the lo\vest buckling load is the
same as the lowest buckling load of the corresponding Jong plate that will be given.
s ubsequently, in the first three rows of Table 4.11 (page 136).

4.3.3 Plates with One Free Edge - Orthotropic and Symmetrical Layup
We consider a rectangular plate with length L., and width L,. The layup of the
:plate is o rthotropic and syn1metricail.

One Edge Parallel to thex Axis is Simply Su pported; the Other i.< Free
T he plate is simply supported along the y = 0 edge and is free along t he y = Ly
.edge (Fig. 4.24, top). The edges par allel to the y-axis may be either simply sup
:ported or builtin (Fig 4.24. bottom). The plate is subjected to uniform uniaxial
con1pression N.,0 in the x dire.ctioo (Fig. 4.24, top). \Ve 'vish to d etern1ine the
:lowest value of the load at which the plate buckles.

Edges parallel to the yaxis are simply su pported. We consider pla tes whose
.edges parallel to the ya~is are simp ly suppo rted (Fig. 4.24, a). The buckling loads
.are denoted by Nx,a An exact analysis resulting in a transcendental eq,uation for
N_,...c r is given by Whitney.20 Here. \Ve present a.n approximate analysis, which yields
.a closed-fonu expression for Nx.o lo our analysis 'Ne apply the Ritz n1-ethod and
.approximate the buckled shape (shown in Fig. 4.25) by

u.1 . ("x)
= Aysin -
L.T
(4.143)

'vbere 1\ is a constant and w 0 is the deflection, \Vhich satisfies the geometrical


boundary condition ( w = 0) along the simply supported edges.

20 J. tvl. \\'hilocy. SUU<'tural Aual)'.f/.$ ()j Lar11u1t11etl A1uS()tropic Plate.r. Tccbnomic , Lnncnstcr.
Pcons)'lvnnia. 1987. p. 108.
4.3 BUCKLI NG OF RECTANGULAR PIATES 125

y
free

Figure 4.2'>: Suckled shape of a rectangular plate "'1th o ne free- and three simply supporled
edges.

We exp ress lbe potential energy of the plate by setting Ny = 0 a nd N.x = - Nxo
in Eq. (4.130):

;r - -I
P - 2
1'"1"'[ (aax'
'u1")' + ~'-n., (a'-ay'w-")' + De,(2a'
D 11 - - - w")'
-
axay
0 0

a2w
+ 1( D12 [i';i'
0

ay')]dydx - 2l j"'j"[N,.,(;;:;-)
tJ2 w 0

U I)
au/ '
'] dydx. M

(4.1 44)

By introducing Eq. (4.143) into Eq. (4.1 44), we a rrive at t he following expres-
sion fo r th e potential e ne rgy:

ir
P 4
I /}
A' L Di i -1-+
= --~ ir
3 L!
414.<.L ir
4
- - JVo 2
y L; x 3 Li
2
L' ir- } .
2
(4.145)

Table 4.9. Buckling loll<ls of unidirecijonally loaded plates (orlhotJOplc and


symmetrltj!l layup) with one ~ee edge (Ix = L x / I, i = 1, 2,. . ., ( = ;" );
L , , L, are the length and the width, respectively, and k is the spring cO:,.stant
supports 8:uckling load N""

l.?...,;vp + ,. :~>11 + IZ~""


t4 lj, Ly
126 THIN PlATES

Fig:urc-426: Support alongthc.cdgC'sof a untax:ially


loadc.d rcclangular plate.

By virtue of the principleol s tationary pote ntial energy atr,/a A= 0 (Eq.2.206),


and we have
:r 2 Du t2D66
1
J\ x.n = U- + -V' (4.146)
y

One or Both Edges Parallel lo the J'Axis are Built-in

T he buckling loads of plates that nave one or both edges paralle l to the y-axis
built-in (Fig. 4.24, band c) can be derived in a way similar to that ol E q. (4:146).
T he deta ils are not given here; the resulting buckling loads are given in Table 4.9.
One edge parallel to the x axi.1 is b11illi11; the other i.1free. The plate is built
0

i n along the y = 0 edge, is free a long the y = L,. edge, and is simply s upported
along the x = 0 and x = L, e dges ( Fig 4.26). The plate is subjected to uniform
uniaxial 001upression NJ.ii in thex direction. \\'e 'vish to determine the lo\vest value
ol the load at which the plate buckles (Fig. 4.27). An e xact analysis, resulting in
transcendental equations fo r the buckling loads 1Vx ,n is given by Bank and Yin.21
1-\ n approximate expression for Nx.a is22
2
1' D11 1;D,, 12D"'
Nx." = ( 1 + 1.25/ T + f:T ' (4.147)
x y J'

\.vhere 1.i: = L.1 / i is the length of the half buckling '''ave in the x direction and
i = 1, 2, . . . is the numbe r of half \vnves in the x direction.
Equation (4.147) underestimates the buckling loads by less than 14 percent.
The value of Nx.cr nlus t be calculated (or diffe re nt values of; (i I , 2, . .. ) =
and, in general, the )o\vest resulting. value is of interest.
The buckling load is a function ol the length ol the plate L., (Fig. 4.23). For
each value of i the Jo,vest buckling load is the same as the lo\\est buckling load
o( the corresponding long plate given subsequently in the fifth row of Table 4.11
( page 136).

4.8 Exantple. A rectangnlar plare ivirlt /eiJglh Lx = 0.5 111 and width Ly = 0.05 111 is
r.uade ofgrttphite epoxy u11idirectional plies ~virh the fibers oriented along t/Je x-axis
ofthe plate (Fig. 4.28). The 11wterial properties are given i11 Table 3.6 (page 81 ). The
f ayup is (020]. 011e of rhe long edges ;s builti11: rlre other long edge is free. The short
edges are simply supported. The place is s11bjecrcd to 1111iform compres.rive loads i11
tire x direction. Ca/cu/are rhe bucklir~g load.

i:t L. C. Bank. and J. Yin. Budlin~ or 011hotropic Plates wi1h Free and Rot.ntionally Rcsuaincd
Un.loaded Edges. Tl1i1t\l'olled S1nrc111re.f. Vol. 24, 83-96, 1996.
?:Z L. P. Kolli r. Buckling or UnidirtionuJI)' l.ooded Co1nposi1e Plates wit h One Free and One: R etU1
tionally Restrained l Jnloaded Edge. Jour,,ol <1/ S1n1crural Eugi11et!ri111; , Vo l. 128, 1202-12 1l . 2002.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PIATES 127

1-igurc 4.27: Buckled shape or a unia.xiall>' loaded re.<tangular plate \\'tlh a built-in and a (rec
longitudinal edge.

Solution. The expression in Table 4.9. fo urth row (page 125), togethe r \\1th the
stiffn esses D 11 = 99.25 N m, D22 = 6.47 N 111, Di 2 = 1.94 N m, D66 = 3.03 N m
(Table 3.7, page 84) gives

tr 2 Di 1 /.~ [),_, 12D66


tV.T.tt = --,- + 1.25-4- + --,-
/; L), L,
-- 919.5p.
t + 1.294 x 106 I,'l + 14 560. (4.148)
x

where I, = L..fi. The buckling loacl< for i = 1, 2, 3. 4, 5. 6 a re

2 3 4 5 6
N,.0 (kN/m) 342.04 111.12 85.78 97.47 125.46 164.60
The lowest buckling load corresponds to i = 3 a nd is 85.78 kN/m.
The buckling loads of plates o f the same "'vidth but with different lengths are
given by solid lines in Figure 4.29. The buckling loads calcula te d by the equa
lions of Bank and Yin13 are also included in lltis figure. The a.pproxin1ate forn1ula
(Eq. 4.148) underestin1ates 1V.t.cr and, hence. is a conservative estimate.
The lo ng-plate expression gives the lowest buckling load of this plate as
90.64 kN/m (Example 4.11, page 138). This value is a lso shown in Figure 4.29.

4.3.4 Plates with Rotationally Restrained Edges - Orthotropic


and Symmetrical Layup
We consider a recta ngula r plate " 1th length L., a nd width L,. T he layup of the
plate is orthotropic and syn1n1etric.al. The plate issin1ply suppo rted alo ng the edges
parallel to the y-axi~ They= 0 edge is rotationally remained, they= L, edge
is e ither rotationally restra ined (Fig. 4.30, left) or free (Fig 4.30, right). Along a
rotational ly restrained edge the bending moment is proportional to the ro tation

23
L. C. Baok and J. Yin, Buckling or Orthotropic Plaitci; "'ith Free. and Rotnticmally Restrained
Unloaded Edges. Tl1 in -\\lalltd Srr11c1ur.-s, Vol. 24. 83-96. 1996.
128 T.HIN PLATES

y
L,.= SOOmm
,.__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _I, /\'

J V.rt ..<>

::: " fr<< "'':: IL,= 50mm


-->>-r.,.,.rr,-,.,,.,.,...,,.,.,.,.,..,,,.,..,777?'777'7r<- ~->
x
Figure 4.28: The plate. in Example 4.8.

of the e dge
.,..aw
M =k-, (4.149)
' ay
\.Vhere k is the rotational spring cons tant. The rotational s pring constant is further
discussed in Section 6.9.3.
The plate is s ubjected to uniform unia xial compression N...-0 in t he x d irection .
We \Vish to de te rmine the lo\\est value of t he load a t \Vbich the pla te buckles.

lloth Unloaded Edges are Rotationally Restrained


We conside r a plate that is rotationally restrained along they = 0 and t hey = Ly
e dges (Fig. 4.30, left). An exact analysis resulting in a tra nscendental equation for
the buckling loads 1\1.,.:r is given by Qiao et al.24 Here, \Ve present an approxin1ate
a na lysis, \vhich yie ld~ a closedforn1 expression for 1\~v .n
111e buckling load of a plate with rotationally restra ined edges must be be
tween the buckling load of a simply s uppo rted pla te (Tuble 4.8, fi rst row. p age 123)
a nd the buckling load o f a plate with built-in e dges (Tuble 4.8. third row). We com-
bine the expressions for plates '"ith s in1ply supported and built.in edges and write

N,." = "'
L' ( D11 fi+(1
L; +4. 139S)D,,L'
. t;
+(2+0.620(D12+2D) , , )
y x y

(4.150)
1
"vhere ~ a nd ~ are parameters that depend on the support conditions a long the,
unloaded edges. These parameters are zero for a plate \vith sin1ply supported
unloaded edges a nd a re unity for a pla te '"ith built-in unloa ded edges. The values
of~ and ~ may be approximated by~'

r =~' (4.151)

""h ere~ is the paramete r of restraint


D,,
~=~ (4.152)
kly

P. Qian. J. F. Davalos. and J. \Vang, Local Buckling or Co1npositc FRP Sh11pcs by Discrete Pla1c
2:-1
Analysis.Joun1tYI of Srn 1cl/JJ'ttl Erisineerin.t;, Vol. 127. 24>25.'i. 2001.
ZS 1.. P. Kolltlr, Discussion on the paper or Qiao. P. Oavnlos. J. F. and \Vang. J.: Local Buckling or
Composite FRP Sh11pcs b~ Di!:erctc Plate Analysis. ltJ11nwl tJ/ Suuc1111dl 11gi11eeri111:, Vol 128.,
1091- 1093, 2002.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 129

~
160 :..
"'
~
~
120
>-' ~
'ti
~

2
80
.s"
;;;
~

&i
40
.....
..... LL...._
' ____,I~ .~
l ,.

0 0.2 0.4 0.6


Plate leng:lh, L,r (m>
Figure 4.2\): Buckling loads o( the plate in Example 4.8. 1bc rc.suhs shown are- by Eq. (4.148)
(labeled as -present ..). by B-a nk an d Yins eq ua tions.. and by t he long-plate appro:tin1ation.

With these approximations of~ a nd f, Eq . (4.150) overestimates the buckling


load by less than 3.5 pe rcent whe n 0 < K ::; 1 and by less than 6.5 pe.rcent when
1 < K :5 3, v.he re K is a stiffness paran1eter d efined as

(4.153)

For most pr:ictic.al layups K is less than 3.


Equation (4.150) is included in Table 4.8 (page 123).
The value o f N,," must be calculated for diffe re nt values o f i (i = 1.1, . .. }.
and. gener ally, t he )o\vest resulting value is of interest.
The buckling load is a function of the lemgth of the plate L., (Fig. 4.23). For
each value of i the lowest buckling load is the same as t he Jo,vest buckling load o f
the corresponding long plate given subseque.ntly in the fo urt h ro\v of Table 4.1 1
(page 136).

One Unloaded Edge is Rotationally Restrained; the Other is Free


The pla te is ro tationa lly restra ined along they = Oedgeandis free a long t hey= LJ'
edge (Fig. 4 ..30, right). An e xact analysis resulting in transcendental e quations

j y L, _. t!I l ,

=Ec;:jE 3-) c:JTC'eE N


l.v
I
..
'{\i r()~ SS
~
~
S.'i <f-
~
~~
"
r..,;

x
/\'..-II_,.
~
SS
<-
'
S.'i <E-

~~
fl

x
Figure 4.:lO: U nia.:ually loaded rectangular plate ,.,.ith t-wo rota tionally re$lTained c-dges or v.ilh
one. ro 1a 1ionall)' restrained and one: free edse~
130 THIN PlATES

Figure 4.3 1: 'fbe plate in Example 4.9.

(or the buckling loads A'x.o is given by Bank a nd Yin. l l> Here, \Ve present an
approxin1ate a nalysis, which yields a closedform expression (or N..a
The buckling load or a pla te 'vith a rotationally restrained edge must be be
tween the buckling load of a plate with a simply supported edge (Table 4.9, first
r-ow, page 125) and t he buckling load of a plate with a built-in edge (Table 4.9.
fourth ro\v). \\1e co1ubine the expressions for plates with a simply supporte d and
\vith a builtin edge a nd v.rite
2
( .
1\1 :r D11
ix,n=-1-1-+f
,. 1.251;/Ji,
L4
12D"'
+-;r 4 154)
x 1 y
\vhere /J.. = L.T/ i is the le ngth of the half buckling wave in t he x d irection, i =
1 . 2, . . . is the nun1ber o f half v.aves: in the x direction, a nd {" is a paramete r that
d epends on the supports along the unloaded edge. This parameter is zero for a
plate 'vith a sin1ply suppo rted unloaded e dge and is e qual to unity for a pla te " 'ith
a. built in unloaded edge. The value of~,, n1ay be a pproxin1ated by2;

~-- = 1 +~.12t (4.1 55)


'"h ere~ is the para1neter of restTaint given by Eq. (4.152).
Equation (4.154) may underestimate the buckling load by up to 14 percent.
The value of 1V.r.n nlust be calculated for diffe re nt values of i (i I. 2 . . .. ),=
and, generally, the )o\vest resulting J\~t.cr is the value of interest.
The buckling load is a function of the length of the plate L., (Fig. 4.23). For
each value of i the Jo,vest buckling load is the same as t he lo\\est buckling load
o( the correspond ing long plate given subseque ntly in t he si.xth row of Table 4.11
(page 136).
=
4.9 Exa1nple. A recta11gular platt, l-'.' ir/r length L.1; = 0.5 111 a11d widrlr Ly 0.05 111 is
tnade ofgraphite epoxy u11idirecriont1l plies wirh the fibers oriented along the x -axis
ofthe plate (Fig. 4.31). The mllterial p roperties are given in Table 3.6 (pllge 81). The
layup is [02ol One of the long edges is rotationally restrained 1vlli/e rlle other long
edge is free. The short edges are sinrply supported. Tire rotational spri11g coJJsrant
of the edge is k = 129.4 1\ 1 The jJlate is subjecred to unifor111 co111pressi11e loads iu
tire x direction. Cttlculare the buckling load.

26 L. C. Bank. :ind J. Yin, Budling or Orthotropic Plates v.ith Free nnd Rorntionally Restrained
l JnJoadcd Edges. Tliin\l'alletl S1ntr-11.11e.1, Vol. 24. 83-96. 1996.
27
L. P. Kollar, Buckling or Unidir.li on.nUy l.onded Co1npositc Pls1c.s with One Free-and One Rotn
tionally Restrained Unload<.>d Edge. ltJurriul of Su1~crurol E11.~i11eeriug . Vol 128, l202-121I. 2002.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PlATES 131

80

~
~

<
,;
e 40
long-plate approximatlon
""
Q

~
!!
"' :! IL, I~
L,

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8


Platc-lcnglh, L.T (01)
Figure 4.32: Buckling lo.ads o( lhc plate in Example 4.9. 1be resuhs shown are by Eq. (4.156)
(labeled as - present..), by Bank and Yins equations.. and by the long-plate approximatjon.

Solution. The expression in Table 4.9, fifth row (page 125). together with the
stiffnesses. D11 = 99.25 N m, D>..i = 6.47 N m , D12 = 1.94 N m, Dr..= 3.03 N m
(Table 3.7. page 84) gives
2
n" D11 1.25 1;Di2 12 1);,,
'v.T.tr = T + 1 + 4. t2.c L~ + .L~
1 .,
= 979.5/2 + 0.253 x JO/, + 14 560. (4.156)
'
where/., = L.,/; ands is the parame ter of restraint (Eq. 4.152):
Du
s = ...-
kly
= I. (4.157)

The blDckling loads for i = I. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 are

1 2 3 4 5 6
1V.,." (kN/ m) 81.67 46.03 56.85 81.20 115.04 157.37

The lowest buckling load corresponds to; = 2 and is 46.03 kN/m.


The buckling loads for pla tes with the same width but with different lengths are
given by solid lines in Figure 4.32. The buckling loads calcula te d by the e quations
211
o( Bank and Yin are also included in this figure. The approximate expression
(Eq. 4.15&) underestimates Nw. and. hence, is a conservalive estimate.
The long-plate expression gives the buckl ing load of this plate as 46.16 kN/m
(Example 4.12, page 139). This value is a lso sbown in Figure 4.32.

a L. C. Baok and J. Yin, Buc.kting or Onbouopic Plates v.-i1h Free. and RotationaUy Rcsuained
Unloaded Edges. Tl1i11\\'(ll/td S1ruc1ur.-s, Vol. 24. 83-'96, 1996.
132 THIN PLATES

"y
,{;S,
~ 4 -iV.,r,;

,
L, .__,v.,fJ
-
j
~
j ~ 4 - :V,ro

< - :V.,o

:lo /\i.tO
x
1-'lgure 4.33: Long platc-subjc-cted to a uniform compressive edge load and the different types of
~upports along the long edges..

4.3.5 Long Plates


We consider a long rectangular plaue of constant t hickness \\hose le ngth is large
con1pared with its width.

Unifonn Compressi>'e Load Along the Long Edge

T he length or the plate is L, and the widt h is L, ( L,. L,). T he s upports along
the long edges are as sho\vn in Figure 4.33. A uniform compressive load N.10 is
a pplied along o ne of the Jong edges or the plate. We wish to de te m1ine the lowest
value of t he applied under which the plate buckles.
\Ve treat the plate as Jong and assun1e that it undergoes cylindrical de-
formation a long its length (Fig. 4.4). This a pproxin1ation is reasona.ble when
.L1 > 3L_..!/ D11/ [),_, (Eq. 4.19).
When three inplane loads N.,0 N,.0 , and N.,,.11 act on tbe plate (Fig. 4.14, right),
the equilibrium equations in the x, y, and ~ directions (Fig. 4.1) arel9
Nx + -a'.~u = 0
-()ax ay
aN,. aN.. ,
-ay + ax = 0 (4.158)

()Vx av... dz,,;u dz wo d1 wu


ax + a); = iVxo dxz + N>o dy2 + 2Nxyodxdy,
'''here N.x, Ny, and N.x,. are the in plane forces (per unit length), and Vx and ~\ are
the transverse s hear forces (per unit length) (Fig. 4.1). tvlo1nent e quilib ria about
the)' a nd t a.xes give (Eq. 45)
v._.=>-a-
aM., aM,,.
+-a-
aM,. aM.,,.
II'.=ay- +ax- (4.1 59)
x y
\Vhere Mx and J\111,. are. respectively, the be.nding mon1e nt and nvist mo n1e nt per
unit length. 1\way fron1 t he short e dges the (orces and 1noments do no t vary along

~ S. P. Ttmoshcnko and l Gere. Tll e(Jry of Efosric S1tJl>ili1y. 2nd edition. ~kGrnw-H iU. New York.
1961, pp.333-334.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 133

the le ngth o( t he pla te. Thus, from the last of Eq. (4.1 58) and from the firs t of
E q. (4.159) we have
dV. d2wo
- ' - N,..- 2 = 0 (4.160)
dx dx

dM, - \I,= 0. (4.161)


dx
By substituting \I, from Eq. (4.161) into Eq .. (4.160) we o btain the equilibrium
equation
il1 1W x d1 1n u
-:;-;-
ux-
- N.,. -dx--, = 0. (4.162)

As v.as sho,vn in Section 4.2.2, v.he n the pla te is syn1metrical. the be nding
moment M, is (see Eq. 4.25)

(4.163)

Equations (4.162}. (4.21), and (4.163) yield

Jong plate
(4.164)
syn1n1etrical layup.
The eq uation describing the buckling of .an isotropic beam subjected to an
axial load iVJ;o is30
d4u; ..... tFuJ
4 + N," d
E/ - -
lfX . X2
=0 isotropic beam. (4.165)

The structure of the t\vo preceding equatio-ns is the san1e. There fore, the buck
ling load of a long plate (s)'mmetrical layup) may be obtained by substituting the
value of Di1 for El in the expression for the buckling load of the corresponding
isotropic beam.
It \Vas sho\\11 in Section 4.2.2 that 'vhen the layup o( t he pla te is unsyrnmetTicaJ.
the deHection may be obtained by replacing EI/ p' by l(f/ p in the expression fo r
the deflection of the c.orresponding isotropic beam. By sin1ilar arguments it can
be shown tliat the buckling load of a Jong plate with unsymmetrical layup may be
obtained i>y substitu ting the value of l(f for El in the e xpression for the buckling
load of the corresponding isotropic beam. (l(f is given by Eq. 4.52.)

4.10 Exan1ple.. A 0.1111lo11g and 0.2-n1ll1ide rectangular plare is 111ade ofgraphite


epoxy. Th n1a1erial properties are given in Table 3.6 (page 81). Tiu! layup is
(45~/0 12/45q. Tire Odegree plies are parallel ro rlre .rlrorr edge of r/Je. plare,
- -
111e pla1e fs eirlrer si1nply supported or builtiH along all fo ur edges. Tire plate is
subjecred ro uuifortu co111pressive loads along J/Je long edges (Fig. 4.34). Ca/cu/are
tire bm'klil1g load.

30
Ibid .. p. 2.
/,,-w 700mm L,,=-100 nun

t t t t t t t
Figw-c 4.,14: 1bc plat~ in Example 4.10.

Solutlon. The pla1e may be trea1ed as .. long" (Example 4.1. page 96). The buckling
loads of the corresponding beam a re (Eq. 6.337)

:r'EJ
1V,,, = V- (ss) (4.166)
2
4
Q. - " El (buihin). (4.1 67)
' o - Ll
The buckling loads of the plale are obtained by replacing/ by Du (see page
133) as follows:

:r'D,,
,v," = ~ (ss) (4.168)

N. - 41T' o,, (builtin ). (4.169)
.. o - Ll
,
Wi1h 1he \alue of Du= 45.30 N m (Table 3.7, page 84) and wi1h L, = 0.2 m.
tho buckling loads are

N'"' = 11. 18 kNlm (ss) (4.170)

N'"' = 44.71 kN/m (builtin). (4.171)

r"
IL, l,
lN,,
..
N,,

-- s

ia,I fl bI
SS
Cc~I tdl
c:::;
(Cl I frtt
! fll fr
Cgl~

(h)ls;c ssl Ci) lss Cjl I


..1gurc 4,3!'i; Long plntc sub1ectcd to uniaxial load ( lop) ond lhe Jiup1'H)rt11 ttlong lhc Jong (a tog}
11nd 11hor1 cdgc;c ( h to j).
4.3 BUCKLI NG OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 135

Uniform Con1pressi\e Load ;\long the Short Edge - Orlholropic


and Symmetrical Layup

We conside r a plate with length L, and width/_, ( l, L,)(Fig.4.35). The layup of


the plate is orthotropic and symmetrical. TI1e possible edge supports are shown in
Figure 4.35. The pla1e is s-ubjcc1cd to n uniax:ial co1npressive load A~o (Fig. 4.35_
lop).

Simply supported and built-in edges. The buckling loads of long plates whose
long edges are either simply supported or built -in (Fig. 4.35. a, b. c) are given below.
The buckled shape of a long plate away from the loaded edges is the same as
the buckled shape of a plate simply supported along the loaded edges. Therefore.
the buckling loads oflhe long plate are also given by Eq. (4.141 ). \Ve ue interested
in the lowest buckling load. \Ve denote the buck.ling length corresponding to this
buckling load by r,'. With this notation. Eq. (4.141) becomes
, I !l_r.2 a,
N,.a = Durrl'f + 0,," 2 1{+ 2(Du+20,,.) L( (4.172)

The necessary condition that gives the lowe$1 N,.., is d ( N ..n) / d(t; ) = 0. This
condition and Eq. (4.172) give

/
0
.t
= !!...l,
l . vrn;;,
rs;; (4.173)

Table 4.10. The buckling tenglhs co<respondlng to the


lowest buckling load with unidirectionally loaded longgiates
(orthotropic and symmetrical layup, E = ii\O(, ( - "");

'"
L 1 is the wldlh, and ii Is the spring constant. Plates with one
simply supported and one tree long edge buckle wtth a long
wave In the x direction, as lllustraled In Figure 4.21>.
supports BuckNng tenglll r,
g.cl_ _,,::,__,If iv... 1., fii!,
A'~
~L.I__-'_'_..JI 0.RL,{!!jf
L.l___...JI E A'A 0.6641~/i

f~ L, ~
l.61SL. f/i

0.707L,~
1~ THIN PLATES

Table 4.11. The lowest buckling loads of long plates with olthotropic and symmetrical layup
<~ = , v = zo!ro~ K = ~ . .,,=j
r+h><<=A.u ' ). Ly Is the width, and kis the
, ,/1f;;1Ji l+fl-ZZ- 3 $$")(
spring conslant. The buckling loads of long plates with one simply supported and one free long edge
are given in the first three rows of Table 4.9 (page 125).
Supports Buckling load Nx.~ or N:(y,(t

~I
SS

:i5
IEN.. ;fl2J D11D,.,+2 (D11 + 20,,,))
I 1''s
~I
SS
~(3.125~ + 2.33(011 +20.,,)]

IE!V~,
I ~(4.53~ + 2.62( 0 12 + 2D,.l)
L>

_,1::~:::1 ~<- N
=t
~ ...,......_ ,.._ - ~ ~(2Jl + 4.139tJD11D12 + (2+0.62{ 2) (D11 +20,.)J

Jii" (15. IK~ + 7(1 - K) j when K :; I

J o,,o" ~
Li I b-.l vl - ,,+(K, - 1)6( 1-v) l whcnl < K

J"',!; 0" [ K(q l5.1Jr=7.+(1 - 1)6(1 - 11))+ ~] when K :5 I


" l +-112(

Jt~! "" J111 5. I Jf="i; + (K - q)6( 1 - 11)) when l < K


I.;

JI S.<
SS l(f ~ (13.9,/Du D11 + 11.1 (D12 + 20,.))

-!J,~ (8.125 + 5.045K)


r
-> -> ->
JV,.,, whl!n K :5 l
~
S.<

~,/Du(D1 i+2D<:t,)(J 1.71 + ~) when L< K


SS
~ <(-

1J,~ (15.07 + 1.0SK) when K :: I


;'J / O,,(D12+ 20..)(l8.59+ If,') when I < K

"-:.. / lltl!
z
Figure 4.36: Buckled shape of n lo ng plate with simply supported edges.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 137

As before. t he buckling length 1; is the half wavelength of the buckled shape.


We obtain the lowest buckling load by introdUJcing Eq. (4.173) into Eq. (4.172) as
follO\\"S'.

N.,.cc = ~ (a~JDuD,2 +<>s( D12 + 20..,)). (4.174}

The values of"' and <>s to be used a re those given in Table 4.7 (page 120) fo r
j = l . The resulting buckling lengths and buckling loads are listed in the first three
rows of Tables 4.10 a nd 4.11.

Both long edges are rotationally restrained. TI1e plate is rotationally restrained
along the unloaded long edges (Fig. 4.35. d). The buckling load for a pla te with
arbitrary length is given by Eq. (4.150). The value of I, t hat results in the lowest
buckling load is deno te d by /.~ . When the plate is long, the necessary condition
that gives the lowest Nx.a is d (Nx.") /d (I~) = 0. This condition a nd Eq. (4.150) ,
\Vilh Ix replaced by t.~. give

1-~l JD,;
, - v~ 'vo; (4.175}

where~ is given by Eq. (4.151). Equations (4.150), (4.1 51), and (4.175) yield

N., .cc = ~; [ 2,/1 + 4.139$ ,/ D 11 D,2 + (2 + 0.62$ 2) ( D,, + 2D.,,) l(


4. 176)

This result is included in T.>ble 4.11.

One long edge is imply supported; the other i.< free. The buckling loads are
given in th e first three ro"' of Table 4.9 (page 125) for plates with one of the
edges parallel to the load direction simply s:upported and the other edge free.
These expressions are applicable regardless o( the aspect ratio of the plate and
hence may be used to calculate the buckling loads of long plates with one simply
supported and one free long edge (Fig. 4.35, el.

One long edge is buillin; t he other is free. The buckling loads of plates with
one of the unloaded edges built-in a nd the o the r one free (Ag. 4.35. f) can be
calculated by Eq. (4.147). The value of I, that results in the lowest buckling load is
denoted b)'1;.When the plate is Jong, the necessary condition that gives the lowest
Nx.n is d (N,.") /d (/~} = 0. This condition and Eq. (4.147), with I, replaced by 1; .

Figure 4.37: The plate in Example 4.11.


138 THIN PLATES

l~= 500 mm
!V~
~!-------------~--
free
:V, 0
I
'-+~+--+--l-+--+---i--l---+--+':: L,= ~
1-igurc 4.38: Illustration of lhe plate. in Example 4.12.

give

I"= 1675L
;i y'fD".
[),...1
(4.177)

Equations (4.147) and (4.177) yield

.f7Jtt1J1i . D..,
N.w = 7 ' + 12-L
' . (4.178)
L.v ."
TI1is expression gives a con....;ervative estin1ate of the buckling load and under
estin1ates it by less than 14 pe rcent. Mo re accurate e xpressions, determined by
Koll:\r,31 a re given in Table 4.11 (page 136). TI1e accuracy of these equations is
about 2 pe rcent \\hen 0 < K ~ 1 and is about 5 percent 'vhen 1 < K $ 3.

4.11 Exantple. A rectangular plate ~virlr length 4 = 0.5 "'and width Ly = 0.05 111
is tuade of graphite epoxy tUJidirectioua/ plies 1vitlr the fibers oriented along the
x -axis of t/Je plate (Fig. 4.37). Tire material properties are given hr Table 3.6
(page 8 1). Tire layup is !Ow~ 011e of the /oug edges i.r builti11; the other lo11g edge
is free. The short edges are si1nply supported. The plate is subjecred ro u11ifor111
con1pressive loads iu tire x direction. Calculate the buckling load.

Solution. The stiffnesses of t he plate are D 11 = 99.25 N m, Du = 6.47 N m.


D12 = 1.94 N m , D"' = 3.03 N m (Table 3.7, page 84). The buckling le ngth r; is
(Eq. 4.177)

1.~ = 1.675 L,.j ~~ = 0.166 m. (4.179)

S ince the plate is longer t han the buckling le ngth ( L., > 1; ), we may treat the
pla te as Jong.'" From Table 4.ll (page 136), Kand 11 are

2D..,+ D12 D t2
K= 0.316 v= 0.242. (4.180)
.,/Du D,, 2D,,, + D,,

JI L. P. KolJar, Buckling of Unidirectionally Loaded Composite Plates wilh O ne Free nnd One
RotationnJI)' Rc$traincd Un1oadcd Edsc. }()unurl of S1ni-a ural 11gi11eeri11s,. Vol 128, 1202-1211 .
2002.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 139

Figure 4.39: Long rectangular plate sub-


je-eted to line-a rly var)ing load.

From Table 4.11 (fifth row) we obtain ( K < ! )

./Dii75;i ,.--
N.w = L' ( 15. I K v I - v + 7 (1 - K)) = 90.640 kN/m. (4.181)
y

One long edge is rotationally restrained the other i.< free. The buckling loads of
plates v"ith one of the. unloaded e dges rotationally restrained a nd the other one
free (Fig. 4.35, g) can be C'1lculated by Eq. (4.154). The value of I, that results in
the lowest buckling load is denoted by(~. When the plate is long the necessary
condition that gives the lov.est 1Vx.cr is d (1Vx,i:r) / d (/.~) = 0. This condition and
Eq. (4.154), with I, re placed by /~. give

(4.182)

where~ is the parameter of restraint given by Eq. (4.152). Equations (4.1 54) and
(4.182) yield

,,
J1ix CT -
- 7 ./750l5ll + J? I.A..
_. ' (4.183)
. ) 1+ 4.12s Lf L~

This expression gives a conservative estin1ate of tJ1e buckling load and under
estimates it by less than 14 percent. More accurate e xpressions, determined by
Koll:ir,32 are included in Table 4.11 (page 136). The accuracy o f Ulese equations is
about 2 pe rce nt \\ he n 0 < K .$_ t and is a bout 5 percent when 1 < K 5 3.
1

4.12 Exan1ple. A recuurgular plate with /en grit Lx = O.S 1t1 and 1vid1h Ly = 0.05111 is
1nade ofgraphite epoxy unidirectional plies ~\'ith the fi bers orienrt~d along Jhe :<axis
ofthe plate (Fig. 4.3.~). The material properries are given iii Table 3.6 (page 81). The
layup is (020]. One of the long edges is rotationally restrained vlu'/e the other long
edge is f ree. Tire short edges are sitnply snpported. The rotational spri1Jg constant
of the edge is k = 129.4 JV. The plate is subjected to 111,~for111 corupressive loads in
1/re x direction. Ca/cu/are the bt1ck/i11g load.

Solution. 111e bending stiffnesses o( the plate are D 11 = 99 .25 N m, Dii =


=
6.47 N m, D12 = 1.94 N m, D,,. 3.03 N m (Table 3.7, page 84) and i: I =
J2 Ibid.
1411 THIN PLATES

l 1t:~::::,::::::rr
!V rYJ
-> ->
SS

SS
<- <- <- <- <-
F'tgurc 4.40: Long ree.tangular plate subjec.ted to shear load.

(Eq. 4.157). The buckling l eng th/~ is (Eq. 4.182}

1.~ = 1.675L, ;~(I + 4.12!} = 0.249 m. (4.184)

Since the plate is longer than the buckling length ( L., > /~) . \\'e may treat the
pla te as " long." With the paramete rs Kand v give n by Eq. (4.180), fromTable 4.1 1.
sixtl1 row (page 136) we obtain ( K < 1)

N.w = ~IK(~15.1 ji-:-;;+ (J - 11}6(l - v)] +


lj
7
( l - K)
/1 + 4.12~
I
= 46.16 kN/m, (4.185)

where 11 is (Table 4.11)


1
I/ = =0.369. (4.186)
.;1 + (7.22 - 355,,H

Linearly Varying Load Along the Short Edge - Ortbotropic


and Symmetrical Layup
The layup o f the pla te is orthotropic and symme trical. 111e short edges of the plate
are either sin1ply suppo rted or built~ in, as sho\vn in the botton1 ro'v of Figure 4.35.
Both long edges are si1uply supported. Along the short edges the plate is subjected
to a linearly varying normal load \\!ith maximun1 intensity Nx" (Fig. 4.39). The
lowest buckling load Nx.n at which t he plate buckles is given by Lekhnitskii"
11'2
N, ," = J.i.(13.9/ Du D,, + 11.l(D12 + 2D66 )j. (4.187)

This result is included in Table 4.11 (page 136). The buckling length is given in
Table 4.10 (page 135).

Shear Load - Orthotropic and Symmetrical Layup


The layup o f the plate is orthotropic.and S)'lllmetrical. Both long edges are either
simply supported or built-in (Fig. 4.40). Regardless of the manne r in which tl1e Jong
edges are supported, the short edges may be either simply supported o r builtin.

" S. G. Lckhnitskii. Ani.~or.ropic P/01tt. Gordon and Brca<h Science Publis.hcrs. New York. 196&.
pp. 462-463.
4.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 141

Table 4. 12. The parameter .81in Eq. (4.188) as a


function of K = ~+ 11
11 u

0 ;5 K ;5 1
Simpl)' supported 8. l25 + 5.045K 11.71 + Li'l
.,
Buihin 15.07 + 7.0SK 18.59 + ~~

The plate is subjected to a. uniforn1 shear load 1'1.t>~' \Ve v"ish to de te rmine the
JO\\'eSt value O( the )oad /V.ty. er at \Vhich the plate buck)e.s.
Seydel derived the lowest buckling loads for infinitely long plates. The resulting
expressions, as quoted by \Vhitney,:w are

(4.188)

Seydel gave nun1erical values for fJ1. These values can be approximated within
2 percent by the expressions in Table 4.12.

4.4 Free Vibration of Rectangular Plates


\Vhen a plate undergoes free, undamped vibration, the deHection of the plate is
sinusoidal with respect to tin1e t,

w0 =~sin (wt)= W0 sin (2.Jr/r) , (4.189)

where w is the circular frequency and f is the natural frequency. The period of
vibration Tis
I w=2Tr/= 2ir.
T=- (4.190)
/ T
and U? is the deflection of the plate a t tin1e t = T/4.
In this section \\'e obtain the natural frequencies and, hence, the periods of
vibration, of free.l) vibra ting plates.

4.4.1 Long Plates


\Ve consider a long rectangular pla te whose length L1 is large compared \Vith its
width L., . The mass of the plate is uniJorm. The edges n1ay be built~in, sin1ply
supported, or free (Fig. 4.41 ).

3'I J. l\.1. \\'hilnc.y, Struaurol Analysis of L(IJ11lrut1cd A11isotropic Plotu lCch nontic. Lancas ter,
Pcn n1'ylvnnia. 1987. p. 118.
142 THIN PLATES

,t;;, ~
~ ~
~ i
L,

J:'1gure 4.4l: 1 'hc-ditferent types or supports a long the long edges of a free.I)' vibratin!t long plate..

When L, > 3L,1Dii!Dll (Eq. 4.19}, a laterally loaded plate may be a pproxi
ma ted as a long pla te undergoing cylind rical deformation (Fig. 4.4), a nd the e qui
librium e quations a re (Eqs. 4.22 a nd 4.23)
dV,
dx + p=O (4.191)

dM, - V, =0. (4.1 92)


dx

\Vhere p is the lateral force (per unit area) acting on the plate. In the case o( a
free ly vibrating pla te .pis the inertia force, which, with the use of Eq. (4.189), is

aiw"
p = - p....,
at
= p (2.!r/)2 W" sin (21' f t ). (4.193)

where p is t he mass of t he plate pe r unit a rea. Equations (4. I 91)-(4.193) give

d'M,,+P (2tr f)' W "-0


- . (4.1 94)
d x
When the plate is symme trica l, the bending mome nt is (see Eqs. 4.25 and 4.21)
()2UJU
A1x = DuK.r: = - D11--2 (4.1 95)
8x
W ith t his moment, Eq. (4.194) yields

d'w - L (2.!rf)' w" = 0 long plate


4 (4.196)
dx D1 1 symmetrical layup.

The equation o f a freely vibrating isotropic beam is1s

d'w p' 2 ' isotropic beam, (4.1 97)


dx' - El ( "/) '"=O
'vhere p' is t he mass of t he bean1 per unit length.

-" \ V. \Vcaver, S. P. Tin1oshcnko, and D. H. Young. Vil>rathn1 Pmblet'IS in 11gi11eeti11g. 51h edition.
John \Vile)' & Sons., New York. 1990, p. 417.
4.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 143

Figure 4.42: The plates ln '.':ample 4.13.

From Eq~ (4.196)and (4.197)we observe that the natural frequencies of a Long
plate (syn1n1etrical layup) with bending stiffness D 11 and n1ass p are the san1e as
the natural frequenc.ies of an isotropic beam 'vith bending stiffness El and n1ass p' .
Thus, the natural frequencies of a long plate (symme trical layup) may be o btained
by replacing El / p' by D 1if p in the expression for the natural frequencies of the
corresponding isotropic. bean1.
The natural frequencies or a long plate with unS)'lllme trical layup may be
obtained by replacing E l / p' by \II/ p in the expression for the natural frequencies
of t he corresponding isotropic beam (where 'if is given by Eq. 4.52).

4.13 Exan1ple. A 0.1-111/011g and 0.2. . ntliiide rectangult1r plate lf n1ade of graphite
epoxy. Tire tuaterial properties are given hr the Table 3.6 (page Bl). The laynp is
[45\/012/451). Tire Odegree plies lire parallel ro the slrorr edge of tire plate. The
plate is either situply supported or builtiH ttlong all four edges (Fig. 4.42). The
nrass of the plare is unifor111 (p = 3.2 kg/in 2). Calculate tire circular and natural
frequencies.

Solution. The plate may be treated as "long" (Exa mple 4.1, page 96). T he circula r
frequencies of the corresponding beam are (Eq. 6.398, and 1hble 6. 13, page 308)

w (/~,
, = yp; Li .8 ; =tr.21t.3tr ... . (ss) (4.198)

W ,. p' ~
= ~/ El L'1 .RI = 4.730. 7.853. 10.996, . . . (built-in). (4.199)

Tiie circular freq uencies of the plate are obtained by replacing El/ p' by D11 / p
as follows:

u; =!r.2tr.311', .. . (ss) (4.200)

W , - I/ D11
. - ~; ., = 4.730. 1.s53. to.996, ... (built-in). (4.201)
P L.,1
144 THIN PLATES

Figure 4.43: Rectan$ular simpl)' supported (ss)


~ plate.

W ith 0 11 =45.30 N . m (Table 3.7, page 84) and L, = 0.2 m. tbe circula r fre-
quencies a re

t.IJl = 928 "" = 3 713 W3 = 8 355 )/ S (ss) (4.202)


"'' = 2 104 w1 = 5 801 w 3 = 11 3731/s (built.in). (4.203)

The natural fre que ncies are f = w/ 2:r (Eq. 6.397)


/ 1 = 148 fz = 591 /1= I 330 Hz (ss) (4.204)
! = 335 /1=923 f3 =I 810 Hz (built-in). (4.205)

4.4.2 Simply Supported Plates - Symmetrical Layup


We cons ider a rectangular plate \vith diluensio ns L., and Ly simply s upported
along its four edges (Fig. 4.43). The layup of the plate is symme trical, [ BJ = [OJ.
The n1ass of the plate is uni(orm.
Fo llowing \ Vhitney,30 we obtain the na tura l freque ncies o ( t his pla te by the
energy method. By introducing wl) (see Eq. 4.189) into the expression for U
(Eq. 4.55), we obtain

U= V sin2 (2tr f t) , (4.206)

\Vhere U is defined as
4
-U=-211'1 D11 (a'-ax'"-"')' + >,,.. (a'-ayW-")' + D.,, (2a'
[ -W -")'
axay1

" 0

+2 ( 0 12 .....-
azW
.......-, +
azur aiwo za1iff'
o,.,.-:;-:;-+
azU?
0,6 - . - , - - , -
2-a1wu)]dydx.
ax1 oy ox oxay ay- axoy
(4.207)

The kinetic e ne rgy of the pla te is

i,f J (dw)-
1... z.., '
K = I 71 p dydx. (4.208)
" 0

JI> J. tlil. Whi1ncy. S1tJJ<'-t111ol Analy.,1..~ of Lar11ir1aJe(/ A11iso1ropic Pla1e.1. Tccbnontic. Lane.aster,
Pennsylvania. 1987. p. 166.
4.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 145

Subs tit ut ion o( the deflection, given by Eq. (4.189), into this equation yields
'~ ,"'!
K =&(21f/) ons (21f/ t) / 2 2
j pw" dydx. 1
(4.209)
0 I)

1-\ ccording to the la\v of conservation of energy the c.haoge in strain e nergy
from tin1e / = 0 to tin1e / e quals the change in kine tic energy during this tin1e
(U, - U1. o) = - (K, - K 1. o). (4.210)
Initially. at time r = () the strain energy is zero (Eq. 4.206), but a t time 1 = -Jr
the kinetic e ne rgy is zero (Eq. 4.209). Thus, we have
ul- f, = Kl.I.I (4.211)
Equation (4.211), together with Eqs. (4.206) and (4.209), yields
L , I.>

&(2" n' j .f pw"1dydx = V. (4.21.2)


0 (I

Pron.1 this equation \\'e obtain

(21f f)' = - - - - - -
v (4.213)
1, L,
~ J J pW"'dydx
0 0
We use Rayleigh s ene rgy method~ 7 to o bta in the defle ction. For the s in1ply
supported pla te under consideration the geome trical boundary condit ions re quire
that the d eflections be zero along the edges (Eq. 4.57) as follows:

!'"'
and O::;y::; Ly
x = L" a nd O::;y::; L,. (4.21 4)
ul' =0 at
0 5 :c 5 L,, and y= O
05x 5 L,, and y = L,. .
The follo\\'ing deflection salisfies these geon1etrical bo unda ry conditions:

w = iii" sin (21' ft) , (4.215)


where ~ is
I J ,
'\' '\' 11fX , p ry
iff = L,, L,, IJJij SIU - SID - , (4.216)
;. i ;- i Lt Ly
where I and J a re the nun1ber of terms, chosen arbitrarily, for the summ ations
and u1i; are constanls. Accord ing to the Rayle igh principle the freque ncy of vi
bration of a conserva tive systen1 has a m inim u111 value in the ne ighborhood of the
fundamenla.l iuode.311 \\'e express t his principle in the fo rn1

.!L -o
tluJ;i -
(4.217)

n L. r-.tei.ro\itch, Pritteiplt!.'1 and TI>ch11iqut!.\' of Vibrations. Prcntioc. H all, Upper Saddle River,
New Jcn:l")'. 1997. pp. 5 18--522.
.13 ]bid., p. 520.
146 THIN PLATES

To dete rmine the values of w,;. we substitute Eqs. (4.207). (4.213), and (4.216)
into this expression. Algebraic n1ilnipulatio ns yield the follo\\'ing sy.sten1 of s imuJ ..
taneous a lgebraic equations:
I J
= 1, 2, 3, . . ., I
_L L (GmmJ -
i I ; .. 1
A~mnij) UJ;; = 0
I i. m
j.11=1 , 2.3 .. . ., f ,
(4.218)

'vhere Ais given by


l ,
}, = ;j (2trft pL,L, . (4.219)

For convenience, we introduce the contracted no tation

k = (i - l)f +j j i. = I. 2. 3.. . ., I (4.220)


l J = I. 2, 3. . .'J
I = (m _ t )J + 11 j m = l , 2, 3, . .. I (4.221)
l f l = 1, 2, 3... .. J.
Equation (4.218) may now be written as
I x/ / xJ
L c.,w, = ). L ~kfWk I= I. 2, 3, . ., Ix J . (4.222)
kl k l

where G;t (= G,;) and t he Kronecke r delta J!k (= ~kl) are given in Table 4.1
(page 102). Jn expanded form E q. (4.222) is

G11

([
Gu~1i1
In the case of free vibration the deflection is nonzero. For no nzero deHections.
Eq. (4.223) is satisfied when the determinant of the matrix in the parentheses is
zero. At this condition ), is the eigenvalue of Eq. (4.223). There are J x I eigen-
value~ deno ted by A;; , \Vhich may readily be c.alculated by commercial softv.are.
The natural freque ncies are calcula ted from Eq. (4.219) as follows:

Ji; =; //>~iL,.. (4.224)

For an orthotropic plate 0 16 = 0,,, = 0, and the e igenva luesof Eq. (4.223) can
directly be calcula te d. T he result is

A;; = ~L,L,ir' [ D11 (LY +2(D,, + 2DM) ( L)' (LJ' + o,, (l)'l
(4.225)
4.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 147

Figure 4.44: 'the plate in E.:tamplc 4.14.

Equations (4.224) and (4.225) give the natural frequencies of an orthotropic


plate as follows:

/;; = :; { ~I (L)' + 2(D12 +2~) ( L)' (l)' + o,, (1,) '}


(4.226}

The values of f, 1 must be calculated for different values of i and j.

4.14 Exantple. A 0. 1~111 -/oug and0.2--n1 lt1ide rectangular plate is 111ade of graphite
epoxy. The n1aterial properries are given hr Table 3.6 (page 81). The layup is
(45\f012/ 45j). Tire Odegree plies are parallel to the short edge of the plttte.
Tlie plate is simply supponetl along all four edges (Fig. 4.44). Tile mass of the plate
l'i u11ifor111 (p = 3.2 kg/1112). Cttlculate rhe natural frequencie.'i.

Solution. From Eq. (4.226), with the stiffnesses D11 45.30 N m, 0,2 = =
= =
25.26 N m, D 12 19.52 N m, ~ 20.62 N . m (Table 3.7, page 84} we
have

= / 21830i' + 4 780i'jl+81.11 j 4 . (4.227}

This yields the following values of/;; (Hz):

i\j 2 3
1 163 205 267
2 607 653 727
3 1 346 1 393 1 470 .

The lowest natural frequency corresponds to i = j = 1, and is

/ 11 = 163 Hz. (4.228}


148 THIN PLATES

---~--------------------
long-plate.appruxi1n.ation

o '--~~~~~~~~~~~"-~~~~__,

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.694 0.8


Length. Li; (m)
Figure 4.45: The lo,\C'st natural frequency of the.plate in E:)'.ample 4. l4 as a unction of the.plate
length.

\Ve now assess the lengthtO\\idlh ratios under 'vhich the longplate approxi~
mation is reasonable. To this end. \\'e calculated the lowest natural frequency of the
pla te, keeping the width 4 the same while c hanging t he length L,_ In Figure 4.45
\Ve plot the Jo,vest natural frequency thus calculated versus Ly. l n this figure 've
also included the lov.est natural frequency given by the long-plate approxin1ation
(Eq. 4.204). The results in this figure show that, in accordance \\ith Eq. (4.19), the
lo ng-plate fonuula approxin1ates \vithin 10 percent the natural frequency when
Ly is gre ater than 3L.,:/D 11 / 1),..1 = 0.694 m.

4.15 Exan1ple. A 0.2-inlong and 0.2-tn"ide recu111gular plate is 1nade of graphite


epoxy unidirectional plies. The 111aterial propenies tire given iJJTable 3.6 (page Bl ) .
T he layup is [0,/45,/90,j-452),. T he p late is simp ly supported along the four edges
( Fig. 4.4fi). The mass of tire p late is uniform ( p = 2.56 kglm ' j. Calculate the twttrral
frequencies.

Solution. The layup o f the plate is symmetrical but not orthotropic. The bend
= =
ing stiffnesses a re D11 34.61 N m, D22 I 2.34 N m, D12 4.58 N m, D66 = =
5. 14 N . m, D 10 = 3.34 N . m, D,6 = 3.34 N. m (Table 3.7, page 84). The na tura l
frequencies a re calcula ted from Eqs. (4.224) a nd (4.223). With t he preceding

figure 4.46: The plate in Example 4. IS.


4.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 149

stiffnesses, and with I = J = 7, these calculations yield the following /;1 (Hz)
values:
i \ j 2 3
1 211 446 9 10 (4.229)
2 640 797 1 179
3 I 359 I 569 1 955 .

The layup follows the lOperc.e nt rule (page 89), a nd we may treat t he plate as
orthotropic. from Eq. (4.226) we have

= / 20 850i' + 17 910i2 J1+7 435 i'. (4.230)

The values of /; 1 (Hz) are

i\j 2 3
l 2 15 460 886 (4.231)
2 642 860 1 257
3 I 363 I 566 1 934.
We see that these natural frequencies (v.hich are based o n t he orthotropy
approxin1ation) a re within 8 pe rce nt of the natura l frequencies resulting from the
exact calculatio ns (see Eq. 4.229).

4.4.3 Plates with Builtln and Simply Supported Edges - Orthotropic


and Symmetrical layup
\Ve conside r rectangular plates 'vith le ngth L., and v.idth L y. Each edge of the
pla te is e ither simply supported or built-in. The layup of the plate is o rtho tropic
and syn1metrical. Follo\\'ing Hearmon:.w the natural freq uencies of the pla te are
calculate d by the Rayleigh energy method.
Under free \ibration the deftection o f the plate is (Eq. 4.189)

w0 = W' sin (211' / 1) . (4.232)

By introducing this w 0 into the e xpression of the stra in e ne rgy (Eq. 4.107). and
by setting D1 = Di = 0, we obtain
U = Usin 2 (2tr/1) . (4.233)

Y1 R. E S. Hearn1on. The Frequency of Flexural Vibralion or Rectangultlr Orlhotropie Plates:


with Clamped or Simply Supported Edges:. Journal of Appli~d ,\fecl1llnics. Vol. 26. 537-540,
t 959.
150 THIN PLATES

\vbere U is defined as

-U= -l
2.
rf ' " ' [
(a'iii")- + D-n- (a'iii'
D11 - -
ax'
,
- -')- + D.,, (za2u;
ay'
,
--
0

axa )'
)
2

0 0

+ 2 ( D 12 a'W"
axi ay' a'W") Jd yd.r. (4.234)

By folJo,ving the san1e steps as in Section 4.4.2, \VC arrive at


Ii
(27rf}' = - - - - - (4.235)
! j' f'~ pw"'dydx
0 0
The deHection is assumed to be of the form
W" = AX;(x)lj(y), (4.236)
where A is the, as yet unknown, amplitude. For X,(x) a nd lj(y) we adopt the
shape of a freely '~brating beam. For different end supports these functio ns are
given in Table 4.4 (page 11 9). The variables i and j represent t he numher of half
waves in the.rand y directions, respectively (Fig. 4.19).
By introducing Eq. (4.236) into Eq. (4.235), and by pe rforming the integration,
\Ve obtain

I.;; = ~L,Ly (Du~+ D,,~ + 2(Dn + 2D66) L~~;) (4.237)

\Vhere Ai/ is the eigenvalue, \\hich is defined as

J., 1 = 4
I (211'/;;) ' pL,L,.. (4.238)
The parame ters cri. &2, a3, a4, as are given in Table 4.5. The values of a 1
through as 1nust be calculated numerically. The integrations simlify when X;(x)
and Yi (Y) are calculated by the approx:in1ate expressions of i given in Table 4.4.
The resulting approximate expressions for a , through as are given in Tables 4.6
and 4.7. 'vhereas a2 is
(4.239)
Tile parameters a 1-a5 and the corresponding eigenvalues ).;; n1ust be calcu
lated for dif!erent sets of i and ; , (i, j = I, 2... . ). The natural freque ncies are
then c.alculated by

. - !..1t JpL,Ly
f; , -
'A;; - .!...
- 2..

(4.240)

4.16 Example.. A 0.2ttllo"g and 0.211llvide rectangular plate is 111ade of graphite


epoxy unidirectio11a/ plies. Tire 1nateria/ properties are gil'eJJ in Tobie 3.6
4.5 HYGROTHERMAL EFFECTS 151

Figure 4.47: 1'be plate in Example 4. 16.

(page 81). The layup is IG.i/452/902/ - 452],. Tire p lare is b11ilt-in along the four
edges (Fig. 4.47). Tire mass of tire plate is tmiform (p = 2 .56 kg/111 2 ) . Calculate the
narural frequencies.

Solution. The layup follows the JO-pe rcent rule (page 89), and we treat the plate
as orthotmpic. With t he stiffnesses 0 11 = 34.61 N m, Dii = 12.34 N m, D 12 =
4.58N. m, D06 = 5.14 N . m. 0 16 = 3.34 N. m, 0,. = 3.34N. m ('fable3.7, page84)
Eq. (4.240) yields

/;;= 2'r
1 1[
P at a~ et1 ]
D11 E+ o,20 +2(D12 + 20 .. ) ~I.j

= J214at + 184a~ + 76.3",a s, (4.241)


where a 1 and " ' depend on i (i = 1, 2, . . . ) and " ' a nd as depend on j (j =
1. 2,. . . ) as give n in Tables 4.6 and 4.7, third row. From these ta bles the va lues
are
i= l i= 2 i=3
4.73 7.85 11.00
"' 12.91 45.98 98.91
"'
j = 1 i=2 i=3
4.73 7.85 11.00
"'
"s 12.91 45.98 98.91 .
111e values off;; (Hz) are (Eq. 4.241)
i\j 1 2 3
1 420 712 I 207
2 981 1 222 I 663
3 I 844 2063 2 458 .

4.5 Hygrotltermal Effects

\Ve consider a sn1all e le ment of a thin plate. The ten1pe ra ture a nd moisture con
centration (both of v.hich n1ay vary across the t hickness o( the pla te) a re T a nd c.
152 THIN PLATES

Figure 4.48: H)'grolhcrmal an d mechanical loads


on a ph1te cle.me.nt.

respectively. lnplane forces and n101nents n1ay also act on the e len1enl (Fig. 4.48).
Q\ving to these hygrothern1al and n1echanical loads, under plane.s uess condition,
the strains at a point are (see Eqs. 2.155 and 2.156)

(4.242)

\\/here 6 T is the te1nperature d iffe rence relative to a reference ten1pe.rature

l!.T= T - T,", (4.243)

and (J and fl a re the the nnal expansion and n1oisture expansion coefficients
(Section 2.6). The stress at a point is obtained by inverting Eq. (4.242) as
follows:

{=:}= IQJ({ :: }-tJ.r {f:}-c { ~:. })


f.ty Y xy <x.1>' f3.1J'
(4.244)

By definition. the fo rces and moments a re (Eq. 3.9)

M, } '" {u,}
{ =j
M,
A1xy - Iii.
t " '
fx}'
dt . (4.245)

It is c.onvenient to define tJ1e followi ng equivalent generalized hygrothern1al


forces:

,~t: = f'" IQ] ( {ii~: }+c {p


{N"'} 6.T e: }) dt (4.246)
Nxr - Iii. /3.,J'
<t.1y

{M}: = Jz[ QJ ar ~;. + c !: dz.


Mhl } '" ( {ii } {p }) (4.247)
1\.1.!'y - ltt- CfXf ft JI)'
4.5 HYGROTHERMAL EFFECTS 153

With the definitions o f the [A), [BJ, and [DJ matrices (Section 3.2.2),
Eqs. ( 4.244)-( 4.247) may be combined to yie ld

N, A 11 A.ii A i& 811 812 ,


N"'
~ A 11 A11 Aio 8 12 812 N"'
y
1VJ1y A1 Ai Ai. 81 s,_. N.!1!
= ,
M,;'
M, 811 812 Brn D11 Dn
M,, 8 12 Bn 8 16 Du D,, M~'
y
A(,,. 8 ,. 8,. B,,,, D, Di M"
' Y
(4.248)

au a 12 <Y16 PH N,
0'12 <Y22 &26 /J21 N,
0'16 &26 &'(t() /J61 Nxy
=
fJ11 fJ21 p,,, 611 M,
+
{J,, {J,, p,,, 6,, My
{J,. {J,. fJ 6,. M.1:v
(4.249)

where a;;. /3;;, and S;; are the e len1e nts of thecon1pliance n1atrices (Eq. 3.22). \Ve
define the Collo\\'ing generalized bygrothennal strains a nd curvatures:

au <x12 & 16 /J11


a 12 a22 a 26 P21

=
a 16 a26 a> jJ"' (4.250)
fJ11 fJ21 {J., 611
fJ12 fJ22 (J., 612
fJ1 {Ji. 11.. 6,.
These gene ra lized hygrotherma l strains \vo uld occur in t he re[erence plane of an
unrestrained plate subjected to changes in ten1pe ra ture and moisture content.
Expressions for calculating N'", M'" (Eqs. 4.246 and 4.247) are given in
Table 4.13 for piece,vise linear, linear, and unifor1n te1nperature distributions
(Fig. 4.49).

tlT

Pic-cewise
linear Linear Unifonn

Figure 4.49: Piece\\ise Hne-a r. linc.ar. and uniform lcmperalure dts1ributions acroi;s lhe-plale.
,.. rHINPlATtS

Table 4.13. The hygrotllermal forces N" ,M" for piecewise


linear, linear, end uniform temperature dislrlbullons (Rg. 4.49).
The .<l J'ik.Q and -<l 1i.o0 refer to the top and bottom of lhe kth
layer. for piecewise linear. linear, end uniform moisture
diolrlbutlons .<l T and ii are replaced by c and ii.
Piecewise linear 1e1npcraturc distribution

{ ~}
~
= t. ("-; 1 ({1J.cA7(,.,+A701l {~: }) U u l

With the preceding dcllnition o f the hygrothermal strains Eqs. (4.248) and
(4249) may be written in the following forms;

1V,. Au At? A1 B11 Bu e,. ,. , et.bl


'
N. Au Au A.... Bu Bu Bz. ';' , o.bl
y
NX)'

Al,
M,
= A"
Bu
Bu
A.... A..
8 1? B,.
Bu 8,,, o,,
B,.
Du
B,. 8,,,,
Du o..
0,,,
r:y
K, .......,,
yo.bl

,
e,.
l),J Ky
,.
M,, B,.. &. Dt. 0,,. 0... ....... K.a}'
"'
(4.251)
4.5 HYGROTHERMAL EFFECTS 155

,ox a,, .,,. /111 /112 /J10 N., ,a.bl


,..
y au &zz
Ct12

"2 /121 /322 {J,. /V.1


x
f(l ,hl
)'
y;,. "'Uzr,
" /101 /Joi fJ.. 1\J.yy
Yu.bl
xy
= p., ~l2 s,. +
Kx /311 /321
/311 p,, p.,
~II M,
""'
x
Ky
Kxy p,. flir, {!..
812
~ ..
~12
.S26 ~..
.S26 My
J\(Ty
""'
y
Kht
"Y
(4.252)

Rectangular plat.es 'Willl free edges. \\1e consider a rectangular unsupported


plate, that is. a ll four of tbe edges are free. Tbe plate is subjecte d to pure bend
ing, in plane mecbanical loads, a nd to bygrolhe rmal loads. Sucb a pla te can be
analyzed by Eq. (4.248). In these equations the ten1perature and n1oisture distri-
butions across the plate must be specified as \Vell as 6 of the follov.~ng 12quantities
(Table 4.14):
1V.t or f.~ A(, or K.,..

1Vy or f;: :\~" or " >' (4.253)


1Vxy or f~y A(Ty or Kxy .

111e deHection of t he plate is calcula ted by Eq. (4.16).


When the unsupported pla te is subjecte d only to a ten1pe rature c hange 6 T
and n1oisture c, the 111echanic-al loads are zero (Table 4.14) as follo\\s:
,~, =0 A1xy = 0 (4.254)
M, =O M,, =0. (4.255)
In this c-ase the strains and curvatures are (see Eqs. 4.249 and 4.250)

f; fl),hi

,.. x
fo,hl
y
y'''
xy
y:>,hl

Kx
= '"
"hi
(4.256)
x
Ky Khl

Kxy
hi
l(l:y'
Rectangular plates with b11ilt-i11 edges. \Vhen a plate 'vit h builtin edges is sub
jected only to a te mpera ture c ha nge 8 T and 1noisturec, the strains and curvatures
are zero (Table 4.14) as follows:

" =0
x
0
fy =0 .t y =0
y" (4.257)
Kx =0 Ky = 0 K.ty = 0. (4.258)
The normal forces a nd moments a re calculated by Eqs. (4.246)- (4.248).
Long recta11g11/ar plates. When the plate is long and is subjected only to a
change in ten1perature 6. T and moisture content c, some of the strains, curvatures,
n1oments. and inplane loads are zero. as shov.n in Table 4.14. The response of
the pla te is the n calcula ted by setting equal to zero in Eq. (4.248) tbe quantities
indicated in this table. The de Hections of the plate are calcula te d by Eq. (4.16).
156 THIN PLATES

Table 4.14. Rectangular plates subjected to hygrothermal and


mechanical loads.
Loading Conditions
N, or
or
:E;
N,
N.,, or
,,~\' or "''.,
K
M, or Ky
Al:iy or K1y

,v_, =0 .rv.~ =D N,,,. =0


J\~( =0 ,W,, =0 A/,.) = 0

f: =0 E ~ = 0 y~',, = 0
K, =0 Ky =O Kr;: =
0

~LIT

~ngp~atc !lT
f: =0 E:
= 0 y~~, = 0
K,1 =0 K~ =0 K1.,, =0

Lons plate
!lT
c
.

x K,. =0
:.l' Long plate ,v_,, = 0

4.17 Rxan1ple. A I 1n~long and/ .1nwide plate is n1ade ofgraph ire epoxy unidirec
tional plies. The layup is 1456/0.aJ~. Tire edges of the plate are free. The 1e111perature
of rhe bortom rnrface is raised by 80 c and the rop surface by 120 c (Fig. 4.50).
Estinutfe the ce1nperatureilrduced change in the di111e1Jsio11s of the plate. The ply

80 ' C SO"C !lT,, = 100 "C - 20 'C


Figure 4.SO: Illustration of the plate in Example 4.17.
4.5 HYGROTltERMAL EFFECTS 157

propertles are glven in Table 3.6. (pase 81) 1/ie thernutl expattsiou coefficients are
;;, = =
- 0.7 x 10-<~ w1d ;;, 25 x 1 0- ~.

Solution. The tempe rature disLribution ncross the plate is represented by the
sum o f a constant and a Hnearly varying temperature distribu1ion. as sho\\'ll in
Figure 4.50. The temperature dif(crcnccs shO\\'ll in this figure are

Ll.To= 80+120 = IOO "C Ll. 7; = 120 - 80 = 20 OOl C/m. (4.259)


2
"
where Ii = 0.002 m is the thickness of the plnte. The hygrotherrnal forces are
(Table 4.13. page 154)

(4.260)

(4.261)

N':'} ;J, }
L: zl-2.l._, 1~1. { ;;,
{"">"
K
=fl r, (4.262)
f't/l''
"Y Ali
k-1 ;;
u t

(4.263)

The stiffness mauices [QJ for the zero nnd 45dc~rce plies are (Eqs. 3.49 and
3.52)

148.87 2.91 0 ] N [45.65 36.55 34.79] N


0
IQJ = ~91 9.71 o 10 - ,
m
IQI" = 36.55 45.65 34.79 109 - ,
[ 0 4.55 34.79 34.79 38.19 m

(4.264)

The thennaJ expansion coe(ficienu of the ().degTee plies are

a,.. a, - .
1
-~ } = { ~
- }= { ~
07 } 10- c (4.265)
{

=
\\ilereti1 = -0.7 x 10...... ~ andiiz 25 x 10-~ are the 1hermal expansion coef.
ficients parallel and perpendiculorto the fibers. The thermal expansion coefficients
158 THIN PLATES

z,= lnun
.::2= 0.4 m
Figure 4.51: "fhc layup of the plate- 1n f:x
o, ampk 4.17.
: 1= - 0.4mm
45,
.:-... = - Jmm

transform as the strains. By replacing< by ti in Eq. (2.188) we obtain

(4.266)

where [7;] is given by Eq. (3.51). Hence, in the 45-degree direction the thermal
e xpression coefficie nts are

{- }" [
a, 0.5 0.5 0.5 ti1 12.15 I
ti, = 0.5 0.5 - o.5 -I { ti, } = { 12.15 } 10- c' (4.267)
ii.T)' - 1.0 1.0 0 ] 0 - 25.70

'''here z is the distance from the n1idplane (Fig. 4.51, Z1> = - 0.001 111, .z 1 =
- 0.0004 m. t 1 = 0.0004 m, z, = 0.001 m) a nd K is the numbe r of ply groups
(K = 3). With the preceding values of [QJ and ti t he hygrothe rmal forces and
mon1ents are

{N:' }
,v~ =
{ 10041 } N
31 804 - {,1r,
M'.' 1 = 0 {} (4.268)
l'iht
.Ty :17'
- 16 323 m /\.~~. 111ii
0

{~}
1
{,yhl
1\~ll } =
{,1r,
A1: }
=
{ 16.195 }
5.1 43 t o'N. (4.269)
\ fht
I :ff A1i: !\.lxy A7j - 4.697

The hygrothemrnl strains are given by (Eq. 4.250)

1),h l

"" "" " fJ11 fJ12 fJ1 ..


,yh1
x
,>.ht
,. U12 <>22 Ctu, ~11 /J22 p,. ,y~1
y'i>.ht a,. fJ.. p., p,,. Vht
xy
..
Kht =
/311
"' p..
/J21
Ct..
.Su 812 a,. ' A')'
M" .. (4.270)
,,
Khl
Khl
.~y
/312 fJ22 p.,
{Ju, p..
.S,2
.St6
Jin
bu. ...
()26 ~t
J\J!';,
4.5 HYGROTHERMAL EFFECTS 159

L7mm

t """"
.~~~~~~---->
IOOO mm / ,
! '
/
' IOOO mm
'
f--.,
eE / /
..at"-----
'
I

-------,'
I

x
figure 4.52: 'fhc delormed shape of Lhe plat~- In E.<tamplc 4. 17.

The layup is symmetrical ((/!] = 0), a nd the compliance matrices are (Table 3.8,
page 85)
- 2.99 - 3.77 ]
[ 7.45
[a) = [a]= -2.99 37.81 - 29.39 10- m (4.271)
- 3.77 - 29.39 48.20 N

[ 7 124 - 25.43 - 41.40] 1


1~1 = [dJ = - 25.43 I 16.82 - 82.58 10- ' - - (4.272)
- 41.40 - 82.58 153.66 N m

Equations (4.270), (4.271), and (4.272) give t he hygrothermal strains:

,.h}
" 0.hl
{Y.-y y
(I.hi
.11'
=
{
0.041 }
t.653 10--'
- t.760
{ K~'}.f; {o}
" hi -

6T11 -
0
0
(4.273)

;,.hi }
{""'
y<.hl
11y A7i
= {o} 0
0
(4.274)

The sun1 IJA7ii + (t 6 7i gives the to ta l hygro the rmal strains


,
t'.o.hl 0.041
,.
t'. o,hl
l.653
y(l,hl
'Y
- t.760 10- '.
K ht , = 123.0
<"' 284.2
t(XJI
"bl - 438.6
The deformed shape of the plate is illustrated in Flgure 452.
4. 18 Exaniple. A pl<tte is tuade of graphite epoxy unidirectional plies. T/Je layup
i.r (45./04 ] ,. The 0 -degree plies are parallel ro tire x axis. Tire plate is long in the y
direction, turd oue of the long edges is builtin and rlre orlrer one is free (Fig. 4.53).
171e 1en1perature of rlre bouotu surface is raised by 80 tC and the top surface by
120 "C (Fig. 4.50). uilnate the teurperature~iuduced change in the ditueusions of
tire plate. The ply propenies ore given in Table 3.6 (page BJ), the 1her111a/ expa1Jsio11
coefftcieu1s are fi1 = - 0.7 x JO-fl -2 ttlld fi2 = 25 x 10- 6 1:.
160 THIN PLATES

Solution. The strains in the laminate are given by Eq. (4.249)

,. {J,. N, \i'hl
,.,.
x
"" U12
"'
a16
fJ11
p,, /J22
/J12
{J,,, Ny
I '
1\fhl
"" U22
p,,, p., ~:,
y
Y;1,
Kx
= "'
f!11
a20
p,,
"
p,,, 611 (jl2
{J.,,
liu,
1V:r>'
M., + 1\1.!1
~,.
'
,,~,
Ky /JI? fJ21 /J62 811 ()21 M,,
" -'(l' {J,. p,. p,,. s,. ()26 ~,,, J\1xy J~l
, JiY

(4.275)

The hygrothermal fo rces are given in Eqs. (4.268) and (4.269). The complia nce ma-
trices arc give n in Eqs. (4.271) and (4.272). From Table4.14, sixth row (page 156),
\Ve have

KJ! = 0 K:ry = 0 (4.276)


J\~T.V = 0 M, =0 (4.277)

Equation (4.275) represents six equations that contain the six unL'TlO\VOS 1Y_v,
t\ify. /\.f-"Y f;, Y.~" K.T
The temperature distribution across the plate is represe.nted by the sum of a
constant and a linearly vat'}~ng ten1perature distribution, as sho\\'n in Figure 4.50.
The temperature differences sho\\'D in this figure are

~
= so+2 120 =100 c = 120Ir- 80
LI. ' O LI. 7i = 20 000 0
C/m. (4.278)

The correspo nding hygrothermal forces are given in Eqs. (4.268) and (4.269),
respectively. By substituting the values o( the hygrothermal forces given in these
equations into Eq. (4.275) we obtain

C<.~)ATio = 0.172 X 10- 3 ( y" ) = - 0.475 x 10- 1


.TJI "'7j, (Kx}AT, = 0
(4.279)

- l 1
(K, ).-.7; = 36.71 X 10 . -. (4.280)
m

The sum (),.To + () 4 Ti gives the hygrolhennal strains

.; = 0.172 x 10- 3 r.:, = - 0.475 x 10- 3


"' = 36.71 x 10- 3 - .
1
m
(4.281)

The deformed shape of the plate is illustrated in Figure 4.53.


4.5 HYGROTHERMAL EFFECTS 161

''
'
'' IOO mm ' \ 0 48 x l0_, rad
~ .:
1
' .
::: t :
g+ ... --------"
x
figure 4.53: Oc.formcd shape o( a 100 by IOOmm cleme nt of lhc plate-in Example 4.18..

4.5.1 Change In Thickness Due to Hygrothermal Effects


Ov,.ing to c ha nges in ten1pe rature and moisture content the thickness o( the plate
changes. The change is (Fig. 4.54)

air= j_,,'" <,dz. (4.282)

From Eqs. (2.l33) and (2.165) the normal strain in a ply is

<o = <1 = [Su Sn S,.j { :: } + !> T1i3 + c'if,. (4.283)


't12

In the x1 , x2 coordinate systen1 the ply stresses are

(4.284)
{ :: } = [7;. J { : ; } .
t'tz r..ty

where [T. J is give n by Eq. (2.182). Jn the .r, y laminate coordinate system the

Figure 4.54: Change in thickness of a composile plate nnd the. laminate and ply coordinate
S)'Stcms.
stresses in the ply a re (Eqs. 2. L26 a nd 2.l 65)

{ : : } = [ Q] ({ :: } -
1Jty Yx.v
t> T {; : } - c {
<xxy
~:
fJ...,,
}) . (4.285)

The s tra ins are (see Eq. 3.7)

{ "} { '~ } {"}


fy

YxJ
= ~~
Yx~
+Z Ky

K.t y
. (4.286)

Equations (4.282)- (4.286) describe the c hange in t hickness. For a plate sub -
jected to a uniforn1 6. To change in te mperature these equations n1ay be combined
to yield

"'' = t {is,,
-
(4.287)

\Vhere k is the ply number, K is the total nun1be r o( plies, and z is the coordinate
of the ply (Fig. 3.12). For unifo rn1 n1oisture distribution the change in thickness is
calculated by replacing I> To and ;; by c and '/i, respective ly.
\Vben t he mechanical loads are zero, the stra ins in, and the cunature.s o f the
refere nce surface are due only 10 hygrothermal effects and, from Eq. (4.252), we
have

{
f~ =
}

o
Yxy
,;.h1
{ hi }

y o.ht
xy
{ :: } = {
K.ry
:~: } '
KJtY
(4.288)

4.19 Exan1ple. A rectangular plate is 1nade of graphite epoxy unidirectioual plies.


The layup is [45./0,],. The edges of the p/me are free. The temperature ofthe plate
is roised by 80 C. Esri111a1e tire tetuperau,reinduced cluo1ge in the thickness of rile
plate. The ply properties are given in Table 3.6 (page 81), the 1her,nal expansion
coefficieutsarea1 = -0.7 x10-" ~ aud i:i2 = 25 x io-,,ot.
Solution. The te mperature dL~tribution a cross the plate is uniform a nd is

"To= so c. (4.289)
-.,u I t..J"l lt.U t l l l l l l'I V lllVV....11 VII ............... l l U "-IL.1 1\.1 ..... . u ....

The change in thickness is (see Eq. 4.287)

a1r=t.{1s,, ~J ~nr.1. (<:..-~1llQl ({;IJ -ar. {%:,}J)


+ (:.t - :.t-1) (6 To (ii'l),)}. (4.290)

The stiffness ma1riccs are (Eq. 4.264)

14ll.87 2.9 1 O] N [45.65 36.SS 34.79] N


(QJ"= 2.91 9.7 1 0 109 m2 [QJ"= 36.55 45.65 34.79 LO9 2Ill
[ 0 0 4.55 34. 79 34.79 38.19
(4.291)

11>e thermal expansion coefficienis are (Eqs. 4.265 and 4.267)

~ a..- . .7 l

{ %:, = ~ 10-<> c
}" { 0 }
{-
"
~'
Clx1
}" { =
12.IS
12.IS
-25.70
} 1
10 c'

(4.292)

where l is the distance from the midplane: lo = -0.CXU m. t1 = - 0.()()0.t m. ti =


=
O.OQO.I m. l.J 0.001 m (Fig. 451) and K is the nwnber of ply groups (K 3). =
The stress transfonnation matrix l To] in the 45-degree direction is ob1t1ined from
Eq. (3.51)

IT,, I =
0.5
0.5
o.s
o.s - LO
l.0] . (4.293)
[ - 0.5 0.5 o
111e slrains nnd curvatures o( the n1idplanearegive n by Eq. (4.273) ns fo llows:
.=~
K;r
o.041 x 10- l ~ t.653 x 10- J
: 0 Kv =0
= r.:',
Kxy
= - t.760 x 10- >
= 0.
(4.294)

With 1hese values Eq. (4.290) gives


611 = S.899 x 10- m. (4.295)

4.6 Plates with a Circular or an Bliptical Hole


e consider a plate with symmetrical layup containing either a circular or an
\ \1

elliptical hole (Fig. 4.55). The dimensions of the hole are small eompnred with the
diinensions or Lhe plnte. \\'e assume that a t some distance fro111 the hole 1here is a
region '"here the in-plane forces and strains are nearly uniform. TI1ese "farfield"
forces and strains are taken to be those that v.ould exist in the plate in Ihe absence
o( the hole. We 1Nish to determine the s trains ne ar the hole in tc nns o f the fa rfie ld
forces a nd s trains..
!I

2b p

2a

Figure 4.SS: Elliptical hole in a plate-.

Far fro111 the hole the "farfield" in-plane forces are de noted by 1V,~, ~- tv:f.
and the .;farfield .. in-plane strains are de noted by t;.~:: , ~;= , Y.~;/' . 111ese forces
and strains a re related by (Eq. 3.26)

{ 1v:;
.v~}
~\~ = [ A]
{...~t.:~ } . (4.296)
Yx.1

A t a po int near the hole. the inplane forces are

N., } {N';'} {N; }


N-N~+N
{1V.lr N:f. /\~-"
y - J' y (4.297)

'vhere N;. 1V)~ . N;,, are modification tern1s that depe nd o n x a nd y. Expressions

Table 4.15. The modification terms in Eq. (4.297)


N; = 2 Re Ji <l>I (Z1l +11{<1>; (Z,J)
N; = 2 Re J<l>i (Z,) + <l>i(Z,)J
,v;, = -2 Re ( 1<1>; <Z,) + ,<1>; (Zi)J
. <1>, (Z,) = ""''-'' (k = 1.2)
""+~-.. : - /,: . ' .,,
\k = ,._1,.,,11 (at the interfa ce {,t = e' )
Zt=x+yi1, (k= l. 2)
"s are the roots of the c ha ra<:tt-rlstic. po lynomial ( 1 = 1 i = j14 )
au' - 2a10:1 + {2au + " 66) 2 - 2.uM + au = 0.

whe re Re. re fe rs to lhe real part,; the imagint1ry un it:


is the.complex conjugate. of :
()' rcfc.rs to the.d e rivative \\'ith rc.s pe.c t lo Z-:
a and bare.sho,vn in Figure 4.55~
la;, )= (A.;J- 1 t1re-lhe in-planecomplia nc.es o f the p late.
for these para 1n c 1c rs arc given by Lekhnitskii40 and are presen1ed in Table 4.l 5.
1
The modificatio n te rms depend o n <l>t ( Z.) = 11,~; whe re At represents two un
known complex numbers \Vhose real and im aginary parts cons tilute (our unknown
cons tants. Thc.sc cons1a nts are d etermined from the condition t hat the surface trac-
tion is zero along the s urface o ( the ho le. It su ffices to e nforce this condition only
at l"'t\"O points on the boundary

N, (= tr,' + N;) = 0 at point P


N,. (= ~ + N;,) = 0 at point P
(4.298)
N,. (= N';" + N;) = 0 at point Q
N,,(=~+N;,) =0 at point Q.
TI1e four unknoYln cor1stants in Ak are ca lcula ted by the follo ~ing st eps:

1. TI1e constnnts A,... arc nssumed in the fo rm

A1=C1+C2i Ai = C, + C.i, (4.299)

where I = r-T.
2. The roo ts {ti nnd '"2of t he characteristic polyno miaJ glvc n in Tnble 4.15 are
ca1cu1o.ted.
3. Modification term.~ fl.':. 1V,,
. '
. at point P and N. fl.'~, at point Q a re calculated
for four different sets of C 1. C2 C3 C..
Set I C1 = I. C2 = C3 = C, = 0. resulting in
(N;)f. (N;,li and (N;)r. (N;,)~
Set 2 C2 = I. C 1 = c,
= c, = 0. resulting in
(N;lr (N;,)f and (N;)r (N;,l?
Set 3 C, = I. C 1 = C2 = C, = 0, resulting in
(N;)f. (1\~,)f and (N; lf, (N;,)f
Se t 4 C, = I .C1 = C2 = c,
= 0. resulting in
CN:,>f.

I
(N; lf, (N;,)f and (N;)f,
Fo r arbilrary values of C 1- C4 \Ve have

[(N;)f
I
N;I' (N; )[ (N; )f
N:: (N;,>r (N;,)f (N;v)f
(4.300)
N.,Q = (N-)Q
y t (N')Q
yl
(N vJ
;)Q
N;$1 (N;,)f (N;,lf (f'i;,)f

I
4. Equatioos (4.298) a nd (4.300) give

N:"
~
N':-
[(N;)f (N;)[ (N;)j
+ (N;,)f (N;,)f (N;,)f (N;,)f
(N;)f
(N")Q (/>r.)Q (N')Q (N;l,Q c,
llc,IC, -O
- (4.301)

I,v:;
1 ' 1 y l ' .)
<N:,>P <N:,>f ui;,>f <N;,)'/ c.
5. Equalions (4.301 ) are solve d for the C 1 C2 C3 c, oons tnnt~

.iu S. G. Lckhn1ukil. A11l,1t11t<1plr Plates. G ordon and Brc.nch Science Puhlb hcrs, New Ycwk , 1968,
ll. 31.
166 THIN PLATES

F'tgure 4.56: Orthotropic plalc \Vilh a circular hole.

'''''''''
Next we a pply the preceding equa tions to o rtho tropic plates containing a cir
cular hole with radius R and s ubjecte d lo a unilom1 tensile load N:;' (Fig. 4.56).
T he n1axin1un1 forces (per unit length) at the surface o( the hole ar~4 1

force at point P (4.302)

fo rce at point Q. (4.303)

\Vhere K r is the stress inte nsity factor

K r= 1 + ~
2 ( \ I~
A11 An - .412 + A11A22 - Ai,)
2"'66 - . (4.304)

x and y a re in the directions of o rthotropy, and t he eleme nts of t he stiffness ma trix


are to be calculated in this coord inate systen1. The force distribution N,. along the
x -axi< may be approximated by" (Fig 4.56)

N~
=-t (R)'
:-; + 3 (R)'
:-; - ( Kr - 3) [5 (R) (R)']}
6
N,(.t. O) { 2+ :-; - 7 :-;

(4.305)

4.7 lnterlaminar Stresses


Lamina te pla te theory is formulated on the basis of the assun1ption that the lan1
ina te as well as all the layers a re in a state or plane stre.ss. Correspondingly, all

.ti Jbid., p. 175.


<t? H.J. Konishandl 1'1. \Vbitnc)', Approximatc Slrcssesin nn Ortholropic Plnle Containins a Circular
Hole. l tJttrnal of Con1po.ii1e 1\1a1erials. Vol. 9, 157-166. 1975.
4.7 INTERLAMINAR STRESSES 167

(0190/90/0] [OJ [90]


Figure 4.57: (0/ 90J5 laminalc loaded in lc nsion and the d c.ormalions of unbondcd (). and
90-deg.rc-e ha)'ers.

outof plane stress components are zero (11.: = 0, ry.- = 0, r.c.: = 0). This a.ssump
tion is reasonable in regions a\\ay from free edges. Near free edges. both shear
and norn1al stresses n1ay arise be t,veen the layers. These interlaminar stresses n1ay
significantly alter the stress field existing a\vay fron1 the free edge and, importantly.
n1ay cause separation (delan1ination) of adjacent layers.
We illustrate the stresses near a free edge through the example of a f0/901~
cross..ply laminate (Fig. 4.57). The lan1inate is subjecte d to a unidirectional force
(per unit length) N, with x being in the direction of the ().degree fibe rs. 111e axial
load is shared by the plies., and the axial defom1ation of each ply is the sa1ne
(E~ = E.~). 'Ve no\v consider one of the 0-degree plies and the adjace.nt 9().degree
ply. Their transverse Poisson ratios are different (~.?,.:ft "!";). Hence., if the two
plies \Vere alJO\Ved to n1ove freely, they \VOuld deform by diffe rent amounts in the
transverse y direction (F1g. 4.57). ln reality, the t\VO plies are bonded together, and
their transverse deforn1ations (and transverse strains) are equal. Ob\riously, one
of the plies (in this example the 0-degree ply) must be in tension, and t he other
one (90-degree ply) must be in oomrression.
The stresses on a Odegree ply e le 1uent are s hown in Figure 4.58. A\vay from
the free e dge, on a sn1all e len1ent the ay stresses equilibrate each other, and there
is no interlaminar s hear stress ( r>'~ = 0). At the free e dge a y is unbalanced and is

".v ~~
~~7

u, 7~~~ "
17.v ~ ~ ~ 11,

y y
Figure 4.58: Frccbody diagrams and lhe stress dislnbutions near a free edge.
168 THIN PIATES

equilibrated by the interlaminar s uesses ( r>'~ : 0). Furthe nuore, 1'1y and r,,:: c reate
a mo1nent, which n1ust be equiJibrate d by the interlaminar normaJ stress d;, s hown
in Figure 4.58. The norn1al stress, as 'veil as ry;,. diminis hes in regions away from
the edge.
Care must be take n in calculating the interlan1inar stresses. Under t he ass ump
tion that the n1aterial is linearly elastic, t he calculations result in infinite stresses
at free edges.
CHAPTER FIVE

Sandwich Plates

Sandwich plates~ con..i:isting of a core cove red by faceshccts1 are rrcquently used
instead o f solid plates because of t he ir high bending stiJfness-to"'cight ratio. The
high bending sliffncss is the result of the distance be tween the faceshee t.s. "hich
carry the load, and the light weight is due to the light weight of the core.
Here. we consider rectangularsand\\i.ch plates with racc!lhccts on bo1h sides of
the core (Figs. 5.1 and 5.2). Each fa"'sheet may be an isotropic material or a fiber-
reinfor<Jed composite k1minate but must be thin compared >Aith the core. The core
may be foam or honeycomb (Fig. 5.1) and must have a material symmetry plane
parallel tons midplanc: the rores in-plane stillnesses must be small compared
with the in-plane stiffnesses of the fa=heets..
The bcha"ior of 1hin plates undergoing small dc!onnations may be analyzed
by the Kirchhoff hypothesis.. namely. by the assumptions that normals remain
straight and perpendicular to the deformed reference plane. For a snndwich pJate.
consisting of a core covered on both sides by Caceshects.. the firs t assumption
(nonuals ren1ain s tra ight) is reasonable. However, the second nssuniption 1nay no
longer be valid, bccnusc norn1als do no t necessarily ren1nin perpendicular to the
refere nce plane (Fig. 5.3). In this case the x and y displacements o f a point located
at a distance t (rom an arbitrarily chosen re.fere nce plane are

Lt= fl - zx,: v = v" - tXy: . (5.1 )

v.here rl' and v0 arc the .r and y displacements at the reference plane (v.hcre
z = 0) and x.. ~. X,r: arc the rotations of the normal in the x-z: and )"-Z planes. The
angle x.: ~illustrated in figure 5.3.
As shown in Figure 5.3. the first derivative of the deflection w" of the reference
plane 'vith respect to xis

(5.2)

169
170 SANDWICH PLATES

Figure S.1: lllustration ort he-sandwich plate and the hone)'Comb rorc.

Similarly, the first deriva tive or the deflection w0 or the reference plane v. ith
1

respect to y is

aw
-.- = X1 + y,.. (5.3)
ay .- -

5.1 Governing Equations


The strains a t the refere nce plane are (Eq. 4.2)

'1u 0 ()v0
o-
Yxy -
-ay + -ax (54)

The transverse shear strains are (Eqs. 5.2 and 5.3}

aw 0

Yx .; = ~- Xx:: (5.5)
ox

For convenie nce we define Kx , Ky . and Kxy as

ax.,, ax.,. .
K , -- ax
- -- Ky. -- - - ay (5.6)

\Ve note that K,,, Ky, and Kxy are no t t he curvatures of the re.fere nce pla ne.
They a re tJ1e refere nce pla ne's curvatures only in the absence of she ar deform a
tion.
The three e quations a bove represent the strain- displacement re la tionships for
a sandwich plate.

']:~1
--

.
Jt f
. . R~fe!C'!c.e~pl!,Ul~

Figure S.2: Sand\\'ich-platc-geometry.


.

.
5. 1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS

Figure 53: Deformation of a $.itOdwich plate


ln the x-z plane.

.4

Ne xt we derive the force- strain relationships. The starling point of the analysis
is the expressio ns for t he forces a nd moments give n by Eqs. (3.9) and (3.10)

J
loo ho loo

1V., =
- 1111
cr,dz N, = j <t .d z
-11,,
1 N.cy = J
_,,,,
rJ..,, d z

(5.7)
lo,

f f J
loo ho

,If.,= Z<t,dt M, = Z<fy d Z M.xy = Zfxyd z


- lt. - l lb - lit,

..
J
ho

I', = .r r..,dz
_,,.
v,. = r,.d t, (5.8)
- h.

where Ni, J\1;, and V; a re the inplane Corces, the mon1ents. a nd the transverse
shear forces pe r unit length (Fig. 3.11, page 68), respectively, and 11 1 and " are
the distances from the arbitrarily chose n reference pla ne to the plate s s urfaces
(Pig. 5.2). The stresses (plane-stress condition) a re (Eq. 2.126)

(5.9)

Prom Eqs. (2.2), (2.3), and (2.1 1) together witl1 Eq. (5.1) the strains at a dis
tance z from the re ferenc.e plane are
an au ax.~~ 0

.r=-=
ax -a.r - z-ax-
au 3v
0
"x":.
, = ay = iii - z ay (5.10)

Y.,, -- au au - au" av ( ax.,, ax,, )


0
-
ay + ox
" - ay + o.r
" z Y
., + ax
17~ ::>ANUWlliH flAl t:i

By combining Eqs. (5.4), (5.7). (5.9), and (5.10) and by utilizing tl>e definitions
of the [A], I B], [DJ ma trices (Eq. 3.18), we obtain

~ l
1\f fo - :ix

{}{}I ~v:.
N.tf
=(A) :; + (B)
r;.~
- a:;~
_-2!.u - ~XI~
(5.11)

l
3y ~J:

{ <~ } + (DJ
I
Af.t f.~ - ii.I

M,. } =(BJ !!.!'.!!


- '.:; . (5.12)
{ i\~ty Y:v _ !l!,;, - 3):!!
:ty :J.T

With the definitions in Eq. (5.6), these equations may be written as

N, } { } -~
{ <, }
N,, = [Aj ~ + (BJ Ky (5.13)
{
Nxr Y.1:y K:ry

A~, } = [B] { <.-~~ } + [DJ {


M,.
K, }
Ky (5.14)
{
i\1xy Yxy Kxy

In addition \Ve need the relationships bet\veen the transverse shear forces and
the transverse s he.ar strains.. The re levant expressions are derived in Section 5.l .3.
Here \Ve quote t he resulting expression. \\ hich is 1

1Vy11, I= [s"I 12
s"]jr. . I
522 r,.~
(5.15)

\\'he.re I SJis the sand,vich pla te s s hear stiffne.ss matrix.

In the analyses we n1ay entploy either the equilibrium e quations or the s tra in
energy. The e quilibriun1 equations a re identical to those given for a thin plate
(Eqs. 4.4 and 4.5).

5.1.1 Boundary Conditions


In o rde r to deter1uine the deflection, the condit ions along the four edges of the
pla te must be specified. An e dge may be built-in, free, or s imply supported.
Boundary conditions for an edge paralle l \Vith the y ~axis (Fig.. 5.4) a rc given
beJO\\'.
Along a builtin edge, the deHection w0 , the in-plane displacements u0 , uu, and
the rotations of normals xx~ Xr~ are zero:

u/ 1 = 0 ill) = u0 =0 Xx~= Xy; = 0. (5.16)


Along a free edge, \Vhere no external loads are applied, the bending Mx and
twist M xy mo1uents. lhe lransverse shear force Yx , a nd the in~plane forces 1Vx.
5.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 173

Built-in Free \\fuhout \\lath


11idc plutc 11idc plate
~

t= r
%
~
~
~
~ J
~
Figure S.4: Boundary conditwns for an cdJe panllcl to the ,..iaxis..

Nxr are zero:


M, =M, 1 =0 v. =0 N,, =N,r=O. (5.17}

Along a simply supported edge. the deflection w0 , the bending M, and twist
ftlx.. moments, and the in-plane forces N,,. N,, arc zero:

w0 =0 M, =M,, = 0 N,= N,,.=0. (5.18}

When in-plane motions are prcvcn1ed by the support. 1he in-plane forces are
not zero ( 1Vi . 0. N.J;1 ~ 0). \\lhercns the in-plane displacemen1s are zero:

u0 = 0 v0 =0. (5.19}

When there is a rigid pl:ne covcrin!t lhc side of the sand\\'ich plate the norn1al
ca nno t rotate in the y- z plane, ::ind \VC hnve

(5.20}

However. the t 1Ni.st mome nt is not zero (1WN,. :P, 0).


For an edge paralle l with the ,\'n:<is., the cquntions above hold \\~th x and y
interchanged.

5.1.2 Strain Energy


As \Ve noted previously. solutions lo plale problems may be obtained by the equa-
tions described above or via energy n1c lhods. The strain energy (for a linearly
elastic material) is given by Eq. (2.200). The thickness of the sandwich plate is
=
assumed to remain unchanged and. accordingly. f : 0. The expression or the
strain energy (Eq. 2.200) simplifi' to
........
U =~ff
0
J
_,
(a,4, +a,<,+ r.,y., + r.,y., + r,,y,.)d!dydx . (5.21)
174 SANDWICH PLATES

Substitution of Eqs. (5.4)- (5. 15) and Eqs. (5.26)- (5.32) (derive d on pages I 75-
176) into Eq. (5.21) gives
,., J-112 B11 8 11 Bi
A i ,...
f~

r A:?2 B12 Bu Bu, f~


/-l p A,_.
L, I,.

V=~.f f r:)' 1\ 16 A,, At,. B,, B,_. 8,,,, Yx~t


K, B11 B12 B,. D11 D12 Drn I(_,

" 0
Ky
K.~y
LB,, Bi2 B,_. D12 D,, D,,
B1 s,. s..
D,. D,, D,.
Ky

Kxy

+ ly.,_ y,.J -
.... S12
[s;, ~"H I
S21
Yx;
YJ~
dydx, (5.22)

\Vhere the superscript T denotes transpose of the vector.

5.1.3 Stiffness Matrices of Sandwich Plates


The stiffness matrices are evaluated by assuming that the thickness o( the core
ren1ains constant under loading and the in ..plane stiffnesses of the core are negligi
ble. Under these assumptions the I A]. I B], and I DJstiffness matrices of a sandwich
plate are go\erned by the stiffnesses of the facesheets and may be obtained by
the parallel axes theoren1 (Eq. 3.47. page 80). The resulting expressions are given
in Table 5.1. In this table the ( Aj' . [BJ' . j D]' and ( A] 6 . [Bj" , ( D)" are lo be eval
uated in a coordinate syste m \\hose origin is at each facesheefs reference plane.
Whe n the top and bottoLn facesheets are identical and their layup is S)'lllmelri
cal with respect lo each faces heet"s midplane, t he [BJ matrix is zero and the I AJ,
[ DJ matrices simplify, as shown in Table 5. I. (When the layup of each facesheet
is S}'fllme trical. the refere nce plane n1ay conveniently be taken at the facesheets

Table s.1. The (A), (BJ, (OJ stillness matrices of san<lwich plates. The
supersripts t an<I b refer to the t<>p and bottom facesheets. The
distances d, d'. and d are shown In Figure 5.2.
layup of each facesheet
with respect to the facesheet's midplane

Symmetrical
Unsymmetrical (identical faces!leets}
(A] {A)' + (A)" 2 (A]'
[BJ d' [A]'-d"[AI' +(BJ' + [BJ'' 0
[DJ (11' )' I A)'+ ("'>' [A)"+ (D(' + [Df
+ 2t1' (BJ' - 2,f' IBj" \111IA)'+2IDJ'
5.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 175

t.'
Fi~ure S.5: She-a r stress distnbution lr: (left}
c in a sandwich pla te a nd the appro:umate dis
tribution (right).

1.

n1idpla ne.) \Vhen the top and bo tto n1 faceshee ts are unsymme trical \\ith respect
to the faces heets midplane but are sym1netrical \\ith respect to t he n1idpla ne of
the sandwich pla te. t he n [A)' = [ AJ, I BJ' = - [BJ. [DJ' = [DJ, a nd the [A), ( B],
[DJ ma trices of the sandwich plate become

IAJ =2 IAJ' (5.23)

IBJ =0 (5.24)

ID) = ~d2 [ Aj' +2[DJ' +2d(B)' . (5.25)

111e s hear stiffness ma trix [S) is de termined as follo\vs. In the core, as a conse
quence of the assumption that the in pla ne s tiffnesses are negligible, the transverse
shear s tress rx~ is uniform. Jn general, in the facesheets the s hear stress d istribu
tion is as s ho\vn in Figure 5.5 (left). \ Ve appro:\;1nate this distribution by t he linear
shear s tress distTibution s ho \\'U in Figure 5.5 (right). t\ ccordingly, the transverse
shear force V, is

(5.26)

where the superscripts c. t. a nd b refer to the core, the top, and the bo ttom
facesheets, respectively. The distanced= c + 11/ 2+1 /2 is s hown in Figure 5.5.
Similarly, we have

V1 = r;.n. (5.27)
"
The s tress-stra in relationship fo r t he core materia l is given by Eqs. (2.20) a nd
(2.27). With the s upe rscript <: identifying the core. t hese equations give

(5.28)

where Ef1 are the e le n1ents of t he core stiffnesses matrix.


We neglect the shear deforn1ation of the thin faces heets. Wit h this approxin1a-
tion the s hear defonnation r.::: of the cross section is as sho\vn in Figure 5.6 (left).
\ \1e a pproximate this deforn1ation by the ave rage shear deformation Yx:: shown in
176 SANDWICH PLATES

11gure 5.6: Shear de.formation o( a sa nd,.,..ich plate.

Figure 5.6 (middle). The relationship between this average shear defonnation and
the core deformation is given by (see Fig. 5.6. right}

Y.,' . _ = ;rx.::
d (5.29)

Sin1ilarly, v.e have

' = d
Y.v.:: ;-r,,:: (5.30)

Equations (5.26)- (5.30) yield the relationship between the transverse shear
forces and the ave rage shear deformation:

l"I=d' [~
\', C' C!CS
(5.31)

By comparing this equation with Eq. (5.15). we o bta in

[~"
S 12
~"]
S21
= d'
c
[Ss5
~
(5.32)

The preceding four e le n1ents of t he n1atrix (C] characterize the core n1ateriaJ.
\\lhereas [SJ is the she ar sliffness n1atrix of the sandv.ich plate. \Ve point o ut that
(3) is 1101 the inverse ofthe [Ej matrix.
Orthntropic sandwich plate. A sand y,ich plate is orthotropic 'vhen both face
sheets as v.ell as t he core are orthotro pic a nd the orthotropy directions are parallel
to the e dges. The facesheets n1ay be d iffe re nt. and their layups n1ay be unsytn
me tric-al. For such an orthotropic sand,vich pla te there a re no extension- shear.
bending- t\vist, a nd extension- l\\'ist couplings. Accordingly, t he fo llov.ring e.le n1ents
o( the stiffness n1atrices are zero:

At = 1126 = 81&= Bu, = D1 = Di = 0. (5.33)

Furthermo re, fo r a n orthotro pic sandv.ich plate the transverse shear force Yx
acting in the x- z plane does not cause a shear stra in Y~ in the y-t plane. This
co ndition gives

s., =0. (5.34)

Isotropic sandwich plate. Jo\ sand,vich plate is isotropic v.he n the core of the
sand,vicb pla te is made of an isotro pic (such as foa n1) or transversely isotropic
(such as honeycon1b) ma te ria l a nd the top a nd botton1 facesheets a re n1ade of
5.1 GOVERNING EOOATIONS 177

Refen:--nce flane = Neutral plane


t'
c/2

c/2
,.
e'} c
- : =~=:\== -~~- r,dl~
..
'-MidplIDlc
..
I

Figure S.7: Neutral plane of an isotropic sandwich plate-.

identical isotropic materials or are identical quasi.isotropic laminates. The thick-


nesses of the top and bottom facesheets ma}' be diffe.rent.
For isotropic facesbeets tbe I BJ matrix is zero ([BJ' = 0). The I AJ a nd I DJ
matrices for tbe isotropic facesbeets are (Eqs. 3.41 and 3.42)

(A)'
.,., [1
11 1:.. r
0]
0 .
I - ('')' ~ '1"
(5.35)

wbere tbesuperscript i refers to tbe top (i = t) or to tbe bottom (i = b) foces beet


(Fig. 5.7) a nd E' a nd vr are the Young modulus a nd tbe Poisson ratio of the
facesheets.
We now proceed to evaluate the IA], [ B}, I DJ matrices for tbe entire sandwich
plate. To this e nd, \Ve choose a reference plane located at the center of gravity of
the l\\'O facesheets. The distance e fro1n the midplane of the core to the ce.nter of
gravity is (Fig. 5.7)

1' (c + 1') - 1(c + 1)


(5.36)
e= 2(1' + 1)

The d is tances ti' and db bet\\een the reference plane (passing through the
center of gravity} and the n1idplanes of lhe facesheets are

(5.37)

By substituting Eqs. (5.35)-(5.37) into the expression for the (BJ ma u'Lx given
in Tuble 5.1 (page I 74) we obtain tha t fo r the entire sand"1ch pla te tbe I BJ ma trix
is zero 'vith reference to the o reference plane. This means that for a sandwich
plate \\'ith isotropic core and isotropic facesheets bending does not cause strains
in this plane. Therefore., this re(erence plane is a "neutral plane:
By substit uting t he expressio ns of d' a nd t1 (Eq. 5.37) into the expressions
given in Table 5. I. we o btain the following (A) a nd I DJ matrices for the sandwich
178 SANDWICH PlATES

Table 5.2. The stiffnesses and the Poisson ratios at Isotropic solid plates and
Isotropic sandwich plates; R Is defined In Eq. (3.46).
Isotropic sandwich plate
Isotropic Isotropic Quasi-isotropic
sotid plate facesheets facesheets
1
A"" .,[},_
1- ..:
1!
(( l + (") J-(M l )Z (r' + rin
c.it)Z1' +P~1t> + (l't'~r,-.t\ E}
lY'"' FY
1!(1- t>!l 1-(ol )!
(r'(d'l2 + 1' (1l'l') R
,,1,,.;) " n + o-. +t>01 - C?~
,.
" "
pla te:

[~' ~, . J [~'
~ l
v' 0
v'
0
(A)= A' l IDJ = lY' l (5.38)

\Vhere Ai:1u and ffa0 are defined in Table 5.2.


When the core is isotropic in the plane paralle l to the faceshee ts from Eq. (2.40)
we have C., = 0, C.., = (C11 - C12)/ 2, and the shear stiffnesses are (Eq. 5.32)

"'
.lJJ
"'
= ..>22 "'
=,,) = d'
c
q, -2 q, s,, = 0. (5.39)

The sand '"ich plate n1ay also be treated as isotropic \\he n the top and bottom
facesbeets are quasi.isotropic lan1ina tes (page 79)consisting or unidire ctional plies
made of the san1e n1a.terial. For such sa.nd,vic.h plates the {BJ n1atrix is negligible.
the (A) a nd I DJ matrices are approximated by Eq. (5.38) (with the te mlS A~ and
fP" define d in Table 5.2), and the e le n1ents of the she ar sti ffness matrix are given
by Eq. (5.39).

5.2 Deflection of Rectangular Sandwich Plates

5.2.1 Long Plates


We consider a long rectangular sand,vich pla te \vhose le ngth is large co111pared
witl1 its wid th (Ly 4). The Jong edges may be built-in. simply s upported, or
free, as shov"n in Figure 5.8. The sandy,rich pla te is subjecte d to a transverse load
p (pe r unit area). This load, as well as the edge supports, does not vary along the
longitudina l y direction.
The deBec.ted surface of the sandwich plate may he assumed to he cylindrical
at a considerable distance fro n1 the short e nds (Fig. 4.4). The generator of this
cylindrical surface is parallel to the longitudinal y~axis of the plate. and hence the
5.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 179

L,
T.
f igure S.M: 'lhc different types of !iupporls along the long edge~" of Ji long 1111ndw1eh plate.

deflection of the plate ul ' and the ro tation x., z do not ''ary along y:
fJw> <>xx: = o.
-=0 (5.40)
ay Hy
We neglect the shear d efomrntion in tbe y- t plane (y1" = 0). Consequently, the
rotation of the no rmol is zero (Eq. 5.3):

Xg =0. (5.41 )

The equilibrium equ ations are ( Eqs. 4.22 and 413)

dV. 0 (5.42)
dx + p =
dM
tfx' - ".
v, = O. (5.43)

When the sandwich plate is symmetrical with re specl 10 the mid pla ne (I BJ = 0)
from Eqs. (S.12). (S. IS), (5.40), and (5.41 ) , we bave
<~Xx:
M, = - 0 11 - -
l>:r
(5.44)

Equations (S.42), (5.43). a nd (5.44) . together witb Eq. (5.2) . give


sandwich plate, synunetrical layup:
t/ 1 XJC
- Du --+ p = 0 (5.45)

111'''J
x,. S11
- - (dw" - x,-) = 0.
Du --+ (5.46)
tlx' dx
For a transnely loaded isotropic sandwich beam the corresponding equa
tions are (Eqs. 7.83 a nd 7.84)
isorropic sa11d1vic/J h~ani:

d'x+ p'= O
- ifl- (5.47)
d:cJ
o"'x
;;;;+ ~(dw
"JX - x) =0 . (5.48)
180 SANDWICH PLATES

\vhere 'El and ! are the bending and shear stiffnesses of the isotropic sandwich
bean1, respective ly, and p' is the load per unit length.
The equations describing the deflections of long sandwich pla tes and isotropic
sandwich beams are identical when in Eqs. (5.45) and (5.46), D,,. S11. and p
are replace d, respectively, by El, S, and p' . The re fore, the deflection of a long
sandwich plate (symmetrical layup) may be obtained by substituting the values of
Di 1 Su . and p for El. S. and p' in t he expression, given in Section 7 .3, for the
deflection of the corresponding isotropic beam.
\Vben the layup is unsymmetr ical, the e xpression for the mon1ent A1x can be
derive d analogously to the equation of a solid composite plate (Section 4.2.2).
He re \Ve only quote the result, which for sand\vich pla tes is

(5.49)

\Vhe.re Xxz is shown in Figure 5.3. The tern1 in parentheses is the bending s tiffness
parame ter defined by Eq. (4.52). Equations (5.42), (5.43), (5.44, right), and (5.49),
togethe r with Eq. (5.2), give
sandwich plate, t11Jsy111111etrical layup:
d'x
- "' ____:!i 0 +" = 0 (5.50)
dx'
d'x,. + S11
"' dx'
- (dw
dx -
)
x.._ = 0. (5.51)

The preceding e.q uations describing deflections of sandwich plates ( unsymn1e t


rical layup) become identical to the equations of sand\\ich be ams (Eqs. 5.47 and
5.48) when w. Su. and pare replaced, respective ly, by El. f. and /Y. Therefore.
the deflection of a long sandwich plate (unsymme trical layup) may be obtained
by substituting the ''alues of "1, S11 a nd p (or El. S, and p1 in the expression for
the deftectioo of the corresponding isotropic beam.

5.1 E.xan1pl.e. A 0.9ntlong and 0.2>1l1t'ide recta11g11/ar Sftndu1i<:h plate is 111ade of


a 0.02-rntlrick core covered on bot/J sides by graphite epoxy facesheets. The 1t1a
teria/ propenies are given iJ1 Table 3.6 (page 81). The layup of each facesheer is
[45\/012/ 45a and tire tlrickrtess of ead1 faceslreer is 0.002 m (Fig. 5.9). Tire
0-degree plies are parallel to the short edge of the plltte. The plate is either sinrply
srrpponed or brriltirt trlortg all forrr edges (Fig. 5.10). Tire plate is subjected to a

:1=2nun
d=22 mmI -- - . - .. .

---- -
1 c= 20mnl

! t. =2mm
1-..tgurc S.9: The cn>l>S scc.tion of the sandwich plate.an E xample 5.1 .
5.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 181

Figure 5.JO: The sandvoich plates in Example 5.1.

1u1ifonnly dis1ributed transverse load 500kN!in 2. Ca/cu/ote the 1naxin1ton tleflec


=
rion. The core is isotropic ( ~ 2 x Hl" kN!m2 "' 0.3). =
Solution. The tensile and bending stiffnesses are calculated from Table 5.1 (page
174) as follows:

430.34 65.47 0 ] kN
[A) = 2 [AJ' = 65.47 96.34 0 10-'- (5.52)
[ 0 0 72.02 Ill

l [ 52.16 7.96 0 ]
[D) =zd' [A)1 +2(D]'= 7.96 11.71 0 kNm, (5.53)
0 0 8.76

where [Al' a nd [DJ' a re give n in Table 3.7 (page 84) and d = c + r = 0.022 m. The
shear stiffness matrix is (Eq. 5.32)

[S~" 12
~"] =d'(S' 5]
s,, c ~' q,
=[18615
0
o ] kN .
18615 m
(5.54)

where (see Eq. 2.30and Table 2.10, page 18) q,


- -.
= C'"" = E
l (i ; ..,
'
= 769 231 kN/ m-,
1
Cio;=O.
We may treat this plate as long whe n (Eq. 4.19)

(5.55)

In the present proble m. L,./ L, = 4.5 and 3;:/ D11/ Du - 4.36. Thus, the preceding
condition is satisfied and the Jong plate expressions n1ay be used. The maxin1um
deflectio ns of the corresponding beam a re (Table 7.3, page 332)
_ 5 p' L4 p' L1
(ss) (5.56)
UJ = 384 El + SS

(built-in). (5.57)
182 SANDWICH PLATES

Figure 5. I I: Rectangular simpl)' supported


(ss) sandwich plate subjc.ctcd to trans\'crsc
load.

11le max.in1un1 deflections of the plate are obtained by replac.ing / . S. p' by


D11 , S11 , p (see page 180)

_ 5 pL~ pL!
w = - - - +~ (ss) (5.58)
384 Du 8Su
_ I pl~ pL!
w=---+~ (builtin). (5.59)
384 Du 8S11

With the values of D11 = 52.1 6kN-m a nd S'11 = 18 615~, a nd with L_. =
0.2 m, the maximu1u deflectio ns are

iJi = 0.000 200 + 0.000 134 = 0.000 334 m = 0.334 mm (ss) (5.60)
iJi = 0.000040 + 0.000 134=0.000 174 m = 0.174 mm (built-in).
(5.61)

5.2.2 Simply Supported Sandwich Plates - Orthotropic


and Symmetrical Layup
t.\ sin1ply supported rectangular sandwich plate \Vith dhnensio ns L,, and Ly is
subjected to a uniformly distributed load p (Fig. 5.1I). The layup of the plate is
orthotropic (page 176) and symmetrical wit h respect to the pla te's midpla ne.
Fo r a sin1ply suppo rted syn1n1etrical plate subjected to o ut-of-plane Loads o nly,
the inpla ne strains in the mid pla ne are zero (see Eq. 3.3 I ) as follows:

~.~ =0 Y.x~v =0. (5.62)

Substitution of Eq. (5.62) into the expression of t he strain e ne rgy (Eq. 5.22)
gives

s,,JIrr,...., I} tlytlx.
s,,
(5.63)
5.2 DEFLECTION OF REC:TANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 183

For o rt hotropic sandwich plates Di = D,, = S 11 = 0 (Eqs. 5.33 and 5.34). With
these values and the expressions in Eqs. (5.5) and (5.6), t he strain energy becomes

U= ~11
' "' [ (ax")- Di +(ax ,,) D, + 2 ax8x. ,ax,,
' 0 1
12
2 8.t 8y I 8 )' l.

+ o(~x. , + ax,_ )1 o+(a: - Xx)1 S11 +(aw"- x.. )1s,,]d)dx.


~ b d ~ .

(5.64)
For an applied transverse load p (per unit area), the potential of the external
forces is (Eq. 4.56)
l., I.,

Q =- I.!
0 0
(pw")dxdy. (5.65)

For a simply suppo rted sand\vicb plate the deflection, bending n1oments, and
rotations of the normals along the edges are zero, resulting in the follo,ving bound
ary conditions:
x =0 and 05y _::; Ly
x= L., and 0 .::; y ::= L,.
Wu =0 at (5.66)
0 5 x _::; Lt and y =0
I 0 5 x _::: L.t and y = L.v

x =0 and 0 ::= y ::= Ly


1'1x = 0 a t
l x = LJ: and 0 ::= y .::; Ly.
(5.67)

o .::; x :;: Lx and y = 0


l 0 .::; x :;: Lx and y = Ly.
(5.68)

x=0 and 0 ::= y.::; L,


Xy;: = 0 at
l x=L, and O:;: y.::;L,.
(5.69)

o .::; x .::; Lx and y = 0


X.t;: =O at
l 0 _::; x 5 LI( and y = Ly .
(5.70)

The {ollo\\~ng deflection and rotations satisfy these conditions:

. LL
u,1 =
I J

'1
.
u. sin 11fX
-
,

sin
L
J 1f)'
- -
.
.

L
i I i- 1 ' Y

I I i;rx . j ;ry
X.t i = L L (X.t i)ij cos T
i I j I .T
sin T
>'
(5.7 1)

I I . i7TX j:ry
Xr
...
= '\" '"' (X1} Sin -
~~ "' 1' L.T
cos -
L}'
.
i I j I
184 SANDWICH PLATES

Table 6.3. ElemenlS ol the coefficient matrix in Eq. (5.73)

Fn = D11 (J; )+2(Du + 2At.) (t-)-?(f,)2 + ~2 ( ~) ..


FJ.1= - D11( ~); - (D11+ 2~} f ( )
2

F,,,=-Du(f,)' -(0.: +2AJ(\;;)' 1;


2 2
F = D (f ) + D(,6 (4;) +S,,
4.i 11

fo = (0.2 + 20,,.) (Z:. )( )

F,,=Du(~)' +0..(1!) +s,,


2

\\/here I and J a re the nun1ber o( tern1s, chosen a rbitrarily, for the su1nn1ations
and w;j, (X.iz.)i; and (Xy~),., a re unkno\\'l\S and are evaJuated by the principle of
stationary potential e nergy expressed ;1s

il(U+ n} =O
i) (X,,)1;

il(U+ l'l) =O
(5.72)
a(xd1;
il(U+ l'l)
--"----'"' = 0.
(}tJJjj

We substitute w. x.. ,. x," (from Eq. 5.7 1) into tbe expressions or U (Eq. 5.64)
and Q (Eq. 5.65} and perfo rm tbe diffe re ntia tions indicate d a bove. Algebraic
manipula tions yield t he (ollov.~ng syste111 ot silnultaneous algebra ic equations:

4
L L
p.lJ p.\'i ] { UJ;;
{ - pL.L,
l 'J,j ,- . .-
}
~ ~J F4$
<L }
Y F34 (Yxz);; = n Q' . (5.73)
[
!'.,,, F..s Fs, (Yr.l1; 0

\\here we have i , j = 1. 3, 5.. . . ( tn;i = (y.i;~)if = (Yy:) ;1 = 0 \\he n i o r j =


1

2. 4, 6 . . . .). The e le ments of the coefficient matrix are give n in Table 5.3 and (vd1;
and (Yr: );; a re defined as

j1f
(y,J
. ,,.. = -w1;
Ly - (x,..)
. I). . (5.74)

For each set of i , j values tbe tbree equations in Eq. (5.73) a re solved simul
taneously (or the three unkno\\ns we;, (Y.T~};; (y,,~};; The de Hec-tion and the rota
tions are then ca lcula te d by Eqs. (5.71) and (5.74).
5.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR SANOWICH PLATES 185

5.3 Buckling of Rectangular Sandwich Plates

5.3.1 Long Plates


\Ve consider a long recta ngular sand\\~ch plate \\hose le ngth L.v is large compared
with its v.idth L.,. The edges n1ay be built.in, simply supporte d, or free, as s hown
in Figure 5.12. J\ uni(orm co1npressive force Nxo is applied along o ne of the long
edges of the plate. This force, as v.ell as the edge support~. does not vary along
the longitudinal y d irection. \\1e are interested in the load at which the plate
buckles.
111e deflected s urface of t he plate 1nay be assumed to be cylindrical a t a con-
side rable distance from the short edges (Fig. 4.4). TI1e equilibriun1 equations are
given by Eqs. (4. I 60) and (4. 161) and for convenience are repeated here as fo llows:

dV. d 2wQ
' - N_,..., -d l =0 (5.75)
dx .\'
dM, _ I', =O. (5.76}
dx
We no\v consider a sand\vich plate that is symn1etrical \Vit h respect to the
midplane. For this plate the bending mo1nent and the t ransverse shear force are
(Eq. 5.44)

M.v = - Du - ax
ax,. (5.77)

Equations (5.75), (5.76), (5.n), toge ther with Eq. (5.2). give
sa11dwich plttte, syn1111etrical layup:
<f3x diul'
- D 11 - ' - 1VJto --=O (5.78)
dx 3 dx2
d'x - (dw
D11 d x' + Sn dx - x
0
)
= 0. (5.79)

~ J\i"
A ~
L, l ~
~ JV#O

' J -
== ~/\llO

~/\'~
l,
IE 11

"
Figure S.12: Long rc.ctangular sandwich plate s ubjec.ted to a uniform compre ssive edge. load a nd
the d1ffcrcnt types o f s upports along the long e dges.
186 SANDWICH PLATES

Fo r an isotropic sandwic.h beam the correspond ing e quations are (Eqs. 7.1 13
and 7.114)
i sorrop ic sand1vic/J f)eatu:

-d' x - d1 w
- El - . - N,o - =0 (5.80)
d x,, 2 dx

~ dd'x
r-1 x' + ,""(dw
dx - X) = 0. (5.8 1)

\Vhere EI and S are the be nding a nd s hear stiffnesses o( t he sand,vich bean1 and
,VJ.0 is the con1pressive load (per unit length).
The e quations describing buckling of long sandwich plate.s (s ymmetrical layup)
and isotropic sandwich beams are ide ntical whe n in Eq~ (5.78) and (5.79) D11 ,
5;,. and N.,o are re placed, respectively, by/. S, a nd N_,,,. There fore. the buck
ling load (pe r un it length) of a long sandwich plate (symmetrical layup) may
be obta ined by s ubs tituting the va lues of D11 a nd S11 for El and S in the ex
pression for the buckling load of the corresponding isotropic sandwich beam
(Section 7.4}.
ll was shown in Section 5.2. I (page 180) that whe n the layup o f the sandwich
pla te is unsymme trical the defle ction may be obtained by substituting the values
of 'II, 5; 1 and p for El, S, a nd p' in t he e xpression fo r the deflection of the
co rresponding isotro pic sand,vich beam. Similarl)1, the buckling load of a Jong
unsymn1e trical sand \\ich plate 1nay be o btained by substituting the values o f \JI
and S11 fo r El a nd S in the expressio n for !he buckling loa d o f the correspond ing
isotropic bean1 ('vhere \II is given by Eq. 4.52).

5.2 Example. A 0.9111/ong and 0. 2-111~1vide rectangular sand1viclr plate is 111a1fe


of a 0.02-in ..thick core covered on bot/J sides by graphite epoxy facesheets. The
111aterial properties are given ilr Tt1ble 3.6 (page 81). The layup of eaclr fi1 c1.~sheet
is 1 45~/011/ 45~], a11d tire 1lrick11ess ofeaclt f aceslreet is 0.002 m (Fig. 5.9). The
Odegree plies are parallel to the short edge of rite plate. The plate is either siJnply
rnpponed or b11iltit1 alo11g all four edges (Fig. 5. 13). Tire plare is subjected to
1111ifor111 co111pressive loads along the long edges. Ca/culttte the btu:kliug load. The
coreis isotropic ( '"" = 2 x 10" k N!m 1 , v, = 0.3).

L~= 900 nun L11= 900mn1

.J,tt t !. .j. .J, .J, .J, .j. .J, .J,.J,tt i !. .j.


" E<

I~-.,, I~_,
SS y y
SS .SS
SS

ttt tt t t t t tttttt t
x iV1!0
x ..,.
!V,o
figure 5.13: 'fbe sa nd\vich plates in B:ta mple 5.2.
5.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR SANOWICH PLATES 187

Solution. The pla te may be treated as " long" (Example 5.1 . page 180). The buck
ling loads of the corresponding beam are (Eqs. 7.175 and 6.337)

-
Na=
( L2
rr2/ +f
1)- 1
(ssl (5.82)

- ( 4L2 I)_,
1V0 = !rlEJ + S (builtin). (5.83)

The buckling loads of the plate a re o bta ined by replacing El, Sby D11 , S11
(see page 186} as follows:

N... " = ( 'LD! +


1r ll
S! )-'
ll
(ss) (5.84)

4L2 I ) _,
N.. " = ( ,,., + (builtin). (5.85)
011 511
With tbe values of D 11 = 52.16 kN- m and S11 = 18 615 ':;.',(see Eqs. 5.53 a nd
5.54) and L_, = 0.2 m, t he buckling loads are
1
I l ) -
N.,." = ( 'i21i7o + i8'6i5 = 7 609 kN/m (ss) (5.86)
1
I l ) -
N"" = ( 51 481 + 18 6 15 = 13 672 kN/m (builtin}. (5.87)

5.3.2 Simply Supported Plates - Orthotropic and Symmetrical Layup


We consider a rectangular sandwich plate witb dime nsions L_, and Ly (Fig. 5.14).
The layup of tbe plate is ortbotropic (page I 76) and symmetrical with respect
to the plate's m idplane. All four edges of the plate a re simply s upported. The
sand,vich plate is subjected to uniforn1ly distributed compressive loads Nxi>and
Nyo along the edges. These loads are increased proportionally, that is. the loads are
AN.dh 'J.1\~ 0 , where). is the load parameter. For a buckled plate the load paran1eter
is denoted by An.
The expression for the strain energy is given by Eq. (5.64).
For a plate subjected to in plane loads only, the potential of the external forces
is (Eq. 4.108)

I
I'!= 2. rf /..,Ly

N, ax
,
(aw")- + N,. (aw") ay
2

dydx, (5.88)
" 0
188 SANDWICH PLATES

\Vhere Nx, 1\/_v a re the in-pla ne tensile (orces related to the in-plane con1pressive
forces J..1\~10. ).N_.<1 by
(5.89)
The deflection is assumed to be of the form given in Eq. (5.71). By s ubstitut-
ing Eqs. (5.71). (5.64), (5.88), and (5.89) into Eqs. (5.72) and by performing the
diffe rentiation, after algebraic manipulations we o btain
2 2
44
--
4
([F.F,," F,..F.is] - ).
F.u F.,
p.,, F45 p.,,
["""(\!) +N,11(1;)
o
0 ~ ~])
x
{
w;;
(Yd;; }
= {o} 0 .
(Yf'l;1 0
(5.90)
where (Y.d;; a nd (YY<);; are defined by Eq. (5.74) and F;; a re given in Table 5.3
(page 184). When the load set is under the crit ical value, the deftection of the plate
is zero. \Vhe n the pla te is not buckled, the deHection of the plate is zero, \Vhereas
for a buckled plate it is nonzero. The values of). for the buckled pla te (de noted by
/ , 0 ) are the e igenvalues of E q. (5.90} and a re obtained by setting the detern1inant

of the coefficient matrix: to zero. This gives


F33 F,. Fu
F,, F"' F"
F.s F.s!o F.~s
(5.91)
Ip.,
p._, F.,I
F.~s

\Vhere I I denotes the detern1inant. The values of ();i)cr are calcula te d for di(..
fe re nt sets of i and j, (i , j = 1, 2 . .. . ) . The lo,vest resulting value of (A;i )0 is the
value of intere.s t.
\Vhen t hesand\vich plate is isotropic, \\'e obtain ().;i )cr by re placing Du. Du,
V,,,, in Table 5.3 by (jw, ,,; D"", and ( 1 - v;'") D;w /2 (see Table 5.2, page 178)
11,
and S S12 by S (see E q. 5.39). With these substit ut ions Eq. (5.91) simplifies to

('-)""-
"11 er -
(t.)'+(t )'
2 .
(-1
2 / D.n
+S
--1)-1 (5.92)
N..,, ( t;) + N,<> (f.)
\vhere 1\ 'D. 0 is defined as

(5.93)

5.3 Exan1ple. A 0.9111 /ong and O.b n1lvide rectangular sand1vich plate is 1nade
of a 0.02-in thick core covered 011 both sides by graphite epoxy faceshee1s. The
o.J ou1..N.1nu ur nc.1,,1>1.nuuLAn ~AR u wn..n ruur~ ..
,
L1 000 nim
~-- ->I
i iiiiii ii
. .. "
d= 22nunf
l C
! t l mm
c 20 mm
I t l mm
tttttttt
.v,.
Agurc 5.1.S: 1lac n ndw.ch pl.ate 1n Example SJ.

111attrial pro~rr;t!s art given in Tahlt 3.6 (pagt 81 ). Tht layup of e11cl1 foceshttl
is (4S~/012/ 4SI (. 011d 1/Je t/Jick11ess of each faces/rut is 0.002111. The 0-degree
piles are /Jltrttllel to t/Je s/Jon edge of rite plate. The plate. sh11ply st1ppor1etf along
ttll four edgej' (Flg. S. ISJ. is subjec1etf 10 unifor1n co111pressfve /()(Jds along 1l1e long
edges. Cttlculote the buckliug load. Tire core is isorroplc ( ~ = 2 x lff' kNh11 2 v, =
0.3).

Solution. We SCI N, 0 = 0 in Eq. (5.91) and write

F"
P,..
F,..
F4.1
F"I
Fu
Fn F45 F,,,
(5.94)

I~: ~:I
The poramcl<N F,1 are given in Table 5.3 (pa.ge 184) as follows:

F.u= 011(~:)' + 2(Du+ 20..)(~)'(t )' +ou(t;)'


f,,, = -o,, (!!!..)"
I.,
' - (Di2+20..)!!!..
L, Ly
(i" )'
f,.= - Du (i")'
Ly
- (012+2066)(!!!..)'
L,
/tr
L.,
(5.95)

F., = Di1(~)' +o..(t)' +s11


F45=(Du+20,.) (:) (Z)
F,,= Du(t )' +o..(:)' + Su.
The e lements of the s1iffness matrices are (Eqs. 553 and 554)

011 =52.16kN m Dv. = 11.71 kN . m Di1 = 7.96kN m


D.., = 11.76 kN m
kN
S11=18615-
m
s,, = 18 615-kNm
190 SANDWICH PLATES

By s ubs tituting these s tiffnesses a nd L, = 0.2 m, Ly = 0.9 m into Eq. (5.94),


\Ve obtain the fo llowing values o( 1V.,o. (Ai1) 0 :

i \ j 1 2 3
1 7 965 9 070 11 041
(5.96)
2 13 875 14 491 15 544
3 16195 16668 17 470 .

The s mallest value is N,o (1.n);; = 7 965 kN/m, which corresponds toi = j = 1,
T hus, the buckling load is

N.w = (l.")11 N,. = 7 965 kN/m. (5.97)

In Exa111ple 5.2 \Ve treate d this sandv,.ic.h as a long plate and obtained the
buckling load N= = 7 609 kN/m (Eq. 5.86). This is within 5 percent of the value
given by Eq. (5.97).

5.3.3 Face Wrinkling


We consider a sand\\ich pla te. The top and botton1 faceshee ts are ide ntica l, and
each facesheet's layup is syn1n1etrical 'vi th respect to the facesheet's midpla ne.
The sandwich plate is s ubjected to inplane fo rces N,, N,., N,., (Fig. 5.16, left).
Since the inplane s tiffnesses of the core are ta ken to be negligible, the in-plane
stres:ses in t he core n1ay be neglected 'vit h respect to the inplan e s tresses in the
facesheets. Correspondingly, the io ..plane forces (per unit length) in t he faces heets
are
Nr = i\:lY f = t.b. (5.98)
x.v 2
T he superscript f denotes e it her the- top or the botton1 (acesheet. Under these
inp lane forces the facesheets n1ay beoon1e \Vavy (Fig. 5.16, right). 111ese v.aves
are precursors o( local buckling, a nd the loadset a t which these waves first occur is
taken as the buckling loads. The waves n1ay propagate in t \\'O directions, although
gene rally the v.aves in o ne dire ction don1inate. In our a nalysis \\'e consider only
\Vaves in one direction.
The \Vavelength 21 depends on the material and on the geon1etry of the sand
\Vicb plate. Here, \Ve consider l\\'O cases: (i) t he wavele ngth is "sho rt," such that

N_,,
Figure S.16: Pace ,~rinkling of sandwich plates.
..
,

>

I. and (ii) the wavelength is ..long such that// Ir I (11 is the thickness of
/ / /1
the plate as shown in Fig. 5.2).
111e loads thnt con1ribute to the \.\'aviness of the aceshec1s t\re the inplane
load perpendicular to 1he wave ~ and the norma l load "'~ (corresponding to the
stress o-, ) exerted o n the facesheet by the deforme d core (Fig. 5. 17, lcft). Under
these londs the equilibrium e quation of the racesheet isl
l)duJI a'lwl r
11 (5.99)
"' ae' + Nf ae' = ''

where Wt is the bending stiffness of the faceshee t in the~ d irection - 1hnt is, the
11 e le me nt or the matrix I DI in the E-1' coordinate system. Transformation of the
matrix [DI follows the transformation rule of the matrix (QI given by Eq. (2.195).
Thus.. v;e have

"' = (0.tl;-, = d.t cos' cz + D',, sin4 cz + (20., + 4D'.,.)cos' a sin' a


+ 4 cos' cz sin a V:, + 4 cos a sin' a 0:, f = t . b. (5.100)

where a is the angle bctv.-een the X and Saxes a nd '1., arc the clements of the
bending stiffness matrix of the facesheets in the .r- y coordinate system.
The parameter'"' is the out--0-plane displaceme nt (deHcction) of the aces beet
(Fig. 5.1 7, right).

(5.101)

where I.Vo is the amplitude or the deflection aod I is the hal( buckling \\ avclength. 1

1l1e parameter Nt
i.s the in-plane force in the facesheel in the (direction and is
obtained from the in-plane fore.es J\I.! . .,,.. and N!,
by transformalion. By using the
stress transformat.ion in Eq. (2. 182). we can define /\1
by the fo llowing equation:

JVl =- {N. cos1 a + JV!. sin1 a+ 2~1 cos a .sin a) f = t. b . (5.102)

\Ve are interested in 1.he value of~ at which the 'vavinc-.ss firs t :.rises.
Isotropic con - composit' fatahtns. \Vben the core is isotropic. the out--0!-
plane stress in 1.he core a : varie.s across the. thickness as illustrated in Figure 5.18
(left). When the wavelength is small, the stresso-, varies. as illusiratcd in Figure 5.18
(middle). Since the s tresses vanish away from the facesheeu. the problem may be

1 S. P. l l 1n011hcnkc1;ind J, Otre, Tl1t><JJ'f Of las1ieSmhili1y. 2nd edition. ~1c0raw Hill . New York, 1961,
p. 2.
192 SANDWICH PIATES

F'igurc: 5. 18: 1be slrcss er: d1stribut1on in an isotropic core (left) and 1n an isotropic core with
short WU\'clc.ngth (middle); buckling of a plate on a n elastic foundatjon (right) .

treated as a plate on an infinite e lastic founda tion (Fig. 5.18, right). Then, the stress
at the core faceshee t interface 0'% isl

I a . 1'~
'1 = - - u; 11 sin - where (5.103)
' I I
\Vhere .:and Ve are the Young modulus and Poisson's ratio of the isotropic core.
Equations (5.99), (5.101), and (5.103) yie ld

!(4 . f(~ N.' :r1 . 7"~ (I !(~


\Iii- WI) -
4
Si ll - - ~ u.'o - stn -
2
= - - Wo S ill ~. (5.104)
' 1 I ' 1 I I I
\Vhen the facesheet becomes \\'avy, wo is not zero. The values or NJ: corre-
sponding to uJo 0 are the buckling loads (JVl)cr These buckling loads are given
by the nonuivial solution o( E q. (5.104) and are

I 1fl a Jl
isotropic core
(i\~t, = "'~ 11 + Ttr1 composite faceshee ts (5.105)
s hort 'vave.

\Vhen the v.avelength is long, the solution is obtaine d by assuming that the
stress distribution ":. is uniJonn (Fig. 5.19, n1iddle) and is approxi n1ated as "J
I r ~
" ' = - a= (5.106)
' - l' = -w -c/ 2
where.,= w1/ (c/2) (Fig. 5.19, right). SubstitutionofEqs. (5.101) and (5.106) into
Eq. (5.99) gives

Jr4 . .TT~ I 71'2 . 71'~ , . ]'(~


\Jli- w.,- sin - - N U.'(1- sin - = - - wc1s in - . (5.107)
' I' I ' I' I c/ 2 I
The nontrivial solution is

isotropic core
r rr' ~ I'
(N)
~a
=llf,-+
' /2
- -
c/ 2'lr2 con1posite faceshee ts (5.108)
long \Vave.

2 H. C'.r. Allen. Aualy.,is 1111d Dd i>?JI of Strue1ur11l Sa1ulwicl1 Pa11el.v. Pcrs:unon Press. Oxford. 1969,
p. 158.
5.3 BUCKLINGOF RECTANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 193

- -
Figure 5.19: The stress at dislritiution in an isotropic core (lcfl): in nn isotropic core \\ith long
W<t\'ck.ngth (middle): buckled shape: (right).

We are interested in the lo\\est value of (JVl)cr This value is obtained by setting
the derivative of ( Nf)o \vilh respect to I equal to zero as follov.s:

d(N/)a _
di - 0 (5.109)

Solution of this equation results in the haJf.\\ravelength lr:r corresponding to


the lo\\est buckling load. Substitution of le into the expressions for (1V:)a gives
(~)er.min T he results a re sun1marized in the top half of Table 5.4.
TI1e value of ( 1Vl)a.min depends on the directiona in \vhich the wave propagates
because \Jlt depends on a (Eq. 5.100). The wave direction is not kno\vn a priori and
must be detern1ined. This is accon1plished by obser,~ng that ~ is a lso a function
o( Ct (Eq. 5.102). The wave will firs t appear in the direction in which the ratio
(.~)er.nun/ Nl
is the sn1allest. This ratio is calcula ted for diffe re nt angles, and the
angle that results in the s1na llest ratio is lhe-desire d et.
Ho11eyco111b core - co111posite facesheeL'i. \Vhen the sand\vich plate consists
o( a hone ycomb core \\ith composite (aceshee.ts, the stress at the core (acesheet
inte rface may be approximated by Eq. (5.106) for both short and long wavelengths.
The buckling loads are identical to those given by Eq. (5. 108) and are

Jr? Ee /2 honeycon1b core


(N!) = -v ...., + - -1 composite faceshee ts (5.1 JO)
0 /- c/2tr
short or Jong waves.

Table S.4. Face wrinkling of sandwich plates with eithe< a hooeycomb or an isotropic core. The
constant a is given by Eq. (5.103) and G, = 11.~~

tsotropic core Honeycomb core

Shortwave Long waw Short or long wave


( " - j2+{11?
Comp<>Sile /\if }c1.1mn = I.) ~ (N!)
l ( f.llltll -
-
2 \ ' "'l ,J?
!is.
faceshe.ets la = j2""'11~ I
.:r=7f T
j+((n

)SOLrOpic
(N')
f .;r n11D -
- I ..'' \1 "'"'"'
J( l- 1j) (J--1t)!0+V.:)
(l'I,) ( l , IUlll
=I
1
j
1.1&
r(l-f)
facesheets ::::: 0.191.~
I "''t;''
er= . 6(1- f)
I
~' = ;r
J14&(1-"f)/- c
Eo ,
194 SANDWICH PLATES

\vhere F..:: is the Young n1odulus of the core perpendicular to the plane of the
sand,vich plate.
l11e lo\\'est value of the buckling load and the direction a in which the \\ ave 1

propagates is de te rmined as previously above fo r pla tes v.ith isotropic core and
con1posite faces heets.
Isotropic core - isotropic facesheets. We now consider sandwich plates v.~th
isotropic core and isotropic faceshee ts. The bending stiffness o( an isotropic face
sheet is (see Eqs. 3.42 and 5.100}

II', t'' ')


= d'" = 12 I - v; (5.111)

\Vhere I is t he t hickness of the faces heet and the s ubscript f denotes the facesheet.
When both the core and the facesheets are isotropic and the faces heets buckle
\vi th short v.aves., the Jo,vest value of t he buckling load is obtained by substituting
Eq. (5.11 1) into Eq. (5.105) and by performing the differentiation indicated in
Eq. (5.109). The result is
isotropic core
isotropic facesheets
s hort '''a\'e.
(5.112)

where G, is t he shear modulus of the core (G, = Ed2 (I + ,,, )). f and c refer to
the facesheets and the core. By the definition o( the inplane force (Eq.5.7) the
tern1 in the bracket is the critical stress.
By neglecting the Poisson ratios (11, = "' = 0). Eq. (5.112} reduces to

isotropic core
isotropic faces beets (5.113)
s hort \Vave.

Hoff a nd 1'.lautner;l obtained this expression with the value of the constant
0.91 instead of 0.79. Ho\\ever, (or practical use they reco1n me nded the value 0.5.
\Vhen bo th the core and the facesheets a re isotropic and the faceshee ts buckle
witl1 long waves, E qs. (5.108), (5.111), and (5.109) give
isotropic core
isotropic facesheets (5.114)
long \\'ave.

For an isotropic facesheet the bending s tiffness does not depend on the di rec
tion. Consequently, buckling \\'aves occur in the direction in \vhich the con1pressive
stress is n1aximum.

l N. J. Hoff and S. E. ~1au tncr. Buck.Lins: of Sandwich l)pc.Pnncls. lt>111?1al of1/Je A t r<Hllutical s~ie11c~s.
Vol. 12, 285- 297. 1945. Sec 11Jso in J. R Vinson, StJ1uJwidJ S1nu.111res t>f f.fOtropic dnd Ct>tU/l'Mit~
it1at1rials. 1Cchnon1k . l ancas1cr. Penns)'lvnnia. 1999, p. 239.
5.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 195

L,=- 900 mm

l = 2mm
d = 22 nun
ID f
c=-20 mm
l=- 2 mm

:r. iV~
Figure S.20: The-sand\\ic:h plate in Example SA.

Ho11eycon1b core - isotropic facesheet,f. Lastly, we conside r a sandwich plate


with hone ycomb core and isotro pic (ace.sheets. The ha lf wavele ngth /0 may be
short or long. In this case Eqs. (5.1 10), (5.111}, a nd (5.109) yie ld

honeycon1b core
( ''' '' ) [ 2 EtE, isotropic facesheets (5.115)
~ er.mm =I 3 c (1 - vf)
s hort or long wave.

This equati on is identical to that give n by Heath.4


The lowest buckling loads and the half wavele ngths correspo nding to these
buckling loads are sun1marized in Table 5.4.
These expressions take into acco unt face \\rinkling in one direction only. They
are accurate when only un iaxial load is a pplied to an o rthotropic plate in one
o( the orthotropy direct ions. In case o f biaxial loading these e xpressions n1ay
overestima te the buckling load. For most practica l con1posite sand\vich plates the
error in t he buckling lo ads give n by these e xpressions is less than 30 pe rcent.

5.4 Exan1ple. A 0.211lloug turd 0.9nJ 1vide rectangular sand1viclr plate is u1ade
of a 0.021n-thick core covered on both sides by graphite epoxy facesheets. The
nrateria/ properties are given in Table 3.6 (page 81). The layup of each fi1cesheet
is ( 45\/012/ 45\1 mu/ tire thickness of eaclr facesheet is 0 .002 111. Tire Odegree
plies are parallel to t11e slron edge of the pltlle. The plare is sinrply supported along
all four edges (Fig. 5.20). The plate is subjected to u11idirectional iHplane loads N,.o.
Estituate tire load at whiclr tire facesheet wrinkles. The core is isotropic ( : = 2 x
106 kN!m 2, "<= 0.3).

Solution. Let us first assun1e tha t the facesheet \\Tinkles paralle l to the y -a xis 'vith
long waves (a= 0, Fig. 5.16). In this direction "11 is (Eq. 5.100)

"'' = Ii,, = D11 = 45.30 N m. (5.11 6)

' \V. G. Healh. Standwich Construction, Part 2:Thc 0ptimum Desi.g:n orFLnt Sandwi.::b Pnncls. Aircut]i
Engi11e.eri11;: . Vol J2, 230-235, 1960. Sec also in J. R Vinson. Stu1dwi('/J Srruaur..s o/ t.fotrop ic and
Co,11posit~ .\tatt'rial.~. Tcchnomic, Ltlnc.aster. Pcnnsyl\'ania. 1999. p. 2.39.
flAlt:i
'"" ~AN.UWltiH

T he value of D[1 is given in Table 3.7 (page 84). T he lowest buckling load and the
corresponding half wa velength are (Table 5.4, page 193)

r
( N,) .
~a. mm
=2 Hi ,
"1; -c
12
= 19 006 -kN
m (5.117)

la= "y.~
T =0.0069 m = 6.9 mm. (5.1 18)

Theassun1ption that the \\'ave is long is valid \vhen/0 is large compared \\ith the
core tl1ickness. Here, In is only abo ut a third of the core thickness and, therefo re,
the long.wave approximation is invalid.
Let us no\\' assun1e t hat the \\'ave is short. With this assun1ption \Ve have
(Table 5.4, page 193)

I 2'4'~ll 2 kN
( N,) . = l.5 ' -
-; er.nun
, - = 34 116 -Ol
rr-
(5.119)

la = / r~:"' = 0.0063 m = 6.3 mm. (5.120)

where (Eq. 5.103)


21' , N
a = (3 -v, ) ( l + vc:) = 35 80 >< 109 2m . (5.121)

111e 'vave may be assumed to be short whe n lcr is significantly sn1aUer than
the core thickness c. Here, the ra tio 10 / c is about one ..third. Thus., the sho rt \\'ave
approximation is unreasonable.
In this proble n1, the \\'ave cannot be t reated as e ithe r Jong or short. 1-\ s a con
servative estimate we take the lo\\er of the two buckling loads given by the Jong
and short-wove approximatio ns. Thus, the lowest buckling load is (see Eq. 5.98)

N.m = 2 ( N,')a.nun
'i
. = 2 >< 19 036 = 38 072 -kN
m (5.122)

5.4 Free Vibration of Rectangular Sandwich Plates


In this section we obtain the naturaJ frequencies f and, hence, t he periods of
vibra tion ( T = 1//) and the circular fre que ncies (w = 21r /) of sandwich pla tes.
In t he analyses that follows \\'e assume that the plate is freely vibrating a nd is
undamped.

5.4.1 Long Plates


We consider a long rectanguJar sand\vicb pla te \Vhose le ngth is large con1pared
'vi th its \\idth ( Ly >> L., ). The e dges may be built in, sin1ply suppo rte d, o r free, as
illustrated in Figure 5.21.
5.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR SANOWICH PLATES 197

figure S.21: lhc d1ffcrc:n1 types of supports aloog lhc long cdgc1 of long. a.:and-.ich plates undct
gomg free und:ampcd \'lhrahon.

111e dcBcctcd urface of 1he sandwich plale may be assumed to be cylindrical al


a conside rable distance fro1n the short e dges (Fig. 4.4). TI1e equilibriun1 e quations
are Eqs. (4.191)-(4.193) ,
nv,.
-ti.< + 1>(2"/)1 w" = 0 (5.123)

- - - V, = O,
t!M,.
(5.124)
d,t
vlhere ul' i.s the dellection and p is the mass per unit area or the sandwich plate.
We now coraider n sand"ic.h plate that is symmetrical with respect to the mid
plane. The bending moment and the transverse shear force acting on the sandwich
plale arc (Eq. S.44)

M, =-Du ax,, (S.125)


ax
Equation. (S.1 23). (S.1 24), and (5.125), logethe r wilh Eq. (S.2). give
so11dh1ich plall!, syuuuetricol Jayu1>:

tfl X1.: ,
- D11 - d 1 +p(2rr/J-111 =0 (5.126)
x
D,, -rl';<.:
r1.r2
-
+S11 -d
x
(dw" - x,,) =0. (5.127)

Fo.r o vibrating snnd\vich beam the correspondjng cqu:uions are (see


Eqs. 7.178-7.180."' = 2rr /)
isotropic s111rd1vich bta111:
-d' x ,
n-.,
- 1dx-' + p'('lJf =0 (5.128)

fitPx + s('lw - x) = 0. (5.129)


dx' d.r

"'he re El and S:ire the bending and she.ar stiffnesses o f the sand\vich beam and
p' is the inass per uni1 length.
111e preceding set of equations describing the vibration or
long. sandwich
plates (sy1nmc trical layup) and isotropic sandwich bea1ns are identical \vhcn Di 1.
S, 1 nnd p nre re plncccl. respectively. by El. S. nnd p'. Therefore. 1he natural
198 SANDWICH PLATES

Figure 5.22: lbe sand\''ioh plate.'> in Example 5.5.

frequencies of a Jong sand"foh plate (symmetrical layup) may be obta ined by


substituting the values of Du. Su. and p (or i. f. p' in the expression given in
Section 7.5 for the natural frequencies of the corresponding isotropic sandwich
bean1.
The na tural frequencies o( a long unsymmetrical sandwich pla te n1ay be ob
tained by substituting the values of \IJ (Eq.4.52), S11, and p for ifi. S. p' in the
expression for the natural freq uencies of the corresponding isotropic sandwich
be.an1.

5.5 Example. A 0.911llong and 0.2--nllvide recu111gular sand1viclr pltue is 111ade


of a 0.0211tt/Jick core covered on botl1 sides by graphite epoxy facesheets. The
1uaterial prope!rties are given ilt Table 3.6 (page 81). The lttyup of each facesheet
is [45V012/ 45\L a11d the rlrick11ess of etrclr faceslreet is 0.002 m. The ().degree
plies are parallel to the slron edge of the plate. The plare is either situply supponed
or builrill llloug all four edges (Fig. 5.22j. A uu1for1u n1ass is over rhe plate such
that for the courbined 111ass-plate sys1e111 p = 200 kg/nt2. Calcttlate the circul<tr and
tire naruralfrequencies. The core is lfotropic (-..: = 2 x 106 kNhn 2 v<'. = 0.3).

Solution. The pla te may be tre ated as Jong'' (Example 5.1 , page 180). The circular
frequenc.ies of the corresponding beam are (Eq. 7.243. Eq. 6.398, and Table 6.13,
page 308)

W;=
p' L'
(-
p' L'
-.- +=--,
)-1' (5.130)
El,. S" s,
\Yhere

Iii=" 21', 3ir.. (ss) (5.131)


,,.; = 4.730, 7.853, 10.996. . . . (built-in) (5.132)

and

.. . = '" 2tr, 31'. . (ss or built-in). (5.133)


5.4 FREE VIBRATION OF REC:TAHGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 199

L, L,
Figure S.23: Rectangular sandwich plate. \\ith simpl)' supported edges.

The circular fre quencies of the plate a re o btained by replacing EI. S, p' by
D 11 , S11 fJ (see page 198) as follows:

w= (
fJ
-
L'
7 +-=--+
fJ L' )-1. (5.!34)
Du /Ji Su ILS;

With t he values of D11 = 52.16 kN m and S11 = 18 615~ , (see Eqs. 5.53 and
5.54) a nd \\ ith L.t = 0 .2 n1. the first three n1odes of the c ircular freq uencies of the
1

plate a re

w1 =3064 w2=8214 w.1 = 13 344 1/s (ss) (5.!35)


w, =4 233 Wz =8945 w.1 = 13 791 1/s (built in). (5. 136)

The corresponding na tural frequencies are ( f = w/2tr}

/1= 488 /i = 1 3f17 /J = 2124Hz (ss) (5.!37)


/1= 674 j, = 1 424 fi = 2 195 Hz (built-in). (5.!38)

5.4.2 Simply Supported Plates - Orthotropic and Symmetrical Layup


A simply supported rectangular sand,vicb plate 'vith din1e nsions L.t and L1 is con
sidered (Fig. 5.23). TI1e layup of the plate is orthotropic (page 176) a nd symmet
rical \\ith respect to the plate's n1idplane. The plate is undergoing free undamped
vibration. The deflection of the plate is (Eq. 4.189)

w" = w" sin (2tr / 1) . (5.!39)

Analogously, we e xpress the rotations of the norn1als as

X.n x_., sin (2ir / 1)


= (5.140)
x,., x,., sin (2rrf1) ,
= (5.141)

where W", :X.tz and Yyt are as yet unknown funct ions of x a nd .Y T hese func-
tions must be c hosen s uch that W' , Xxz and Xyz- satisfy the boundary conditions
given in Section 5.2.2 (Eqs. 5.66-5.70). To dete nnine t hese functions we introduce
Eqs. (5.139)-(5.141) into t he e xpression for the strain energy given by Eq. (5.64).
This results in

U= V sin 2 (2tr f t) , (5.142)


200 SANDWICH PLATES

'vhere U is defined as

li = _I "- )2Di (uX.v:.


1.,!1, [( oXx:: -ay )' D.. - -
oxx:: uX >'::. D ,
2 !0 ax I + .l + 2 ax ay I.
I)

( ax8)~- + axa.:,-)' fu + (aaxiii" - x.,.)' Su


_ + (a;;;"
ay - x,,) Sn Jdxdy.
2
_
+
(5.143)

Following the s te ps used in the analysis of free vibration of thin plates (Sec
tio n 4.4.2), \\'e arrive at the follo\ving expression for the natural frequency:

(27rf)' = - L,
-L, - - -
u (5.144)
! Pf f pW'~dydx
u (t

\Ve adopt the following expressions for WU. Xx::. X,.::.:

I J , ,
- '\''\' . / 1fX /1')'
w = L., L- wii sin - sm - -
,_, ;- 1 LI( L,.
I J . .
- '\''\' ( 11fX . /1' )'
x.T:; = L- .L- X.i::Jij cos T SID T (5.145)
1..,1 i I X .Y

_ I J . i7rX j71' )'


x,., = LL (x,.J;; sm L
1 1 j I .T
cos L.
y

With these expressions the deHec.tions and the ro tations give n by Eqs. (5.139)-
(5.141) satisfy the boundary given by Eqs. (5.66)--(5.70). The unknown coefficients
w;;, (X,.);; - (X,..);; are determined from the conditions (Eq. 4.217)

a/ =0 (5.146)
a(x.,J,1

1-\ fter algebraic n1anipulations 've obtain

~ ~]) {<:X'.),;}= {~}.


0 0 (y,.,)1; 0
(5.147)

where (Yd;; a nd (y,.),; are de fined by Eq. (5.74), P;; are given in Table 5.3
(page 184), and A is defined as

(5.148)
5.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 201

In the c-ase of free vibration the deflection is nonzero. For nonzero deftec..
lions. Eq. (5.147) is sat isfie d when the determinant o( t he ma trix in the paren
theses is ze ro. At this condition), signifies the e igenvalues of Eq. (5.147), and \Ve
obtain
F.n F,. F.is
f.,4 F" F.s
F_,~ F., Fss L.xL>'
A;1 =
r.
F._,
F.,I
F.~s
4
(5.149)

The values of A;; are calcula te d for diffe re nt sets of i a nd j. (i , j =I. 2, ... ),
o( which the)o\vest value is o( interest.
The natural fre que ncies are calculated from Eq. (5.148):

f;, = ;jp~~. (5.150)

When the s.and,vich plate is isotropic, we obtain ),;; by replacing Du. Dii,
D.. in Table 5.3 (page 184) by /jw, ,,w f>', a nd (I - v"") a w;2 (see Table 5.2.
page 178) a nd S11 , S12 by S (see Eq. 5.39). With these substitutions Eq. (5.149}
sin1plifies to

.. -- L.,4L,.'1r
A,, '[(.!....)'
L
:~
+ (1.)']
L
)'
(N- 1 + s ' )- 1'
D.ij (5.151)

where 1Vv.;; is defined as

No.;; = "'d'" [ (~)' + (l)'] (5.152)

5.6 Exan1ple. A 0.9111-/ong aud 0.2111-1vide recu11rgu/ar satulu:iclr plate is 1nade


of a 0.02nt.fhick core covered on both sides by graphite epoxy facesheets. The
1naterial properties are given hr Table 3.6 (page 81). The layup of each fatesheet
is (45\/012/ 45\t tmd the rlricklfess of each faceslreet is O.<l02 111. The 0-tlegree

CJ I
1 = 2 nun
d = 22 mmI c= 20 mm
t-= 2 mm

Figure S.24: The sandv.ich plate in Example S.6.


202 SANDWICH PLATES

plies are parallel ro the short edge oftire plate. The plate is situply supponed along all
four edges (Fig. 5.24). A u11ifor111 1na..'is is over tire plate such that for the co1nbined
tuass-plate systen1p = 200 kg/1111. Ca/culttu! the circul<tr a11d the natural frequencies.
The core is isotropic ( E.:_ = 2 x JOb k Nltu2, Ve = 0:3).
Solution. The eigenvalues A;; are (Eq. 5.149)

F..u F'.l.t F.1s


f'.,11 F" F4s
f.,s F., F.ss L., Ly
A;; = (5.1 53)
IFF.,.. F,_,I
F.ss
4

The paran1eters F,i are given by Eq. (5.95). The e)e.ments o( the stiffness n1a
trices are (Eqs. 5.53 and 5.54)

D11 = 52.16 kN m D,, = 11.71 kNm D,, = 7.96 kN m


- kN - kN
D.,, = 8.76 kN Ill S11=18615-
m
s,,
--
= 18 615 -
01

and L., = 0.2 m, t.,.= 0.9 m. Wit h these values. Eqs. (5.95) and (5.153) give the
folJo,ving v:ilues o f (An);, x 10- 9:

i\j I 2 3
1 0.0884 0.1007 0.1226
(5.1 54)
2 0.6162 0.6436 0.69(}4
3 1.6183 1.6656 l.7458
The natural frequencies are (Eq. 5.150)

1~
fi; = ;; y-;f,t, (5.1 55)

This yields the following values of fi; (Hz):


i\j 1 2 3
1 499 532 587
(5.1 56)
2 1 317 1 346 1 394
3 2134 2 165 2217
By treating t he plate as long, in Example 5.5 (page 198) we obtained the
following values for the first three natural frequencies: 488: 1 307; and 2 124 Hz
(Eq. 5.137). These natural frequencies are within 3 percent of the values given
above.
CHAPTER SIX

Beams

The response of con1posite bea1ns to loading is more con1plex than that of isotropic
beams, and the analyses of composite beams must take these con1plexities into
account. This requires analyses that are. by necessity, n1ore involved than for
isotropic bean1s but which, nonetheless, result in expressions readily amenable to
numerical con1putations.
In this chapter \\'e treat rectangular solid cross sections as \\ ell as tJ1in ..,valled
1

bean1s that undergo s111all deforn1ations and in \vhich the n1aterial behaves in a
linearly elastic manne r. \\'e neglect shear deforn1ations and adopt the Be.rnoulli-
Navier hypothesis, according to \vhich the origina lly plane cross sections of a beam
undergoing bending re111ain plane and perpendicular to the a.xis of the bea1u.
Axial, transverse. and torque loads may be applied lo the beam (Fig. 6.1 ), re-
sulting io the follo\\~ng internal forces: normal force /\!~ bending mo1nents Al1 , Al:.:
torque f: and the transverse shear forces v,,
V, (Fig. 6.2).

6.1 Governing Equations


The response of a beam to the applied forces is described by the strain-
displacement. force - strain, and equilibrium equa tions. TI1ese equations are given
in this section for conditions in v.hich there is no restra ined \Varping. The effect
o( restrained \Varping is discussed in Sections 6.5.5, 6.5.6, and 6.6.4.
Here, as v.ell as in the folJo,ving analyses.. \Ve en1ploy a n x- y- z coordinate
system with t he origin a t t he centroid. The centroid is define d such that an axial
load acting a t the centroid does not change. the curvature of the axi~ passing
through the centroid. As a consequence of this de-fioition, a bending mon1ent
acting on the beam does not int roduce an axial strain along this axis. Unlike for
isotropic beams.. for composite be.a n1s the centro id does not necessarily coincide
with the center o( gravity of the cross section.
The re are four independent displacements (f1g. 6.3}: t he axial displacement u,
the transverse displacen1ent~ u and u; in the y and t directions, respectively. and
the twist of the cross section I/I. The corresponding axial strain .~, curvatures 1/ f>y
203
204 BEAMS

Figure 6.1: Axial transverse., and torque lo.ads a c.ttng on a section o! a beam .

and l / p, in the x- z and x- y planes, 1 a nd t he rate of twist Ii are define d t hrough


the strain- displacen1ent re lationships
0
= ~
au Ii=-
.
aw (6.1)

.T ax ax
The generalized force-strain re lationship is defined as

I 1~,
NI =
M,
T
[p"p,_,
P 12

P,.

\vhere P.7 are the ele111ents of t he stiffness n1atrix.


111e equilibrium equations for a stra ight bean1 subject ed to the loads shown in
(6.2)

Figure 6.1 are2


af
-= - r
ax
3a~" = -py
av.
ax< = - p, (6.3)

a1ii.
a,\i,, = V.
ax ' ax<= -v,.
The preceding t hree sets of equ ation~ (together with the appropriate bound
ary cond itions) con1ple te ly describe t he d isplacen1ents of, and the forces in, a
con1posite beam.
l11e internal forces N, J\1.v. M;. V,. V;:, a nd fa re de te nuined by the simuha
neous solution of Eqs. (6.1)- (6.3) togethe r with the a ppropriate boundary cond i
tions give n belov". When a bean1 is statically dete rminate, the inte rnal forces can
be obtaine d fro n1 the equilibriun1 e quatio ns. \Vhe n a con1posite bean1 is static.ally
indete rmina te, the internal forces can be o bta ined \\ith the use of replace1uent
stiffnesses in the rele \'ant isotropic beam expressions provided that e ither the
beam is o rtho tropic o r the cross section is sy111me trica l a nd the load is applied
in the plane of syn1metry. The concepts of o rt hotropic bean1 a nd replace1nent
stiffnesses are discussed in Section 6.1.2.

1
T. H. G. fl.tcgimn, Aircraft S rn1c1tirt'S for Eri>!intering S1udenu. 3rd edition. Halsted Press. John
\ViJcy & Sons. New York. 1999, p. 284.
2 B. K. D<inald1;:on, A11a/y1is of ~1in:roft Srrur:t~J'('S. An b11rmluaicu1. ~tcGraw -HiJ I. New York, 1993,
pp. 277- 278.
6.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 205

Figure 6.2: 1'hc norma l force f.'i: the bendi ng momc.nls tW.,, .Mt; lhe torque-'f: and the traOS\'erse
shear torccs Py. 11; i nside a beam.

6.1. t Boundary Conditions


At a built~in e nd, the inplan e displacements a nd the slopes are zero. At a sin1ply
supporte d e nd , the io ..pla ne displac.e1ne nts a nd the n1on1ents a re zero. At a free
end, t he m on1ents and tbe transverse shear forces are zero.
When the e nd of the beam is restrained axially, the a xial displacen1ent is zero.
\ Vhen the end is not resua ined axia lly, the axial force is zero.
When the end may rotate, the to rq ue is zero. \Vhen the end is rotationally
rest raine d, the l \\~S l is zero.
The preceding boundary cond itions a re sun1marize<l in Table 6.1 .

6.1.2 Stiffness Matrix


The stiffness ma trix depends o n the geo1netry of the c ross section and on the type
o( ma te rial used in the construction of the bea1n . The geome try (i.e., t he shape)
or the c ross section changes when the bean1 is loaded . \\'e neglect the e ffects of
this change in shape on t he stiffness and evalua te the stiffness matrix for t he cross
section of the unloaded beam.

'

y )/

x
1-igurc 6.3: Displacements of a he.am.
206 BEAMS

Table 6.1. Boundary conditions for beams.


x-zplane x- yplane
Buih in4 u, =0 !!t = 0 IJ=0 i; =0
Simpl)' supporle-d u1=0
'"
l~y =0 u=O 1W: = o
Free ~=0 M, =0 ~=0 M,=o
Axia lly restrained
unrtSLrained
Rotalionally resLralned
unrestrained

For a be am inade of a n isotropic n1aterial ("isotropic be an1') the (orce- strain


relationships are 3

~ I [(EA)
0 0

ltWv
ii,
f
=
0
o
0
(E/1.,) (El,_)
(Ely;} (E/;J
0 0

The terms in parentheses are the tensile EA, bending El y,.. El.,. Et,., (= Et,,.),
and torsiona l G h stiffnesses.
isotropic. (6.4)

\Ve o bserve that for an isouopic beam the re is no coupling between tension (or
con1pression), be nd ing, and torsion. On the other ha nd. for a bea1n made of coin
posite n1aterials.., in general, no ne of the e leme nts of the stiffness ma ui.x is ze ro,
and the re is coupling bet\veen tensio n, be-n ding, and torsio n. Accordingly. ten
sion may cause bending and torsion, torsion n1ay cause tension a nd be nd ing, and
bending n1ay cause te nsion and torsion (see Eq. 6.2). The displace1ne nts resulting
from these couplings are often unexpected a nd are most o f the t ime undesirable.
Fortunately for t he designe r, son1e of the couplings a nd the corresponding dis
placen1ents are no t present \\he n e ither the bean1 s cross section is syn1me trical
or 'vhen the beam is orthotropic.
Sy111111etrical crosssectio11 bea111s. First, \Ve consider a n isotropic be..101 whose
cross section is syn1me trical a bout the t a.xis. 1-\ n axia l load FJ and a be nd ing
moment My (acting in the x-z syn1n1e tT)1 pla ne) are applied to the bean1. For this
beam the force- strain relationships (Eq. 6.4) reduce to

l1ClyNI= [(EA)0 (El,,,)


0 ]! '~ ! * isotropic
symme tric.al cross section.

Next , \\'e consider a composite be am 'vhose cross section is symmetrical about


(6.5)

the zaxis (Fig. 6.4). As a result o( t he symmetry, an axial load N acting at the
ce ntroid does no t int roduce e ither bending or t\\isting of the beam, \vhe reas a

Jo T. H. G. l-,l egson. Airc1oft S1111cr1u1!sfor n1:ineerin,: S111der1ts. 3 rd editio n. Hal1'lcd Press. Jo h n \Vik)'
& Sons.. New York. 1999, pp. 56 nnd 285.
6.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 207

1-igurc 6.4: Hlustralionsof composttc. beams \\i1h symmclric.al c ro:;s sec lions subjected to a trans
\'Crsc load in the :c-z S)'mm c!l)' pla ne.

n1oment IJ1 acting in the x- t symn1euy plane introduces o nly bending in this
plane. We d.esignate the elen1ents of t he stiffness n1atrix by lfA and Elyy and \\rite
the stress-stra in relationships as

{MFl>' }= [[[,:\0 OJ {'-/;;~ }


EI,,
composite
symme trica l cross section.
(6.6)

Orthotropic bea111s. 1-\ bea1u is o rthotropic \vhen its 'vall is made of an or-
thotropic laminate and one of the orthotro py axes is aligned "'ilh the axis o f the
bean1. A lan1inate is ortbo tro pic \\lhen every layer is n1ade o f either an isotropic
n1ateria l or a fiber.re inforce d con1posite (page 75). In the latter case, a layer n1ay
consist of plies n1ade e ithe r of wove n fa bric o r of unidirectiona l fibers (Fig. 6.5).
\''oveo fabric plies must be a rra nged s uch that one of t he ply syn1n1etry axes is
aligned with the longitudinal xaxis o f the beam. Unidirectiona l plies n1ust be

*"'
I

---~----
'
1' x
I

---~----
'
Figure 6.5: Layups t ha t resu.11 in no coupli ng bet\\1ee.n te nsion. llcnding. a nd torsion. U nidirc.c
tjonal ply {left); ,~oven fa tiric (middle); l\VO ply layer ( right). For each configuralion. one o f the
S)'mmetry axes must be parallel to the beams longiludinal x -axis.
208 BEAMS

mounted so that all the fibers are either parallel o r perpend icular to the longi
tudinal x~axis or one of t he symme try axes of t\vo adjace-nt unidirectional plies
(treated as a single layer) must be parallel to the beam's longitud inal axis.
It is sho,vn subsequently (Section 6.3.3) that for an orthotropic bean1 P12 =
P13 = P 14 = Pu = P"J.t = 0, and the force-strain relationship is

orthotropic. (6.7)

Jr)
Fron1 the preceding equation \Ve see that the re is no tension- bending- torsion
coupling in an orthotropic bean1.

( P] =
ii
0
[ o
0
o
El,,,
fl,.
o"
o
El,.,
fl..
o" Cl,
o0
0
l
We designate the e lements of the stiffness ma trix by EA El, Cl, a nd write

orthotropic. (6.8)

Principal direc-lion. For isotropic beams, t here is a coordinate systen1 y'- z'
(Fig. 6.6) in which the moment of ine rtia 1,,t is zero (l,'t = 0) . The a ngle bet-
\veen the y' ..axis of this coord inate system and the y ..axis is11
21..
tan2.p= - ' = (6.9)
fry - I:.::

The re lationships De.twee n the mome nts of ine rtia in the y- .z and y'- i coordinate
systen1s a re

(
lyy -
2
I")'+I ' )'Z
(6.10)

lyy - 1")' + I' (6.11)


( 2 )'Z

l,v:: = 0. (6.12)

The directions y' a nd z.' are called principal directions.


As in Eq. (6.9), for a n orthotropic beam we write the a ngle between y a nd y as

2Ell"
tan 2.p = (6.13)

-' E. P. Popo\'. 111;irietriri1-: i\t.l1LJ11ics of So/his. Prcntkc-Hall. Engk\\'Ood Cliffs. New Jersey. 1990.
p..142.
6.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 209

figure 6.6: They',:! coordinate S)'Slem in whic-h f.t ts ttro.

By referring to Eq~ (6.JOl-(6.12), we express the bending stiffnesses in the y'- z'
coordinate system in the ronns

(- - )'+Er;,
E /l'f - /._~
2
_,
(6.14)

fl,,+ lfi,,
2 (- - )'+ Er;,
El,., - El..
. 2 "
~
(6.15)

El,., (6.16)
. ' = 0.

6.1.3 Compliance Matrix


\\1ilh respect to the x- y- z coordina te systen1 a ttache d to the centroid, t he strain-
force re la tionships are define d as

il=[i
l tJ
r \\'14
0
\Viz
\\~3
lV2.1
0
IV,,
W1.' w ..
\\~:1
ll'i. l\~14
l!"I
l\) .i J~y
M~
f
.
(6.17)

The \ V11 and \VJl tern1s are zero bec.atL1ie an axial fo rce applied at the centroid
does not cause be nd ing. 'vhereas l Vi 2 and l.Yu are zero because tl1e con1pliance
n1atrix is syn1metrical. The. con1pliance n1atrix ( \\'] is the inverse o f the stiffness
matrix

P~
~ r
0 0 P 12 /'J3
\22 \\'23 w,.l ["P
124 _ Pn P,,

l11~. w,,
l.Y?-4
IV"
w,.
w.,J- Pu
W.., P"
12
P,,
P,,,
P,,
p_,4 p.,
(6.18)

We obtain t he c.01n pliance n1atrix of an orthotro pic beam by substituting


the e le ments of t he matrix [P] given in Eq. (6.8) into this e xpression. The
result is
i. 0 0 0
lit
Elr, - Etn
0 0
lftJJ lft!l-=- (iii):) ? ii,, Et:;..-ci,:r
[IV) = - El ,! E/). orthotropic.
0 0
Et., Et~~ -(Et .;f m.,Et~; -<Et ~r
0 0 0 l
G /1

(6.19)

6.1.4 Replacement Stiffnesses


The paran1eters EA, ifi. Ci, a re refe rred to as re placement stiffnesses. By co n1
paring Eq. (6.5) with Eq. (6.6) and Eqs. (6.4) with Eqs. (6.7) a nd (6.8), we note
the similarity in t he (orce-stTain rela tionships of isotropic and composite beams.
Therefore, the strains (and consequently the displacen1ents) o f an o rthotropic
bea1n and o f a composite bea111 \Vit h syn1n1etrical c ross sect ion can be obtained
by re placing EA, El , G11 by EA. Er, Gi, in the corresponding isotropic beam
solution. For an ortho tro pic beam, the necessary substitutions a re
Isotropic bean1 Orthotropic beam
EA=EA
Elyy. El", El,,
GI,
= El,,.. El,,. El"
=GI,
For a con1posite beam \vi th symn1etrical cross section and loaded io the symn1etry
plane the following substitutions a pply:
Isotropic. bean1 Composite bean1
sy1nme trical cross section svn1me trical cross section
EA. El,., = . tA fl,,

As the preceding discussion indicates, t he displacements of o rthotropic beams


and of composite bean1s 'Nith symn1etrical cross section a re simiJar to the
displace1nents of isotropic bea1ns. However, the stresses are markedly different
in isotro pic a nd in composite beams. In an isotropic beam subjected to ao axial
load and pure bending, there is only axial stress. In a con1posite bean1 subjected
to an a xial load a nd pure bending. in addition to the axial stress, the re are also
transverse no rmal a nd shear stresses. Furthe rn1o re, in a n isotropic.beam subjected
to pure to rque. the re is o nly shear stress. whereas in a composite beam there are
also a:dal a nd ua nsverse nom1al stresses.
In this chapter the stresses are calculated by the lan1inate plate theory, which
does not take into account the inte rlan1inar stresses near free edges (page 166).

6.2 Rectangular, Solid Beams Subjected to Axial Load and Bending


We consider rectangula r lan1inated beams ha,~ng solid cross sections with an
axial force 1V acting at t he ce nt roid a nd a pure bending mon1e nt tffy acting in the
, t b

/J
Figure 6.7: Rc.ctangular laminated beam.

x-z plane (Fig. 6.7). In this section, we develop e xpressions for calculating the
displace1nents and the stresses.
We treat the be am as a narro'v plate a nd build tJ1e an alysis o n the results of
laminate plate t heory presente.d in Cha pter 3. By convention, for plates a long an
edge parallel to the ya.xis, the in ..plane force per unit length is 1V.t a nd the mo111ent
per unit length is M, (Fig. 6.8). For beams, the tota l force Na long a n edge paralle l
toy a.nd the total n1on1ent in the x-z p lane M1 are specified . The total a.xia.1 force.
in t he beam Nconespo nds to b1V., in the plate, a nd the total n1oment in the beam
!Wy corresponds to bMx in the plate (where bis the width). Thus. we c.an a pply the
laminate plate theory expressions to beams by making the folJo,ving substitutions:

lJ
N:r=- (6.20)
b

6.2.1 Displacements - Symmetrical Layup


The layup of the be an1 is syn1me trica l. As noted in the preceding section, \Ve
analyze this be am by the laminate plate theory, according to which t he midplane
strain and curvature of the plate a re (Eqs. 3.31 and 3.32)

plate. (6.2 1)

Bean1 Plate.
Figure 6.8: lntcrnal forces a nd curvatures in a bea m and in lhc. correspondjng plale.
212 BEAMS

\Vhere a 11 and d 11 are the elements of the compliance matrices (Eqs. 3.29 and
3.30). We observe that the curvature of the plate in the .t- l plane K.T corresponds
to the curvature of the beam l / p,. (Fig. 6.8) . If we re placet<., with I/ p,., for a beam
Eqs. (6.20) and (6.21) yield

.!.
p,
= (a") ii,.
b .
con1posite
beam .
(6.22)
~
Mo'::

By comparing this equation with Eq. (6.17), we see that the tenns in paren
theses are the \..Yj 1 and " '22 elen1ents of the con1pliance 111atrix.
For a bean1 n1ade of an isotropic n1aterial, the suain and curvature are (Eq. 6.5)

1 - I 1 - isotropic
E('=-N -=-M,. (6.23)
' EA Py El beam.

It follows from Eqs. (6.22) and (6.23) that the axial strain a nd the curvature
of the axis (and consequently the displacen1ents u and w) of a co1nposite beam
(symmetrical layup) can be calculated by replacing EA and El by .~, and ;;, in
the relevant expressions for the corresponding isotropic beanl.
An isotropic beam subjected to an axial force Nanda bending n1on1ent 1'1,, only
bend~ in the x- t plane. On the other hand, under these loads the cross sections of
a composite bean1 may also t\\i~ t. To determine the an1ount of this t\vist \Ve refer to
the twisting of a plate. The out-of plane curvature of a pla te (symme trical layup)
is (Eq. 3.32)
plate, (6.24)
where K,,. is defined in Eq. (3.8) and is re peated below
2a1u,u () ~
K.w
y
=- - - = - 2--,
axay ax (6.25)

\Vhere w0 is the deflection of the tni<lplane. The expression CJw"/3y in the plate
corresponds to I/I in the bean1 (Fig. 6.8). Thus, we have
J1/f
.,,. = - 2-,- (6.26)
ax
Equations (6.1) a nd (6.26) give the rate of tw ist of the beam as follows:

(6.27)

By combining Eqs. (6.20), (6.24), and (6.27), we obtain the rate of twist of a
bean1 as folJo\vs:
composite
(6.28)
bean1.

\Vhen only ,Q and 19 ,, ac.t, the relevant elen1eots of the con1pliaoce 1natrix are
W11 , W22, Wn. IV,. , IV,. (Eq. 6.17). The eleme nts IV11, IV22, and W,.. a re given
6.2 RECTANGUl.AR, SOI.ID BEAMS SUBJECTED TO AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING 213

'Ncutr31" plane
a
e
~fi dplane

Figure 6.IJ: Unsymmetric.al solid rectangular beam.

by Eqs. (6.22} and (6.28). Elements W14 and w,, a re zero because t he layup is
synunetrical.
When the beam is ortho tro pic, d 16 is zero (Eq. 3.37). a nd the rate of twist is
zero ( 1? = 0) \vhen the beam is subjected to an Jij.v bending mon1enl.

6.2.2 Displacements - Unsymmetrical Layup


The layup of the lan1ina te d bean1 is unsy1nmetricaLThe centroid is locate d at the
a-a plane at a distance '1 fron1 an a rbitrary reference plane. This reference plane
may be chosen as the midplane (Fig. 6.9). The location of this a-a plane is such
that an axial load does not cause a change in the curvature l / Py and a bending
n1on1ent does not catL~e axial strain f.~. Thus. t he a-a plane is analogous to the
neutral plane (\vhich, fo r bean1s made of isotropic ma te ria ls, passes through the
center of gravity}.
We no'v consider a la1nina ted plate (unsyn1me trical layup) on \Vhich an axial
force :V." a nd a moment A(" (per unit le ngth) act in the a-a p lane. For this plate,
the follm1ng relationships hold in the a-a plane (Eq. 3.22):

plate. (6.29}

where at 1 , p~1 , and 8f1 a re evaluated at the a-a "neut ra l.. pla ne. According to the
f:
aforen1entioned definition of t he "neutral.. plane, depends only on Nx. and K.T
depends only on Mx. Therefore. /J~1 must be equal to zero. Thus, 've write (see
Eq. 3.48)

P~, = P11 + e~11 = o. (6.30)

where J:J1 1 and ~1 1 are evalua te d a t t he arbitra rily chosen reference plane that here
we have ta ke n to be the n1idplane. The consequence of Pr, = 0 is t\vofold. The
first consequence is that the d istance e is

e= - -/l11 (6.31}
liu

Tiie second consequence is that Eq. (6.29) reduces to

plate. (6.32}
214 BEAMS

\Ve note again that the curvature of the plate Kx corresponds to the cunature
o( the beam l / Pr Then, fo r a beam, Eqs. (6.20) and (6.32) yield

cotnposite
(6.33)
beam.

By comparing this equation wit h Eq. (6.17), we see that the tem1s in paren
theses a re the lV11 and \\'22 ele1uents of the compliance n1atrix.
II follows from Eqs. (6.33) and (6.23) that the axial strain a nd curvature of
the axis (and conseque.ntly the displacements u and w) of a composite beam
(unsymmetrical layup) can be calculated by replacing EA and El by 1/r
11
and fo.:
11
in the relevant expressions for the corresponding isotropic bean1.
\Vhen a n isotropic bean1 is subjected to an axial force lJ a nd to a be nd ing
mon1ent :\!}., it \viii only bend in the :c-z: plane. The cross section of a con1posite
beam subje~ted to fJ and M1 n1ay a lso l\Vist. To determine the rate of twist of a
con1posite beam. we again refer to a lan1inated plate. The outof-pla.ne cunature
o( a laminated plate (unsymmetrical layup) is (see Eq. 3.22)

pla te. (6.34)

\Vhere flf<i and sr6 are evaluated at the a- a ''neutral .. plane. From Eq. (3.48) \Ve
bave

(6.35)

From Eqs. (6.20), (6.27), and (6.34) we obtain the rate of twist of the beam:

composite
(6.36)
beam.

By comparing this equation with Eq. (6.17), we see t ha t the terms in the paren
theses a re the lV14 and \V24 e len1ents of the con1pliance n1atrix.
\Vhen only lJ and :\1y act, the relevant e lements of the con1pliance n1atrix are
111. II',,, Wu , l\'14, W,. (Eq. 6.17). Elements Wu, W,,, W14. and II',.. are given by
Eqs. (6.33) and (6.36), and Wi.1 is zero.
\Vhen t he bean1 is o rthotropic and one of the orthotropy axes is aligned \\ith
the beam's axis, 816 a nd /3 1 are zero (Eq. 3.37). Therefore. (see Eq~ 6.35 and 6.36),
the rate of t\\ist is zero ('/J = 0) \vhen an orthotropic bean1 is subjected to an axial
force Nanda bending mo1nent Mr

&.2.3 Stresses and Strains


The stresses a nd strains are given in this section for a rectanguJar thin bean1whose
thickness Ir is small compared with il< width b (Fig. 6.9). We consider only regions
away fro1n the e dges and en1ploy the lan1inate plate theory expressions.
6.2 RECTANGIA.AR, Sot.ID BEAMS SUBJECTED TOAXIAL LOAO AND BENDING 215

.~y1111t1 etrical
layup. A t the neutral plane (\\hich fo r a sy1nmetrical laminate
coincides \\~th the n1idplane). the strains and curvatures are (see Eqs. 3.31. 3.32.
and 6.20)

(6.37)

In a ply at a distance t from the midplane, the strains a re (see Eq. 3.7)

fx
fy } = <.~
{ f~ } + .Z { Kx }
Ky (6.38)
{
Y.~y Y:v Kry

The ply stresses are given by (Eq. 3.1 I)

<fx }
(fy = ~II 021 Q
g21 Q11 16] {<, }
Qu. fy (6.39)
Q~il
{
fxy Q61 Qu, Yxy

U1Jsy111n1etr ica/ layup. TI1e strains and curvatures of the axis passing through
the centroid (which is in the "neutral" plane) are (see Eqs. 3.22 and 6.20)

<"x af, 0
f;
Y.~
=
. .1 flt,
"1
0
16 p61 {~'' }. (6.40)
Kx 4r1
Ky fJf, $r1
KN}' fJf. $r6

where at? and pe are evaluated al the ''n eutral .. plane (Fig. 6.9). The location of
the "neutral" plane is given by Eq. (6.31).
In a ply a t a distance z fron1 the ''neutral'' plane, the strains and stresses are
given by Eqs. (6.38) and (6.39).

6.J Rxantple. An L = 0. 2~111 ./ong and b = 0.02n11vitfe bea1n, 1vith the cross section
sho1v1t in Fig. 6.10, is 1nade of graphite epoxy. The 1na1erial properties are given in
Tttble 3.6 (page 81). The layup is (45V011/4S1J. The beam, simply supported at
eacl1 end, i.s loaded tu1ifor111/}' ( p = 1 CX>O 1\ 11111). Calculate the 1naxinuan bending
1non1ent, 1/Je 1uaxin1un1 de.flection, aud the ply srresses t111d srraius.

p = JOOONlm
tttttttl
;;;. i:
~ l =- 200mm IJ = 20nun

Figure 6.10: The beam in Example 6.1.


216 BEAMS

Solution . The maximun1 bending mo 1n ent a t the n1iddle o ( the bean1 is (Table 7 .3.
page 332)

-
J\1v=-=5N
pL'
nl. (6.41)
. 8
The maximum de.Hection of t he correspond ing isotro pic beam is (Table 7 .3)

- 5 pL'
U/ = 384 El . (6.42)

The n1axin1un1 deflection of the composite beam is obtaine d by re placing El


by J,, (see page 212)
_ 5 p L'
w = 384 . (6.43)
du

With the value of d 11 =33.10 x 10 -1 ,_, 10 , (Table 3.8, page 85), the maximum
d e.ftection is

w= 0.0345 m = 34.5 mm. (6.44)

The axia l force is zero (iJ = 0). Thus, \\'ith the co n1pliance n1atrices given in
Table 3.8, the midpla ne s tra ins and curvatures a re (see Eqs. 6.37 and 6.41)

-~
; } {""
0 }
{ Yxy = <tt6
" bFl = I I {o} 0
0
(6.45)

Kx }
K)' = {d11
d12 } 7:-
_ I = {- 33.10}
25.59 10- l I0.02 I
5
{
K.xy d16
1 Q

8.28}1 (6.46)
= { -~40 ~

\Vhere Ks and Ky a re illustrated in Figure 6.11. In a ply, at a d ist ance l fro n1 the
midplane, the s tra ins are give n by E q. (6.38) as follows:

"<y } =l { "'
Ky } =z { - 8.27}
6.40 . (6.47)
{
Yxy Kxy 0

Figure 6.J I: Uluslration o( the curvatures o f the beam tn


E:xample-6.J.

"'
6.3 THIN-WALLED, OPEN-SECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSS-SECTION BEAMS 21 7

: : :
=
i 4Sr

E o,, 0
E
N
0.5 t, o.s .
t%)
j 4S'
-1
""' - 1--
Agu.rc 6. 12: The: nonuro Sll"ts:ie'.s and stTatOS m the be-am an Example: 6.1. lbc un11 of o ts
10' Nim'.

Tiie stresses in the kth ply are (E<j. 6.39)

" } [<:!" Q,, Q,.] {<, } (6.48)


{""f'~y = Q,,
k.7iti1
Q,, Q,..
Qiil QM Jr.
l }'
Yxy k

The eleme nu ol 1hc IQ I matrix ol the 0 -degree ply are given by Eq. (3.65) a nd
ol the wove n fobric by Eq. (3.66). The stresses are calculaled with these values ol
the ( Q J matrices and "'i lh lhe strains given in Eq. (6-47). The rcsuhs are shown in
Figure 6. L2. We note agnin that these stresses are valid only in regions a\\ay from
the edges.

6.3 Thin-Walled, Open-Section Orthotropic or Symmetrical Cross-Section


Beams Subjected to Axial Load and Bending
lo this section we present the deflections of. and stresses and strains in. thin
walled. open-section beams. The method is first illustrated via o r1 hotropicT-beams
with symn1c tricnl c ross section and via orthotro pic L-bea1n s.. TI'e nnalysis: is then
exte nded to orthotropic beams \\ ith arbitrary cross section and to nonortho tropic
1

bea1ns '"ith sy1nme trical cross sectio n.

6.3.1 Displacements of T-Beams


\ Ve consider a T..bcnm \\ hose cross section is symmetricnl \vith respect to the
1

<xis (Fig. 6. 13). The layup ol both the Hange ond the web ;., o rthotropic a nd

I.
'~ v
,..igurc 6.13:
Gl
,,
U l u ~1rn 1 1on
iii,
y

of 1hc 'r.ticnn1.
i.....+ ..',=.
' :' :,
218 BEAMS

syn1metrical. An axial force Rand a Dending mon1ent fi.1y act at the centroid of
the beam. The origin of the x- y- .r coordinate system is attached to this centroid.
Jn addition \Ve use the ~ i -t'Ji-('l and ~2 -JJ2-~2 coordina te. systems a ttached to the
midpoints of the flange and the \veb, respectively. The flange and t he web are
designated by the subscripts 1 a nd 2.
In the folJo,ving \Ve derive the replacement stiffnesses. The displacements of
a Tbeam a re obtained by substituting these re placen1ent stiffnesses into the e x
pressions for the displacen1ents of the corresponding isotropic bean1. Because the
cross section is symmetrical \vi th respect to the zaxis and the loads act in the x-z
plane. the beam be nds only about the y-axis. Consequently, only EA and Et,,. are
o( interest.
The calculation proceeds in four steps. In Ste p 1 we deforn1 the axiso( the beam
and calculate the strains in, and the curvatures o~ each wall segment; in Step 2
\Ve calcula te the forces a nd 1noments in e ach \\all segment; in Step 3 \Ve calculate
the resultant (orces a nd n1on1ents acting on the bean1; in Step 4 \\'e determine the
replace111ent stiffnesses.
We treat both the flange a nd the web as thin plates and a nalyze them by the
lan1inate plate t heory.

Tensile stiffness EA and ce11/roid.


Step I. The axis of the beam (passing through the centro id) is elongated, and the
strain of the axis is denoted by f;. The bean1 does not bend, and the axial strains
are the same across the cross section,

(6.49)

'vhere ~;, and f;2 are the axial stra ins in the midplanes of the flange and the \\eb,
respective ly.

Step 2. The axial stra ins result in distribute d axial forces (per unit length) N~ 1 ,
N, 2 in the midplanes of the flange and the web (Fig. 6.14, left). These forces are
(see Eq. 3.31)
" 1 (6.50)
"" = -
au(
)1 .,,


Figure 6.14: 'fbc dL<>lrihulcd forces and lhc (orcc resullanl.s.
6.3 THIN-WAI.LEO, OPEN-SECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSS-SECTION BEAMS 219

whe re (a 11 )1 nnd (a 11 )2 arc evaluate d in the E-11-~ coordin ate system a t the mid-
planes of the fla nge nnd the web.

Step 3. The total forces acting in the flange and in the v. eb arc b1N, 1 and f>i.N1.1
respectively. and lhe 101al force acting on the beam is (Fig. 6.14. righl)
(651)

Step 4. Equalions (6.49)-{6.51) give

fJ = (....L + ...!!L)
(a11 h (011 )? "
(6.52)

nA
The te rnl indicntcd by the bracket is the replacen1ent te ns ile s tiffness !fit
111e coordinnte of the ce ntro id ~ is calculated by a n10 1n cnt bnlance about the
bouom edge of the web (Fig. 6.14, right) as follows:
(6.53)

The dis1anccs Z1 and i 2 are sho\\'ll in Figure 6. l4. By combining this equation
v.ith Eqs. (6.49)-{652). we obiain the position ol the centroid:
";A.+':,~
1
.. t-u)t ....;C-i1h
l.= '11: .. - (654)
~11'1 +~
The coordina1es of the centers of the flange and the v.eb iith re.spea 10 the
centroid are (Fig. 6. 13)

l 1 =~I - t.c (6.55)

Depe nding on whe re the ce ntro id is located. z2 is eithe r positive or negative.


ln Figure 6.13, : 2 is nega tive.
Be11di11g sti/f11e.Y.11 Ei,,. The be an1 is be nt about the y -axis p:u1sing thro ugh the
ce ntroid (Fig. 6. IS). TI1e radius ol cwvature of the beam is dcno1cd by p,.

Step I . The strain varies linearly ~ith z as folloYt's:

(_. = -p, ::. (656)

l~gurc 6 . 1 .~: The rndiu or cunaturc p ~. the s1ra1n distnbution. and lhe tlc(ormed lihllJlCll of lhe
midph1ncs of the Oangc a nd the \\'eb.
At the midplane of the Hange t = z1 and the strain is
1
.;, = -z,. (6.51 )
Pr
The curvature of the midplane of t he ftange about the y-axis (by definition) is
I
Kt l =- . (6.58)
Pr
In the n1idplane of the web, the strain 1 is
1
E.f2 = /Jy l . (6.59)

The n1idplane of the \Veb remains flat. and its curvature is zero (Fig. 6.15) as
denoted by
Kt.1 = 0. (6.60)

Step 2. The axial force No and the bending moment M, , (per unit le ngth) acting
on the flange are (Eq~ 3.31 and 3.32)

M,, = (- II ) " l '


t It I
(6.61)

The preceding fo rce a nd moment a re illustrated in Figure 6.16 (left). The tenns
(a11)1 a nd (d11) 1 a re e valuated in the ~-i-~ coordinate syste m at the midplane of
the flange.
The layup of the \veb is syn1metrical, and Kt 2 = 0. Consequently. M~ 2 is zero.
Thus, the only force acting in the web is N12 (Flg. 6.16, right). and this force is
1 0
1\h = -( l ...,. (6.62)
au . 2
\vhere (a11)2 is evaluated in the ~-rr-~ coordinate sy.sten1 at the midplane of the
\Veb.
Step 3. The resultant bending moment about the y-axis is (Fig. 6.16)

,\i, = b1 N, 1z1 + b1 M., + f


(b1)
Ni 2zdz, (6.63)

\vhere b1, bi, and t are shown in Figure 6.13.

0 + - - -->

11

Figure 6.16: The distributed force.s and moments (per unit lc:ngth) in the flange and tn the.\\eb
of a r. be.am bent about the y-axi.;.
Step 4. Equations (6.57)- (6.63) yield

- =-
1\f, 1 ..,-b- +--+
P,. (011)1
[.,l
b 1
-1-
(d11) 1 (auh
1 (/~ , )] .
- +z;b1
12 -
(6.64)

The term indic>tcd by Lhe bracket is the replacement bending stiffness El,,.
6.3.2 Displacements of L-Beams
\\'e consider an L-beam. The \Val.ls of the flanges are o rthotropic. and one of
the nxcs or
o rthotropy is aligned with the axis o( lhe beam . The layups of the
flanges need noc be syn1me trical ~ith respect to the nanges' midplancs. The beam
is subjected to nn axial force Nand bending n1oments Mynnd M._ acting at the
centroid (Fig. 6. 17).
We use nn .Y- )1- l. coordinate systen1 with its o rigin ntlachcd to the centroid
of the bca1n ond the ~1 -tJ 1 -('1 and ~2 -112 -~1 coordinate syste ms a ttncbe d to the
n1idpoints of the arbilr:irily chosen reference planes in the hori1.ontal and vertical
Hanges, respectively. 111e horizontal and vertical flanges are designated by the
subscripts I nnd 2.
ln this sectio n lhe re placement stiffnesses are de1ermincd. The displacements
are obtained by substituting these replace-m ent stiffnesses into the expressions for
the displacements of the corresponding isotropic be.a m. BcC3usc the cross section
o( the L-bcam is unsymmetrical. all three bending stiffnesses El,,. El,,. and El,_
as \\'ell as 1hc tensile stiffness tii are n eeded to determine the displacements.
We treat the Aang.. a. thin plates and employ Lhe laminate plate theory equa-
tions. The calculation proceeds along the four st eps use d in the nnalysisofT~beams
(page 2 18).
Tensilt ,Yti/f11ts.'I .4. and centroid. The tensile stiffn e$.., is obtnined by consid
ering 1hc elongotion of the beam while the axis of the bca1n remains straight.

Step I. The nxis of t he beam (passing through the centroid) isclongutcd . and the
strain o f the axis is denoted by f;. ln the absence of bending.. the nxial s tra ins are

0 G
, ,;;: . /
.,....
(, :,
?
0 'h

J=igure 6.J7: L~~c::un .


222 BEAMS

Centroid

Figure 6.18: The distributed forces a nd moments acting in an L-bcam with unsymmetrical la)'up
whc.n the axis of the beam is elongated.

the same-across the c ross section.

(6.65)

\Vhere ff1 a nd E"(2 a re the axial strains of the reference planes of the t\vo flanges.
respective ly. The locations of the re ference pla nes n1ay be chosen a rbitrarily.

Step 2. The axial forces 1V~ 1 , N!.2 and the bending moments M!. 1 , M~ 2 (pe r unit
length) in t he ftanges (Fig. 6. I 8) are expressed in tenns of the strains ; , , ; ,.The
derivation of these expressions is discussed subsequently on pages 227- 228. Here
\Ve quote the r esults. \vhich are

1 (ouh o
(6.66)
'' " = (Dl. 2 <p
,~ _ _ (/l11h. (6.67)
. "' - (D), '12
\Vhere Dis defined in Table 6.2, a nd 611 a nd /311 are evaluate d in the ~ -11-~ coor
dinate systen1.

Table 6.2. The axial force and moments inside the wall
(N,, = N,,, = M,, = 0). The elements of the compliance matrix 6u, 6,.,
6", 13,,, and 1316 are evaluated in the wall's ~-tr( coordinate system.
S)mmetrical
Arbitrary cross section cross section
Orthotropic Orthotropic and Albitrary
1.11symmetrical layup symmetrical layup layup

JV! = 4}E; - ~K!


/.f~ = -t!f}E: + !fl-Kt
Aft_,,=0 0

where Ciu = (au - ~) -811 = (Su - ,,~)


D = a11d11 - /Jf1
6.3 THIN-WALLED, OPEN-SECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSS-SECTION BEAMS 223

Step 3. The resultant axial force is (Fig. 6.18)

FJ = b,N,, + l>,N,,. (6.68)

where b1 a nd b2 a re s hown in Figure 6.17.

Step 4. Equations (6.65)-(6.68) gi"e

v- ..f.. b,(~11). <,."


' - L.. (D) (6.69)
k l k
----.--
EA
The term indicated by the bracket is the te nsile stiffness EA The terms ( D); a nd
(811)k are evaluated in the coordinate systems attached to the reference planes of
the horizontal (k = 1) and \'ertical (k = 2) flanges, respectively.
The coordinates o( the centroid Z:, Ye a re calculated by mome nt equilibria
about point 0 (Fig. 6.17). With the symbols defined in Figu res 6.17 a nd 6.18,
n1on1ent equilibria give

z,/il = llb1Nl.1 + l2b1Nl.2 + b1J\1E 1 (6.70)


><N = y1bi /\\ 1 + y,lnN,, + b2M;i. (6.71)

By combining Eqs. (6.65)-(6.71), we obtain the coordina tes of the ce ntroid


(Fig. 6.17):
b ( - !!iJ.h ~)
1 l1 ( DJ1 - ( DJ1 + :b.CA11t
( D)z
le= ~ (6.72)
2
I:
kI
CD)

(6.73)

The coordinates o f the centers of the fla nges with respect to the centroid are
(Fig. 6.17)

J'l = Y1 - Ye ti="it - le (6.74)


Yi= Yi - Ye ti= ti - ti: (6.75)

The locatio n of the centro id detern1ines whethe r y,, y2 .t1 , and <2 a re positive
or negative. In Figure 6.1 7, )"1 and Zt a re positive and Yt a nd t1 a re negative.
Bending stiffnesses Ei,,, Ely:. To detem1ine the be nding stiffnesses EJ,..r a nd
El>':. the bean1 is bent a bo ut the y~axi.s, \Vhich passes through the centroid. The
radius o( curvature is p,, (Fig. 6.19, left). This be nd ing results in mon1ents J\/,,
~ ~- . -
224 BEAMS

z z z

P,

_!_ ";")J "


P: P~
!Ii

Figure 6.l9: The radii of cun aturc-s Py and P: a nd illustration of the axial strain distributjons.

The be-nding stiffness Elyy is detern1ined belo,v.

Step 1. The strains and curvatures of t he l\\'O Ranges are ide ntical to those of the
Tbeam (see Eqs. 6.57-6.60}. Hence. we write

= -I I
E~l z1 K( I =- (6.76)
Py Pr
I
Etz = - z K( l = 0. (6.77)
Pr

Step 2. The axial forces 1V~ 1 , N( 2 and the bending moments /\-1( 1 M~ 1 in t he Hanges
(Fig. 6.20) are expressed in tern1s of the strains E:1 ' ( 2and curvatures Kf. J, Kt l The
derivation of these expressions is discussed subsequently on pages 227- 228. Here
\Ve quote the results, \vhich are

(6.78)

(6.79)

'

N{I
0 0

y .Y
JV!.?

Figure 6.20: fo rces a nd mo me nts (per unh lc.ngth) acting in the t.....beam with unsymmetrical
layup bent about the )'axis.
6.3 THIN-WALLED, OPEN-SECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSS-SECTION BEAMS 225

Step 3. The resulting be nd ing n1on1ent ~.v about t he yaxis is

,l1, = b1N, ,z,+ b, M,,+ J N,,zdz. (6.80)


(b1)

Step 4. Equations (6.76H 6.80) gi"e

'
11
y
= ..!... [ b1 ((J11)1,i1 _ 2 (.811)1 + (<>11) 1) + (S11)z (~ +
Py (D)1 ' ( D)i ti ( D) 1 (D), 12
'b,)].
r, .

(6.8 1)

The tern1 indicated b) the bracket is the bending stiffness ifi\J'


The Dending sti(fness Ef,,,z is de te rmined be low. .

Steps I and 2. ln t he calcula tion o f the bending n1on1ent Mz the first t\vo steps
are identical to those given fo r the calculation of 1Wy.

Step 3. When the bean1 is be nt a bo ut the y-axis, the resultant bending n1on1ent
iW,about the z-axis is (Figs. 6.20 a nd 6.17)
111, = b1N, i}\ + .f N,,)~dz+ .f M,,dz. (6.82)
\bi) \bi)

Step 4. Equations (6.76H 6.79) and (6.82) gi"e

I
11 - ..!... [( (&11)1
' - Py ( D) 1 t i
- (/111)1 )
(D) 1
bY + ((811)2
( D)z >~
- (/l11}2)
( D)z l2 ' .
b]
(6.83)

t:t,t
The term indicated by the bracket is the bending stiffness fl" .
Bendittg sti!Jiresses El,~ El_,. To determine the bending stiffnesses El" a nd
Ef;..v the bean1 is bent about the z~.axis \Vit h a radius of cur\'ature P::. (Fig. 6.1 9,
right). Expressions for these bending mome nts ca n be derived in the sa111e \Vay as
Eqs. (6.81) and (6.83). 111e results a re

,q_ = .!_ [1 (<~11)2


. p, . >i
2 - 2(/l11h , + (<>11h) + (~11)1
(D)z Yi ( D)z Y. (D)i (D)1
(b)12 + Jt 1) ]
)i '

Eit:
(6.84)

11 -_ ,!_ }2 _ (/l11)2) b]
'" p, [((811)1
(D) , z'
_ (/l11) 1)b
(D) 1 ,y,+ ((811
(D)z~ ( Dh l2 2-
(6.85)

The tenns indicated by the brackets are the bending stiffne.sse.s ft::.::. and 1!1;).
(=El,.).
226 BEAMS

Figure 6.21 : Illus tration of thin\\'alled. open-sect ion ll-e-a ms with symme tncal and unsymme trical
C-T OliS liCCt ions.

6.3.3 Displacements of Arbitrary Cross-Section Beams


In this section \Ve treat thin\\aUed, open-section beams. The bea111s are sub
jected to an a..xial force Nand to bending n1oments :'1y. 1W~ acting at the centroid
(Fig. 6.2 1).
Three types of beams are considered:
1. The layup of the \Va ll is o rt hotropic but unsymn1etrical; the beam's cross section
is arbitra ry.5
2. TI1e layup of the wall is orthotropic and symmetrica l; the beam s cross section
is arbitrary.
3. The layup of the \\'all is a rbitrary: the cross section is symn1e trical with respect
to t he z..axis, and the loads Nand M:: are applied in the x- t symn1etry plane
(Fig. 6.21, right).

The re are no tension-bend ing- torsion couplings in any of the preceding three
types o f beams. In the first two types of bean1s these couplings are not present
because the beam is ortho tropic (page 207); in the third type or be am couplings
are not present because the c.ross section is symn1etrical a nd the loads act in the
symmetry plane.
In the following we derive the re placen1e nt stiffnesses. The displacen1e.n ts are
then obtained by substituting these replace ment stiffnesses into the expressions
for the displaceme nts of the corresponding isotropic beam.
We perfomi the analysis fo r beams of the first type, that is, the layup is or
thotropic but is not necessarily syn1metrical and the cross sectio n is a rbitrary. \Ve
then gene ralize the results to the other t \\'O types of beams in t he list above.
We e mploy three coordinate systems (Fig. 6.22). For the beam we use the x- y-z
coordinate system \\ith the origin at t he centro id a nd the i - Ji-i coordinate system
\vi th the o rigin at a n arbitra rily chosen point. We also define a ~-r1-' coordin ate
systen1 \\~lh the origin a t the reference plane of the \Vall. t\t each point in the wall
~ is parallel to the x coordinate.'' is tangential to t he circun1ference of the \Vall.
and ~ is pe rpe ndicular to the circun1fe re nce.
The calculation proceeds in fo ur ste ps. ln Ste p 1 \\'e deform the axis of the
bean1 (axial strain E~ and curvatures I/ p,, and I/ Pz) a nd calculate the strains in,

' J. C. ~1assa nnd E. J. Barbero, A Strcng1h or r..ta1crials F.ormul.a1ion for Thin \Vntkd Composite
Be.ams with Tomon. lr>u111al <1/Co1111J()JiJe ,1,,fotedlllt. Vol. .1'2, 1560--1594, 1998.
6.3 THIN-WALLED, OPEN-SECTION ORTllOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTIOH BEAMS 227

>
y

Figurt: 6.22: The coordm.atc systcmi..

and the curvatures o( the \\all: in Step 2 .'t c.:alcula1e the Corces and moments in
the waU: in Step 3 \\l! calculate the rcsuhant forcc.s and moments acting on the
beam: in Step 4 we determine the s ti(fncsscs.

Step I. The Bernoulli avier h)'POlhCJis s1a1CJ 1ha11he axial slrain varies linearly
with thecwvaturesof the beam. Th~ lhe axial strain'( at a point on the arbitrarily
chosen reference surface of the .all is related to the axial strain': and curvatures
I/ P,. and I/ p, of the beam by
I I
(; = (; + l - + y - (6.86)
Py P,

where z and y are tl1e coordina tes of the point o n the \Valls refe rence surface.
From geom etry, it can be shO\.\'Jl 1hat the wall's curviuure Kt in 1he ~-' plane is,
(Fig. 6.23)
I 1 .
Kt= - COS<t - - s1na. (6.87)
Py P:.
where a is the nngle belwee n the 11 and y-coordinnte nxes (Fig. 6.23).

Step 2. In this step \\'e express lhc axial rorcc /\'t and bending mon1ents 1\1~ and
Aft " in terms of~; and Kt Tu derive the nccCS$nry expressions \\'e observe that
along the free longitudinal edges o f the bca111 the in -plnnc forces and 1noments
(per unit length) are zero: N. = = =
N,. M,1 0 (Fig. 6.24).Since the dime nsions of

FiguTC 6.23: Cun-aturcs of the bc:am (left) and the curn1urc o( the -..-.II (madd~) and 1ts v-cctor
rcprescntatJoo (n ghl).
228 BEAMS

N,1 = 0
<-i9'

Figure 6.24: The:.fore.es a nd momc:.nls along the longitudinal edge of an open-s.echon, thin-,valkd
be-a m.

the cross section are small con1pared with the bea1n s length, these in-plane forces
and n101nents are a pproxima te.ly zero ins ide th e \Vall:

1\~ = Nt11 = M1, = 0. (6.88)

\Ve appl)' only axial strain and curvatures to t he bean1, but no twist. Therefore.
the t\\ist of the 'Nall is zero:
(6.89)
\Ve OO\V recall t he strain- force relationships given by Eq. (3.22) \Vi th the com -
pliance matrix for an orthotropic material given by Eq. (3.37). To apply the re
lationships to the \Vall we re place x by ~ a nd )' by '' The resulting gene ra lized
strain- force relationships are (orthotropic):
,. <>11 12 0 /Jn /312 0 N,
"'" <>12 <Y22 0 /J21 /322 0
..
N,
y~lt 0 0
"0 0 0 N(,, (6.90)
=
/(' fJ11 fJ21 811 (jl2 0 M,
Ko {Jii p,, 0 811 Sn 0 M,
0 0 p.. 0 0 a.. Mf ,,
"''
S ubstitution of Eqs. (6.88) a nd (6.89) into Eq. (6.90) yields

l'tl
'"
= ["" 811
/l11
I [o]
N, J + 0 M, ,
/l11] M, (6.91)

''<i = 0 = 0 x N, +O x Me + 8.. M.,. (6.92)


Fron1 these equations we can obtain N,_ , A1t_, and ,\ft, 11 in terms off; and K(.
The resulting expressions are listed in the left column of Table 6.2 (page 222).

S tep 3. The resultant force and moments in the be am a re (Fig. 6.25)

Fl= J N, dr1 (6.93)


<SJ

!((, = .rM~
(S)
cos akd'I + f
( SJ
t.1Vt.tf'1 (6.94)
6.3 THINWALLED, DPENSECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTIOH BEAMS 229

fl,
~ (

~
.~/{

p,\/{IJ
Figure 6.25: The rorces and moments ac.ting on the beam and the forces and moments (per uni I
length) at.ting inside the wall.

X1, = J
(SJ
- M; sin a.,111 + J
(S)
yN,d11 (6.95)

f =I
( S)
2M;,,d11 = o. (6.96)

where Sis the length of the circumference. The torque resultant f is zero because,
for orthotTOpic beams. M,, is zero (Eq. 6.92).
Since T is zero for orthotropic beams. P14 , P24 a nd P"' are zero (see Eq. 6.2).
Consequently, tl1ere is no tension- bending- torsion coupling in o rlho tropic
bean1s.

Step 4. We axially elongate the beam such that I/ Py and 1/ p, remain zero. Thus.
from Eqs. (6.86) and (6.87) we have

K( =0. (6.97)

For a bean1with orthotropic and unsymmetrical layup (arbitrary cross section)


Eqs. (6.93) and (6.97). togethe r with the e xpression for N, in Thble 6.2, left column,
yield

-I
1V= 811
D <"
-d11 x
(6.98)
\St
~

EA
The coordinates of the centroid are o btained by taking a mon1ent about point
0 shown in Figure 6.22:

Fly,= J -JM,sin a,d~


(S)
N,yd11
(S)
(6.99)

Nt, = J Ni'idq + J M,cosa,d1/. (6.100)


(S) (S/
230 BEAMS

\vhere Y and l are the coordinates of a point on the wall's reference swface in
thex, y,! coordinate system. By se tting l / Py = 1/ p, = Oand by using Eqs. (6.86),
(6.98), and the e xpression fo r N1 in Table 6.2 (page 222), left column, we obta in
the coordinates of the centro id as follows:
f (z.';; - !!ff oos ")d11
( S)
z, = '-'---~---- (6.101)
! '~a,,
( S)

Next we detern1ine the bending stiffnesses. First, \Ve set ~~ equal to ze ro in


Eqs. (6.86) and (6.87). Then. Eq~ (6.86), (6.87), (6.94), and (6.95) together with
the expressions in Table 6.2 give the following resuJtant n1oments of a bean1 \\ti.th
orthotropic a nd unsymme trical layup (arbitrary cross section):

1,,

+
f[
(-')
811
(D/ t
/J11
+D . au . ] I
(t smet - ycosa) - D cos et smet d11 p,

(6.102)

- f[
M, = 811
(D/ t + D
fi11
(tsma - ycosor) - 'II .
D ooset smet ] 1
d11 Py
( S)

f [D
11 , 2fi11 . Ct11 , ] 1
+ - y- + --ysma + - sma d11 - (6.103)
D D ~
( S)

The tensile stiffnesses, the coordinates of the centroid. and the bending stiff-
nesses o( bean1s 'vith orthotropic and syn1n1etrical layup (arbirrary cross section)
and \vith arbitrary layup (sytnn1etrical cross section) are obtained sin1ilarly. The
main difference is in Step2, \\he re the appropria te stress- strain relationships must
be used ins te ad of Eq. (6.90). The results are given in Tables 6.3-6.5.
Choice oftl1e refere11ce surface. T he expressions of the replacen1ent s tiffnesses
simplify ""hen the properties are oot evaluated at an arbitrary refere.n ce surface
but at a " neutral'' surface. \\here /1 11 ( orthotropic layup- arbitrary cross section) or
fo11(arbitrary layup - syn11u etrical cross section) is zero. The s urface is .;neutral"'
in t he sense that a bending mon1ent M{ does not cause axial strain f t in this
surface. (Ho\vever, it is not a real neutral surface because . unlike in an isotropic
bea111, in this re ference surface the strain perpendicular to t he bean1 s axis EIJ is not
ze ro.)
6.3 IHIN-WALUU, UPtN-SECllUN UHIHUTHUPIC UH SVMMEIHICAL CHUSSSECl'IUN BEAMS 231

Table 6.3. The tensile and bending stiffnesses and lhe coordinates
of lhe eenlJOld ol open and closed-section beams wilh oumd walls.
The CR>$$ section Is >Wtitrary, and lhe layup ol lhe wall is orlholn>ple
and symmetrical; a11 and d11 are evaluated al the midsullace.

arbitrary cross sec.t ion


orlhoLropic
symmetrical l.:.yup

Tcnsllc stiffnc,;s
EA= J J.,,,,
(SI
...
Coordinates of lhc c<:nlroid

1l1e 11 con1ponent of the compliance n1atrix corresponding to the "neutral..


surface is (Eq. 3.48)

(6.104)

\Yhere JJ11and d11 ure the components of the compUancc malricc.s in 1hc arbi 1rarily
chosen reference surface and e is the location of the "neutral" surface {Fig. 6.26).
{J:
At the "neutr3J" surface 1 = 0, and the preceding equation yield.5

-e= -/Jn onhotropic layup


- (6.105)
&11 3tbitrary cross section.

This cqu:llion npplies to orthotropic beams v.i th S)mme tric31 as y,e ll as un-
symmetrical cross sections.
Rn bcoms wil h arbitrary Layup (symmetrical cross section), Eq. (3.48) and the
expression for Pu
in Table 6.2 (page 222) yield

(6.106)
Table 6.4. The tensile and bending stiffnesses and lhe coordinates of lhe
oentroid of open- and closed-section beams with curved walls. The cross
section is arbitrary, and lhe layup of lhe wall is orthotropic and unsymmetrical;
611 . {3 11, and 011 are evaluated in the wall's ( -1)-( coordinate system: D is
defined in Table 6.2 and 611 and 1J are defined by Eq. (6.157).

ttrbitrary cross se.ctlon


o rll101ropic
unsy1nmetricaJ layup

Tunsilc. stiffness
Open seclio n: lA = J ~"" Closed section: VI= J ~d11
(S) (l)
Coordinates of the ce.ncroid
I (r.~+'4f sui ..} '"
>.r -- ~>l~-~---
! ~~"
>!
Bending stiffness.es
1fl-n = J (ift- 1 j!' zcosat + "~' c.os2 a)d,,
E'lu = f~ (ifr + ~ y sin et +!ff sin 1 &) d11
(.<)

1!J1-: = J ( flJiyi + ~ (zsina - yc.os a) - 7J- cos a: sin u) d~


c:n

Table 6.5. The tensile and bending stiffnesses and lhe coordinates of lhe
oentroid of open-section beams with symmetrical cross section. The layup of
the wall is unsymmetrical and nonorthotropic; 0 , 61 1, and ~11 are defined in
Table 6.2. The elemenlS of the compliance matrix are evaluated in the wall's
e-w-<. coordinate system.
z
scy1nmeLric.al c-r0$S s.ec-tion
nonorlhotropic
un.symme1rical layup

Tensile stiffnc.ss
i;,1lhJ
EA = c
Coordinate.s of the centroid

}'t =0

Bending S.liffness.
El_,,,= J ("4t.t- ~ zcosa.t+ ~ cos:a)lhJ
"'
Arbitrary
rcfcrcn1.1c sur(acc (

figure 6.26: The '"neutral- surface -'here j~1 (orthotropw: layup - arhttrary Cft.:m1CCl1onJ or ?,1
(arbrtnry llllyup - rymmc1nul cross section) ts uro.

From the condition~. = 0 we obtain the location of the neutral .. surfac:e of


the v.all a.' follo\\-S:
- 'ii11 arbitrary layup
e= --=-
611 symmetrical cross section.
(6.107)

For selected cross sections the replac.e me nl stiffnesses and the location of the
centroid nre given in Thbles t\ .l - A.4.
~rg11uu1te1/ 'tttt1/I. n 1e bea1ns \\all n1ay consist of several Oat \Vall seg111ents
(fig. 6.27). The thickness of e acJ1 \Vall segn1ent is s1na ll com1,ared \l/ith the \\ idth of
1

=
the segment. The wnll segments are designated by the s ubscript k(k I. 2, ... , K ,
where K is the total nun1ber or \vall segn1ent~). The layup of each wall seg
men1 may be sy1n1netrica1 or unsymmetrical with respect to the \vall seg1nenCs
ntidsurface.
When 1he v.aU consists of segments and each segment i.s flat. the integrals in
Tables 6.J-6.S may be replaced by summations

I ( )d~ = ""'-"'2
L I ( )d11.
K ..fl

(6.108)
t S)

where h is the \\idth or the kth 'vaJJ segment. For each v.all segment 've define
a ~ -11-~ coordinntc system. \1there ~ is parallel to the .r coordinate. 11 is along
the circumference ol the wall. and ~ is perpendicular 10 the wall (Fig. 6.27). The
origin of this coordinate systen1 may be at a.n arbitrarily chosen re fe rence surface
but n1us1 be at the ntiddle of the 'viclth of the \\ a ll scgntcnt. By performing the
1

integrations in Tables 6.3-6.5 we o btain t he expressions given in Tables 6.6- 6.8.

6.3.4 Stresses and Strains


In a thin-\vallcd isotropic beam subjected to an axial load and 10 bending in the
x- <: plane 1hcre is only axial stress a~. In a thin-v.alled composite beam. in addition
10 the axial stress at . transverse nonnal a and she-a r r,. stTesJC.S are also pre.senL

J.igurc 6.27: Ttunwnllcd, op-en-section beams \Yith segme nted wnll.


234 BEAMS

Table 6.6. The tensile and bending stiffnesses and the coordinates of the
centroid of open- and olosetl-section beams with flat walls. The cross
section is arbitrary, and the layup of eaoh wall segment is orthotroplc
and symmetrical; a11 and d11 are evaluated at the wall's midplanes.

arbilrary cross section


+.::..-:--'-11---"'--'"-+t.I orthotropic
S)'mrne.Lric.al layup

Tunsile stiffne.ss

EA=L: ...!!...
t ...1 (ornJ

Coordinales of the ce.ntroid

T hese stresses a re illustrated in Fig. 6.28. Howeve r, the shear flow, defined as the
integral of the shear stress across the thickness. is zero,

q= f ""~
( h)
= 0. (6.109)

\\here Ir is t he thickness of t he \Vall. In the (olJo,ving subsections, we present analy


ses for calcula ting the three stress components <t(. u,,, rf,, inside oon1posite bean1s.
Ortilotropic layup (arbitrar)' cross secti'111). When the layup of the wall is
orthotropic, the axial strain and the curvatures of t he bean1s axis passing t hrough
the centroid are (Eqs. 6.17 and 6.19)

0 -
f.K-
!!.__
- (6.110)
EA
Ei,"~' - Ei,,M,
- = (6.11 1)
Py fl,,fl., - (fl,y
1 - Ei,_M, + Ei,,M,
- =
p, --
El, 1 1., - (El,d ' (6.112)
6.3 THIN-WALLED, OPEN-SECTION ORTltOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSS-SECTION BEAMS 235

Table 6.7. The tenslle and bending stiffnesses and lhe coordinates of lhe
centroid of open- and closed-section beams with flat walls. The cross
sectioo Is arbitrary, and lhe layup of each wall segment Is orthotroplc and
unsymmetrical; 611 , {J ,, . and o 11 are evaluated In the wall's {-ri-(
coordinate system; D Is defined In Table 6.2. The parametets 611 and tJ
are defined by Eq. (6.157).

arbitrary cross section


IJ orthotropic
-..--,---11---~--
Ul'bfmmetrical la)'up

T<nsilc stiffness
.
Open <ttlJon: EA=
-

Coordinates of the centroid


...
~ (n},-.
L.. 10,

... )( ~
J: ~
l/llt + '"' ......,,

At an arbitrary point o n the re ference sur(:1cc o( the \\ all, the axial s train ' ;
1

and curvature Kt :ire related to the strain and curvnture$ of the bea111 by Eqs. (6.86)
and (6.87).

,a =
{
fu
x
+ y-L
P:.
+ lp,-I (6. 113)

I . I
Kt = - - s1n a+ - cosa. (6. 114)
p, Pr

or
whe re a is the angle between the tangent the wall (coordinate~) and the y-axis
(Fig. 6-22).
The layup or the Wllll is onhotropic. nnd hence the following fo rces and mo-
ments are zero (see Eqs. 6.88 and 6.92):

(6.1 15)
236 BEAMS

Table 6.8. The tensile and bending stiffnesses and the coordinates of the
oentroid of open-section beams with symmetrical cross section. The layup
of each wall segment is nonorthotroplc and unsymmetrical; 71, d',,, and /i,,
are defined in Table6.Z. The elements of the compliance matrix are
evaluated in the wall's e-r1-<
coordinate system.

symmetric.;tl c.r~s section


nonorLhotropic
y un.symme.trical layup

Tensile stiffness
K -
EA= I: V1_!!~'~
t.I (IJ)t

Coordinatc.s of the centroid

f..
1:.':1h~
- ~~
u (7>)4 - i""l4 (l)O;.ll,\
-'<- = I: C>t(611 >t

""'' (l\)4
Bending. sliffness
.:-, <i~1>.'
EiJY = f;. ID)A.
(bz'?+ bl ~?111) - ?t~1>tb z cos a + fi,;._1>.t b cos? a
'k. ~ I! (0).., k 4- 4- 10),. 'k I(

The axial fo rce N, and the moment M, (per unit length) in the wall are
(Table 6.2, page 222)

611 a /3n
(6.116)
'"' = JS'< - 7)/(1
/311 Uu
Mi = - D<, + f) K! .0
(6.117)

z
u,

Figure 6.28: Jllustration or lhc stresses in an


isotro pic (top) and a composite (bottom) rbc-am
subjcctc-d tu bending in the x-z p-l an c~
6.3 THINWALUD, OPENSECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTION BEAMS 237

Equations (6.110) and (6.11 3)- (6.1 17) yield

M.= -1 ( z -~II - coset-/J11 ) + -1 ( y-J11 +s1n


. a -/111 ) + -FJ -
811
Py D D P, D D ti\ D
(6.11 8)

M, = ..!...
p_,
(-tfuD +cosa~)
D
- .!...
p,
(yfuD +sinCt~)
D
- EA
FJ fi11 ,
D
(6.119)

where l / Pr and 1/ p, are given by Eqs. (6.111) a nd (6.112). Tiie strain- force rela
tionships a re (see Eq. 6.90)

,. fin
,.l ""
0'12 fi21

l~ l
YE" = 0 0
(6.120)
K~ fl11 a,,
K,J fl12 cS12
Ki. 0 0

By a pplying the results of the laminate plate theory (see Eq. 3.7), we obta in
the follo\\ring expression for the strains in eac.h ply:

(6.121)

The stresses fro m Eq. (3. I I) are ( orthotropic la mina te, Q16 = Q16 = 0)

:: } = ~:: g;: ~ ]{:: }. (6.122)


{
" l ~ 0 Q,,. y,.
Equation (6.120) sho"~ that y;,
a ndK,. are zero. Consequently, y.,1 (Eq. 6.121)
is also zero, and the ply shear stress 't
(Eq. 6.122) is zero.
Ortltotropic and sy111111etrical layup (arbitrary cross .Yection). The layup of the
wall is orthotropic and symn1etrical. For orthotropic layup, the following (orces
and moments are zero (Eqs. 6.88 a nd 6.92):

(6.123)
238 BEAMS

The a xia l fo rce N~ and the n1oment ArfE. (per unit le ngth) in the wa ll are (see
Table 6.2. page 222)

I
Mi =-
,-" (6.124)
<II

Equations (6.110). (6.113), (6.114), and (6.124) yield

11 1 1 1V 1
N, = -z- + -y-+=- (6.125)
Py a11 P~ a11 A a 11
I l I . 1
A.ft,= -COSCt'- - - SJO (Y-. (6.126)
Py d 11 p, d11

Fo r ortho tropic and symmetrical layup the e leme nts of the [a J a nd [~ J matrices
area,1 = aq,Ji;; = d;i, \Vhereas /Ji; = 0. Thus, the s tra in- fo rce re la tions hips(Eqs. 6.00
and 3.28) give

,." rail
0 11
0
0
Yt11" IN,}
"l!""
0
M, . (6.127)
"
... " d11
0

The ply strains and stresses are given by Eqs. (6.121) and (6.122).
Arbitrary layup (syn1n1e.trica/ cross sectio11). The layup of the \Vall is arbitrary,
and the cross se ction is synun etrical about the zaxis. The loads a re a pplie d in the
:c- z syn1n1etry plane. Such a bean1 bends only about the y..axis. Correspondingly.
I/ p, is ze ro a nd we have (Eq. 6.6)

0 Fl 1 /iJ,. 1
. =-=
:r - = 0. (6.128)
EA Py = El;., p,

With t hese substitutions. Eqs. (6.11 3) and (6.114) simplify to

I
Kt. = - cosa. (6.129)
Py

In the \\'aJls o f an o pe n cross-section beam, the following forces and n101n en t


are zero (see E q. 6.88):

1V,, = Nt,,, = M,, =0. (6.1 30)


6.3 THIN-WALLED, OPEN-SECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSS-SECTION BEAMS 239

Tiie axial force N, and the moments M, and M,. (per unit length) inside the
wall a re (Table 6.2, page 222)

(6.131)

(6.132)

(6.133)

Equations (6.128H 6.133) may be rearranged to yie ld the axial force N, and
the 111oment Aft (per unit le ngth) in terms of applied force and mome nt:

1VE.= ~ M, ( l 611 li11 ) IV 611


- = - COSOt -=- +~ -= (6.134)
Elyr D D EA D

M,
M, = _ li11 +cosa 1'11)
( - z= = - -=IV li11
= (6.135)
' E~,r D D EA D

The strain- force rela tionships in the x, y, z coordinate systen1 a.re given by
Eq. (3.22). We apply this e quation in the ~ , 11, t coord inate system with N, =
N E.rt = i\111 = 0. Thus, \Ve \vrite

,. P11 p,.
,.' "" /l21 fl26
y~lt
..,.
Ct'J!

P" p,,. { M,
N, } .
"',,
=
/l11 bu a,. 1\-f(lt
(6.136)
/( f311 b 12 ~26
K ( 11 (3,. a,. a
TI1e ply stra ins are calculated by Eqs. (6.121). The ply stresses a re (Eq. 3.11)

(6.137)

The elen1ents of matrix [Q] are evaluated in the ~ , rt, (coordinate syste.01.

6.2 Exa1nple. An. L = 0.6.111~/ong Tsectio1t bean1 lt1fth the cross section shO\VIJ in
Fignre6.29 is 111ade ofgraphirt~ epoxy. T/Je 1naterial properties are given in Table 3.6
(page 81). The layup is [45\/012/ 45\l- The beam is builr-in lit both ends. The
bea1u is subjected to a u1uj'Otnlly distributed load ( /1 = - 1 500 Nini) acting in the
plane of syn1111etry. Calculate the 111axbnu111 ileftectio11 and the ply stresses and
strtu'ns.
l4U tstAM5

h = 2mn1 71 =- JSOO _I!


m
p =- lSOO Nim
J* * * * *4 *, l1 =- 2 mm
L = 600mm

b0= br= SO mm
Figure 6.29: The Th<-am in Example 6.2.

Solution. Fro n1 Table A.2, 'vit h bri set equal to zero. the tensile stiffness and the
location of the centroid a re

- bn hw ,,,.
EA= - - + - - = 21.22 x Lu N
(a11}n (a11)w
(6.1 38)
b,. b. )
= 1 ( bn-= -(
-)-d + -(-)- - = 0.0441 m.
EA a u n 0 11 w 2

For syn1metrical layup (which is the case he re) , & 11 is re placed by a, l The e le ment
=
11 for both the web and the flange is (a11 )w (a11)n 5.18 x 10- 'j!) (Table 3.8, =
=
page 85). The dime nsions bn br = 0.05 m, b.. 0.06 m, and d O.<l6J m are = =
sho\\'11 in Figures 6.29 and 6.30. Setting be equa l to zero in the expressio n given in
Table t\.2 results in the followi ng bending stiffness:

/VJ. =~ (d - z.o)' + ~ + _1_ (/>!., + h!,) . (6.139)


(a11)n (~11)n (a11)w 3

For symmetrical layup (which is the case he re) ~11 is replaced by d11. The ele
me nt d11 for both the web and the flange is (d11 ),. = (d11)n = 33. JO x 10- 3 " 1m
(Table 3.8, page 85). Equation (6.139), with b., =
z, 0.0441 m and b,., b. - = =
z, = 0.0159 m, yields

El,,. = 8 530 N m'. (6.140)

{ ,,
bwl

b,..2 z,
11
[ I/

1-i gure 6.30: 1.''bc cros..<> sec lion of the beam in E:)'.ample 6.2.
6.3 THIN-WALLED, OPEN-SECTION ORTllOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTIOH BEAMS 241

Ki\l cNn1>
4S ii,
0.6 Length, r (m)

06 Lcnath. z 1m
- 450
Figure 6.31: Bending, moment ,\i, and hc1u force ii, for lhc hc:.m 1n Example 6.2.
The distributed load is p = - I SOO Nim. 'l"M corresponding bending moment
II, and shear force P, diagrams arc given in Fig. 6.31. The maximum values are
-- =
M, pL' =45N m
-U (6.141)

v-
'
=
2
pL = -~SON.
The maximum deftection is (Thblc 7.3. page 332)

jjj
1
= - - f!!:'
384 El_,
= - 0.0593 x 10- > m = - 0.0593 mm. (6.142)

The axial force Nt and the moment M1 (per unit length) in the wall are (see
Eqs. 6.l25. 6.126, 6.l 11 . and 6.112)

1\~ =
,q,
-::::;:::-Z-
l
El>'Y 011
(6.143)
,\jv I
1\1t. = ~cosa -,
Ely,v d11
where i is s hO\\'U in Figure 6.30 nnd cos u is zero for the \VCb and + I for the
flange. For co111pleteness we nlso cnlculatc lhc shear now, which will be djscussed
in Section 6. 7. The s hear Oow is (Eq. 6.2R2)
v ,,
q"cs,) = N1 = - ~'
E/1 )
J(:...!..)
nu
d11. (6.144)


The tt coordinate is sho,vn in Figure 6.$0. We next determine the forces at point
Q, which is at the inte rsection or the Oange and the web (z = d - :,) at the built-in
...... ....._. .- nm
end(.t = 0. M, = M , .and V, = v , ) . At point Qthe forcesand moments are

Jij;u l N Af;:u 1 N- m
N, = --=-(d - ;:.)- = 17 209 -
El,, a,, m
M1 = --=--
1,, du
= 0.1594 - -
m
V~'br I N
q"" = N,. = =F-::1::--(<I
1,., 2
- :,)-
lilt
= :1:2 151 -
m
(6.145)
242 BEAMS

Figure 6.32: T he axial forc.e /I;~. t he moment A4. nnd the s he.tar force JV~., an the. flange a nd the
wc.h a t the builtin end of the. beam in x.amplc. 6.2.

l11e plus and minus values of the shear flo,v refer to the left and right of Q
(Fig. 6.32). We also calculated these forces and n1oments around the entire cross
section a t x = 0. The results are sho\\n in Figure 6.32.
The relevant elements of the compliance matrices are (Table 3.8, page 85)
Jn m m
a 11 =5.18 x 10- -
N
a,,=
- - 3.52 x 10- -N
9 a,. =21.11x10- N
I 1 1
d11=33.!0x10--' - N d,, = - 25.59 x LQ-J - - d,.=48.51x10- 1 - N
nl - Nm . Ill

At point Q the strains are calculated by the strain- force relationships (see
Eq. 6.90 with Ct replaced by a,~ replaced by d, and fj is zero)

a11 0 0 0.0000892
'
f~ 0 11 0 0 - 0.0000606
Y~it
=
0 a.,, 0
1~~1 } - 0.0000597
(6.146)
.."',
K ( I
0
0
0
0
0
()
d11
d,,
0
M,
= 0.005 28
- 0.00408
0

\vhere K t, K 11 , a nd K~,, are in 1/ m. With the preceding strains. the ply stresses are
calculated by Eqs. (6.121) and (6.122). The results are given in Figure 6.33.

z ,
I '
I I
0
"
o.s 0 -' -o.4 0 .4 u, 2 T r.&-

- 1
I - I
I
figure 6_13: The ply s tresses in t he. beam at the buih in end JUSt lc(I of the vertica l symmell)'
axis of t he Range in Example 6.2. ' l'he uni I o( the s tresses is 10< Nhn 2 (Just to t he right of thc-
S)'mmctr)' ll)'.is. r.1.y is ne gati\'c.)
6.4 THINWAllED, CLOSEDSECTION ORTHOTROPIC BEAMS 243

y y

figure 6.34: Thin-walled. closed sec lion be-ams \\ith cur\'e-d a nd straight "'all se-g mcnt:>suhjec-ted
to axiaJ load and bending moments.

6.4 Thin-Walled, Closed-Section Orthotropic Beams Subjected


to Axial Load and Bending
In this section we treat thin-v.aUed, closed -section bean1s subjected to a..xial load
and bending. The beam may consist of flat and curved walls (Fig. 6.34). The beams
are subjected to an axial rorce IV and to beading 1uoments 1fif.v. :fl:..
Ty.o types of bean1s are considered:

1. The layup of the wall is o rthotropic and symmetrical; the beam's cross section
is a rbitrary.
2. The layup of the wall is orthotropic but unsymn1etric.al; the beams cross section
is arbitrary.

'TI1e re a re no te nsion- bending- torsion couplings in either of the latter types


o( bean1s because the bean1 is orthotropic (page 207).
We define a ~ -11-~ coord inate system along the wall. Al each point~ is parallel
to ll1e x coordinate, 11 is along the circumference of the wall. and ~ is perpendicula r
to the \Vall (Fig. 6.34). The origin of thiscoordinatesysten1 is in a n arbitrarily chosen
reference surface.
Displace111e11ts - synutretrical layup. The layup of t he \Vall is orthotropic a nd
symmetrical. Under the action o f t he applied loads N. M,.. and M,, t he shape
of the cross section c hanges. To exan1ine the change in shape we firs t look at an
isotropic beam. The c hanged shape of the cross section of a solid isotropic beatn
is shown in Figure 6.35. The c.hanged shape of a thin\\aJle d isotropic be.an1 is the
same as that of a solid bean1 'vith the san1e initial cross section. The re is only axial
stress in the beam. a nd therefore . the cross-sectiona l shape 'vould not be altered
if the bean1 \Vere cut.
t\ thin-\\alled con1posite bean1 \vith orthotropic and S)'lnme tric-al layup be-
haves sin1ilarly to a n isotropic. beam, nan1ely, under the actions of an axia l load
and bending the change in s hape of the cross section of a closed-section beam is
nearly the sa1ne as the change in shape of t he cross section of an open-section
beam (Fig. 6.36, middle). This implies that closedsection beams respond to the
applied loads in n1uch the san1e \\'ay as opensection bean1s. The refore, \\'e may
treat thin-walled, closed.section bean1s \\ ith orthotropic a nd symmetrical layup
1
244 BEAMS

Undefonncd Deformed
cross sct:tion cross section

Solid
D D
Closed
section
beam D 0
Open
section
beam D 0
Figure 6-1-5: 1'hc changes of the c.ros..; sections orsolid and thin-\\allcd open and closed-section
isot ropic bean1s subjcc.tcd to a:tial load and bending.

in the same way as we treat open-section bean1s and calculate the displacen1ents
with the replacement stiffnesses given in Table 6.3 (page 231).
Displace111e11ts - u11s)'n1"1etrica/ layup. The layup of the \\aJI is o rtho tropic
but unsy1nme trical. \Vhen such a bean1 is s ubjected to loads FJ, J\1.l., and 1 \1z. the
s hape o( the cross se ctions changes significa ntly, as sho\\'11 in Figure 6.36. In this
case \Ve can no longe.r approxin1ate closed-se ction beams as open-section beams.
An open-section beam 'vould "open up .. under the axial load and bending, as
s ho\\n in Figure 6.36 (right). Sin1ilarly, if a closed section beam \\'e re c ut, the two
cut edges 'vould move re lative to each o ther, as shown in Figure 6.37. Jn a closed
section beam these displaceme nts are prevented by a s hear force Nt.t'/ a be nd ing
moment 1\111 , a nonnal force /\~,, a nd a transverse shear fo rce \I" acting alo ng the
c ut. Since t he 'valls are o rt hotropic, (a) the bean1 does not tv.ist (K~., = 0), and
(b) the t\\'O "cut" e dges do not n1ove relative to ea ch o the r in the axial d irection.
In the a bsence o( these Lnotions no s hear force arises along t he cut (1V{,, = 0). The
forces N a nd v, are gene ra lly s mall a nd can be negle cted (N, =
0, V, 0). Thus. =

Undeformed Symmetrical Unsynunctrica l


cross section layup lavup
Open-
section
beam D 0 [J
Closed-
section
beam D 0 D
Figure 6.36: T he changes o{ lhe cross sectionsofthinwaUc.d opc.n- a nd dosed-section co mposite
beams subjected to axial load and bending.
6.4 IHIN-WAl.UU, CLUSEUSECllUH UHTHOIHUPIC H ~AMS 245

Closed-S'bon
bum tSC 0:: 6C
J\~'f ;l/" /\' "

~ t:9 qp a-.~
N,
Figure: 6_17: 'Jhe forte$ :1long the lcnglhwilic-edges of an opcn11eclio1' bctun {lop) nnd ulong the
cut of a c:loi1cd11cction bc:Jm (hottom).

in the ca.sc o( ortho1ropic walls \Ve have

N, = N,, = 0
c.l osed-section. (6.147)
"'" = 0
v. = 0
There is a bending moment Af4 along the cut that prevents rotation of the
edges reh1li,c 10 each other. The slope of the ,vaJJ musl be the same 10 the left and
to the right of the cut (Figure 6.38)

aw"J
-;;;j' 1lx,hl =
aw"J
iJ11 lefl.
(6.148)

where ul 1 is the displnce rnent of t he \Vall perpendicular to its re(ercnce surface.


The change in curvature of the wall is
azul'
I('I = - -
iJ11l
(6.149)

By intcgrnting this equation from an arbitrary point'' = 0 tos1. we have

1""'''' = - [aw]"
---
a,, - o
(6.150)

'I
Figure 6,Jg: k cll'llhc rot11t1on o f l hc cut edges.
"'"
Undeforn1t
cross section Bending ..\.xial load

D 0 [J
0p<n
sec.tion
beant

c'loscd
section
beam D 0 D
or
Figure. 6.39: The change..; of the cross sections thin-wallc-d open and closcd-scctjon beams
subjcc.1cd to axial load and bending.. Each wall hai> t he same o thotroptc unsymmclrical ln)'Up.

By perfonning the integration along the entire circumfere nce (s 1 = S). we ob-
tain (see Eq. 6.148)

(6.1 51)

This compatibility condition must be enforced for close d.section bean1s. An


analysis that ta kes thiscondition into account is presented in Section 6.6. T his exact
analysis is con1plex. Jn t he next paragraph \Ve present a sin1pler 'vay to detern1ine
the replace1nent s tiffnesses 'vhen the layup is the san1e around the circumference.
To esta blish the be nd ing replacen1ent stiffnesses, \Ve observe that bending the
c ross~sectiona l shape of a closed c ross.section be.an1 with uniJonn layup around
the circun1ference is sin1ilar to the shape of an open.section beam (Fig. 6.39). In
this case the replacement stiffnesses EIJ',' El:.~ and El,.:. may be approximated by
the expressions obtained for opensection bean1s (Tables 6.4 and 6.7, pages 232
and 235).
To establish the te nsile replacen1ent s tiffness, we observe that the beam \\ith
uniform layup does not deform under tension (Fig. 6.39). In this case the diange
in curvature is zero along the circun1ference

closedsection
(6.152)
in tension.

By substituting Eqs. (6.147) and (6.152) into Eq. (6.90), after a lgebraic mani-
pulations. we obta in

., = (1")
, ,~ D " (lf")
jj ~t - Kt, (6.153)

(6.154)

(6.155)
6.4 THIN-WALLED, CLOSE.D-SECTION ORTHOTI!OPICBEAMS 247

where &11 #11 .11 1. and 15 a re defined as


-au= ( JI' ~,)
011 - /I- - (/I 11 - /112812)
11---
812
(6. 156)

-a.. = (&11 - &')


:u. &u
(6.157)

By romporing Eq. (6.153) with the expression for N1 given for open-section
beams in Thblc 6.2 (page 222). we see that they differ only by the terms in the
brackets. Therefore. the 1ensile stiffness EA o( thin\\'alled dosed-section beams
(ortbotropic but unsymmetrical layup) may be calculated from the expressions of
open-section beams (Thbles 6.4 and 6.7, pages 232 and 2.lS) by re placing 811 , D by
iu.15.
111e \11, lA':u. \V23( = \\131), \1-' elements of the compliance nlatrix are then
detenuined by s ubs1ituting the replacen1ent stiffnesses (given in Tnblcs 6.4 and
6.7) into Eq. (6. 19).
TI1e expressions for EA. 111 , El~, and Eiy~ in Tables 6.4 and 6.7 are also
reasonable approximations "'he n the layup is not uni!onn but the "'all is .. thin ...
Slrts.s#S a11d .vtrai11.f. As "'ith displacements. the stresses and s1rains in c-losed-
section beams with orthotropic and symmetrical layup can be cnlculated by the
same exprc.ssions used for 1he stresses and st rains in open-.sec1ion beams (see
Section 6.3.4. orthotropic and S)mmetrical layup).
\Vhen a closed-section beam \vith onhotropic but unsymmetric.31 layup is in
bending. the stresses and strains c.an be calculated by the same expressions used
for the s tresses and SITains in open-section beams (see See1ion 6.3.4. orthotropic
layup. arbitrary cross sec1ion).
When a closed-section beam \vith orthotropic but unsymmetrical layup is in
tension , '''C dclcnnine the s1resses and strains as fo llows.. At an arbitrary point
on the reference surface of the 'valJ the axial strain is related to the s train of the
beam's nxis by (Eq. 6.11 3) as follows:
(6.158)
\Vhe n t.hc layup of the "'all is orthotropic, Nit = N(" = i\1t" = 0. a nd the axial force
and Lhe moment (perunit length) in the wall are given by Eq$. (6.153) nnd (6.154).
Thus.. ~'e have
fJ 611 fJ ii11
Ni = Cl i5 M, =
EA D
--=-=- (6.159)

The strnin- foroe relationships (see Eq. 6.90) give the strnins

( au Pu /111
a11 /J12

{~}
/J11

rt.. = 0 0 0
(6.160)

..,
1

i.
/J11
fJ 11
()
811
812
0
6i1
611
0
where Af,1 is give n by Eq. (6.155).
248 BEAMS

1-i gure 6.40: Beam s.ubjected lo lorque f.

The strains and s tresses inside t he wall (ortho uopic, unsy1n1ne trical layup) are
calculated by Eqs. (6. 121) and (6. 137).

6.5 Torsion of Thin-Walled Beams


We consider thinwalled. open and c losed.section bean1s subjected to pure torque
(Fig. 6.40). Becauseo( the torque, the bean1t \\~s ts about an axis that passes through
the center of t\vist. \Vhen the beam is isotropic, the t"ist axis ren1ains straight.
For a con1posite beam the t'vist axis becomes cur\'ed, except \\he n the bean1 is
orthotropic.
The stresses differ in thin ..walled isotropic a nd composite beams. Under the
action of pure torque there are only shear stresses inside t he 'vall of a n isotropic
beam, whereas there are also normal stresses inside the \\all of a composite beam.
Under the action of the torque, e ach cross section rotates (t,vists) as a rigid
body in itso\vn pla ne a bout the centero( twist. In a ddition, the cross sections suffer
\varping displaceme nts nonnal to their (c ross..sectional) planes. We a re interested
in the twist, the warping displace111e.nts, and the slresses inside the walls.
Stiffness and rate of twist. Under the action of pure tors ion (no a:dal con-
straint}, the rate of t\vist of a n isotropic bea1u is (Eq . 6.4)

f
O= - isotropic. (6.161)
GJ,
Sin1ila rly, for a cotnposite bean1 \Ve write

f (6.162)
0=-= composite.
G/1
\Vith these defl nitions the rate of t\vist of composite beams can be o bta ined by
replacing the stiffnesses G /1 by Gt 1 in the expressions for tJ1e torsion of isotropic
beams. ln the fo llowing \Ve obtain expressions for G/1

&.5.1 Thin Rectangular Cross Section


We consider a solid, rectangular, thin beam (Fig. 6.41). T he layup o f the beam is
arbitrary. The " 1dth of the beam I> is large compared with it< thickness /r (b > > Ii).
T he applied torque gives rise to shea r stresses in the bean1 that n1ay be re presented
by a resultant s hear flow q, the unit of \\hich is force per length. This induced shear
6.5 TORSION OF THIN-WALLED BEAMS 249

Figure 6.41: 'Ille shear slrcss distribution. lhc twist moment. and the shear ftow in a solid thin
beam under lorsion.

equilibrates the applied torque (Fig. 6.41),

f = (qd)b' + (qb')d, (6.163)

where d and b' a re the length and width of the path of the resultant shear flow.
The latter is take n to be approximately equal to the width of the beam (b',.. b).
The l\Vist 1non1ent Mxy (per unit Length) in the cross section is

i\(,y = - qd. (6.164)

Equations (6.163) and (6.164), with the approximation b' = b. yield

f= - 2bM,, . (6.165)

When the bean1 is treated as a plate, the out-ofplane cunature K.TJJ is (see
Eqs. 3.22)

(6.166)

TI1e rate of t\\1st D is (Eq. 6.27)


ay, I
t? = - = - -K:t}" (6.167)
ax 2
By combining Eqs. (6.166), (6.167), and (6.165), we obtain the rate of twist

?= a-4b..T- . (6.168)

whe.re 86(1 is evaluated at an arbitraril) chosen re(erence plane. By comparing


Eqs. (6.162) and (6.168), we see that the torsional stiffness of a fiat t hin-walled
bean1 is

Cl, = 4b.
... (6.169)

= =
For a thin-walled isotropic beam, 666 d,,,, 12/ Gi1 3 (Eq. 3.43). a nd the tor-
sional stiffness in Eq. (6.169) becomes Gi, =GI,= G";'.
250 BEAMS

\Vhen the \\ all is not Hat but is curved, the torsional stiffness 1nay be approxi
1

ma ted by
s
- 11....- tf,,,
G/ 1 = 4 (6.170)
0

'vhere '1 is the coordinate along the circu1nference of the \Vall and Sis the length
or the e.ntire circumference.
Although the beam is subjected to pure torque, there are axial ~; and shear
strains Yx0>" and there is a change in the curvature Kx given by (see Eq. 3.22)

(6.171)

TI1is equation together with Eq. (6.165) yie lds

(6.172)

To detern1ine ll.i, \V24 , and l\'4.a elements of the oon1pliance matrix, \Ve rear
range Eqs. (6.168) a nd (6.172) in the form

{ Kx ~:/Py} = {=;~::} f. (6.173)

By comparing this equation with Eq. (6.17), we see that the terms in brack
ets are the IV14 (= - /1 16/ 21>), IV24 (= -~ 16/2b), and 1..,(= ~,,,,/4b) e le ments of the
con1pliance 111at rix.
\Vhen the layup is syn1n1etrical, /366 is zero and there is no shear strain. When
the layup is orthotropic, {J16 and 8 16 are zero. and there is neithe r axial stra in nor
a c hange in curvature. \\'hen the layup is bo th orthotropic and syn1metrical, there
are neither axial nor shear strains and the re is no change in curvature.

6.5.2 Open-Section Orthotropic Beams


The \\ all of an open-section be.an1 tnay be considere d to consist of t hin wall seg
1

me nts (Fig. 6.27). The to rsional stiffness of a thin-walled, open-section isotropic


beam may be approxin1ated by

(6.174)

'vhere the subscript re fers to the kth segn1ent. Similarly, \Ve a ppro:cin1ate the tor
sional stiffness of a con1posite be am \\ith orthotropic \Valls by

Gi, = (Gi,), + (GJ,h + . . . +( Gi,)K. (6.175)


6.5 TORSION OF THIN-WAllfD BEAMS 251

Figure 6.42: \Varping of an opcnchon com


po.site beam due to tor.sion and due to 1hcJ1r
strain.

For Oat and curved segments. (Gl,). are given by Eqs. (6.169) and (6.170).
The rate of l"\\'ist is calculated by

(6.176)

Stras~s and strains. ln each \Yall segment we en1ploy a (-11-{ coordinate sys
tem. The origin or each coordinate system is at the \Vall segment's reference sur
face. The out-of-plane c:urwture of each wall segment is obtained from Eq. (6.167)
by replacing x and y by { and r1 as follows:
(6.177)
We consider only Mh resulting Crom the 1orque. Thus we have (see Eq. 6.90)
(6.178)
(6.179)
Equations (6.178) and (6.177) give
1 2
J\ftq = -KtlJ = --11. (6.180)
a... a.,,
Equations (6.121} and (6. 122) together with Eq. (6. 179) yie ld tlie strains a nd
stresses

{ :: } = {
Yt11
~ } +~ { ~ }
Yt!J "'t u
(6.181)

{ :: } =
f4,,
[J]
Q"
Y!
(6.182)

lVarpi11g. A Lhin-waUed. open-section beam warps "'hen subjected to a pure


torque. Under torsion the ~all of a beam (no shear deormntion) \Varps, as sho\\'ll
in Figure 6.42. (left). The axial displacement 11 relative to an arbitrarily chosen
reference point (~ = 0) is

t1(1l - 11(0) = -2;1.,0. (6.183)

T. H. G. Mcpon.Auc1ft Slmctwafw En_pw111t1 .fOl,kNJ ltd rdrtion. H!llsltd PrtU. Joh.JI \\'iky
& Soos. New Yort. IWCJ. p. 318.
HtAM:i

Figure 6.43: The swc:pt a rea.

\\here fJ is lhe rate of t\\~Sl, and A,;1 is the S\\'ept area f ron111 = 0 to '~ = s 1 (Fig. 6.43)
about the center o( twist (point 0). For thin-\va lled bean1s the center of t'vist and
the shear cente r coincide. The shear center is defined such that a transverse load
acting a t the shear center of an orthotropic bean1 does not cause t \\ist (see Sec
lion 6.7.3).
When there is no she ar strain the angle bet\\een the c.irc.un1fere ntial and the
longitudina l e dges re mains 90 degrees (Fig. 6.42). For a con1posite bea1n t he shear
strain is zero \\he n /JM is zero (see Eq. 6.178). \Vhen {J66 is not zero the originally
90 degree angle bet\veen the circumfere ntia l and the longitudinal edges becomes
4

90 + Y f,, This change in angle introduces t he additional axial displacen1ent along


the circun1fe re nce

11(s1) - 11(0) = J" r<,,d11.


0
(6.184)

111e total re la tive axial displaceme nt (warping) is (see Eqs. 6.183 a nd 6.184)

611=11(s1) - u(O) = l
-2A,,~ + Y~,dry.
0
(6.185)

For a thin ..\valled. open-section bea m with o rt hotropic layup r,, is given by
Eq. (6.178).
\Vhen the layup of each wall segment is syn1n1etrical, y(,, is ze ro, a nd such
con1posite beams warp sin1ilarly to that of isotropic beams.

6.5.3 Closed-Section Orthotropic Beams - Single Cell


For a thin.,valled, cJosedsection bean1, the points '1 =0 and '1 =S coincide
(Fig. 6.44), a nd thus the warping is

611 = 11(0) - 11(S) = 0. (6.186)

fisure 6.44: 'f he rela1ive- dt.<iplacement a t the '"cur of a c losed


sc.cllon be-ant subjected lo pure torque.
6.5 TORSION OF THIN-WALLED BEAMS 253

Figure 6.45: 'fbe torque canicd by 1\\-11 and b)' iWt,,.


where S is the le ngth of the circum(erence. By employing Eq. (6.185), we write
s
Liu= - 2All + J
0
r(.,dq = - 2Ail + f yf,d11 = O, (6.187)

y~,
where A is the enclosed area and 1 is the shear strain. Fro1n this equation the
rate of t\vist is

0=
1 1.
A .f Y,,dq. (6.188)
2
ln thin\\aJled, cl osed~section beams the torque due to the induced t\vist mo
n1e nt :\1~~ is s mall con1pare d with t he torque d ue to the induced shear force NE,,
(Fig. 6.45). In the follo\ving v.e neglect the twist mome nt M~ 11
We introduce the s he ar flov. q defined as the integral of the s he ar s tress across
the thickness

q= f r,,d~
(11)
N,,, (6.189)

where it is the thickness or the waU. The torque produced by q (or N,, ) is (Fig. 6.46)

1' = f qpt111=2Aq, (6.190)

where p is the distance Detween an arbitrary point and the tangent to the \Vall.
Accordingly, the s hear fto\v is

f (6.191)
q = 2A.
Equation (6. 191) is the some as the Bre dt- Batho formula' developed for thin-
walled, closedsection isotropic bean1s.
Equation (6.90) yields
(6.192)
To sin1pliCy this expression '"e select a re ference surCace at 'vhich !J66 (denoted
by ~;0 ) is zero. l11e 66 con1ponent of the con1pliance matrix corresponding to this

1 T. H. G.1''1ci.<SOn, AiYcraft S1n~cturesftJr Engi11nrl118 Studer11S> .lrd cdi1ion. Ha1!>tcd Pr~ Jo h n \Vik)'
& Sons.. New York. 1999, p. 307.
254 BEAMS

figure 6.46: The torque. carried by t he. shc.ar Ao"' 11.

s urface, \\ hich v.e refer to as the "torque neutral'' surface, is (Eq. 3.48)
1

fj~ = IJ66 + '1'5ti6 (6.193)

'vhere f366 and ~66 are the components of the co111pliance n1atrices in the arbitrariJy
chosen reference surface, and v is the location of the "torque neutral., surface
(Fig. 6.47). For fJ;;. = 0, Eq. (6.193) yie lcl<

"= - fJ..
-
8.,,
(6.194)

By applying Eq. (6.192) a t the " torque ne utral"' surfac.e, we have


(6.195)

'vbere the superscript v refers to the ''torque ne utral surface (Eq. 6. t 94). and &66
is given by Eqs. (3.48) and (6.194) as follows:

" =
(l66 Oi66 + 2.
''"'66. + v,,066 = 0t66 - & (6.196)
8
By combining Eqs. (6.188)- (6.195), we obtain

(6.197)

With refere nce to Eq. (6.162), we see t ha t the replaceme nt torsional stiffness Ci,
is
- 4A2
GI,= y-;;--d (6.198)
.'l' CIM '1
\Vhen t he 'valJ"s layup is syn1metrical, a~ = a66 For a thin~v.aUed isotropic
beam,<>66 = a.. = 1/ Gh(Eq. 3.43). a nd the to rsional stiffness (Eq. 6.198) becomes
.- 4A:
GI, = GI, = G/C l/ hld -
The "'4.t element of the compliance ma trix is \V44 = l / G/1 .

Arbitrary ..Torque nc.utral''


rcfcrroc-e surface surfact'

" ,,
Figure 6.4 7: ' Jbc torque neutral sur(ace. \\1hcre. iM is ze,ro.
6.5 TORSION OF THIN-WAI.LED BEAMS 255

,,
1,,. 52 nt1n

-I[]fl
p =- 6SOON/m
bw 68mm
t*******i h 2mm
l = tOOO mm df SO mm
rl 70 mm
. d .
1. t i
Figure 6.48: The beam in Eumplc. 6.3.

Strtssu an.d strain. The strai1U and curvature in each ply a t the torque neu-
trar surface are given by (sec Eq. 6. 90)

0

Yt',
K(
= 0
0
a .. N,,. (6.199)

Ko 0
Kh 0

where N1. q is the sheor flow calculated hy Eq. (6.191).


With the preceding strains nnd curvatures. 1he s1resses are calculated by
Eqs. (6.181) ond (6.182).

6.3 Exantple. An L = l .0..111 ... fong box bel11tJ, udrh the cross section s!JOH'n in Fig
ure 6.48. is 1nade of graphit~ t /) O.f)' 1'1H nJttferlal properlies are given in Table 3.6
(page8/)- Tire layup i" [45~/012/4SIJ. Tlie beam, b11i/1-i11 at eacll emf. is s11bjec1ed
=
ro a t1nifor111/y di,strif111ted load (/1 - 6 500 Nhn) 11ctiug ttt 1/Je ulidplnne of tire lefl
lt1eb (Fig. 6.49). By negl ecting the cjJ'ec1s of 11.rial restraint, C(l/culate tire 1naxiu1111u
dejfettiou and the 111axinuun 1111i.\'I,

Solution. The cross sect ion is doubly syn1mctricnl, nnd both the centroid and the
shear center (see Section 6.7.3) coincide \Vith the center of the cross section. The

p =- 6 SOO Nim
n',,

z
i<---..1
d,
~
2
Figutt 6.49:: Load.mg on 1hc box beam 1n Eumpk 6..3 (kft). and the loaduig .,,h respect lo the
shear ceo.ter (ngbt).
256 BEAMS

~(Nm)
541.7 /1
~ l.O~ength,x (m)

81.25
b:. <:::::::::j l.0 '
Length, :i: ( n1>

Figure 6.50: 'l'he bending moment i\11 . shear force: Ci':. and torque. f diagrams for the: be-am 1n
Ex.ample: 6.3.

loads \\1th respect to the shear center are (Pig. 6.49}


N
p = - 6500 - (distributed load)
m (6.200)
d1 Nm
t = - p x - = 162.5 - - (distributed to rque}.
2 lll
The corresponding bending n1on1ent 1Wy.shear force V~, and torque f diagrams
are shown in Figure 6.50. The n1aximun1 values are

'
nrn~x 2
pL
.u, = - )2 = 541.7 N . m
v"~' = pL = - 3 250 N (6.201)
' 2
f"~' = tL =81.25N m.
2
The compliance matrices for the flange and the 'veb are the san1e., and their
relevant e leme nts are n:,ble 3.8, page 85)
m m _ 1
a11 = 5.18 x J0- 9 - a,. = 27.77 x 10- -N d11 = 33.10 x 10-> - N
N m
The dimensions are (Pig. 6.48) be= 0.052 m, bw = 0.068 m. d = 0.07 m, de=
0.05m.
From Table A .I the bending stiffnesses are

- be d' 2bc
E 1vr = - - - + - - +
2b! 34692N m'
(a11)r 2 (d11)1 12(au }w
(6.202)
Ef .. =~df + 2b.. + 2bi 20924N m' .
(ll11}w 2 (d11)w 12{ll11)1
The torsional stiffness GI, is (Table A.6, with a;:. replaced b y a66)
2
-- 2di d :!
GI, = aa6(, I) = 7 352 N m . (6.203)
fir+ (,
b.b I UK~IUft UI" I "INWALLtU tU:AM~ lbl

br=- '2 mrn


bw s 68mm
h =- 2mm
d,= SOnvn
d =- 70mm

.\- 24000N
Figure 6.SJ : Cron Kct1o n or lhr beam 1n Examplc 6.4 and 1hr l~d 11ppl11:.d on the bram.

The maximum dcAcction is (Table 7.3, page 332)


- l pl.'
w = - "?" = - OJ.I()() 488 m = - 0.488 mm. (6.204)
384
E1,1
111e mnxin1um t\Visl is al x = L/2 and is

'/! =
1.o
1./l 11tfX =1'n" -=-tfX.
f
G/
(6.205)
1

The torque r varies linearly with x. and !he preceding integral yie lds
f-'L
t = ~ = 0.002 76 rad= 0.158'.
4..,,, (6.206)

6.4 Exampk. An L = l .0.111/ong box bta111. witlr d1t cross staio11 sh~11 i11 Fig
urt 6.51, is 11u1dt ofgraphite epoxy. Tlrt 111art.rial proptrtits an glvt-n in Tobit 3.6
(page 81). Tlr. layup i.< I45~/0 10]. 17refabric iso111heo111sid<ofrh mll. 71re b.am,
=
l>ui/1./11 al eaclt end. is subjected 10 a unifortuly dis1rlb111ed loud ( p - 6 500 Nltn)
acling along rht 111idpla11e of rite left iveb and to an axial load N = 24 000 N. By
neglecti11g the effec.~rs of axit1l restraint, calculate tire nuLti11111111 deflection a11d the
111axi11u1111 uvi.rt.

Solution . The c 1os.~ section is doubly S)'llln1etrical. and the ccn1roid a nd the shear
center (see Section 6.7.3) coincide \vith the center of Lhc cross scc1io11. TI1e loads
Yr'ilh respect LOthe she ar cen1er and the corresponding be nding mome nt 1 \.i ,. shear
force V,. and torque f .re given in Example 6.3 (page 255).
The layup or each "'311 is orthotropic and unsymmetrical. The compliance
matrices for the flange and 1he web are the same. and their rclcV3nl ele ments are
(see Table 3.9. page 86).
m
a;:'= 11.65 x t 0-9 -N a:!' = 43. 70 x 10- mN
l I I
tJW = - 13.97 x 10- -
N
>1r = 12 22 x JO-" -
{J12 N tJ-::: = 51.60 x io- -
N
1
6'11' = 34.94 x 10"' - -
1
N in
&~t = - 25.74-NI 6~ =98.83 -Nm
-.
11 m
1
6!',!" = 131.l I x 10- i - -
N m
.......
/ Neutral plane
o,o....... 7.. . . . . . . . t e-
452' t

IE
Figure" 6.52: The neutral plane.o f Lhe beam in Example 6.4.
\vhere MP refers to the midplane of the wall. The dimensions of t he bean1 are
(Fig. 6.51) br = 0.052m, b. = 0.068m, d = 0.07 m, and d1 = 0.05m.
To evaluate the bending stiffnesses, \Ve determine the position of the neutral
plane (Eq. 6.105 and Fig. 6.52) as follows:

(i = - ::r
/3't>.f1'

~II
= 0.0004 m = 0.400 mm. (6.207)

At the O reference plane the con1pliances of the flanges and the 'vebs are
(Eq. 3.48)

Ctl I = a~:r + 2Q{3~:r +


1
e m
st:r = 6.056 x 10- 9 N
(!,.. = f!l:f,'' + Q~~ = 104.04 x 10... ..!.. (6.208)
N
~11 11 =34.9 4 x 1o->- N
=J "" I
. 01
From Table A.3 the be nding stiffnesses are
-, l
-11r = -
E br -d- + 21,,
-- + 2b-., = 29 214 N m' (6.209)
(et11)e 2 (J11)1 l 2(a11)w
-- bw dl 2bw 2bj !
(,=-(-)-~ +-(,
l +
au w 2 011 .....
( ) =17 463Nm,
12 a 11 r
(6.210)

where the dime nsions J and de are (Fig. 6.52) J = d - 2(1 = 0.0692 m, d1 =
de - 2i1 = 0.0492 m.
The torsional stiffness Gi1 is given in Table A.6 Y.~th reference to the Bneutra l
plane as
2
-- - 2dfd - 2
(6.21 1)
Cf,_ a;:.(de+d) - 8726N m.

where a;;. is (Eq. 6.l 96)

~"'' - 10-9 ~.
2
' -
66 - "'66
(f!,';J,")
()~tJ>
-
-
2340 x N (6.212)
" 66

T he accuracy of Ci,, as calculated by Eq. (6.2 11), is improved whe n Ci, is evalu
ated in reference to the "torque neutrar surface. Equation (6.194) gives
11= - f!i:f,P/J't,f," = - 0.394 mm. When d a nd de a re replaced by d - 211 = 0.0708
and de - 211 = 0.0508 m, respectively, Eq. (6.211) results in Ci, = 9 087 N m2
Next, we c:alculmc the tensile stiffness. From Eqs. (6. 156) and (6.157). we have

_.,,.
{J -
II -
(fJ"'' - Pt~'' tl)- - to 79
ll
6
t.tP
6~
- . X
10-< .!._
N
(6.213)
6""
u -
- (1"'
u
- (&~i"J')-- 28
&~' .
1
23 x 10-J - -.
Nm

The location of the referen<e surface is (Eq. A.3)

"""11, =0.000 382 m = 0.382 mm.


o= - ~ (6.214)

'"
At the e reference surface. the complianc.e.s of the flanges and lhe \Vebs are
(Eq. 3.48)

<tu = &~:i + 2Qp~;IP + Q28~:r = 6.067 X 10- 9 ~

fJ12 =fJ~J'' +1/6~l" =2.380 x 10- ~


I
611 =aw =34.94 x io-' --
N m (6.215)
1
1., = 1w = - zs.14 x 10-' - -
N m
I
- = &ti = 98.83 x
'" 10- 3 - - .
Nm
With these rompliana:s from Eqs. (6.156) and (6.157). for both the Hange and
the ~eb \Ve hnve

- ( (/112)') _9 m
'"' = U!! - ~ =6.01x10 N
(6.216)
- 11 ( 11 (612)') l
8 = ~ - &,;, =28.23 x 10- 3
N. n

From Tublc A.3 the te nsile stiffness is


,.,..,
""' =
2b, 211.
- +.,,--) =39.934xl
(-)
o N. (6.217)
U11 f (011 w

The moximum dcOection is (Table 7.3. page 332)


I pL'
iii = - ,,,., = -0.000 579 m = -0579 mm. (6.218)
J8.S cl,.,
The ma.ximum twist is at x = Lf2 and is

>/t = 1 ~tl.r J.
U2
=
U2 f
&, dx. (6.219)

Torque T varies linearly \Vith x, thus, the integral above yields


f"' 11.. L
>/t = ~ = 0.002 33 rad= 0.133'. (6.220)
4(il,
260 BEAMS

\\/here fm:iJr. = 81.25 N~'" (Eq. 6.201 ). The elongation of the bean1 is

1L fii FJL
1
1.
t;. L= s,tlx = -=dx = -= = 0.000 601 m = 0.601 mm. (6.221)
o o EA EA
6.5.4 Closed Section Orthotropic Beams - Multicell
For multicell con1posite beams the rate of t\vist a nd the shear flo\\'Sare detem1ined
in the s..1n1e v.ay as for isotropic bean1s. Accordingly, for a beam consisting or L
cells the torque is
I.
f = I; 2A,q,, (6.222)
,_,
\\here A 1 is the enclosed a rea or the /th cell and q1 is the shear flow in the /th cell
(Flg. 6.53). The shear strain y. in each wall segment iscakulated by (Eq. 6.195)
(6.223)
\vhere q is the shear flov. in the wall segme nt. Then, the rate of twist of each cell
is (Eq. 6.188)

11, = ,!--
_ A,
f ;:.qt111
i:dl l

(6.224)

For a v.aJI that De.longs to one cell only, q is equal to the shear flo,v of the
appropriate cell (q = q1). For a wall that belongs lo two cells, the shear flow is the
sum of the shear Ho,vs of the adjacent cells, as illustra ted in Figure 6.53.
The rate of t\vist of each c.ell is the same
(6.225)
There are L + I equations (Eqs. 6.224 and 6.222) that can be solved for the
L + I unknowns: q1 (I = I. 2, . .. . L) a nd O.
The stresses in the \\'alls are calcuJated a....; for a single -cell beam.

1-i gure 6.53: She.ar flo''' in multicell be-ams.


6.5 TORSION OF THIN-WALLED BEAMS 261

v,

Figure 6.54: Thin-,,alled I-beam.

6.5.5 Restrained Warping - Open-Section Orthotropic Beams


\\'hen an isotropic beam is subjecte d to pure torsion and the cross sections of the
beam are free to warp, the torque is (Eq. 6.161)

(6.226)

When the bean1 is axially constrained a t one of its cross sections (for exan1ple
at a builtin e nd). then. at this cross section, warping cannot occur. The shorter the
bean1, the n1ore important are the effects of restrained \varping. Furthern1ore, the
effects o( restrained \\'arping a.re more pronounce d for thinwalled op-ensec.tion
bean1s than for thin.walled closedsection bean1sand for solid cross.section bean1s.
Therefore. in this section, \Ve consider only restraine d \Varping of open-section
bean1s.
We illustrate lhe analysis through the exa1uple of a sy1nme trical I-beam
(Fig. 6.54).
Isotropic I bea111s. Under pure torque, in lhe absence of ax:ial constraint. the
shear stress distribution in an isotropic l ~beam is as shov"1t in Figure 6.55. When
the beam is axially restrained, axial forces 1V~ (per unit length) a re introduced in
the \\all (Fig. 6.56, botton1). These axial forces ere.ate a bending n1oment Mrg

....... d 2 ur
M 1 = - -d , Et,, (6.227)
x-
where 11 is the moment of inertia of the flange about the taxis denoted by

Ir= h,b/' (6.228)


12
brand II, are the \\id th and the thickness of the Ranges (Fig. 6.54}, respectively; "'
is the displacement of the Hange due to the rotation about the x -axis (Fig. 6.57),

vr =~ 2 " (6.229)

where d is the distance bet\\een the n1idplanes of the Hanges. We recaJI that

11 T. H. G. tiilcgson,~1in:raf1 StnrauY~-'ftJr 11gir1teriJ1~ Sruilenrs.3rd edition. Halsted Pre.s..;.Jobn \ViJcy


& Sons;, Ne"'' York. 1999, p. 467.
262 BEAMS

-~
~
Figure 655: Isotropic lbcam unde r pure. torque with no axial constraint

Ii= do/f/ dx (Eq. 6.1). Thus, we have


dvr d
- = 1? - (6.230)
dx 2
The bending 1uo1nent J\111nay now be e xpressed as
.\1, = _ do Ehrbf ~- (6.231)
. dx 12 2
\Ve nov. introduce the bin1o ment J\1," defined for an lbean1 as
(6.232)

The last tv.o e quations give

-
A/Pl = - d11
- (Ehrbf
dx
--d- .
24
J (6.233)
~
El, .

The term indicated by the bracke t is the 'varping stiffness Eidt.


Owing to the axial constra int, t he be nding n1ome.n t 1\:ic varies along the xaxis
o( the beam. Correspondingly, there is a shear force in the Hanges. The rela tionship
between the flange s hear force and the flange bending n1oment is

v, =aft,_ (6.234)
dx
The s hear force results in a torque fw(Fig. 6.56, bottom) de fined by
f . = Vcd (6.235)

Figure 6.56: Isotropic I-beam unde r pure torque wilh axial cons.traint.
6.5 IUHSIUH U~ THIN WAll.fU KEAMS 263

A'~ ...., '' d


..;.:..,.. \ l'( C::\_I -
.., \
' ,
...... ... ') 2

Figure 6.57: Rocahon of an I-beam about the x-a.ns.

Equation (6.232). (6.234), and (6.235) give

f "'= di\l.... (6.236)


1/x
From E qs. (6.2.111) and (6.233) we have
.... (/2,,
T.11 = - /.., dx2. (6.237)

where the warping stiffness El. is (see Eq. 6.233)

1. = i11bf ,p. (6.238)


24
The total torque is

1'=~ + (I.) - d~l. ( d'") (6.239)


f. -...-
f.
where T,,.. and f ... are referred to as the "Saint-Venant"' and the "res1rained-
warping-induccd" torques. respectively.
Orlltotropic l.ben111.f. The expression for the to rque or o rtho tropic beanlS is
similar to the exprc.sion for isotropic I-beams (Eq. 6.239) '"' fo llOI"':

(;7,,, +
1' = .._,_- d D) '
mW(- -,
1
(6.240)
tfX-
f. ~
f.

The torsional stiffness Gi1 presented in Section 6.5.2 is unaffected by the axial
cons traint and i.s given by Eq. (6.175).
h remain< to determine the warping stiffness fl... By referring to Eq. (6.238).
we see th31 the warping stiffness or an isotropic I-beam is a function of the product
of the Range's modulus and thickness Ii (El.. - Eli). This Ell is related to the
o.<ial fo rce (per unit length) in the Oaoge as follows:

Ni =ilo1 = Ell<; . (6.241)

For a beam with orthotropic la)'Up, N1 is (see Table 6.2. page 222)
,., 811 <u /J1 I
=- (6.242)
' "~
D t - - K1
D
264 BEAMS

Table 6.9. Boundary conditions for


beams in torsion.
\Varping restrained b =0
un rtstrained M. =o
Rotationally restrained \Ir =0
unrestrained f=O

This equation applies at a reference plane chosen arbitrarily. At the neutra l..
plane (see Eq. 6.105) fJ11 = 0, and, he nce (see Table 6.2. page 222), we have that
8 11/ D = 1/a~1 where the superscript e indicates that a f 1 is evaluated a t the flange's
"neut ra r plane. With these substitutions the preceding equation becomes

" I o (6.243)
1 "~ = e~E
Ct ll

By compa ring Eqs. (6.243) and (6.241). we see that an orthotropic beam's ten
sile stiffness 1/crf1 corresponds to an isotropic beanl's tensile stiffness Eh. \ Ve use
this correspondence and evaluate the warping stiffness of an o rt hotropic I-beam
by replacing Eh by l/a~1 in Eq. (6.238). The result is
.l..b'
- r 2
El... --~d24 . (6.244)

Orthotropic bean1 - arbitrary cross section. Equation (6.240} can aJso be used
for thinv.alled bean1s \vi th o the r c ross.sectional shapes by using the a ppropriate
torsional a nd warpingstiffnesses. The torsional stiffness&, is given by Eqs. (6.170)
and (6:t75). TI1e \varping stiffness El~ of an ortho tropic beam is obtained by re...
placing Eh by l /ar1 in the a ppropriateexpressions9 for thecorrespooding isouopic
l:>ean1. The warping stiffnesses El"' of frequently use.cl cross sectio ns are included
in 'fable A.5.
Boundary co11ditio11s. When the 'varping of the cross section at the e nd of
a bean1 is restrained. the distortion is ze ro. When \Varping is not restrained. the
bi11101nent is zero.
\Vhen the e nd may rotate. the to rque is zero. '\Vhe n the end is rotationally
restraine d, the rate of twist is zero.
The preceding boundary cond itio ns a re sun1ma rized in Table 6.9.

6.5.6 Restrained Warping - ClosedSectlon Orthotropic Beams


Warping of c losedsection bean1s is often negligible. ' ''arping n1ay be.con1e signif..
icant. tho ugh, \Vhe n the shear stiffnesses of different v.aJI segments a re ma rkedly
diffe rent. This is illustrated in Figure 6.58.

" S. P. li.mosbcnko and J. Gere. T/umry fJf El'u'tic Srahilitr. 2nd edition. ~tcGraw-HiJI, NC\\' York, 1961.
p. 530.
6.6 THIN-WALi.ED BEAMS WITH ARBITIIARY LAYUP 265

-~ -,

,'
,
'
z
Agu.rc 6-~ \\~rpng, of hox beam sut>,cctcd to 1ors1on ilcn (..). C: (-..)..

6.6 Thin-Walled Beams with Arbitrary Layup Subjected to Axlal Load,


Bending, and TOl'Slon
ln this seclion we 1ren1 thin.walled. open and closed-section bcnnl~. The beams
wall consistsornatscgmenL< (Fig. 6.59) designated by tho subscript k(k = I. 2 .. _. _
K. '"here K is 1hc to ta l nunlber of \\all segments}. The cross section n1ay be
synunctrical or unsy1n1netrical, a nd the layup of the beam is arbitrary. that is. the
layers are not ncc:cssnrily orthotropic.
111e bea1n i5 subjected to an axial fo rce Fi. beading nlon1cnts .W ..,. M:. and
torque f acting nt the centroid.
We employ two coordinate systems (Fig. 6.60) for the beam: the .r -)~t coor
dinate system with its origin at the centroid and the X-f -i coordinate system \\rith
its origin at 3.n arbitrarily chosen poi.nL The location of the centroid with respect
to the orig.in of the 1-)'-:! coordinate system is given in Section 6.6.3.
The displacements of the longitudinal a'<is. passing through the centroid. are
u. v. "''fl (Fig. 6.3). where u is the axial displacement. v and "' or< the transverse
displacements in the y and z directions.. and 1/1 is the twist or the cross section.
lo the x-y-z. coordinate system the re lationships bet\\een these displacements.
the axial strain ':. 1he curvatures l /Py. 1/ P::_ or the x~axis. and the ra1c of t'vist tJ
(Eq. 6. 1) arc

IJU a'w 1 al/I


-=' Cl
- = 1. (6.245)
ax ~ ax2 = - Py ax
In lhe i -Y-i coordinate system these re lationships bcoo1nc

au a2w= - - a~
-=
a:t '
-"'3"
ax- P'J
- --
ax- /), (6.246)

J:jgurc 6.59: Forcell on open nnd closed cros.<>-sec11on. lh1n-wnlkd 11<:anl11 '''llh Onl w::ill $cgments.
266 BEAMS

4:th \VSJI
scgnlt~ nt

;;

Figure 6.60: fbe coordi nalc syste ms emplo)1Cd in the analysiso( thin,~alled be-a ms wilh ar bitra.l)'
layup.

'''here f*,
1/ p y, 1/pz are the axial strain and the curvatures of the longitudinal
axis passing t hrough the origin of the X- )i- t coordinate systen1, and ii, ii. W, and
~ are the displacen1ents o( the X-axis.
The force, n1ome nt, and torque resultants at the origin o( the bar coordinate
system Rx, tWy, ,\1;;, f K are related to the force applied at the centroid by the
expressions,

(6.247)

\\here ~ and Ye are the coordinates of the centroid in the bar coordinate syste m
(Fig. 6.61 ). For bo th open- and c.losed -sectio n beams t he (orce-strain and strain-
force re la tionships in the x- y-i coordinate system are (Eqs. 6.2 and 6.17)

r1['
~..,, =
M,
f
P 11
P,,
P"
P12
Pu
P,_,
p,.,,
Pu

Pn P,, ' ]j;


P,.. Pi.11

f'.14 P.,
,,.,

,,.L
I>
(6.248)

11"' .
.L
P<
/}
[:
w;,
0
\i'22
H'n
\\'Ll
0
"~1
l\~u
l\~a
""]! ~1
\Vi.t
11'.1'
w,.
M ,.
,:;;; .
f
(6.249)

- ~ z

> y ;----1--,.'-'6 : y
y
fi,
./
x
Figure 6.6 1: Scam subjected lo an axial (orce a l the cc nlro 1d a nd the resultant a:ual force-and
n1ome-nts in t he X-Y--Z coordinate. S)'Stc-m.
6.6 THINWALLED BEAMS WITH ARBITRARY LAYUP 267

In the bar coordinate syste111 these re lat ionships are \Vritten as

1~1
,Q,
f.-
=
l'
P11
/513
/514
P 12
P22
Pn
Pu
P2J
Pi., P:u ? ,..
pl4 p .l4 P,14
~"] 11
,,
.L
p;
F
(6.250)

111 [w
.Lw,,,
111

PZ-
F
-
-
lV12

w,,.
-
IV12
\.V22
\..VL,
W2i1
w,_,
l \'2.~
IV.JJ
w.. .
w,.lJ
\.-V1.f
IV:w
W.i.s
r1
!~y
'1< .
T-;
(6.251)

where [ P ], IP], I IV), and [W] a re the stiffness and compliance matrices in the
ce ntroid x- y- x and bar X-Y- Zcoordin ate systems. These matrices are obtained by
reasoning similar to that used in the derivations of the stiffness and con1pliance
n1atrices of o rt hotropic beams (Sections 6.3.3 and 6.4). For beams \\'ith a rbitrary
layup the algebra ic steps are long and laborious lo a nd the ir presentation is beyond
the scope of this book. The results are sun1n1arized in Table 6.10.
The compliances 0t;;.fi1i, ~;;, which a ppear in Table 6.10. are evaluated in the local
~-1~-~ coordinate systen1. For the kth segn1ent " 'e e n1ploy the ~k-'11:-~k coordinate
system \vith the origin at the. midpo int of the re ference plane of the kth segn1ent,
where~ is paralle l to the x coordinate, 1~ is a long the circumfe re nce of the \Vall,
and ( is perpendicular to the circumfe re nce; Yk and Zk a re the coordinates of the
~1r-rr1:--~k coordinate system's o rigin . \\hich is at t he n1idpoint of the refere nce plane
(Fig. 6.60). For c losedsection bea1ns, rJA: points in the oounte rclock\vise direction
(Pig. 6.62), ct1: is the angle betwee n the 111:- a nd )icoordinate axes., and b1r is the 'vidth
of t he wall segment (Fig. 6.59).
We o bserve that for orthotropic beatns the expressions in Table 6.10 yie ld the
stiffness matrix given in Eq. (6.7).

6.6. t Displacements of Open and Closed-Section Beams


In the analysis \\'e n1ust take into account that t hin\valled De.ams with a rbitrary
layup respond to loads differently than bean1s with ortho tropic layup. Forexa1nple,
an o rtho tropic beam subjected to an axial load defonns., as sho,vn in Figure 6.63
(left). A thin-walled beam with a rbitrary layup deforms as shown in Figure 6.63
(right). Thus, the c.ross sections of be.an1s \\'ith a rbitrary layup do not ren1ain
plane, and the Be rnoulli- Na.vier hypo thesis is inapplicable. Nonetheless, in a long
body, such as a beam. the stra ins may be considered to be constant in the axial
direction, a nd \Ve n1ay apply the plane- strain condit ion (Section 2.4) in the a nalysis.
111e displacen1ents are then calculated \\it h this approxin1ation fron1 t he gov.
erning equations together with the force- strain re la tionship given in Table 6.10.

tu L. P. Kollar and A . Plu1..sik. Analysis or 1ltin \Vallcd Composite Bcanls with Arbitrtu)' Layup,
Jt11~nu1I of Rei11forced Plastics t111d C<HU/>O.~ites. Vol. 21 . 1423-1465. 2002.
268 BEAMS

Table 6.10. Stiffness and compliance matrices in tile bar ([PJ , [WD and centroid
([ PJ, ( WJ) coordinate systems of open- and closed-section beams with art>itrary
layup. The elements <>11, {:111. 611 are evaluated at tile {.-q1.--(k coordinate system
of each wall segment. The enclosed area of closed-section beams is denoted by A.
The superscript T denotes transpose.
Bar coordinate systt tn: [W) = [PJ- 1
K
Open-section be.a m:
...
[Pl= I::IR..f'[w,J-'[R..I
K

...
[Pl= E<I 11,J'[.,,J-'I R;I) + [LIT[ FJ- 1[L)

Centroid coordinate system: [111 = [R,]' [IV)(R,,] (PJ = (IVJ- 1

I 'i.
(R,) =
[
0 cor,
0
0
s1 n a~
0
~"]
ki
A.\1 t
=
[""/Jn
/Ju,

[w) = ;;
I
[""
/ju
0
f111
611
0
0
0
__g_
cAuJrt.i
-lf!"] [~.1 [~
-~di(,
= ) '<
0
0 0OJ
0 I 0
-~/.116 -iiSu. 0 !&.t. 0 0 0 I

t. [""
[ii = .1.-...1 P12
f!&l?.. 0 -)~] [w,r' IR.J
0
- i l' l) *
[LJ =[O 0 0 2
0 0 0 :]-111

(F] = ,., t (b~"'" A:] ["flu &2.? I!. - Sn 0 -~Ji.; ,.


J
p,,. 0 - ~ftr;.. [w,i:]- t [ ""
ftr.i
0
p.,
81 2

-l!l.s - !Su ,
0
l)
,,
[~J = [~ [a"p,. .. .
0 /!11
0
0 0 3J (ii,] = P11 ~,,

~
f!~ .. ]
.!,,; ;
[""p,., .,.P"],
1;;,1= /li.1 ,,

6.6.2 Stresses and Strains in Open- and


Closed-Section Beams
We describe the stresses and strains inside the \Vall \vith reference to each wall
segn1ent's ~k-'~k-~k coordina te systen1 (Fig. 6.60). The forces a nd 1noments inside
the \\all ar e sho,vn in Figure 6.64.
By applying the results of the la111ina te plate theory, the strains and stresses
in the kth wall segment are obta ined by re placing x by ~, y by r1, and .t by ~ in
6.6 THINWAllED BEAMS WITH ARBITllARY LAYUP 269

Figure 6.62: The local coordinate system attached to the.kth wall seg.mc.nt (kf1) and the direc.Llon.c;
of the n coordinates (right) in a dose.c:lsection beam.

Eqs. (3.7) and (3.11) as follows:

(6.252)

(6.253)

where IQ'Jk is evaluated in the .t'th \Vall segme nt's ~k-''k-(k coordinate systen1.
In the kth segn1ent's reference plane the strains and curvatures a re calculated
from the strain- force relationships (Eq. 3.22), which. for convenience, are repro~
duced as foLJo,vs:
,.. /111 /112 fJ1 N,
,.' "" "" "'

Y(1t
K!
=
0-12

"'
/J11
etio
et22
Ct26
/J,1 P.1
.
.,
/J,1 lh1 /Ju.
A.1 /J61 !J..
811 612 &t6
N
Nt.,
M,
(6.254)

K,! /J11 /322 p,,, 812 622 s,. M


K<o
/J1. p,. p,.. s,. s,. s.. k M!.,, k

where the k subscript refers to the kth seg1nent and <xq, fJij- &;; are evaluated in the
.(1h \Vall segment's ~k-1~1;-{1: coordinate systen1. The preceding expressions apply
both to open and c.losedsection beanu. The dif(erence in the t\vo types o( beams
is in the expressions used to calculate the forces and mon1ent (per unit length)

Figure 6.63: Displacements of an orthotropic beam {left) and a beam "'ith a rbilraT)' layup (right)
under tension.
2711 BEAMS

ONwM"'
figure 6.64: 'The fore.cs and moments (per unit length) acting 1n lhe .(1h \Vall o f an o pc.n or
dosed-section beam .

inside the \\ all. The relevant e xpressions, derived by Pluzsik and Koll:ir,11 are
1

sumntarized in the remainder of this section.


Ope11seclio11 bean1. A long the free longitudinal edges of the bean1, the in
plane forces and moments (per unit length) are zero: N, = N.,,
= M, = 0 (Fig. 6.24).
Since the dimensions oC the cross section are small compared \\~th the beam s
le ngth, these inplane forces and moments are approximate ly zero inside the 'vall:

(6.255)

The expressions for NE, At(, Mt 11 are

(6.256)

where Ill], IR,,], and IR, ] are define d in Table 6.10.


Closedseclio11 bea111. In a closedsection beam, Nri is negligible; thus,

(6.257)

The re maining fo rce.s and n1on1ents a re

(6.258)

(6.259)

where Ill]. IR,,], [R.], Iv], IF], and [ L] are defined in Table 6.lO.

ll Jbid.
6.6 THINWALLED BEAMS WITH ARBITRARY LAYUP 271

6.6.3 Centroid
The centroid is locrtted s uch thnt lhc bcnm 's axis rein a ins s traigh t when an a xial
force Fi is applied a t the ce ntroid. Allhoug.h this axis ren1ains stra ight, the beam
n1ay t\\ist about the axis of twist. which docs not necessarily coincide '"ith the axis
passing through the centroid.
From E qs. {6.25 1) and (6.247). the curvaiures or the axis. possing through the
origin o f the bar coordin:11e system. are

(6.260)

Since Nx is applied at the centroid. the curvatures of the axis passing through
the centroid are zero (I/ Py = I/ P: = 0). furthcnnore. the curvatures of the a.-Os
passing through the centroid arc the same :tis the curvatures of the axis passing
through the origin of 1he bar ooordinatc system. Thus " 'e have
I I I I
- = - = - = - = 0. (6.261)
Py P: P; P'f
Equations (6.260) and (6.261) yield the coordinates<.. y, o[ the centroid with
respect to the origin of the bar ooordinrnc systen1 as follov.s:

I I [Ill" w,,
z,
w,,1
y, = - 111,,
-rw.lJ LWIJ . (6.262)

6.6.4 Restrained Warping


\\'he n restrained warping i~ ta ken into account and the layup of each \\ all is 1

balanced, the force -s train re lationships mny be nppl'oxi111ated by 12

iii, 1'1 1 1'1 2 p,, f'l4 0


...'
.L
,ff, P12 Jl.i.2 p~, />24 0 '"l.
iii, = P1.1 P,, P.o f';,4 0 (6.263)
f,.., P,. P,, P_,. P" 0 0'"
f. 0 0 0 0 lfl. t1'0
- tfxl

whe re /,,. is to be calc ulated ns for orthotropic beams.. The efects of restrained
warping on 1he displacements and stresses of beams \\'ith unbalanced layup a re
discussed by Bo uld and Tung."

I? A . Ptuzsi.k arid L P. Kollir, Ecc1 Of ShC'ar ~f(l11'11lation and Rcstraiocd \\'arping on the Dis-
plact-mcnts of Compoii.u: lkarm. kHlmal of R~ft>t~ftl l'ftultc.1 #Md Composua. Vol 11. 2002
(mprcss).
u N. R. Boald and L Tttng. A Vbtolbtory !Of' FlbcrR~anlOl"d lk:arru: "1lh llun\\'.alkd ~
Stttions. /111t'm0lttllt#ll.loh1nol of.'WJMJ """ Suutturd. VaL lO. 277-M. 198'.
272 BEAMS

figure 6.65: The:. box beam in axampk 6.5.

FJ = 24 000N
6.5 E.xan1ple. A.IJ L = l n1-long boxbea111, lVit/J 1/1e cross section sho1v1r in Fig. 6.65,
is 1nade of graphite epoxy uuidirecrional plies. Tire tnaterial properties are given in
Tllbfe 3.6 (page 81 j. Tire layttp is [Oto/45 ml, tvirlr the 0-degrce ply 011 rlre outside of
tire 1vall. The bea1n, builtltt at one end and free at the other end, is subjected to a1'
axial load of 24 000 1\1 By neglecting tire effects of axial restrai1tt, find tire position
of the centroid and calculate the 111axin11on axial displttct!lnent and the 1naxi11uu11
11vis1.

Solution. The analysis follows the steps in Table 6.10 (page 268). From Table 6.10
\Ve have

1 t.. >'
(R,,J = 0 c~Slltk - sin 0
ol (6.264)
0 S JDQ'k COS&.t 0 '
[
0 0 0 1
\vhere Y* and z,,. are the coordinates of the midpoints of the \Vall segn1ents, and
Ctk is t he angle bet\veen 11 and the y coord inates at \\ hich ~~ is tangent to the wall
1

segn1ent (Fig. 6.60). The values of these para1ueters for each Range a nd web are
shown in Figure 6.66. \\Cith these values ( R,,J are

,,,, = [j 00
t
0
0.025
- I
0
0
0
OJ
0
1
0.035 - 0.025
- t l
0 0
0 0

The [ Aj matrix for each web and each flange is

Au]
~13 = ["
P11 11 (6.265)
A;u k /316
b.b I HIN- WALLtU tl tAM~ WllH AHtlllKA.Kf LATUt' Z/"J

y, = 0
b~ b 1 50mm :;, = 35
~ aJ = 180"

-o
. 3
E
E ::
y, -25 Y,=25

".... i..
g :. -o " :;,=O
01 =-90"
n, -'lttr
2 q,
.... h 2mm Y1=0
:,=-35
<:r1=0I>

Figure 6.66: Par.1111cten of lhe w;ill.s o f the beam in Example 6.,.

With the cleme nts of the compliance matrix in Eq. (3.56), ii11 for the nanges
(k = I. 3) and ror the webs(k =2. 4) a re
(ii11)1 = (ii11)l = (ii11). =(An)= 1.615 x 10. (6.266)

The distances bely,een the midplanes o f the corresponding wall segment~ are
bi = b, = 0.050 m. I>, = =
b, 0.070 m (Fig. 6.66). The ele me nlS of [wt[ re

0.2688 341.4 0 110.6]


,.,,, =,.,,, = 34~.4 8060350 5~ 21~130 104
[
110.6 214 130 0 974 290

0.1920 243.8 0
78.98]
243.8 575 970 0 1520950 x 10- .
lWJ=W=
I l l Q 0 216.62
[
78.98 152 950 0 695 920
111e [ i ). ( L), uncl ( F[ matrices are

(ii = [ - 107.82 0 0 0.08061 ] J


- 24. 10 0 0 0.187 36 x w-
ILi = [0. 101 s 0 0 0.Cl06919] lo' (6.267)
24.IO 0 0 - 0.187 36 x

(F( = [0.013 39 - 6.474] x 10-<


- 6.474 22 150 .

The stirfncss matrix o( the beam is

(PJ = ([R,f[w1J"' [R1J + (R2JTlwir'IR2) + (R,)'(w,J- ' (R, J + 11.1r1Fr 11L])


309.93
0 0 0.0607 53]
0.029 49 0 l "" (6 268)
= 0 0 0.01798 0 x w, .
[
0.067 53 0 0 0.004 105
...
'vhere P11 is in N~ P22, P33. and P44 are in N . n1 2: and P 14 is in N . n1. The compli-
ance ma trix is
0.025 76 0 0
- 0.423 7]
l WJ= [Pr' = ~ 33091 55063
0
O
...
x JO ,
[
- 0.423 7 0 0 250.56
(6.269)
~ i - - - I - I
\\hereiV11 is in N ~ l.Yu,
W.u , and W44are in N m!; \.V14 is in Nm
The location of the centroid is give n by Eq. (6.262). With the preceding ele
me nts o f the con1pliance ma trix, we have

1;:1 = - [;: ~~:~r'[~::J = l~I (6.270)

The forces acting at the centToid are

(6.271)

;_I [
The strain~ \\ hich are uniforn1 a long the cantilever, are (Eq. 6.249)
1

0 0

I
0.2576 0Jl004 0
,,., = 10- 1 0
x 0
.,l. 0 0.0006
IJ - 0.0042 0 0

= 10.6182 10- 1 .
(6.272)
- 0.01017
The unit of 11 is l / n1. The axial displace1nent a nd the t'vist of the free e nd are

11= ~ x L = 0.6182 x 10- 3 x I = 0.000 618 m = 0.618 mm (6.273)


>/I= IJ x L = - 0.01017 x I = - 0.010 L7 rod= - 0.58.
In cotnparison, u and I/I calculated by the fini te eleme nt method are
11 = 0.616 mm "'= -0.57'. (6.274)

6.7 Transversely Loaded Thin-Walled Beams


We consider a transversely loaded beam (Fig. 6.67). The applied transverse load,
\Vi th components Py and_,Pz:.Jroduces bending mon1en~ Air.:~~' a torque f . and
transverse shear forces v,.,
V~. The bending n1on1ents Mr A1~ give rise to an axial
6.7 TRANSVERSELY LOADED THINWALLED BEAMS 275

-~ ,
~
q c J t{lld(
(')

Figure. 6.67: Internal (orccs a nd stressc-s acting o n 1he cross section of a transversely loaded
thinwalled beam. The. t-1t-{ coordinate sys Iem is shO\\n in Figure 6.60.

stress a(. and the internal fo re.es ~. v~. and f give rise to shear stress r(lf in the
wall. It is customary to represent the shear stress by the shear flo''' q defined as
(Eq. 6.189),

q f
(/1)
r1qd( = Ni.. (6.275)

where Ir is the t hickness of t he \Vall.


The load p, applied along a line A- A may be replac.ed by an e quivalent load
system consisting of a load p, a pplied along line 8-8 a nd a torque load t = - 11,d,
where d is the ho rizontal distance between points A a nd 8 (Fig. 6.68). The load
P:. results in a shear Ho\v q v \vhile the torque load introduces a shear How qr. The
total shear flow is
(6.276)
Both shear flows qT and q" as \\'ell as the axial stress u( cause twisting of the
bea1n. represented by the rate of t\visl 1? as follows:

v=
.'I. due lo
O"(
due lo
+ qT + qV
due to p, a long an a rbitrary
line A- A

The re is a specia l location of lhe line B- B referred to as the shear center.111


When the load is applied a t this location (i.e., a t the shear cente r), the shear flow
q v does not cause l\\isting of the bean1, and lhe r