Composi e Structures
1 Introduction
2 Dlsplac:ements, Strains, and Stresses '
2.1 Strain.Displacetnent Relations 4
2.2 Equilibrium Equations 6
2.3 StressStrain Relationships 8
2.'.I Generally Anisotropic Materilll s
23.2 Monoclinic Ma1erial JI
23.3 Or1ho1ropic Material I~
23.4 Tranovenely Isotropic Material 19
2.3.S Isotropic Material 20
2.4 PlllneStrnin Conditjon 22
2..4. l Free End  Generally 1\ nisotropic Ma terial 28
2.4.2 Free End  Monoclinic Material 30
2.4.3 Free End  O rthotropic. rra11s\e1sely lsotro1)ic.
or lso11opic f\<taterial ~
2.4.4 Buihln Ends  Generally A nisotropic l'\1ateriol 35
2.4.S Built.Jn Ends Monoclinic Material 3()
2.4.6 BuiltIn EndsOrthotropic, Traits\1ersely Isotropic,
or IJ01ropic 1'1a teriaJ 3S
2.5 PlaneStrcss Condition .lb
26 Hygrc>1hermal Strains and Stresses 44
26.1 PlaneStrain Condltioo 47
26.2 PlaneStress Condition 47
2.7 Boundary Condi1ions ~7
2.8 Con1inuity Conditions ~
2.9 Siress and StraJn Tramfornt.atioos 49
2.9. l Stress rransCormation 50
2~9 .2 Strain Transronnation 52
2.9.3 Tran.'l ronnation of the Stiffness and Contplinnce Mauices 53
vi CONTENTS
8 Shells 365
8.1 Shells of Revolution with A.'\.'isynunetrical Loading 367
82 Cylindrica l Shells 368
8.2.1 Membrane lbeory 368
8.2.2 BuiltIn Ends 370
8.2.3 Temperature BuiltIn E nds 379
8.3 Springback 380
S.3.1 Springbac.k of Cylindrical S hells 380
8.3.2 Doubly Curved S hells 384
CONTENTS ix
Index 469
Preface
The increased use of con1posites in ae rospace, land, and 1nnrine applications has
resulted in a growing den1and (or e nginee rs versed in the design of st:ructures
n1ade o f fiber.re inforced composite materials. To satisfy this demand. a nd l o in ..
troduce engineers to the subject of composites. numerolL~ excellent texts have
been published dealing with the mechanics of composites. These ICJ<IS deal with
those fundamental asperu needed by engineers new 10 lhe subjccL Our book
addresses topics nol generally covered by existing texts but that arc necessary for
designing prac1ical suucaures. Among the topics in this book of special interest to
the designer. but thnt usually are not included in standard texts. are stre,s.s...strain
relationships for a wide range of anisotropic materials: bending. buck.Jing. and
\ibration of plate5: bending. torsion. buckling. and vibration of solid as \Veit as
thin\\alled beams; shells: hygrothe nnal stresses and strains: and 6nite element
formulation. The material is presented in s ufficie nt detail to cnnble the reader
to follow the developments leading to the finaJ results. The expressions resulting
from the anolyses a re e ither readily usable or can be translated into a computer
algorithnl. Thus.. the book should be useful to students and researchers \\ishing to
acquire knowledge o f so1ne of the ad\'anced concepts of the mechanics of con1pos
ites as \\'e ll as to e ngineers e ngaged in the design o f structures 1nadc or con1pos ite
n\atc ria ls.
The en1phasis is on analyses built on fundamental concepts thnt are applicable
10 a variety of structural design problems. lo presenting 1hc material 've have
strived to follow lhe outline commonly used in tex1s dealing wi1h the analysis
of structures made of isotropic materials. \\'e have consciously omit1cd empirical
approaches.. Test results are certainly of \TaJue to the engineer. Ho\\ever. for com
po.sites.. the~ mostly apply only under specific circumstances and cannot readily
be generalized to different materials and different applications. We have included
material properties data lo help the designer perform calculntions 'vithout the
need to search 1hc literature.
The book i selfcontained. Nevertheless, the reader will find it helpful to have
a background in n1c.chanics nnd in compos ites and son\c kno,vledgc of differential
xi
xii PREFACE
equations and matrix algebra. Weha\1e made a.n effort to keep the notation as uni
form as practicable and reasonably consistent 'vith accepted usage. The principal
syn1bols are summarized in a list ofsytnbols.
\Ve are grateful to Professor Istvan HegedUs for his constructive comme nts.
We thank Dr. Rita Kiss. Gabriella Tarjan, and Aniko Pluzsik fo r proofreading
portions of the manuscript, Gabriella Tarj3n for preparing the illustrati~ns, and
E.r ic. Allison a nd Sarah Brennan for their help in co1upiling t he index.
Laszlo P. Kollar
Budapesl
George S. Springer
Sta11ford
List of Symbols
\Ve have used, \\'ht revcr possible, notation standard in elasticity, structural anaJy..
sis.. and composite materials. We tried to avoid duplication, although there is son1e
repetition of lhose syn1bols that are used only locally. In the following list \Ve have
not included those symbols that pertain only to the local discussion. BeJo,v. 've
give a verbal description of each symbol and. when appropriate. the number of
1he equation in \vhich the symbol is first used.
Latin let1er1
A area
Jti tensile stiffness of an isotropic laminate (Eq . 3.42)
[AJ. A;1 tensile stiffness of a laminate (Eqs. 3.ll\, 3.19)
(a l "i inverse or the [Aj matrix for symmetric laminates (Eq. 3.29)
(BJ, ~' stillness or a laminate (Eqs. 3.18. 3.19)
(CJ,C11 30 stiffness matrix in the x 1, x1 x.i coordinate system (Eq. 2.22)
fCJ.c,, :\D stiffness matrix in the x, )', l coordinate systc1n (Eq. 2.19)
c moisture concentration (Eq. 2.154); core thickness (Fig. 5.2)
IDJ. D11 bending stiffness of a laminate (Eqs. 3.18. 3.19)
JDJ'.Di, reduced bending stiffness of a laminate (Eq. 4.1)
Di* bending stiffness or an isotropic laminate (Eq. 3.42)
D. D. i5 parameters (Table 6.2, page 222, Eq. 6.157)
(dj . it, inverse or the I DJ matrix for symmetrical laminates (Eq. 3.30)
d. ,r."" distances for sand"ich plates (Hg. 52)
Ei. ,. , Young's moduli in tbe x1 x1 x, coordinate system (Table 2.5)
[) stiffness matrix in tbe FE calculation (Eq. 9.4)
0. tensile stiffness or a beam (Eq. 6.8)
f[I bending stiffu._.. of a beam (Eq. 6.8)
f[I_ warping stiffness of a beam (Eq. 6.244)
F,' F,; mcngth parameters in the quadratic failure criterion (Eq. 10.2)
xiii
xiv LIST OF SYMBOLS
Greek letters
parameter describing shear deformation (Eq. 7.253)
paran1cter desc.ribing shear deformation, i = u;, 1/1, 1V, (JJ
(Eq. 7.244)
[a].<>1; compliance matrix of a laminate (Eq. 3.23)
OI , fJ parameters describing buckled shape of a shell (Eq. 8.78)
ti;; compliances for closedsection beams (Eq. 6.156)
"ii;. 'CX;; thermal expansion coe ffkients (Eqs. 2.153, 2.158)
{J. A parameters in the displacements of a cylinder (Eq. 8.30)
[fl), /11; compliance matrix of a laminate (Eq. 3.23)
Ji;; compliance of symmetrical cn10ssec tion beams (Table 6.2)
P1; compliance of c losedsection beams (Eq. 6.156)
'ii,. 'iii; n1oisture expansion coefficie nts in the x , y. t directions
(Eqs. 2.154. 2.159)
property of the cross section (Eq. 6.360)
shear strain in a beam in the x y a nd x z planes (Eq. 7.2)
engineering shear strain in the x. y, t coordinate system
(Eq. 2.9)
YlJ, Yu . Y12 engineering shear strain in the x1 x 2, x.l coordinate systen1
t.h change in thickness (Eq. 4.282)
t.T temperature change (Eq. 2.153)
lJ, ~.; compliance matrix of a laminate (Eq. 3.23)
'ir; compliance of c lose dsection beams (Eq. 6.157)
7_,_., . . average strains in a sublaminate (Eq. 9.14)
~_,_. , f y , Eit engineering normal strains in the x . y . .z coordinate syste m
) , 21 4'3 engineering no rmal strains in the x1 , x 2 , x3 coordinate syste m
(~. ~. y;~ strains of the reference surface
0.hl f<i.bl .,.o.ht hygrothermal strains in a laminate (Eq. 4.250)
X y t T J:!f
ply orientation
rate of twist (Eq. 6.l)
rate of twist due to bending and shear deformation (Eq. 7.5)
cuntures of the reference surface (Eq. 3.8)
hygrothermal curvatures of a laminate (Eq. 4.250)
load parameter (Eq. 4.109); buckling load parameter
(Eq. 4.121 ); eigenvalue (Eq. 4.225)
l l1Ji , Gi , .Si parameters in the calcuJation of natural frequencies
(Eqs. 6.398. 6.400, 7.203)
Poisson s ratio
coordinates attached to the wall of a beam (Fig. 6.13)
parameters in the expressions of the buckling loads of plates
with rotationally restrained edges (Eq. 4.151)
potential energy (Eq. 2.204)
"
/>..,. P,.., P:: radius of curvature in the yz , x z. and x y planes (Eq. 2.45)
p,. frl , p, radius of curvature in the x 2:c.,. x 1 x;h and x 1x.2 planes
(Eq. 2.53)
Pi:Qmp. Pr, Pm densities of composite, fiber. and 1natrix
p n1ass per unit area or per unit length
normal stresses in the x 1 x2 , .~'J coordinate systen1
normal stresses in the x , )''. l coordinate system
average stress
r:u. r13, r12 shear stresses in the x1, xi , XJ coordinate system
shear stresses in the x, y, t coordinate system
rotation of the normaJ of a plate in t he x x and x y planes
(Eqs. 3.2 and 5.l)
rotation of the cross section of a bea1u in the :c y and x x
planes (Eq. 7.2)
angle of rotation of the croos section about the beam axis
(twist) (Fig. 6.3)
bending stiffness of an unsymmetrical long plate (Eq. 4.52)
potential e nergy of the external loads (Eq. 2.203)
circular frequency (Eq. 4.190)
circular frequency of a beam due to bending and shear
deformation (Eq. 7.1 98)
circular frequency of a freely vibrating bea1n in the :c z and
x y planes. respectively (Eq. 6.398)
circuJar frequency of a freely vibrating beam under torsional
vibration (Eq. 6.400)
dislances bet\\een the ne"' and the old reference surfaces
(Eqs. 3.47, 6.105. 6.107, A.3)
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1
2 INTRODUCTION
~Mattix
~ Fiber
I
~1icronH.:chanks
'+'
l aLn1ns 1plyJ
I
f\lacrom<:chan ics
'+'
~Laminate
I
StructuroJ analy.s1s
iJ? Stn1cture
figure J.3: The le\cl:> of an aJysts or a structure made of lam.in atcd composite.
CHAPTER TWO
Displacements, Strains,
and Stresses
3
4 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
z x,
figure 2.1 : The global x . y. z a nd toe.al xs. xi. .t) coordinate S)'SlCm"
v =
av
 (2.3)
. ay
aw (2.4)
<,=~'
x
figure 2.Z.: The :r. y. z and x1, x2 .t) coordinate syste ms an d the. corresponding displacements.
2.1 STRAll+OISPLACEMENT RELATIONS 5
l'"
r,.
a,
4
F'igure 2.3: The stre.o;ses in the global x. y, z and the local x1, .f'l, X'.\ coordinate ::1yste.ms.
For angular (shear) deforn1ation the tensorial shear strain is the average change
in the angle between two mutually perpendicular lines (Fig. 2.5)
a+ {J
fxy =   (2.5)
2
For small deforn1ations \Ve have
(v+ ~ 6x)  v av
a ~ tan a= = . (2.6}
ax ax
Similarly fj = 3u/ 3y 1 and lhe xy con1ponent of the tensorial shear strain is
f
,., 
1
 
2
(avaz + aw)
 
ay x= :(a" +aw)
' 2 az ax
(2.8)
"
Ttl. fJ !
"
., " ..
Yy, Y,, ?
'
coordinate system
.t_1 , x2, .l)
Tensorial strain
Engine.e ring strain ,,'",, Y?.'
El;! f.U .,. El} f }1
f '!
l'H YIJ
C..ontracted n otation
" " " " "
The engineering shear strains are t\\~ce the tensorial shear strains:
av a 1i;
y,.. = :U,. = 
  at + ay (2.9)
au au;
Yx:o
. = ~x , = at + ax (2.10)
au au
Y.11y = ~xy = ay + ax (2.11)
y .dx'
u
A' B'
('JU
.4 B " +  .d:r.
Lb: ax
C'
L "c
L B'r l
:
il: o 
v A'
iJ.:
11+Ll.r
():c
A Llx B
x
Figure 2.5: "Displace ment of the ABC scgme nl.
where j, is the body force per unit volun1e in the x direction. After simplification,
this equation becomes
(2.1 6}
,'
''
.. , ,,,,_'' ........
' o r 7
l'l
y
i1T~
~  fly
&g .
,, + fl x
:&
'' '"
fly
Figure2.7: Strc~<>.<>C$ on the L\x&y L\.t cuhic element that appear in the ntoment balance about an
axis paralle1 to x and passin~ through the center (point ()).
(2.17)
By virtue of Eq~ (2.17) and (2.18), the three equilibrium e quations (Eqs. 2.13
2.15) contain six unkno\vns, nan1e ly. the three normal stresses (ax, ay, a.,) and the
three shear stresses (ry~ t'.t:= r.1 .v).
In the x,, X2,X3 coordinatesysten1 the equilibrium equations a.re also given by
Eqs. (2,13)(2.15) with x , y, t replaced by x, , Xz , X3 and the subscripts x. y, t by
I. 2. 3.
."
Figure 2.$: Example of a g.c.nerally anisotropic nlaterial.
For a generally anisotropic Jine arly elastic material, in the x. y. z global coor
dinate system, the stressstrain re latfonships are
where C;1 are the e lements of the stiffness matrix (CJ in the x, y, z coordinate
system.
Inversion or Eq. (2.20) results in the following strain stress relationships:
S22
S11
s,, S24 S25 s26 ""
<fy
s,, s36
ss"... s., s"
S1..
s., s... ":
S32
"
Yyz
= 1 :S,u 544
S.s1 s~" s~s s,.
r,. (2.21)
ss".. s62
Yxz Ss2 1'.,~
where Sii are the e ten1ents or t he compliance n1atrix [SJ in the x. y, z coordinate
system and are defined in Table 2.3 (page 10). In this table tests are illustrated
that, in principle, couJd provide means of determining the differe nt con1pliance
matrix e lement".
10 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
ti'
a ,,.
S11
S21
= E,./a,,
= Ey /<T,.
531 = f:/<1,y
s41 = y,~/u...
S;, = r.::/CFt
SM= Y;ry/a.,
Su= E,./ay s.,~ = Y.~?fa,.
~'t:=':> 522 = f y/a,_ Sn = Y.~tfa,..
Su= y,,fat
Sn = ~1?/at
~ "'~
S,, = E,/ a ( S63 = Yryfa t
tov ~ = E,,/r,.,
S2.i
S,,
= E,./r,.1.
= E1,/ Tyt
~.u = Y>tfft1.
s~ = Y.11./r)'I.
SM= Yx1/ r,t
'T,,_z
51; = EN/r,,: S45 = y,.: /t.x:
~~~ S2; = Ey/fJ.:
S.1; = E:/T.r:
s$5 = r.,:/r1:
s~ = Y.1y/T.l:..
"" C24 ~,
\vhere S;; are the ele ments of the compliance matrix [S] in the x i, x 2, x3 coordinate
system.
2.3 STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 11
Plan< of symmruy
x, .,
..
~
figure 2..9: 1'"'1attOM o( fibcrrc1n(orccd moooc.hruc matcruh. The fibcn arc only tn planes
Jralkl 10 t~ X'l .r'l pane of S)""ft:tmctry ltop). only perpcodKUb.r lo the: pbnc of S)1'11mctry
(middle). and 1.n the plane of symmetry and perpc:n<hcular to the plane of 1ymmclry(N>llom).
his evident from Eqs.(2.20) (2.23\ that thecomplianoemotrix ISJis the inverse
of the stiffness ma trix ICJ:
It can be sho,vn (sec Sectio n 2.11.1} that for an elastic mr.terial the sti(fness and
co1n pliance ma Lriccs are syn1me trical in both the x. y. z and ,\' 1, x2 "'coordinate
systems as follo,vs:
Beca\15e of this symmetry. in both the (SJ and the (C( matrices ooly 2 1 of the 36
elements a.r e independent.
Plane of synunctry
y't"
"'l. ;f".'..t' "
~ .: . :l}L _.:  >
Figure 2.10: The normal stre.ss a 1 causes shear strain Yu tn a generaJJy anisotropic material ( le(t}
and no shear strain in a monoclinic material (right).
The elements of the compliance matrix for a n1onoclinic n1aterial are ob ~
tained by 1nodifying t hecon1pliance n1atrix o( a generally anisotropic n1ateriaL
We observe that in a generally anisotropic mate rial a normal stress a 1 causes an
out..ofplaneshear strain YIJ (Fig. 2.10 left), but in a monoclinic mate rial subjected
to a normaJ slTess O'l (<Yt being in the plane of symmetry) the out~ofplane shear
strain }'13 is zero (Fig. 2.10 right). Consequently. for a n1onoclinic material the S's1
element of the co1npliance matrix is zero. By sin1ilar arguments it can be sho,vn that
ti'
er,
Sn = 1 /a 1
Si1 = z/a1
Sn = f'J. /a 1
Sn= y,,/u1 =0
~1 = Yu/<r1 = 0
Sri1 = Yu.fa,
... 7 12
Su. = f 1 /rt~
Su,= f2 / r 12
s.. = Yn/ll? = 0
S.V.. = yu/fu = 0
~
+ S3r. = f'J. / r 1: ~ = Y12/f1 ?
2.3 STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 13
for a monoclinic material the S.11 S.12 S51, S:i 3, S51 , S64 , .~ elements a re a lso zero.
(Since the con1pliance matrix is scyn1metrical the elements S1.t, 52<1~ Szs, SJ4, Sis,&!,,
S56 are a lso zero.) The e lements of the compliance n1atrix are listed in Ta~Je 2.4.
111e elements of the con1pliance n1atrix may be expressed in tern1s of the
engineering constants defined in Table 2.5. ln Tables 2.4 and 2.5 the types of tests
are also illustrated that. at least in principle~ could provide the elements of the
001npliance matrix and the engineering constants. The relationships between the
elements of the compli:ince n1atrix and the engineering constants are sho,vn in
Thbles 2.6 and 2.7.
The nonzero and zero elements of the compliance matrix can best be seen
when the m atrix is \.\'ritten in the forn1
S11 S12 s., 0 0 s,.
S 12 Siz S'' 0 0 Si.
Su S1.1 sl., 0 0 s_,.
IS] = 0 0 0 s,. s,, 0
(2.26)
0 0 0 S.u s,. 0
s,. s,. S3a 0 0 ......
Table 2.5. The engineering constants kJr monocllnk: materials. For ortholropk:, transversely
isotropic, and isotropic materials v1e = ve1 = 0, v26 = vs2 = O, v36 = 1.153 = 0, vs = 1.154 = O
Test Engineering oonstantJ
Y0ung's modulus in lhe x 1 direciion 1 = 0 1/1
Poi..;oson's r.itio in the x1 .r2 plane 1'12' = E2/El
Poi.;;son's ratio in lhe .q .r3 plt:ine lllJ = f.i/ E t
Poisson parameter v ii;= Y1z/E1
Young's modulus in lhe .t"l direction Ez = 02 /E?
Poi..;oson's r.itio in thex?.r1 plane l /'21 =  f1/ E2
Poisson's ratio in lhe .t"l.fJ plane 11'1.; =  f.;/1
Poisson par:uneter 11'2f = yu /E2
Young's modulus in lhe XJ direction 3 = OJ/fJ
Poisson's ratio in lhe XJXt plane l':JI = E1/EJ
Poisson's ralio in lhe XJX2 pla ne 11'J2' = E2/EJ
Poisson parame ter 11J(J = Y1z/ EJ
Table 2.7. The compliance matrices in terms of the engineering constants for
monoclinic, ort11olropic, lransversely Isotropic, and isotropic materials
 .L _!'.ll !:!l !a 
"
 r.1
''I?
.,
J..
E! 
 e,
1:;
' ''.I!
0
0
0
0
Gu
<iu
..."'
 0"' .,0
111~ ':.i J.. 0 0
Ti
(SJ=
0 ..L .,. "''0 monoclinic:::
<>u CiU
''4 ~ ..L
() 0 0 0:> GJ!
0
!Ji ~
'ii' 0 0
t
"
E:' !
*
~,  6.l 0 0 0
(SJ= orlhotropic
0 0 0 +.
<n
0 0
0 0 0 0 ~ 0
..L

 J.
0
17
0 0
_.::u.
0 0 au_
/:'1
 Ti ''U .,
J.. L;_
"~
"J!
0
0
0
0
0
0
(SJ=
~ ,, ~
f:i .,
.L 0
20+:;t)
0 0
trans\ersely isotropic
0 0 ()
~ 0 0
0 0 0 0 ..L 0
G1.
0 0 0 0 0 ..L
G1 ~
. e 0 .
"
i
I
, ~
T: i
I
0
0
0
0 0
~ ~
f: 0 0 0
[SJ= " iO + ) isoLropic.
0 0 0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
llit~
0 .
~ l+v)
0
because O'l is also in the x 1 x 3 symmetry plane. the y12 = 0 shear strain is zero.
This implies that St.i S15 S16 are zero. By similar argun1ents it can be sho\\n that
for an orthotropic material the Su, Sis S26, S34, $l5. SMi. St.s. S46, Ss6 elements are
also zero. Accordingly~ the con1pliance matrix is
Sn Sn s,, 0 0 0
S 12 S22 S23 0 0 0
S t.l S23 S:u 0 0 0
[SJ = (2.28)
0 0 0 Su 0 0
0 () 0 0 S5s 0
0 0 0 0 0 ~
The elements of the compliance matrix are listed in Table 2.4. In tern1s of the
engineering constant~ the compliance n1atrix is given in Table 2.7. The stiffness
16 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
Orthotropic 1. E'1 . 1
Gn : Gu. Gu
''!:!. vu. \i23
rrans ...crsely ,, Ei
iso tropic Gu
\'12, ''!J
Isotropic E, (= E) ="
Ei = E.; = E. 111) = vn
vu {= v) G?! = Gu = G1i = t<~">
+
figure 2.12: Ulustrations or
6her reinforced orthotropic.compo...;itcs.1'be fibers are oriented in
4
three mutually perpc.odicular directions {le.fl): the fibers are distri buted e quall)' in the + Ci and
0 directions in planes parallel to the x 1 xi plane ( rii ht).
2.3 STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 17
n1atrix is obtained by inverting the con1pliance n1atrix. The nonzero tern1s of the
stiffness mat rix are
Cn 0 () 0
re"c,, C 12
C22 C21
Ci.1 C33
0
0
0
0
0
()
(2.29)
0 0 c,. 0 0
ICJ =l1' 0 0 0 Cs5 0
0 0 0 0 c..
In the (SJ and [CJ
matrices of the 12 nonzero eleme nts only 9 a re independent
(Table 2.8). Equation (2.29) can be written in the form
[CJ =
(LJ
[~ ~ ~] (2.30)
O 0 OJ
0 0 0 [MJ
[0 () ()
The submatrices (L] and (M] are give n in Tables 2.9 and 2.10 in terms of the e n
gineering constants..
With the compliance matrix given by Eq. (2.28), t he strainstress relationships
(Eq. 2.23) become
,, Sn S12 () 0 0 .,.,
,, S12 S22
S 11
S:u 0 0 0 <>'2
,, s., s1.., S.u 0 0 0
"'' (2.31)
= 0 0 0 s,. 0 0
Y2.1 1'23
Table 2.9. The [LJ submatrix In Eq. (2.30) for 0<1hotropic, transversely isotropic,
and isotropic materials
Orthotn1pie
2 (\'Jl + ~ V,,t'l))
Ez (1  ~vf3 }
1) (v23 + ft1,121ru)
_ 1':1 Czf.J: 11fu.rt1!.j~:! 1:JZ111:1u;.~f:2f.~'ii".!"2~
D 1~1'.:, 1'"1,
Tran.o;,crsely bulropic
Et( l 1) ,v,,( t + 1~,J
[L] = ~ Ei v12 (l+ 1>v) E2(l ~vf?)
[
/iv12 (I+ >i.1) Ei (v?J + * vf2 )
D= 1 ~;;2(1 + vv)~vf1
Lo;utn1pie
v
(L) = Cl+"K' "'' [ ' : v l v
I' v
(M) =
Gn0 G,,0 O
0
J
[ 0 0 Gu
[
Triln.'llcrstly isotropic
[M) = ~0
:!(l +V) 0
0
G.,
0 JJ
0
"
!{1+11)
00 ]
0 '
2(J +l')
,~~
6, '
......
Figure 2_14: Ortbo tropic material subje.cted Lo a normal stress. 'fhcr<: IS no shear strain ' ''hen
the. str ess ts applicd jn one o f the o rthotropy dircc.tions (le.ft). but t he.re is shcar strain when th e
stres,.<; is not a long a n ort hotrop)' direction (right) .
2.3 STRESSSTRAIN RELATIONSHIPS 19
\
Plane uf isotropy
Figure 2.15: Ex.antplc of a tlberreinforccd. transvcrscly isotropic: composite. matc lial.
E
G= (2.33)
2 (1 + v)
Correspondingly. for a mate rial that is isotropic in the x 2 x3 plane '"e \Vrite
c,_J = 2 (I E,
+ .,,_,) (2.34)
Equations (2.32) and (2.34), together with the expressions in Table 2.6
(page 14), yie.ld the con1pliance matrix in tenns of the engine.e ring cons tants. The
1 E. P. Popov, Et11;irieeririg .\1ecl1a11ics of S()fids. PrcnticcHaU. Englewood Cljffs., New Ji:rsey, 1990,
p. 151.
20 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
results a re given in Table 2.7 (p age 15). The zero and nonzero eleme nts o f the
con1pliance matrix are
S11 Su S 11 0 0 0
S 12 S12 Su 0 0 0
S 12 S23 Sn 0 0 ()
(SJ = (2.35)
0 0 0 2 (S22  Su) 0 ()
0 0 0 0 s.. ()
0 0 0 0 0 s..
The stiffness n1atrix is o bta ined by inverting the compliance ma trix. The zero
and nonze ro e le n1ents of t he stiffness matrix are
re,.c,, C 12 C 12 0 0 0
Ei =E,=E,=E
(2.37)
= l.'J] = 1112 = v
l.'23
G= E (2.38)
2(1 + v)
results are in Tub le 2.7. The e Je.ments of the compliance matrix are
' '" l1
S12
S11 S11 0 0 0
0 0 2 (Sn  S12) 0 0
0 0 0 2 (S11  Sn) 0
0 0 0 0 2(S11  S11)
(2.39)
The stiffness n1atrix is obtained by inverting the con1pliance mauix. TI1e eJe..
ments of the stiffness matrix are
Cu c,, Cu. 0 0 0
c,, C11 Cu 0 0 0
c., C12 C11 0 0 0
[CJ = 0 0 0 C11 C1~
, 0 0
(2.40)
0 0 0 0 ,
C11  C1:
0
0 0 0 0 0 ,
CuC1 ~
2.1 Exan1ple. Calculate the elc111ei1rs of the stiffness anti corupliance n1arrices of a
graphite epo.'<y unidirectional ply. The engineering constants are given as E1 =
148 x 109 Nim'. 2 = 9.65 x 109 Nim', G 11 = 4.55 x 109 Nim'. v11 = 0.3, and
1'23 = 0.6.
The e len1ents o( the stiffness matrix are obtained by inve rting the con1pliance.
matrix
152.47 7.46 7.46 0 0 0
7.46 15.44 9.41 0 0 0
7.46 9.41 15.44 0 0 0 N
[CJ= rsr' = 0 0 0 3.016 0 0
JO.
m'
0 0 0 0 4.55 0
0 0 0 0 0 4.55
(2.42)
~t t<
~
~t t<
~t J.
Body t<
Force
~t t< ! Body Force
figure 2.1 7: Surface a nd body forces lhal may be applied under planc:. strain condition. The
applied fore.es must he uniform a long the longitudinal axis a nd ntusl be in equilibrium for each
seg.mc:nt.
2.4 PLANESTRAIN CONDITION 23
~,,
''[~'
Figure 2.18: Possihlc c.nd supports for structures a nai)'ZCd by planestrain condition.
along the longitudinal axis and, in addition. the loads are in equilibriun1 on any
plane segment (Fig. 2.17).
When the afore1ne ntioned plane~strain condition exists:. the threedimensional
analysis simplifies oonside.rably. For an isotropic material, the normal strain f .l (or
E~) in the axial direction (x.l or z) and the outof~plane shear strains Yt~ and y 23
(or Yx~ and Y>'z) are zero. For fiber~reinforced con1posites these strains are not
necessarily zero. Nonetheless, as is discussed in this chapte r, planes train condition
inuoduces s in1plific.ations that facilitate the analysis.
<Jeon1etry. The cross section perpendicular to the axis and the 111aterial prop~
erties must not vary along the length. Both ends of the body n1ay be built~in or
n1ay be free, o r one end may be built~in '"hile the other one is free (Fig. 2.18).
\\'hen both ends are built .. in, the longitudinal axis (x3 or z) remains straight and
its length remains constant. \Vhe n one or both ends are free. the longitudinal axis
n1ay become curved and its length may change.
Fiber orientatio11. On the basi."i o( fiber orientation, the body is analyzed as
generally anisotropic.. n1onoclinic, orthotropic. transversely isotropic, or isotropic
(Fig. 2.19).
lo;otropic Transversely Orthotropic
isotropic
I [Q]
~'(onoclini c Generally
anisotropic
Figure 2.19: IUus trations of pos:>iblc. fibcr orientations for planestrain condition.
24 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
Outofplane Inplane
Figure 2.20: llluslrations of surface and body forces that may be appbcd under planestrain
condition.
> Y
ix,)
!
Figure. 2.21: Poss.ihlc. c.nd loads for planestrain rondilion.
2.4 PLANESTRAIN CONDITION 25
Table z.11. Relationships between the stresses and the end toads
Load x, y, z coordinate system
End a:<ial N=fa,dA 1i/ = f ,,,dA
A A
End mo1nent Af1 = f xa,rl A M, = }' x 1a; rl A
A A
Endmomenl M., = J,, y at1IA .~1 = f.t2altfA
A
f'= /(yr,, + xr,,} tfA f = J (x2rt1 +.t1 f'?.~ )1/A
A A
applied forces ( loads) may not vary along the length. In addition, an axial force.
moment, and to rque may be applied at the ends (Fig. 2.21). The forces acting
perpendicular and para lle l to the longitudinal axis are referred to as in plane a nd 8
outofplane.
Each of the loads shown in Figures 2.20 and 2.2 1 n1ay act in con1bination. t\ s
stated previously. the only requirement is that the loads be in equilibrium on each
segment (Fig. 2.17) of the body.
The end loads shown in Figure 2.21 a re re lated the to the stresses by the
expressions given in Table 2.11 .
When t\vo o r n1ore types of loads a re applied, the stresses and stra ins can
independently be ealcula ted for each type of load. The stresses and strains thus
obtained are t he n supe rimposed to obtain the final results.
Displacen1ents. Plane..strain condition requires that the stra ins do not vary
along the longitudinal axis. TI1us., in the x, y, ! coordina te system \Ve ha\'e
2 S. G. Lckhnitski.i. Tl1eoryof Ela.~idty r>fon A11i.u uropk Body. ~tir Pub1ishcrs. 1',fosoow. 198!, p. 104.
;; T. H. G. t.fc.i0n. Aircrof1 S1n1c111resfor ngi11eeri11g. S1uden1.t. 3d edition. Halsted Press. John \Vile)' &
Sons. New York. 1999, p. 2.1W.
26 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, ANO STRESSES
'vhere E; is the strain along the longitudinal axis: 1/ p 1 , 1/ P.x are the curvatures
of the longitudinal axis in the xz and y.z planes., respectively. By virtue of
ay.,, /az = 0 (Eq. 2.43), we have (Eq. 2.11)
(2.46)
(2.47)
~ I Q
""
~
II
~
II II
ll
...,
t>._;"
I
..., . ,,
..;
"~ Q Q
II
\~V ~
II II
" "
~
~
Q
~ II
"
I
ll
II
6
..:\ "'
 7
"' /' ~
='
ff
;_~ ~~~/  I .:
 I <"
"
<i:
I ~
\ ..
I Q
 II II II
~
" "
~
a
...g ~,'':[]
.
.;
~ ~Fo
~
, Q
s:
~
,', Q
'
II
z I _..;;
... < ;> ~
a ~ ~~
a
Q (}) 0 ''
I o
;.e ;.f
c; 5;;
'\ '' ,' Q
"_,' II I I
"' ~
28 DISPLACEMENTS, STIUUNS, AND STRESSES
I 1 ,
r~1 = U1(xi . xi)  iJx2.fJ    xi
2 f>2
L 1 ,
u1=U1(X1.X1) + iix1X3  2:Cj (2.53)
Pt
E;
\\/here is the e longation of the longitudinal axis; 1 / pz. 1/Pi a re the curvatures of
this axis in the x 1 .t'.3 and x 1 x 3 planes, respectively; '' represents the rate of t\\rist
of the cross section.
Jn t he fo l.lowing, 1.\'e present the equilibrium equations. the straincHsplace1nent
relationships. a.nd the stre.s.s strain relationships \vhen the aforen1entioned con
ditions of plane~stra.i n are satisfied. 111e analyses are applicable in regions a\vay
from the two encl< of the body.
\Ve treat problems in tv.o groups: (i) \\/hen one or both ends are free and
(ii) whe n both ends are builtin (Fig. 2.18).
au
( c =
&.r ' av

ayy 
(2.54)
1 J
E=  x +y+ E~ (2.55)
.. Pr Px ..
aw aw
y,,=
.. ay +"x Yx
. = ax _ ,,y (2.56)
au av
Yx
y
= ay + 
ax (2.57)
2.4 PLANESTRAIN CONDITION 29
figure 214: The strc:is component.; that appear in the equdihrium equations under planestra1n
condition.
Since the strain con1poneuts are independent o f t. the stress con1ponents are
also independent o f t, and \\'e have
ar,._ _
ai  0 (2.58)
By utilizing Eq. (2.58), the equilibrium equations (Eqs. 2.13'2 .15) become
aa, ar,, ( 0
0
oX
+ 0
oy
+ )X  (2.59)
8<,yaa, f,  0
+.
uX o .V
+y (2.60)
ar. ary;+ f =.
ax<z +  0
(2.6 1)
ay "
The five s tress con1ponents a,.. a1 , l':.ty rYi r,..z that appear in these equilibrium
equations are illustrate d in Figure 2.24.
For a generally anisotropic n1ateriill the stress s train re lationships (Eq. 2.20)
may be \.:ritten in pa rtitione d form. as follo\\s:
a, Cu C12c" c,.
Cl.t <x c.,
<1y c., Cu c,,. Cis C 26 .,. ell
ry.: = C14 c!4 c.... c.15 c... Yyz + C:w <, (2.62)
f.T<: Cts cl.S c., c5~ c56 Y.T~ c,.
'f.vy c,. Cu c... c,. c,,. Yx.v c36
<x
~y
a,= (Cu c2, C311 c3s z:,.J YJ't + C.u ': (2.63)
Yx:
Yxy
30 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
111e stiffness ma trix [CJ is the inverse of the compliance n1atrix (SJ defined
in Table 2.3 (page 10). The strainstress rela tionshi!"' are obtained by inverting
Eq. (2.62) as follows:
R11 R," Ris 'R,. <f., c.,
" fy /?.,
R 12
R12 Ru Ris Ru,
""
C23
c,.
Yy;:_ = R1.i R"J R.s R..
R1.i tyz. (2.65)
Y..;:_
r.,,
Ris Ris R,, Rss Rs6
R,. R,. R.. Rs R..
rx~
r,,
where R; (i. j = I , 2. 4, 5. 6) a re the inplane elements of the compliance matrix
c,,
c,. "l
under planestrain condition calculated fron1 the relationship
Ru R,, R,.. R" R1t. Cu c,, c,4 Cis cl6
 I
both ends of the body a re free. The displacements resulting from specified loads
are sun1n1arized in Figure 2.25.
fllplane /,>ads. TI1e body is subjected to the inplane loads shown in Fig
ure 2.20. Under these loads the body may undergo only planar, bending, and axial
deformations (Fig. 2.25). Accordingly, Eq. (2.53) reduces to (see Fig. 2.23)
1 I
u1 = Ut (xi, xi)   x12
2 1>1
1 l '
112 = U2 (x1 , x2)  2: I>! x.; (2.67)
1= 
au, 2= 
au, (2.68)
ax1 axz
(3= 
t
1 x1+x2+E"(' (2.69)
3
/J2 Pr
Yi.= 0 Yll =0 (2.70)
au, au,
Yt2=  +
axi
. .
ax1
(2.71)
~0 
r;  ~
V ___ 1

~~) )
 / "'
d:;;:___:J\
...~ \"
{~
t I
\I
~~"
  ...       
1/ ~
/
. \;'
il
.il
z
c.
g
~
I
I
a
'' f
"
~ .... ~ ......
"
j ' I
(2.73)
With these stresses the relevant e quilibrium equations (Eqs. 2.13 and 2.14) 
in the x 1 x2 x3 coordinate syste111  reduce to
T
(2.74)
(2.75)
l11e stress components <Y1, <12, rti:, 'vhich appear in the equilibriun1 equations.
are illustrated in Figure 2.24 (top, right).
By substituting Eq. (2.70) into Eq. (2.22) and by utilizing Eq. (2.27) we obta in
the following stress strain re lationships (or inplane loads:
(2.76)
The strain stress relationships are obtained from Eq. (2.76) by inversion
:: } =
{ Y12 [~:: ~: ~::] ({=: }  {~~} ).
R1 & Ru. ~ r12 CJc\
(2.79)
'''here Rt; (i , j = 1. 2: 6) are the inplane elen1ents of the compliance n1atrix in the
x 1, x2 coordinate system calculated fron1 the relationship
Ut =  OX2X3
U'l = t?X1X3 (2.81)
u, = U,(x, ,x,) .
, , =0 2=0 (2.82)
~J =0 (2.83)
au_, au,
Yl:.l = . +1Jx1
ax2
Yl3 = ,ax 
1
''Xi (2.84)
Yl2 = 0. (2.85)
Only y 23 and Ytl a re nonzero. Correspondingly. the only nonzero s tresses are
r,., a nd r23 T hus, two of the equilibrium equa tions (Eqs. 2.13 and 2.14) become
trhia l, and the third (Eq. 2.15)  in the x1 , x1 , .'(l coordinate systen1  reduces to
(2.86)
The r.n, r 13 s tress compo ne nts, which appear in t he equilibriun1 equation, are
illustrate d in Figure 2.24 (bottom, right).
From Eqs. (2.22) and (2.27) we obtain the following stress strain relationships
for outofplane loads:
l'"l=[c,, . c.,]Jv"l
'!13 C45 C.ss Y13.
(2.87)
The s tra in stress relationships are obtained from E q. (2.87) by inversion
I I [s.. s.,JI'"l
y,,
Yt l = S.as Sss r11
(2.88)
where the compliance mattix (SJ is the inverse of the s tiffness matrix in Eq. (2.87)
E11d axial foods. Axial loads are applied at t he ends (Fig. 2.21 ). Unde r such
loads the body may undergo only planar, bending, and axial deformations
34 DISPLACEMENTS, SIBAJNS, AND STRESSES
(Fig. 2.25), a nd the displace ments are (see Eq. 2.53 and Fig. 2.23)
I I
u1 = U1(x1.x2)    x32 (2.90)
2 Pi
. I I
lll = U1 (l'.1. X2)  ? XJ2 (2.91)
 P1
UJ = (  I X1 +  1 .'( ? + 3) XJ . (2.92)
Pi Pi
These displacements a re the same as those for inplane loads (Eq. 2.67). He nce,
the s train displacen1ent, equilibrium, a nd stressstrain rela tionships are the san1e
as those given by Eqs. (2.68) (2.80).
E11d mome11t. A hending moment is a pplied at each end (Fig. 2.21). Under
this loading the 'body may undergo only planar, bending:, and a xia l deforma tions
(Fig. 2.25), a nd the displacements are (see Eq. 2.53 and Fig. 2.23)
I I ,
111 = U1(x 1, x2)   x;
2 Pi .
I I
Uz = U2(x1, x1)   x32 (2.93)
1 P1
These displacements are the same as those for inplane loads (Eq. 2.67). Hence.
the s traindisplacement, e quilibrium, and stress stra in relationships are the sa111e
as those given by Eqs. (2.68) (2.80).
Torque. A torque is a pplied at each e nd (Fig. 2.21). Unde r this load the body
may undergo o nly nonplanar and angular d efor1na tions (Fig. 2.25). and the dis
placemen Ls are (see Eq. 2.53 and Fig. 2.23)
l11ese displaceme nts are the same as those for o utofplane loads (Eq. 2.81 ).
Hence, the straindisplacement, equilibrium, and stressstrain re la tions hips are
the same as t hose give n by Eqs. (2 .81) (2.88).
Tra11svenely isotropic
c,. = c,. = c. = () (2.96)
C 11 = C 12.
Isotropic
These displacements are the same as the displacements given by Eqs. (2.50)
(2.52) for a body with free e nds, when 1/ p,., l /p, . <~. and 1) a re se t equal to zero.
Thus, the straindisplacen1ent. the siressstrain, and the equiHbrium equations
are obtained by setting 1/Py. t/ p.1 , E:,
and O equal to zero in the equations o f Sec~
tion 2.4.1 . TI1e stra in d isplacement re la tionships (Eqs. 2.542.57) become
au av
<x = ax .,. = ay (2.99)
Ez =0 (2.100)
aw aw
Yy=
' ay Y.t ~ = a; (2.101)
au av
. . = +
)".~
ay ax (2.102)
~o m1ation
L..,d ...__ Planar Nooplanar
Outofplane
Fi_gure 226: Oeformatjons of a generally anisotropic. body under planestrain conditjon for
different lo ads; buihin ends.
36 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
D fi
~n Planar Nonplanar
l.Oad
Inplane F'::'!V
Outofplane
Q
Figure 2.27: Defo rmations of a monocllnicbod)' under planestr ain condition for differe nt loads:
bnillin ends.
2.4 PLANESTRAIN CONDmON 37
frlplane load.<. The b<Jdy is subjected to the inplane loads shown in Fig
ure 2.20. Under these loads the body undergoes planar deformations (Fig. 2.27).
and the dLplacements are (see Eq. 2.53 and Fig. 2:23)
These displacen1ents are the same as the displacements of a body with free
ends with 1/ Pi. l / p 1, and r
set equal to zero in Eq. (2.67). Thus, the strain
displacen1ent, the stressstrain. and the equilibrium equations are obtained by
setting 1/1>1., l/p1 , and lJ equal to zero in the equations of Section 2.4.2. The
strain~isplacement relationships (see Eqs. 2.682.71) are
E1=
au, E,=
au1 (2.107)
ax1  ax1
,, = () (2.108)
Yi. =0 Yu=O (2.109)
au,
ni= 
au,
+ (2.l 10)
IJx2 &x1
The equilibrium equations are identical to Eqs. (2. 74) and (2.75).
The stressstrain relationships (Eqs. 2.76 and 2. 77) become
(2.111)
(2.112)
(2.113)
The inplane e lements of the compliance matrix R1; are defined in Eq. (2.80).
Outofplane ltiads. The body is subjected to outofplane loads shown in Fig
ure 2.20. Under these loads the body may undergo only nonplanar deforn1ations
(Fig. 2.27), and the displacements (in the x 1 x1 x3 coordinate system) are (see
Eq. 2.53 and Fig. 2.2.'l)
U1 =0 U2 =0 (2.ll4)
These displace1uents a re the same as the displace1nents of a bod)~ with free
ends with 11 set equal to zero in Eq. (2.81). Thus, the stra in displacement and
the stressstrain relations as \vetl as the equilibrium equations can be obtained by
setting 'iJ equal to zero in the e quations of Section 2.4.2. The straindisplacement
38 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAJNS, AND STRESSES
,, = () (2.11 5)
fj =0 (2.ll6)
au, au,
Y2. = ax, Yl.l =ax, (2.117)
y12 = 0. (2.118)
J'"I [c..
l T1J = C45 C.s,,
r"I
c~,] flYu . (2.119)
1I ,,,,}
Yt.l =
[s"' S.s]
S4sS..,s
Ir,, l
r13 .
(2.120)
.
"
7:u = 0
Figure 2.28: 1bc stresses under planestress condition.
ar,, a.., f
17+ay+ .. = .
0
(2.123)
(2.124)
(2.125)
The e lements of the con1pliance n1atrix.S 11 are given in Table 2 .3 (page 10). The
stres..~strain relationships are obtained from Eq. (2.l24) by inversion
Q,, i?
g12 Q,.;] {<y
<x } , (2.126)
Qi6 Q66 Yr.v
Figure 2.29: Inplane loads applied to a thin plate. resulting in planc.stress condjtion.
40 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
'vhere Q ;i are t he inplane e len1e nts of the stiffness m atrix in the x . y ooo rdina te
systen1 under plane s tress condition:
(2.127)
The stressstrain and stra in stress relationships s implify cons iderably when
the fiber orientatio ns are such that the n1aterial can be treated as n1onoclinic
(Fig. 2.9), orthotropic(Fig. 2.12), transversely isotropic (Fig. 2.15), or isotropic. In
the follo,ving \Ve cons ider problen1s invol\'ing these mate ria l types and use an x 1
:c.2, x3 coordinate syste m with the x 1, x1 coordinates be ing in o ne o f the s ymmetry
plane s and x3 be ing pe rpend icular to thL" pla ne. In this coordin ate systen1, under
plane ..stress condition, we have (Pig. 2.28, right)
Yll = 0. (2.129)
(2.130)
3r11 a,,, f
 +  + '= 0 .
axa <Jx2
(2.131)
By s ubstitu ting Eq. (2.128) into Eq. (2.23), we obtain t he fo llowing stra in stress
relationships:
:: } =
{ Y12 [~:: ~ ~::]
S u; 5'.t. 5(,.,,
{:: }
t 12
(2.132)
(2.133)
The e le n1ents o f the con1pliance m atr ix S;i are given in Ta ble 2.7 (page 15). The
s tressstrain re lationships are obtained from E q. (2..132) by inversion
(2.134)
2.5 PLANESTRESS CONDITION 41
where Q;; are the inplane e lements of the stiffness maui..x in the x 1 , x1 coordinate
systen1 unde r planestress condition:
Q"] = [s"
Q26 S 12
s,, S16S22
s,.]' . (2.135)
Q.. s,. s,. s..
l11e expressions presented in this section for monoclinic n1aterials also apply
to orthotropic, transversely isotropic, and isouopic materials. Ho\vever. for these
types of 1naterials the stiffuess and con1pliance n1atrices further simplify, as shown
below.
Orthotropic. For an ortbotropic material the follov.ing e len1ents of the com
pliance matrix are zero (Table 2.7, page 15):
S11 = 
1
E,
s,.,=

 ""
E, s,, = E11 (2.137)
l
constants are (Eqs. 2.135, 2.137, and 2.138)
t:, 11:.E:
/) /)
0
0
G12
. v.here D = 1
E2 ,
Vj,
E, 
=t V12 "'I

(2.139)
A \Voven, or filament wound, layer is orthotropic when there is the san1e num
ber of fibers in the +El and  fl directions in the x 1 x2 plane (Pig. 2.30). Por such
a layer the elements of the stiffness n1atrix are calculated from
where ( Q;;)e and (Q;; )_., are the eleme nts of the stiffness matrices of plies ori
ented in the +e and  0 directions.. respective ly. The elements of the stiffness
e~~:,
~ <~~
+e
Figure 2.30: A layer consisting of ti hers in the +e and <) directions.
42 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, ANO STRESSES
Q'j;:v''" =0
Q"; vn =0
s =sine
The ele n1ents of the stiffness 1natrix in te nns or the e nginee ring constants are
(QJ=   " 1
E
l  1,l () ()
[1 " 0()
!;:
]. (2.145)
'
2.2 Exa1nple. Ca/c14/ate the eletuents of the stiffness tnatri:t: of tt graphite epoxy 1111i
directioual ply under planestress condition. The e11gi11eering constants are given as
1 = 148 x 10 Nini'. 2 = 9.65 x IO'Nlm2 , G 12 = 4.55 x t0 Nini' , n = 0.3,
and l'2J = 0.6.
2.5 PLANESTRESS CONDITION 43
[~::
Q,.
~~
Q,.
(2.146)
The elements oflhe compliance matrix are given in Example 2.1 (page 21). By
substituting these values into the e xpression above obtain
[
\Ve
_,
 2.03
103.63
0
0
0
219.78 ] =
148.87 2.91
2.91 9.71
0 0
o
4.55
0] io2N.
m
(2.147)
The stiffness matrix may also be calculated by Eq. (2.139) with the e ngineering
constants and with D = 1  ~: v/2 = 0.994. Equation (2.139) gives
,,
"
[QJ= [
"t 0
0
0 ] 109 N, .
4.55 m
(2.148}
2. 3 Exan1ple. Estilnare tile planestress stiffness nu1trix and the engineeriug con
stants of a (45) itoven fabric layer 1nadf of graphite fibers a11d epo.'C.y resin.
SolutioJL We approxin1ate the \\'Oven fabric by a layer 111ade of one 45e and one
 45 ply. The properties of these plies are take n to be those of the graphite epoxy
unidirectional ply give.n in Exan1ple 2.2. The stiffness matrix of a ply made of this
material under planestress condition is (Eq. 2.147)
~ ~
148.87 2.91
(QJ = l .91 9.71 ] 10 (2.149)
[ 0 0 4.55 m
We obtain the stiffness matrix of the \voven fabric by substituting the elements
of this matrix into the expressions in Table2.12(page42) with(~)= 45. The result
is
s.,
]~" = [~' ~ ]l
[ s..
~;'
Su
0
00
s,.,.
Qft'
0
61.03
l2
Qt"
0
 48.86
1 45
i[ =iil(D.T
(2.153)
y1~ = ii>'~a T ,. = a.1.va T
Yxr
Sin1ila rly, 1nois ture inside an unrestrained composite causes a change in size
and shape. A uni(orm moisture concentration c in the material results in the
rollo\ving s trains:
<; = {J,c
{'  (2.154)
Y; y = fi.l.J'c.
Inside a dry material the moisture concentration c is zero. ln Eqs. (2.153) and
(2.154);; and Pare the te111perature and 1uoisture e xpansion coefficients. respec
tively. (Note that(; and ~ follo'v the same transformation rules a s strains.. Section
2.9.2.) In an unrestrained composite the strains induce d by uniforn1 te111perature
and n1oisture disuibutions (referred to as hygrothermal strains) are
Ci, l,
',.
~
Ci,
.hl <i:
,Yxr.
yt,I = t.T + c. (2.1 55)
.'<
a,~ '$,.
y ot.,~ lx:
bl
axy PJ.:y
2.6 HYGROTHERMAL STRAINS ANO STRESSES 45
<fx
dy
C11
C21
C 12
C 22
C13
Cz.1
Ci"
C 211
C 1s
C2s
c,.
c,.
<x
<y
.....,.
y
(2.157)
For a mo noclinic material, in the ,t1 , x2 , x 3 local ooordinate system (Fig. 2.9)
ten1perature and moisture do not induce out~ofwplane shear strains. Thus, the
temperature and moisture induced strains are
tf ='J1c ~ 
= fi2c li = P3c (2.159)
Yb =0 Ytt3 = 0 Yfi = P 12C.
where~ and Pare the temperature and moisture expansion coefficients, respec
ti\ely, in the x 1 x2, x3 coordinate system (ti and Pfollo\v the same transformation
rules as strains. Section 2.9.2). The hygrothermal strains are
,.,I
c;, p,
l~l c;, p,
Ebt
l
c;,
l>T +
p, c. (2.160)
yfi = 0 0
yhl
ll
() 0
yhl ti12 # 12
12
46 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
"' .,
The stressstrnin relationships are (Eq. 2.22)
......
.,
I
"2 2 1
<13
= lCJ
' (2.161)
t1J Y.?3 0
! i .\ yu 0
r12 Y12 yfil
where [Cl is prescribed by Eq. (2.27). Note that ' " . . , y 12 are the acrua/ strains
W the composite.
By inve rting Eq. (2.161), \\'e obtain the follo\ving s train stress relall:io nships:
., "'
., I
,~1
"'
,~
"
YJj 0
= [S J
<1J
r21
(2.162)
Yt.l 0 rn
Yll y"
11 r11.
(2.166)
B
11
x
"
Figure 2.3l: Componc.nts of the s urface (orce p on the l.!t.Asurface an d thc slr<:$SCSo n the one.
OAC.~, and OABsurlaccs.
48 DISPlACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
:r: A
Figure 2.32: 1he angles "''* I.JI_:, Wt .
In the limit, when ll.A, ax, ay, t>t go to zero, Eq. (2.167) becomes
Ps = 1'1.T + H f :,i + lll f y.t (2.168)
\vhere I , 111, 11are the direction cosines of the normal vector of the boundary surface
(Fig. 2.32) as follows:
azay axaz a xay
I =   = cos('I' ) m =   = cos('I',.) 11 = A = cos('I',).
2<'.l.A "' 2<'.l.A 26
(2.169)
Similarly, we have
HI
Figure 2.33: lbe stresses at the top and bottom surfaces o f hvo adjacc:.nl lap:rs thut n1ust match
to satisfy cont1nu1ty.
TI1e dN. <r,. rx.l' s tress a nd the f:., YK< Yy:. s train components are not necessarily
oon1inuot1s along two adjacent surface~
r r'
p~
' A
,,
n.,.
~ "1'
q
,,
r u = cos.sl,.p nz= cosQpo) r u =cos!?"'
r ;:i = cos Q1p r 2i = oos n.w ri;.= cosQ,11
r 31 = c:.osO,.., r~ =cos!?,,., r" = cosn,.
50 DISPLACEMENTS, SIBAJNS, ANO STRESSES
r ,.
p: n,.. ., o"
,,
p n.,
q
~
. .e, ~
e,
q ,, q
' p ~ p ~ p ~
.Figure 2.34: Con.o;ccullve rola tions to <irrr\'c at the coord1nale system ff, q'. and r' .
.angles f) P eq, er (Fig. 2.34). These angles a re consecutive rotations of t he prin1ed
coordinate syste1n about the p, q. r axes, as illustrated in Figure 2.34. The a ngles
e,, H., f), are positive in the counterclockwise direction.
The e p t.:+q, <:+r angles are rela.ted to the direction cosines by the follo\\~ng
expressions:1:
' J. J. Crnig.. /11t1lduaiot110 R<>horics { AtttJ1a11i" ' a11d Co111rol). 2nd cdi1ion. Addison Wesley, Reading.
~l a.s.s11ch ~ells, 1989. pp. 4356.
2.9 STRESS AND STRAIN TRANSFORMATIONS 51
~,
0 0 0 0 0
)
0 cp s1r 2t (ISp 0 0
0 \.:? c'r 2Lsp 0 0 c11 = cose,..
p
[1':] = 0 <,,s, C:pS p c:~ s; 0 0 s,, =sin e ft
0 0 0 0 c, .r,,
~o 0 0 0 Sp Cp
 (..?
0 ,
..,2 0 2c:.,s., Cl
0 I 0 0 0 0
[1;,] = s'., 0 c' 0 2c;;.s1 0 c" =Cose,,
0 0 0' c 0 s., s11 =sine,,

~
 <.,,s.,
0
c;'
0
0
s;'
0
0
0
.,
(....,...
0
s
~
0
.r; ,.0
0
2c.s,
...
<,'
.,\' ! 0 0 0  2t,s~
0 0 0 0 0 c:. = co,;(:),
(1'; ] =
0 0 0 c.  s, 0 s, =sin e ,
0 0 0 s, c, 0
'<.,sr <., s, 0 0 0 c:?  \'l
' ., .
where ( ?'/], [t,;11, (t;] are given in Table 2.15. The subscript t1 refers to t he stress
transforma tion, and the bat o n T indieates that a ll six stress cotnponents are be ing
transformed. The superscripts p, q, and r refer to the transforma tions a bout the
p. q , a nd r a.xes. respectively.
Planes train attdplanestress. tJnder plan e.strain and planestress cond itions
we are interested only in the stresses in the pq and p' qf planes. In this case
the stresses in the prilned coordina te system a re obtained from the stresses in the
unprin1ed coordinate syste m by rotation about the r wa xis (see Fig. 2.35) as fo llo\\os::
(2.1&2)
111e. subscript a re fe.rs to the stress tra ns fo nnation, and T \vitho ut a hat ind i
c~ues that o nly t hethree in plane stress cotnponents a re trans fonn ed.
4
;,
'<'
411 Tc 11
T.21
h.H
7;22
T..u
7;13
T,,,
r,. l 4
T,,.
,;,.
7; l5
T,25
Tc1ti
'f;zb
'/;Jo
..
<p
y,,"..
'433 '[;35
' = (2. 185)
Y~,. 7;:11 r.~12 f.43 T,44 1;45 'l;ao
Y;, 7;sl r.~2 T.s.l Yc$.t T,,5 7;~6 y,.,
y;"I 7;,,1 T.62 T.tt.1 T.:64 r;,,$ r.~6 Ypq
\vhere the vector E. re presents e ngine.e ringstra ins. The s train transforn1ati on ma trix
[~] applie.s to e ngineering strains a nd thus is not the sa1ne as t he s tress trans fo rnl:.\
t ion 1n a trix [i;, J. (Tensorial s ua ins tra ns fo rn1 by the san1e trans fo rn1ntion ma trix
a s the s tresses.)
The trnnsfonnntion n1atrix ( '1;J n1ay be expressed as
where (it], [7;'1 J, IT.' J are give n in T obie 2.16. Tiie s ubscript < refers to the s tra in
t ransfonna tion. T he hat on T indic ntes t ha t all s ix strnin compooents a re trans
fonned. The superscripts p. q, a ndr re.f er to the transforma ti ons a bout the p .., q,
a nd r ..a xes, respecti\lely.
Pla11esfrai11 and pla11esfress. U nder pJanestra in a nd plane.stress cond itions
\\le are interested o nly in the strains in the pq a nd p 1 q' planes. In t his case
t he strains in the prin1ed coord inate systen1 a re o btained from the s tra.ins in the
unprimed coordinate systent by rotation about the r ..axis (see Fig. 2.35) a s fo llows:
{:t }
y~1
= [ ::
 2cs 2cs
;:
2
' 
~:]
s1
{ :: }
Ypri
(2.188)
2.9 STRESS ANO STRAIN TRANSFORMATIONS 53
~,
0 0 0 0 0 .
0 Cl s'~ c,.s, 0 0
\J c,,s,,
[1;'] = ~ c; 0 0 "." = cose,.
p
2CpSp 2cps,, c!s; 0 0 s, =sine,,
0 0 0 0
~o 0 0 0 t:,.
 <! 0 c.,.,q 0
0 0 0 0
~2 0 (.., = ooss,
[?;"] = .0' 0
c,
cils!)'
0 s, s9 =sin c~,,
2c:.,s., 0 c~ s; 0
 0 s,, 0 c,
 ,.2 si 0 0 0
I
s; c} 0 0 0 c,s.
0 0 0 0 0 c, = COS(:),
[t.'] = 0 0 0 c.  s, 0 s, =sin e,
0 O D s , < :, 0
2c,s, 2<:,s, 0 0 0 c? si
 ' '
The s ubscript E< re fers to the strain trans(om1ation. Yr'ithout a hat. T indicates
that o nJy t he three in plane stra in co 1npo nents are t ra nsforn1e d.
To oblain the relation bet\\een the stiffness n1atr ices in the unprimed lCJ
and prilne d (C'] coordinate syste111s, we n1ul ti ply bo th s ide.s of the s tressstrain
equation :in the unprimed coordinate system lby [t.]
i\ matrix multiplied by its inverse (1;J' [1;] is a unit matrix. and we may write
the elements of the stiffness matrix (C11 C12 , C66 ) in the unprimed (p, q, r )
coordinate system are re lated by the expression
The e len1e nts of the con1pliance ma trix (Sj 1, 5;1 . . . , S66 ) in the printe d (p'. q' .
r') coordina te system and the elememts of the compliance n1atrix (S1 I S12, . . . . SM,)
in the unprimed (p,q, r) coordina te system are obtained by inverting Eq. (2. 193)
a s follows:
[ Q',,
Q',,
o;,
Q'n
g,,]= l J[Q"
Q',, T,, Q,,
Q,,
Q22 Q"]rr.r '.
Q,. (2.195)
Q,. e,. Q'. . Q l6 Qio Q..
(T.J= [ c'
s' 2cs] s'
cs]
s' c'
 cs cs
 2cs
cl  sz
IT.I=
[ c'
s' c'
 2cs 2c.f cl ~:~ . (2.196)
The elen1ents of the c<Hn pliance matrix in the unprimed coordinate system are
o btained by si111ilar reasoning and a.re
[s;,Si, s;,
.lb
s;,] = IT.I [s"s.,
s;,
s,,
S12
s,.]
s,. 1r.r'. (2.1 97)
s:. s,. s.,, s,. s,. .IO.;
Sin1ilarly, under plane~strain cond itions the stiffness and con1pliance 111atrices
are
c;2 C,,] c.,
[CJz
c,, Ci1 c;, = [T.J [C,,
C11
Cu c"]
c" tr.r' (2.198)
CJ6 Cit. C6,; C1() c,. c..
[ K, ,
Ki1 ,,
K,,
K,]
K,, = (7;] [R:,,
R11
R.,
R11
R,.]
Z;: ir. r ', (2. 199)
K,, Ki. ~. R,, R,.
where (T,, Jand [ 7; ] are given by Eq_. (2.196).
2.10 STRAIN ENERGY 55
dV. (2.201)
r.c;
r.1y
\Vith the use of the stressstrain rela tionships (Eq. 2.20) this expression can be
expressed in tern1s o f the strains, as follo\vs:
<x
'r
"
Yy::.
Yx;
dV. (2.202)
Yx,.
where [Cl is the stiffness n1atrix in the .r, y, l coordinate syste.1n . The strain e nergy
n1ust be positive ( U > 0) for any nonzero s train.
The potential of ll1e external forces is defined as
\I/here. \\'e recall, fx. [,.. /:.are lhe body forces (per unit volunte) and p.r. J1y . P::
are the surface forces (per unit area).
The total potential energy of t he system is
(2.204}
u1 =
...L, ck'"" (2.205)
56 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
The displacen1ents u;. v;. uJk are conveniently chosen kno\\n functions that
must satisfy the geon1etrical boundary conditions. \\hereas Ai, Bj, C1:. are yet
unkno\\n constants.. According to the principle of stationary potential energy,
at equilibrium the potential energy (Eq. 2.204) must satisfy the conditions
~
aA; =0 . i = I. .. I
a:r, = o j = 1, J (2.206)
as,
3trp =0 k= l , ... , K.
ac,
The constants are pro,~ded by the solution of these equations.
2.11 Summary
The equilibriun1 equations and the stressstrain and strain displacement reJa..
tionships presented in this chapter are summarized in 1hble 2.1 7 for ge nerally
anisotropic n1aterials a nd in Table 2.18 for 1nonoclinic materials.. Equations for
orthotropic, transve rsely isotropic. a nd isotropic. materials are the san1e as for
monoclinic n1aterials (Table 2.18) v.1th the e le n1ents of the stiffness a nd compli
ance m atrices s implified according lo Eq~ (2.95)(2.97)
The unknowns of interest for generally anisotropic n1aterials are sun1marized
in Table 2.19 and for n1onoc.linic., orthotropic., tra nsversely isotropic, and isotropic
materials in Table. 2.20. It is evident that under plane.s tress and planestrain con
cflitions the number of unknowns is reduced and the equations are sin1plified.
<x
'<y' fy
l<x y
'~ Yy.;: Y.T~ y.Ty llC]
"
Vy.:
Y.t;
> 0 when
"
V.r~
Y.t .;:
#0.
Y xy Y.ty
(2.207)
Table 2.18. The equations for a monoclinic material. The equations lor ortllotropic,
transversely Isotropic, and isotropic materials are the same as tor monoclinic materials with
the stiffness and compllan<e matrix elements simplified as specified in Eqs. (2.95H2.97).
Displacements Strains
Thre.ed imensional a 1. aha:1
r 2.;, ru, T1i
Pla.ne.strain. Cree e nd
In plane. load
E nd axial load u1. tti fl ,~;:. }'I? a1.~. Tl ?
Endmomenl
Ou tOfp lane load u_, Y.z3', Yu T;:.;, T u
Torque
Planes1rain. builtin e.nds
Jnplane load u,, u2 f t. E?, YU a i, a1. r 11
Ou tofp lane load II_!. Y?.t , YU T?_!., TIJ
Planestress llJ. U? f J, t~. Yll a1. a1, ru
(2.208)
The \vork is
W' = 1,.
'<r,,d<,, + 1 ,.. 1
' u, d<y = 2S11 p1 . (2.209)
(b) t\n additional te nsile load p is a pplie d in tbe y dire ct ion. Tile stresses in
.
t he n1aterial becon1e dx = Cfy = p. a.nd the corresponding strains are

,, = Sup + Sup
 (2.210)
The 'vork is
(2.21 1)
t E. Krcyslig, Ad\atlCt!lf E11g i11etri11g .\ldtJ1011u1itt 7th Edition. John \ ViJcy & Sons. New York. 1993.
p. 407.
2.11 SUMMARY 59
i" !"
P<
b ~p
x
+
D
!,, +
P>D< 1'
+
D
i,,
(a/ (b) (ct (d )
Figure 2.36: Hlustralion o f the (our load steps.
(c) An additio na l com pressive load p is ap.plied in the x directio n. The stresses
in the ma te ria l becon1e '1x = 0, a.\) = p, a nd the corresponding s tra ins are
(2.21 2)
The \vo rk is
(2.213)
(2.21 4}
(2.216}
S;i = S ji ;, ; = t. 2, . . . 6. (2.217}
1 F. B. Hilde brand. ,\ft 1!1od.t nf Applied Alar/ie111a1ic.t. 2tld edition. Prcnti.x. Hall. Engle1,1,ood Cliffs.
New Jct'SCy, 1965. p. 48.
60 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, AND STRESSES
:is positive definite. The sin1pler me thod utilizes the condition that t he n1at rix is
:positive de finite whe n e ve.r y subdeterminant of the main diagonal is positive.8
Fo r an ortho tro pic n1aterial the .compliance 1natrix is (Eq. 2.28)
S11 S12 Su 0 0 0
s,, s,, Sn 0 0 0
s,_, S" S;u 0 0 0
(2.218)
[SJ =
0 0 0 s.. 0 0
0 0 0 0 Sss 0
0 0 0 0 0 s,..
The follo\\'ing subdeterminants n1ust all be positive:
[),3 =Is,,
 Sn ~:I> 0 Dt .JIs"
Su Sul > 0
Sn
D12=IS11
Su_ Su
s,,, > 0
(2.220)
S11 S12 Su
D113 = s,, S22 Su > 0. (2.221)
Su s ,_, S;u
'vhere I I denotes the determinant. Since th e stiffn ess n1atrix is the inverse of the
complian ce n1atrix, according to the rules o ( n1atrix inversion the e len1e nts of the
:main diagonal o f the stiffness matri:.x a re
D1, DI.\ D12
C11 =   C,, =   C.u =  , (2.222)
D12l Di 23 D 1:2J
"\vhere D,J , Du, a nd D 12 are positive \\he n Cu . C12, and C33 a re positi\re,
C11 > 0 C.u > 0, (2.223)
.and. at the same time, D i 21 is positive. Thus. the require ment for positive definite
n ess is n1et when aJI three of t he follo \\ing cond itions a re me t:
the e le n1ents of the n1ain diagonal of the con1pliance n1atrix are positive
(Eq . 2.2 19),
the dete rminant o f the compliance ma trix is positive (Eq. 2.221), and
the e len1e nts or the ma in diagonal or the stiffness ma trix are positive
(Eq. 2.223).
The san1e conditions a pply for t ra nsve rsely isotropic a nd isotro pic ma te ria l" .
.If the relevant eleme nts of the compliance and s tiffness n1atrices a re presented in
K E. Krcysi.ig. Ad11tutce1/ Eri1:i1tttnng 1\l athentaric.t. 7th edition. Jo hn \\'ilcy & Sons.. New York. 199J.
p. 407.
2.11 SUMMARY 61
Isotropic , > 0
 1 <Pu <0.S
terms of the engineering constants (see 'Thbles 2.7 and 2.9. pages 15 and 18) the
preceding conditions can be expressed in ltrms of the engineering constants. De
tails of the algebraic manipulauons are not given here. The results are summarized
in Table 221.9
2.4 Example. The e11ginetri11g co11stt1111s of " grophitt rpoX)' u111dir~ctio11ol pl)'
are givm <IS E, = 148 x !09 Nlm2, E2 = 9.65 x 10" Nlm1 G" = 4.55 x 10" N/11i1.
1111 = 0.3, and l 12J = 0.6. D~ttr1111nt \i'htther or not tllu srt of c.onsuuus is va/ld.
Solution. There 3rc t\VO ways 10 find the nns\vcr to t his problem.
Method I. The complinnce ma trix i (Eq. 2.4 1)
(2.225)
8. ~t Ltmpnere. J\)woca's Rat.o in Onho1te'lipk ~l*11.1b.. A/AA klwMI. Vol. 1. ll.lfr2ll1. l96&.
62 DISPLACEMENTS, STRAINS, ANO STRESSES
or
S ince the inequalities are satisfied, the specified set of engineering constants
is valid.
Let us no\\' assun1e that 112 1 = 0.3. In this case 1.112 = ~! v21 = 4 .601 (see
Table 2.8, page 16), and the compllance matrix (Table 2.7, third row, page 15)
is
TI1L< example illll<trates that t'3re should be taken to use proper values of the
Poisson ratios. The v12 and v21 Poisson ratios (re fe rre d to as the n1ajor and n1inor
Poisson ratios} must not be intercha nged.
CHAPTER THREE
Laminated Composites
Composites arc frequently made of layers (plies) bonded toge ther to Com1 a lam
inate (Fig. 3. 1). A layer may consist of short fibe rs. unidircctionol continuous
Obcrs, o r woven o r braided 6bers embe dded in a matrix (Fig~ I. I ond l.2). A layer
containing \VOvcn or braided fibers is referred to a.s fabric.
Adjacent plies having the same material and the sam e. orientation a re referred
to as a pl) group. Since the properties and the orientations are the same acr oss
the ply group. ply group may be treated as o ne layer.
[45J/OJ/'>0,/60J.
This laminate contains (our ply groups. the first containing three plies in the
45degree direction. the second containing four plies in the ()..degree direction, the
third containing t\\'O plies in the 90degree direction. the founh containing one
ply in the 6().dcgrcc direction.
Symmetrical lamina te. When the laminate is S)'11Ullelrical wilh respect to the
midplane it is referred to as a symmetrical laminate. Examples of symmetrical
lamina tes nrc shown in Figure 3.4. The lamin a tes represented in Figure 3.4 are
63
64 LAMINATED COMPOSITES
Figure 3.2: The x, y. z laminate coordinate.syste m, the X1 . xi . X') ply coordina te system. and the
ply angle.
60
90
n
0
n
0
45
45
45
Figure 3.3: Description o( t he la)up in a 1.aminatc consL.;ting of unidirectional plies
[45,/0,/9Cl.i/60J.
45 45
45 45
0 45
0 "
0 45
45
"
 45 45
 45 45
f45,IO,J, (4SJ45/ 4S),
Figure 3.4: E)'.amplcs of symmctncal lamb1ale$.
3.2 STIFfN ESS MATRICES OF THIN IAMINATES 65
 45 45
., ..,
 30 '"
lO  30
90  30
90 30
45  45
45 45
[45f 90,130/30/451] (451451301 30),
Figure 3.5: E:tamplcs of lialan ccd laminates.
specified as
Balanced laminate. ln balanced laminates, for every ply in the +0 direction there
is an identical ply in the  f) direction. Examples of balanced laminates are s hown
in Figure 3.5.
Cross ..pl.r laminates. In crossply laminates fibers are o nly in the o.. and 90degree
directions (Fig. 3.6). Crossply laminates 1nay be symn1e trical or unsyn1metrica l.
Since ther e is no d istinction bet\\een the +o and  0 and bet\veen the +90 and
 00degree directions, c ross.ply la n1ina tes are balanced.
n / 4 laminate. tr/ 4 la n1inates consist of plies in v.hich t he fibe rs are in the o., 45..,
and  45degree directions. The numbe r of plies in each d irection is t he san1e
9() .. ,
(balanced laminate). In addition, the layup is a lso S)'lllme trical.
[90,!02] (CW90],
ligurc 3.6: Examples o( crossply lam inalcs.
66 IAMINATEO COMPOSITES
45
45 30
45 30
"  30 figure 3.7: Exumplc;S of angleply la minales.
 30
"'
45  30
[ 30,!30,J
..:vhere" and u are the x , y con1ponents o( the d isplacen1ent and the superscript 0
refers to the reference plane.
\Ve adopt the Kirchhoff hypothesis. nan1ely, that normals to the :reference
surface re main normal and straight (Fig. 3.9). Accordingly, for small deflections
the angle of ro tation of the nom1al of the reference plane X.t t is
(3.2)
..:vhere w 0 is the outofplane displacement of the re (erence plane. The total dis
placement in the x direction is
au:(l
1' = tt 0

'=U
Z;t..x
0
 z
ax (3.3)
\ Xr:
w
I)' .4'
"l . , ~
Reference plillle/
A
Figure 3.9: .Deformation o( a plate jn the :rz plane.
 
.T 
au
ax y 
au
ay Y.,,.= .+a
uy X
an
.
au
au 0 a2 w(J
lx = .  z,
ax ax
ali(J i)21JJU
'=
' ay  z
ay'
(3.6)
au 0
au0 2a2 u/ '
= ;;
YJt~'
Y + 7uX  z::;;
oxoy
(3.7)
where t;, '~ Y.~~ are the s trains in the refere nce plane (Eq. 3.1), and K., , Ky , and
Kry are the curvatures of the reference pla ne o f the plate (Fig. 3.10) defined as
(3.8)
The inplane forces and mon1ents acting o n a sn1all elen1ent are (Fig. 3.11 )
,,, ,,, ,,,
N., = j a, dz N1 = f a1dz N.t:,. = J fxydl
'"
 /11,
'"  Ju.
(3.9)
z
'
Dcformrd
Referenee .Plane
y y
Undefomte.d
b Referenee P lane b
, _4+/,l 1.
,...,,,  l
t ,.;=1>=0
' ,, ' '
Figure 3.10: 'fbe cunatures K~ .r,.. an d I(~, o f the refere.nee plane.
'"here N and Mare the in ~pla ne forces a nd moments (per unit le ngth), a nd /J 1 and
J,. a re the distances from the reference plane to the plate's surfaces (Ftg. 3.12).
The transverse shear forces (per unit le ngth) a re (Fig. 3. 11 , right)
h, h,
_.f
\I, = \I.,= / r.,dz. (3.10)
,_ r,,dz /~
\Ve no\\' recall that (or planestress condition the stressstrain rela tionships/or
ead1ply are (Eq. 2.126)
(3. I I)
/
x
.
~ ... .. .....
.~Jtl!P
 y
Figure 3.1 l: Theinplan e forces acting at t he referenee plane (left) and !he moments a nd the
L!rnnncn.eshear forces (right).
3.2 STIFFNESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 69
I:.,;~~~
1 ~~~~2is
Rcfcrcncc Plane
 =
 . . z,_._ " 
(3.12)
:; } = [Q] { :; } . (3.13}
{
'l'x>' Yxy
where (Q] is the stiffness matrix of the ply in the x y coordinate system. The e le
me n ts of this stiffness ma trix a re obtained fro111 the e lements of the stiffness ma trix
( QJin the x ,  xi coordinate system by the transfom1ation given by Eq. (2. l 95).
By replacing ( QJand [Q' I by l Q] a nd ( QJ, respectively. Eq. (2. 195) yields
Q,, Q,.]
Q,, Q,. [T.), (3.14)
Q,. Q..
where [T,,) and [ 7; J are given by Eq. (2.196) and are re iterate d below,
IT.I=[::::  cs cs
_;~:: ]
c1  s2
s'
(7; ) = [ :: c'
 2cs 2cs
cs]
 cs .
cl  ..,.2
(3.15)
and c = cos f), s = sin fl \11th fl defined in Figure 3.2. For an orthotropic ply the
Joe.al coord inates X1. xi are in the o rthotropy directions. For transversely isotropic
plies these local coordinates are parallel and poerpendicular to th e fibers (Fig. 2.15).
For orthottropic and transversely isotropic nlateriaJs the elements of the stiffness
nlatrix io the global coordinate syste.m are giveo in T.i.ble 3.l in tern1s o( the
elements of the stiffness ma trix in the local coordinate systen1.
70 LAMINATED COMPOSITES
..
[ Aj = f.. [Q)d~
_
..
(BJ= f.. z(Q]d~
_
(3.18)
..
(DI= f i(Q]dz.
_..
3.2 STIFl'N ESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 71
...f f.. xQ,,tlx
b,
D,, =
...f ::'{1,,tlt.
B., = i1..f

 '  ,,_,)
L.)Q.,l.(z; ..2 (3.20)
O., = 31..f

 J  ..._,).
L.)Q,,lt(z, _,

where K is the total number of plies (or ply groups) in the laminate: :,a.. ~1 are the
distances from the reference plane 10 the two surfaces or the l<lh ply: and ( Q.,l
are the elements of the stiffne.ss matrix of the k'th ply.
With Lhc preceding definitions of the stiffness matrices. Lhc expressions for the
inpiano forces and mo ments (Eqs. 3.16 and 3.17) become
...,,,.
{J..
N,
lV....11 (3.22)
"'
.."'',,
Jl<,1 611
/l11 /J22 Jl<.2 &11
/J10 /Ji /J.. S1
&12
"22
Si . ...
M..
J\1
M_.,
72 lAMJNATED COMPOSITES
The (a), [Jl], and IS) mat rices are rela ted to the I A], [BJ, and [DJ matrices by
 I
3.2.1 The Significance of the [A), (8), and [OJ Stiffness Matrices
The [A], I BJ, and [DJ matrices represent the stiffnesses of a lamina te a nd describe
the response of the la1ninate to inplane fo rces a nd n1on1ents.
A;1 are the inplan e stiffnesses that relate the in .. pla ne fore.es N,, , 1".v,
N .xy to
the inplane deformations ~;, .:~. Y.~'.w
Dt; are the bending stiffnesses that relate the moments ,\(" ,\<fy. J\.(1 >' to the
curvatures K.r . K y, Kx>"
Table 3.2. llustration of the coupling terms A16, 016, 11,6 , Bi 1, 11,,. B,. for
composite materials. When the element shown in the last column is zero, there is
no coupling. (The coupling terms A26 , o,.,
826 , B., can be illustrated in a similar
manner by applying a force N, and a moment M, in the yz plane.)
COupfing No COupling Bement
E." tc11s:ion s:l11:mr
N~..:o,.. ~
.. + N
... ..... ......
,.
No
~: .
..
...........
:..
N
:~
'
t
,11g:::~.. ,('iM,
Extension t.\\ist
N z. 7,
+1,'
' .......... ,.
Nr
,' + .Bu.
.811
~_.z ; :z;z;:.!,
.. . ............ , .Bu
~.zz:,
........ .. . ..
_}
3.2 STIFFNESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES 73
Table 3.3. llustraUon of the coupling terms A,,, 012 that may be present
both In composite and in isotropic materials. When the element sh<lwn In
the last column is zero, there is no coupling.
' .!
Bending bcndiu.g
,., ..... . .. .. ....
M;(....._ji\f, M,,g'. ... _jM, o,,
Examination of the [AJ, (BJ, and (DJ matrices shows that different types of
couplings Jnay occur as discussed belov. and illustrated in Tables 3.2 a nd 3.3.
E.xten.\iorishear coupling. \Vhen t he eleme nts A 16 , A26 are not zero, inplane
normal forces N1:. N,., cause shear deforn1ation Y:y and a t\\ist force 1V:t}' causes
elongatious in the x and y d irections.
Bendingt,vist coupling. \Vhen the elen1ents D16 , Di,6 are not zero, bending mo
n1ents J\fJ. , J\fy ca\L~e t\\~st of the lan1inate ><.1..v and a t'vist n1oment J\1J.'Y causes
curvatures in the x z and yz planes.
Exteru.io11t" ist and bendingshear coupling. \\'hen the elements 8 16 , 816 are
1
not zero, in ~ plane normal fore.es Nx. Ny cause 1v.~st K.vy. and bending moments J\1x.
11~fy result in shear deformation Y.~y
lnplaneoutofp lane coupling. \\'hen the e len1ents B;; are not zero, inplane
forces Nx. Ny. N11,, cause outofplane deformations (curvatures) of the lan1inate,
and mon1ents i\1.x. i\11.v, i\1.xy cause in~plane deformations in t he x .v plane.
The preceding four types o f coupling are Characte ristic of composite n1aterials
and do not occur in homogeneous isotropic n1aterials. The foJJowing l\vo couplings
occur in both composite and isotropic n1aterials (Table 3.3):
Exteru.ionexteosion coupling. \\'hen the ele ment A12: is not zero, a normal force
f;,
Nx causes elongation in the y direction and a no nnal force 1\J_\. causes elongation
in the x d~ rect ion f~ .
Bending bending coupling. \Vhen the element D12 is not zero, a bending nton1ent
i\11,. c.a\L~es cunature of the laminate in the y z plane ><y. and a bending n1on1ent
My causes curvature of the laminate in the x .t plane Kx.
74 LAMINATED COMPOSITES
By substiluting t hese stiffnesses into Eq. (3.18), we find that the l BJmatrix is
zero:
( BJ = 0 (symmetrical). (3.25)
'} [A" A
{N "] {'; } A 11
JVy = A11 A iz A26 f~ (3.26)
N1.:y A1n A1ft ,i\,(, y~,
{M' } [~'Di6
D 12
M, = ~, Da
D 16] {~y
D,..b
Kx } . (3.27)
A1xy Du. DM 1i:.,J'
[a"
a 11
& 12
&zz
16
a ] = [a11
&26 012.
0 12
022
a1
a,.] [~"8,2
812
811
8,.] = [d"
826 d 12
d,,
tl12
a,.]
du ,
a,. '126 Ctt6 O t6 a,. a,,. .St6 {jzo li(,6 d16 d26 d,,.
(3.28)
'vhere
'"fr,
A12
["" a,. ". ] [A"Ai
a 12
a,2 22
16
ll26 =
A
12
A12 Az (3.29)
Ail> 1166
llt6 {/
[d" ~
D12
d 12
d12 th2 d,.
d,.] = [D11
D11 Di2 . (3.30)
d,. d16 d.. Di D26 D,.
3.2 STIFfN ESS MATRICES OF THIN IAMINATES 75
The relationships between the strains and c urva tures and the fo rces and mo
ments (Eq. 3.22) now simplify to
{y1;.E;} [""ll1~
Eu = a1,
ll]l
a22
"'] {,~, }
a2n 1Vy (3.31)
1 1VXJ'
{ Kx }
Ky = [ d11
lf12
d12
d21
d1]
d16
M, }
{:\1y . (3.32)
"'Y d16
d,. d66 ,,,JI)'
Balanced la111i11ate. In a balance d Jan1inate, for every unidirectional ply in
the +f>direction (1neasured co unte rclock,vise fro1n the x coord inate) t he re is an
identical ply in the  H direction. The e lements of the stiffness matrix I QJ are
given in Table 3.1 (page 70). Fron1 this ta ble 've deduce that the e le n1eots of the
stiffness matrices of plies in the +f) and  f> d irections are related as follo \\s:
\Vbe n the ply is n1ade of unidirectiona l fibe rs and au the fibers are aligned \vith
one of the lan1inate's ortho tropy d irections (Fig. 3.13);
76 LAMINATED COMPDSITES
Table 3.4. The [AJ, [BJ, [OJ matrices for laminates. When the laminate Is
symmetrical, the [BJmatrix is zero. Crossply laminates are otthotroplc.
[AJ (BJ [DJ
Symmelric.al
[~ ~]
0
[A,'
Au
A"]
A" 0
['' '' D"]
Du
"'"''
An D 22
Bab1nce<l
A.M A" 0
''
o.. D ,. [),.,
["''"'' JJ
0
Au
A,,
0
[Bu
B,.
Bu
B,,,
B"]
B12 Bn lJy,
B w..
Du '' D
[''
o..
o,."]
o,.
D ii
Dir.
Orthotropit
[All A11
1J '' JJ ['''' l]
[Bu Bu Dn
Dn
"''
0
Ai.?
0 0
Bti
0 0 0
Isotropic
0 , 0
B12
Bu
0 0
D.,
QuaSiiSOlr<>pi<:
0
Bi Bu
B,. B,.
Bu
B"]
o,.
o,. [''
''
o..
'DM' D"]
D,.
Du
D,.
Table 3.5. Couplings in selected laminates ("no means that the Indicated element of
the stiffness matrix Is zero and the corresponding coupling does not occu~
Inplane
Extensionshear Bendingtwist Extensiontwist outofplane
A,. o,. B,. 811
Sym1netric.al 110 no
Balanced no
Orthotropic no 11<> no
Quasi no
isotropic
Isotropic no n<> no
Layered
Isotropic no n<> no no
single layer
3.2 STIFfN ESS MATRICES OF THIN LAMINATES n
~y
D  . ,.
 >
.. ... . 'T:' g . ;r
' ;,s.
:
'
Figure 3.13: l'I)' nrrongcn1cnll11n orthotropic laminates. The pl)''s J)'n1n1etry iixc11 (d1,shcd lines)
must coinc1de with the l11n1inntc's orthotrop)' .r. y axes.
\Vhen the ply is n "'oven fabric and the ply's sy1nn1eLry axes are nligned \Vhb
the laminates orthotropy directions:
\vhen two adjacent unidirectional plies (oriented in different direclions) are
treated as a single layer and the symmetry axes of this layer are aligned \\rith
the laminatc's orthotropy directions.
For the orthotropic plies described above, the Q1 and 'Q,. elements of the ply
stiffness m otrix are zero (Eq. 2. 138):
(3.35)
With those volues. Eq. (3.20) gives that the 16 and 26 c lements of the I Al. I BJ .
and (DJ matrices ore zero:
~l
0:11 au 0 /In /Jn
,.,, au 0 fJ21 fJ21
0
/Jn p,.
0 a,,.
(J
0
811
0
8 11 P;I (3.37)
"" /Jn
() 0
0
/JM
8 12
0
822
0 i.J
78 lAMJNATED COMPOSITES
\Vhen the layup isorthotropicand syn1metrical, the e len1ents of the con1plia nce
ma trices are (see Eqs. 3.29 a nd 3.30)
11 " 12 0] d11 d 1z O]
0 12 0 12 0 d 12 d21 0 . (3.38)
[
0 0 ... [ 0 0 d,.
Isotropic /an1ina1e. \Ve consider a laminate in \vhich each ply is isotro pic.
(The n1aterial n1ay be dif(erent in each ply.) Since in isotropic n1aterials there is
n o preferred d irection, the [ QJn1atr.ix in the x y coord inate systen1 is the same as
t he l Q} matrix in t he x 1 x2 coord inate system:
Conseque ntly, the [A], (BJ, (DJ matrices a re inde pe ndent of the coordina te
directions. By introducing the e leme nts of the ( QJmatrix given by Eq. (2. 145) into
Eq. (3.20), we obtain the followi ng .elements of the (AJ, IBJ, and [DJ matrices:
(3.41)
' vhere
Invers ion of matrices [A] and [DJ yields t he compliance ma trices I) and (d]
(see Eqs. 3 .29 a nd 3.30). The no nzero ele ments a re
2(1 + "} l
a 11 = Eh a12 =  van U66 = Eh =Ch
(3.43)
12 , 24(1 +v) 12
d11 =iii ,... = /Jl = Chi'
_Quasiisotropic /a111inate. t\ lan1inate is quasiisotro pic \\'hen
For eJCample, in "/4 laminates (page 65) the re a re fibers in the O. 45.  45,
and 9(}' directions, a nd I = 4.
For each ply, the elemenl< of the [ QJ matrix a re obtained by substituting fl =
i180' / I into the expressio ns in Table 3.1 (page 70). Then, by substituting these
eleme nts into the expression for the [AJ matrix (see Eq. 3.20), we obtain the
folJo,ving no nzero elements of the I A] n1atrix::
A:u = A,1
(3.44)
I 3 1
A 12 = Sh (Q11 + Q,,) + 4'' Q12  zhQ..
A;e, = A11  A12 .
2
The stiffness matrix (A) may be written as
A11 An
[All= A12 Au (3.45)
[
0 0
\vhere Rand v1110 are paran1eters defined as
3 1 1
R= 8(Q11 + Q,,) + 4Q12 + 2Q66
(3.46)
1
v1"' = R( Q11 + Q,, + 6Q"  4Q66 ),
8
and his t he thickness of the laminate. It is stated here witho ut proof that Eqs. (3.45)
and (3.46} are vaJid2 for all values o! I as lo ng as I ~ 3.
\Ve obse rve that for both quasi.isotropic and isotropic la n1inates, A!? and
Ai;r, are A22 = A 11 a nd Arin= (A 11  A12) /2. Thus, under inplane forces., q uasi
isotropic la1ninates be have in the same way as isotropic laminates. that is, there is
no extensionshear coupling (Table 3.5) a nd the [ AJ matrix is independent of the
coordinate d irections. The [ B] and [ DJ n1atrices do not si1nplify for q uasi.isotropic
lamin ates.
Elen1ent" A10 and Au, are zero a nd ~ = (Ai 1  A12) / 2 for synunetrical and
unsymn1etr ic.al quasiisotropic lan1inates. Correspondingly, for symn1e trica l q uasi
isotropic laminates. the a 16 a nd air. e len1e nts of the compliance ma trix a re zero
(a 16 = 0 and a 26 = 0) and au,= 2(c.r 11  a 12) . For unsymmetrical q uasi..isotropic
laminates, none of the eleme nts of t he con1pliance ma trix is zero (see Eq. 3.22).
Reference plane. The stiffness mat rices [A), [BJ , and [DJ refer to R eference
P lane 1. The stiffness n1atric.e s for Reference Plane 2 (located at a d istance ()
from Refere nce Plane L Fig. 3.14) a re obtained from Eq. (3.20) by replaci ng~
b y(Z  11) as follows:
K
'\"; = L;<Q;;)k [(z  11)  ( 41  e)J
;..1
K
= I:<'?1;).C~ z.1) =A.;
;..1
(3.47)
~
 ''(Q>['
K
L. ,,
;..1
'_
3
J
,er,  2r,_, + e'(:a _ , >]
.
J '
Zk 1
The superscript e re(ers to Refe rence Plane 2. \Vhe n the laminate is symn1et
rical and the reference plane coincides \\ith t he midplane, the ma trix I B] is zero.
\Vhen the la n1ina te is unsyn1n1etrical, the n1atrix [ B] is not zero.
In general, the re is no e value that results in a nonzero l BJ n1atrix for an
anisotropi c composite la n1inate. Jn other \\'ords., fo r an unsymmetrical laminate
there is no reference plan e that is also a neutTal plane.
The compliance matrices [a], [ft], and (8 J refe r to Refere nce Plane I. The
eleme nts of these matrices for Reference Plane 2 are obtained by int roducing
Eq. (3.47) into Eq. (3.23). After algebraic ma.nipulations, we obtain
The third of t hese equa tions sho,vs that the be nding con1plia nce n1atrix (S.J is
independent of the choice of the reference surface.
C11ned lan1inates. The stiffness and compliance n1atrices derived in this chap ..
ter for fia t laminates may be a pplie d to thin curved lan1ina tes \Vhen the radius of
curvature is large compared '"ith t he thickness.
Nu111erical l alues of the stiff11es.; and cor11plia11ce 111atrices of selected /anti
1
nates. Be Jo,v, v.e present nume rical values o f the stiffness and compliance ma trices
of lamina~es with d iffe re nt lay ups. The engineering constants used to calcula te the
laminate stiffnesses and cotnpliances are listed in Table 3.6. While the properties
in this table a re not inte nded to depict a particular n1aterial, they are characteris
tic of n1aoy graphiteepoxy composites. The refore, the prope rties in Table 3.6 are
tLed in the examples in the book.
3.1 Example. Cit/cu/ate the sriffness [A], I BJ, [DJ and 1/re compliance [a L [/l J. [~ I
1natrices of a [010/ 451uJ huni11ate n1ade oj'gratJhite epoxy ru1idirectiotrt1/ plies. The
ply properties are given in Table 3.6.
Solution. The stiffne.ss ma trix of a unidirectional ply \\ith the fibers in the o. .
degree direction is I QJ0 = [QJ. T he stiffness matrix [QJ is given by Eq. (2.147),
and thus [ QJ is
~ ] 109 ~.
148.87 2.91
(Qf' = [Q] = ~91 9.71 012
(3.49)
[ 0 4.55
T he stiffness matrix [QJ of a ply not in the Odegree direction is (Eq. 3. ~4)
(3.50)
where [ T0 J and [T. J are given by Eq. (3.15). For the 45degree ply c = cos 45' =
0.707 ands =sin 45 = 0.707, and we have
By substituting Eq~ (3.49) and (3.51) into Eq. (3.50), we obtain the stiffness
matrix of the 45degree ply as follows:
The layup is shown in Fig 3.15. In calculating the [AJ, fBJ. [DJ matrioes we treat
the ten 0degree plies as one layer and the ten 45degree plies as anoU1er layer.
T he ( Aj, I BJ. I DJ matrices are (Eq. 3.20)
I
~= I mm
I
E;.~o
4510 Zi= O 
,.~~.i_,l~,~,.,n1m
....
Figure 3.15: 1be.(0 1o/4S 1fl) laminatc.in Ex.ample 3. J.
3.2 STIFFNESS MAIBICES OF THIN IAMlNATES 83
The [ Q] matrices are given by Eqs. (3.49) a nd (3.52). The dista nces (in meters)
are lo=  0.001, t 1 = 0, z2 = 0.001 (Fig. 3.15). With these values Eq. (3.53) yields
[DJ
= lQ.l"0'  ( 30.00li + IQJ"0.0013'  0' [ 643'.84
I.. 15 I138.155
.4 11.6060] N m.
II.
Jl .60 I 1.60 14.25
(3.54)
Hence, we have
3.2 Example. Calculate the sriffness [ AJ. lBf, [DJ and the compliance [a L[/3 L(o J
matrices of a [O,.] lmnimrte made of graphite epoxy tt1tidirectio1url plies. Tlie ply
properties are given in Tobie 3.6 (JJage 81 ).
Solution. The unidirectional laminate is symmetricaJ. and the [Bl matrix is zero:
Table 3.7. The (A] and (OJ matrices for symmetrical laminates. The unit
ol (A] is 1a6 ~ and the unit ol [OJ is N . m. The malerial properties are
given in Table 3.6 (page 81).
[A] [OJ
lOmJ(orthotropic. symme1rical}
[
5.82
0
19.41
0
0
9.IO [
1.94 6.47
0 0 3t]
[451/012/ 45l J (orthoiropic. symmetrical)
36~0i]
[ 215.17 .\2.74 [ 45.30 19.52
32.74 48.17 19.52 25.26 4.45]
4.45
0 0 4.45 4.45 20.62
[ 30,/15,/02], (symmetrical)
(45,,JO~J.. (symme.trical)
By treating the 20 plies as a single layer, the IA] and (DJ matrices are (Eq. 3.20)
Table 3.8. The lat and [di matrices lor symmetrical laminates. The
unit ol lat is 10w and the unit ol [d] Is 10' o';;;. The material
properties are given in Table 3.6 (page 81).
[) [d)
(Oll>J (ortB10Lropic.. symmetrical}
10~89] 32~67]
[ 3.38  LOI [ 10.14 3.04
1.0 1 51.81 3.04 155.44
0 0 0 Q
[ 30,/15,/02], (symmetrical)
5.08  6.09 0.29] 26.87 25.93 17.70]
 6.09 47.44 I l.70 25.93 147.76 37.57
[ 0.29 I L.70 3 l.00 [ 17.70 37.57 93.52
N E2h N
297 .75 x Hf  A,,= = 19.41 x lo' 
m I  vf, e: m (3.59}
N
Ai..= G12/J = 9.10 x to<' 
m
,IJ3
D11 = ( ) = 99.25 N m [),, =  = 6.47 N . m
12 I 
2 E,
V12j  12(t  v!2 ~;) (3.60}
G12h.l
D.,, = J2 = 3.03 N tn .
86 LAMINATED COMPOSITES
Tabl.. 3.9. The (A], (BJ, (OJ and the (oJ, [BJ, and [6J malrioes fl>r unsymmelrioal laminates. (A] is
in 106 ~. [BJ is in 1031'1, [OJ Is in N. m, [<>J is in 10 W. [.8J is In 10 ~. and [6J is in 10 .,i.;.
The material properties are given in Table :i.6 (page Iii).
[A] [BJ (OJ
(0 10/ 45rn]
(01/4.S2/0,/451]
o .~2
( 77.8 1 15.79 13.92] [ 4 129
l.346
l.392] [ 4 150 0.742]
15.79 22.14 13.92 1.346 l.438 1.392 0.842 l.ISl 0.742
1192 ll92 17.lO 1.392 l.392 1.346 0.742 0.742 0.912
(45~/0.,,)
[a ) [ft) (4]
(Oio/45rn]
(0,/4.S,/0,/451)
(45~/0rn]
~
1  9 Ol
"" = ;," = 3.38 x 10 '"' = Eih = 51.81 x 10 N
 = 109.89 x 10 ~
1
ll12 =  V12llt l =  1.01 X 10 9 ~ u.., = 
G11h N
(3.62)
12 3 1 L2 1
I' = 10.14 x 10 N m
du = E,,. du= EI' = 155.44 x 10 3 N

2 r 111
o'.  N
l
12 . _, 1
d12 =  Vii d11 =  'n
.l.l.l"t X) ti,,, = G , = 329.67 x JO N.
m 1211 m
(3.63)
3.3 Example. Ca/en /ate the stiffiress and dJe co111pliance 111atrices of (i) a ltuni1Jatecl
co111posite consisting of nvo lttyers of 45degree lvoven fabric, nvelve
layers of Q.tfegree uuidirectlonal plies, and flvo layers of 45..Jegree 1vove11 fabric
([45\/012/ 45\)); and (ii) a laminate consisti11g jive layers of 45degree woven
fabric and Im layers ofO.Jegree unidirectional plies ([45\/011)]). The marerifl'l
properties are given in Table 3.6 (JJage 81 ).
Solution. First we conside r the laminate with ([45\/012/45\J) layup (Fig. 3.16}.
The laminate is symn1etrical, and the (BJ mattLx is zero:
The con1pliance n1atrix of a unidirectional ply \\~th the fibers in the Odegree
direction '5 [Q) = [ QJ. The stiffness matrix f QJ is given by Eq. (2.147). and thus
[Q]0 is
~ ]1oN,
148.87 2.91
[QJ" = [ Q] = ~91 9.7 1 (3.65)
[ 0 4.55 m
For a 45degree wove n fabric the stiffness matrix (Q] is (Eq. 2.150)
45.65 36.55 o ] N
(Qf.r45 = 36.55 45.65 0 109 m' (3.66)
[ 0 0 38:.19
In calcu lating the [A], [ BJ, (DI mat rices we treat the twelve Odegree plies as
o ne layer and each adjacent \Voven fabric as one layer. The j'A] and (Dl n1atrices
are
~ ]Nm.
45.30 19.52
( DJ = 19i}2 25.26 (3.69)
[ 0 20.62
The compliance matrices [a I and Id) are (Eqs. 3.29 a nd 3.30)
5.18  3.52 0 ]
 I  iJ Rl
[a) = [Af =  3.52 23.1 5 0 JO N (3.70)
[ 0 0 27.77
33.10  25.59 0 ]
(d] = [Dr ' =  25.59 59.37 0 10> N '. m (3.71)
[ 0 0 48.51
The compliance and stiffness n1al!rices of the [45~/010] Jan1inate are calculated
s in1ilarly. The results are given in Table 3.9.
CHAPTER FOUR
Thin Plates
In practice \VC Cre qucntly e ncounter "thin p lates whose thickness is small com
pared wit h nil o ther din1e nsions. Suc.h a plate. undergoing sma ll displacen1e nts..
may be annlyzed with the approximations that the strains vary linearly across
the plate. (out01plane) shear deformations are negligible. and t he o utofplane.
norn1al stress a: 3nd shear stresses r ._, t,.._ are s maU compared y.ith the inplane.
normal"" a,., and shear Try stresses.
Under c:cnain ronditions, solutions may be obtained ror thin plates either by
the solutio n or 1he differential equations representing equilibrium or by energy
methods. 1 Herc \\"C demonstrate the use of the first method "ia the example of long
plates and the second me1hod via exam ples o f rectangular pla1cs either with sym
metrical layup or with orthotropic a nd symmetrical layup. (For orthotropic plates
the d irections of orthotropy are parallel to the edges o r lhe plate.) We chose these
three types of problems because (i) they illustrnte tl1e anolyticnl approaches and
the use of Lhc rclc \1on1 equations, (ii) solution.s can be obLuincd \\1ithout exte nsive
nu1ne ricul olgoritluns. and last , but not least. (iii) they are o f practical interest.
Additiona lly, and iinportant ly. these proble n1s provide insights that are usefull
when a nal yzing plotcs by nun1erical methods.
Altho ugh the specification o ( orthotropy may seen\ to be overly restrictive. in
fact it does no t unduly limit the applicability of the anulyse:s. The reason for this is
tha t plates arc often made according to the 10...percenl rule. and such pla tes be have
similarly Lo orthotropic plates.2 There Core, solu tions fo r orthotropic plates provide
good approximations of the deflections.. maximum bending moments. buckling
loads. and natural frequencies of nonorthotropic plates that have symmetrical
layup and are constructed according to the 10..perccnt rule. The 10percent rule
89
90 THIN PIATES
Plates confo rn1ing to t he 10percent rule have better load bearing capabilities
t han unidirectional or angleply lan1inates for the follo\ving reasons.
Unidirectional plies are stiffer an d s tro nger in the 0 degree fiber direction than
in the 90degree direction perpend ic.ular to t he fibers. Thus. laminates made of uni
directional plies are ills uited to carry load in the 90degree direction. Angle ply
lan1inates \vith only l\\'O fibe r d irections do not resist \Veil tensile load s applied
a long the symn1etry axis.. Plates mad e by t he JO.. pe rcent rule n1inimize these short
con1ings.
The s pecification of sy1nme tricaJ layup is less restrictive than it m ay appear
because the analyses of symme trical plates (for which ([BJ= 0) can readily be
e xte nde d to unsymme trical plates (( B] "# 0) witlt the use of the re duced be nd ing
stiffness IDJ, defined as u .s
4. t Governing Equations
lln this section we sumn1arize t he equatio ns used in an alyzing thin plates. \Ve
e n1ploy the x. y. t coordinate systen1. The o rigin is a t the n1idpla ne fo r plates
' vith syn1metrical layup a nd a t a suitably chosen reference plane for pla tes \\ith
unsymn1etrical layup.
The strains a nd curvatures of the refere nce pla ne (Fig. 3.10) a re (Eq ~ 3.1, 3.8)
where u> and v<> are tbe displacen1ents of the refere nce plane in the x a nd y
directions., a nd wl) is the outof.plane displacen1e.n t (de.Hection) of this plane. The
forcestrain re lat ionships are (Eq. 3.21)
I) N., al\J.yJi
+
3x ay
=  p:r;
aNr a1v.T>' (4.4)
a>' + ax =  py
av, av,.
 +  =  p
ax ay
,, aA(, + 
1'.t = 
aM,,.
 V. _ ~ aM,,,, (4.5)
3.t ay r  ay + ax
where p.1 p,., a nd P:. are the components of the distributed surface load (pe.r unit
area); N.r. 1'J,. and 1\~ty are the in~plane forces (per unit length); \~... a nd Vy are the
transverse shear fo rces (pe r unit le ngth)~ flt& , M>' and A1."'Y are., respectively, the
bending moments a nd the twist moment (per unit length ) (Fig. 4.1).
'' S. P. Ttmos.hcnko nnd S. \VoinowskyKricgcr. r1teoryof Plt11esa111/ Sl1~lls. 2nd edition. 1'1cGrnwHiU,
New York . 1959, p. 80.
92 THIN PLATES
Along a fiee edge. v.here no external loads are applied, the bending n1oment
MK. the replacement shear fo rce7 v1: + aA1Jty/ax. and the in~plane (orces N.,' NJ;)'
are zero:
M,=0 Vx+
ail(,,
=
o (4.7)
ay
Along a simply supported edge, the deflection u/ ', the bending mo:ment J\1x,
a.nd the inplane forces N.1 , Nx,v are zero:
For an e dge parallel with the xaxis, the preceding boundary conditions hold
'vith x and y inte rchanged.
U= ~ J.! .!
0 0  Jr.
(O'xfx + 11,.<,. + r,,.r.,,.) d ulydx, (4.10)
,..,here h1 a nd hb are the d istances fro111 the re fe re nce plane to t he plate 's surfaces
(Fig. 3.12). The stra in components are (Eq. 3.7)
(4.11)
1
Ibid.. p. 84.
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 93
By substituting Eq~ (4.1 1) and (4.12) into Eq. ( 4. 10) and by utilizing the definitions
o( the [ Aj. [ 8], [ DJ matrices (Eq. 3.18), we obtain the following expression fo r the
st rain e ne rgy:
T
"x A11 A12 A16 811 811 s.. "x
L, I .., y A 12 A11 A16 8 11 Bi1 8,. y
(4.1 3)
tV.T or x M, or K,
1Vr or ")'
J\1y or Ky (4.14)
1V.t y or l~y J\(lJ' or ,_;X)"
With si..x of the q uantities chosen (Eq. 4.14), the re.ma ining six may be obtained
by solving the six simultane ous equations give n by Eq. (4.3). Once the curvatures
y A. ~
~ ~
g ~
L,
I
Figure 4.3: m e difere nt types of supports along !he long e dges of a trans\'ersef) l<>aded long
pl ate~
are kno\vn, the deflection of the refe re nce surface w 0 is ca lcula te d by using the
r elationships betv.een the curvatures and the detlection ( Eq. 4.2) as folJo,vs:
(4.15)
(4.16)
TI1is expression for w0 does not include the deflection of the re ference plane
d ue to rigid. body n1otion.
longplate approxin1ation may be a pplied. To this eod \Ve obse rve that the deflec
tions of an orthotropic pla te (\\ith length Ly and \vidth L.1) and a n isotropic plate
(wit h length u, and width U,) a re similar when (page 109)
(4.18)
Thus, f rom Eqs. (4.17) and (4.18) we have that the Jongplate a pproximation
is reasonable \\he n the folJo\ving inequality is satisfied:
l ., > 3
l,
JD::
y/5; orthotropic pla te. (4.19)
TI1is formula, v"hich is established for orthotropic pla tes. n1ay also be used as
a guide for plates whose layup is not o rt hotropic.
We now proceed with the an alysis of Jon.g plates in cylindrical bending. The
gene ra tor of this cylind rical surface is para lle l to the longitudinal y..axis of the
plate. The c urva tures Ky and Kxy of the plate are zero
Ky = 0 Kxy = 0. (4.20)
(4.2 1)
1\ way fron1 the short edges the forces an d mome.n ts do not vary a long the
length or the pla te. Thus, from the last of Eq. (4.4} a nd the first o( Eq. ( 4.5) we
have
tfV, O
 (4.22)
dx+ 1>=
~
(4.25)
The ele ment D11 o( the matrix [DJ is given by Eq. (3.20).
By substituting Eq. (4.25) into Eq. (4.24) and by using Eq. (4.21), we obtain
the fo llowing equilibriun1 equation tor the anisotropic Jong plate:
tfw _ L = long plate
0 (4.26)
dx' D11 symmetrical layup.
The equation governing the de.Hection of a transversely loaded isotropic. beam
is9
d4w p'
 =0 isotropic beam, (4.27)
dx' El
\\here E is Youngs n1odulus. I is tile mo1nent of inertia about the yaxis, and p'
is the transverse load per un it length.
By comparing Eq. (4.26) and (4.27), we see that the equations describing the
d eflections of a long plate (syn1rnetr ical layup) an d an isotropic beam a1e s imilar.
Consequently, the deflection o( a long plate (symmetrical layup) with be nding
s.tiffne.ss D11 is the san1e as the de Hection of an isotropic beam \vith be nding
s.tiffness El when the nume.rical values of the loads are equal (p = p' ). (Note
ho,vever that p is per unit area and p' is per unit length.) T hus, the deflection of a
long plate with symmetrical layup can be obtained by replac.ing El/ p' by D 11 / p
in the expression 10 given for the deflection of the corresponding isotropic bea1n .
"' E. P. PopoY. n~i11eeri111: AleC'ha11its of Solids. Prcntioc~Hall. En~kwood Cliffs. New JJcr:icy. 1990.
p. 505.
to YI.'. 0. PilkC)', Founulos ftJr Sud.set. St1ai11.t. tu1d Su1u.1u111J Alauict!l John Wiley & Sons, New York .
19?4.
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 97
dejfet'tion, the 111axin1u1n bending 11101ne111s. and tire stresses tt11d strains ilf ead1
lt1)1er.
Solution. The bending stiffnesses of the pla te are (Table 3.7. page 84) D11 =
45.30 N m and Du= 25.26 N m. We may treat this pla te as long when the fol
lowing cond ition is me t (Eq. 4.19):

L,> > 
L.r
~"
Di.2
(4.28)
ln the present problen1 the tern1s in this inequality are Ly/L.r = 3.5 and
3:/D11 /D?.i  3.47. Thus. the preceding condition is satisfied and t he loogplate
expressions n1ay be used.
The maximum deflection of a simply supporte d be<>m is (Table 7.3, page 332}
_ 5 p' L'
UJ =   . (4,29)
384 /
The maximum deflection of the pla te is o btained by replacing El / p' by D 11 / p
(see page 96). For the plate under consideratio n Di 1 = 45.30 N m and L., = 0.2 m.
and \Ve have
_ 5 11L~
w= Dii = 0.0230 m = 23.0 mm. (4.30)
384
The bending mome nts are (Eq. 3.27)
For a long plate K y and K:iy are zero (Eq. 4.20}, and M.x and My are
(4.33)
The maxin1un1 bending n1oment Mx. v.hich arises at 4 / 2, is (see Table 7.3_
page 332)
pl; N m
M, =  = 250.00   (4.34)
8 m
From E qs. (4.33) and (4.34) we have
From E qs. (4.33) and (4.34) the maximum bending moment M, (at L../2) is
Di1 M, =
Di2Kx = ,, N m
M,, =
 107.75   . (4.36)
'"I t m
0.4~ 1
98 THIN PLATES
, : :
;t
'
45?
t 452 ' 1 1 1
figure 4.6: 'l'be nonzero strains nnd slre.ss:es across the thickness o( the plate at L_/ 2 in Exam
p ie 4.1. The unit of a 1s 10" N/m2.
For !he long plate (Ky = K_,y = 0) the strains a l L.,/ 2 a re (Eq. 3.7)
fx = Kx Z = 5.52.t
fy =0 (4.37)
Y.vr = 0.
(4.38)
The s tiffness n1atrices fo r the fabric and for the unidirectional layer are given
b y Eqs. (3.65) a nd (3.66). TI1e stresses in the lop layer (where z = /J/ 2 0.001 m) =
at L.,J2 are
The s tresses in the other layers are ealculated s in1ilarly. Tue resulls a re s hown
in Figure 4.6.
Unsy111n1etrical layup. The layup of t he plate. is unsynuuetrical. One of the
long e dges must be restrained along the length\vise direction. \Vith the plate t hus
restraine d, the strain in t he longitucilinal y direction is ze ro throughout tJ1e pla te :
(4.40)
Equation (4.41) is valid \vhen one o( the long edges of t he plate is free to n1ove in
the length\vise ydirection. It is only an approxin1at ion \\'he n the le ngth\v~se n1otion
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 99
of both long edges of the plate is restricted, as in the top three configurations of
Flgure 4.3.
By substituting Eqs. ( 4.20), (4.40), and ( 4.41) into the third a nd fourth expres
sions of Eq. (4.3), we obtain
We now select a reference plane at a distan ce e from the mid plane (Fig. 3. 14).
The strain con1ponents and the stiffnesses referred to this reference plane are
identified by the s uperscript e. (The curvature and the 1\ilx con1ponent of the
moment a.re independent of the position o( tihe refere.nce plane and thus do not
need to be identified by the superscript e.) fur the new reference plane Eq. (4.42)
is v.ritten as
(4.43)
In gen.era!, the be nd ing mon1ent M.x depends both on ,~"' and KJ;. Ho\vever.
there is a reference plane for \Vhich the tern1 :in the parentheses in front of ,;;I? is
zero:
A 9
8~  ~ =0. (4.46)
11..
We recall that the stiffnesses in the midplane (Refere nce Plane I) a nd t he new
reference plane (Reference Pla ne 2) are related by (Eq. 3.47)
A;~ =A;;
8;~ = Br;  i.>1\ 1 (4.47)
D;~ = D;j  2eB,, +e 2A;; .
Equatfons (4.46) and (4.47) give
811  ~ 
A 16B16
o ( A11  Afti)
A.. = 0. (4.48)
100 THIN PLATES
By rearranging this equation, \Ve obtain the position of the reference plane
where Eq. (4.46) is satisfied:
(4.49)
For a re ference plane at e distance fron1the 1nidplane, the n1oment At/., depends
c>nly on Kx as follo\\s:
A(,= [  (4.50)
Equations (4.50) and (4.24), together "1th Eq. (4.2), yield the following equi
llibriun1 e quation for an anisotropic long plate:
long plate
(4.51)
unsymmetrical layup,
11\'here t he S)mbol '41 is the. bending stiffness paran1eter
(B )1
'l'=Df,  '; (4.52)
A
B y using Eq. (4.47), IV may be written as
(816  e A,.) 2
IV = D,,  2t>B11 + q, A11  (4.53)
A"'
where(! is given by Eq. (4.49).
By comparing Eqs. (4.5 1) and (4.27), we again observe that the e quations gov
e.rning the deflections of long plates and isotropic beams are similar. Therefore.
tthe deHection of a long plate with unsymn1etric.al layup can be obtaine.d by replac
iing El/ p' by 'II/ p in the expression given for the deflection of the corresponding
~sotropic bean1.
Follov.ing Whitne)', 11 \Ve analyze the deHection of this pla te by the e nergy
me thod. For a simply supported plate (symme trica l layup) subjected to outof
plane load o nly, the inplane stra ins in the midplane are zero, a nd Eq. (4.13)
simplifies t o
For the applied transverse load p (per uni t area) the po tential of the exte rnal
forces is (Eq. 2.203)
L, /.,
Q =  ff
0 0
0
(pw )dydx. (4.56)
We use the Ritz method and select an expression for the deHection that sat
isfies the geon1etrical boundary condit ions. For the sin1ply supported plate unde r
oo nsidera~ion t he geome trical boundary conditions require t ha t the deflection be
zero along the edges (see Eq. 4.8) as follows:
u/, = 0 a l
,..,
x= L"'
0 :sx _::; Lx
and 0:5y.$Ly
and O!i_y!i. L,.
and y=O
(4.57)
O:sx:SL;t and y = L,.
The (o]Jo\\ing deflection satisfies these conditions:
I l
11'X . pry
uJa = " "
LL"';;s1n  s1n  . (4.58)
i I ; 1 L.t Ly
where I a nd J a re the nun1ber or tern1s, c hosen arbitrarily. (or the sumn1ations
and w;i a re consta nts a nd are calculated fron1 the principle of stationary pote.n tial
ene rgy (Eq. 2.206) expressed as
(4.59)
11 J. ri.t. Whitney, Suu rtural Aual_1.,J'J: of Lat11iriared A11tlo1ropic Plat1'$. Tcchoornic. Lane.aster.
Pennsylvania. 1987. p. 13.l.
102 THIN PLATES
We now substitute w" (from Eq. 4.58) into the expressions of U and Q (Eqs. 4.55
and 4.56) a nd perform the differe ntia tions indicated above. Lengthy but straight
f onvard algebraic n1anipulations result in the following systen1 of sin1ultaneous
algebraic equations:
Ii:
I I
/11 = I. 2, 3, . . . , I
I: L
; .. 1 ;  1
Gm,,ijWij = P'"''
/ , H=J.2.3 ..... J.
(4.60)
= I. 2. 3. .. . I
l
i
k = (i  1)1 + j (4.61)
j = 1, 2. 3. . . . . 1

where Gkl (= G,.) is given in Table 4.1 a nd. for a uniformly distributed load, Pt
is
. <Ip:~ I.; if 111 and n are odd
p1 =
l n 11111
0 if 1u o r H is even .
(4.64)
k = (i  1)1 + j l;. = I. 2. 3. . . . I
J = 1, 2. 3,. . . . ./
m=l, 2.3 . ... , /
I = ( m  J)J + n
l n=l . 2. 3, .. .. J
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 103
G11
G2,
(4.65)
[
G\l~J)I
II
By inverting this equation, \Ve obtain the coefficie nts 1JJk
I J
EE w1; ( I: )2 sin Lil
4
s in l!!:f.
i l j l ' L,
JI(, }
M,. =(DJ
{ Kx }
Ky =ID] ''
I
tt....
J
~ w; ('') sin
I L1
2
iir.T
L,
.
sin!!!.!.
1y (4.67)
{ i  1 1 1
M.T_v J(:tf
I J . iT .,,
 ."
' "
I w;I2!.!.Lcos
L, 1., ~cos
I'! L.l
I.,
1 l 1 I
For a 1> orthotropic plate D16 = [),_. = 0, and Eq. (4.66) becomes
l6p
wk = w;; = >r6 ij[ D11( t )' + 2( D12 + 2 D"')( i; )2( i; )2 + D22(i; J']'
(4.6S)
where i , j =I. 3, 5 .... (wk= w;; = 0 when i or j = 2, 4. 6 .... ).
Once the deflections are kno,vn, the mon1ents can be calc.ulated by
Eq. (4.67).
4.2 Exa111ple. A 0.11t1lo11g and 0.2 ~111 1 vide rectangular plate i..f 111ade of graphite
epoxy. The tuaterial properties are given in Table 3.6 (page 81). The loyup is
(45i/ 012/45i). The 0tlegree plies lire parallel co 1/ie shorr edge of the plttte.
The plate is shnply supported ttlong all four edges and is sttbjecred to a u11ifor1n/y.
=
distributed 1ra1Jsverse load p 50 CX>O 1\111112 (Fig. 4.8). Ca/en/ate the 1naxin1un1
deflection and the 111axin1111n bendi11g 1110111e111s.
'' '' .
I
i I ; 1
J
w~ = L L w;; su1 t11'X

Lx
. 
sin l"'Y.
Ly
(4.69)
104 THIN PLATES
The plate is orthotropic, a nd the bending stiffnesses are (Table 3.7, page 84)
.D11 = 45.30 N m, D,i = 25.26 N m, D12 = l 9.52 N m, D,,, = 20.62 N m). The
rnaxin1um deflection occurs a t the center of the plate, \vhe.r e x = L., /2 = 0.1 m
and y = l y/2 = 0.35 m. From Eq. (4.68). w;; x l03 a re
i \j 2 3 4 5 6 7
I 24.0389 0 2.9945 0 0.6683 0 0.2033
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0.1181 0 0.0330 0 0.0148 0 0.0075
4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 0.0093 0 0.0029 0 0.0015 0 0.0009
6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 0.0017 0 0.0006 0 0.0003 0 0.0002.
1 1 . .
w = LL wi;sin "r, stn pr (4.70)
i t ; 1 _. 2.
\Ve now assess the. lengtht0\\ idth ratios under \Vhich the long. plate a pproxi
1
rua tion is reasonable. To this e nd , '" e calculated the n1aximum deHect[ons of the
plate, keeping the width l;r the same while changing the length Ly In figure 4.9
\Ve plot the maximum deflections thus ca lcula te d versus Ly. In this figure \\'e also
included the dellection given by the longplate a pproximation (Eq. 4 .30). The
r esults in this figure show that, in accordance with Eq. (4.19), the longplate for
mula approximates the deflection \Ve ll (\\ithin 8 pe rcent) when L.v is gre ater than
3l_,~D11 / /J22  0.694 m.
4.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 105
I 20
,
Longplate approx
'
.~ 10
ii
c
~
o o ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.694 0.8
Length, l 11 <m>
1igure 4.IJ: '.Maximum deflection or the plate in E:ta m plc: 4.2 as a functio n of the plate length.
The !>ending momenls at the center of lhe pla le are (Eq. 4.67)
(4.72)
(4.73)
4.3 Exantple. A 0.21n/01Jg and 0.21nu ide rectangular plltte is 111ade of graphite
1
epoxy unidirectional plies. The 1na1erial properties are given in Table 3.6 (page 81).
The layup is [0,/452/ 90,/452),. The plare. simply supported a/o11g the four edges
=
(Fig. 4.10), is snbjected too unifor111/y distributed transverse load p 50 CNX>Nltn 2.
Cfllculate Jhe n1axil1u1111 d eflection tnrd the 1110.rinuun n1on1e1us.
Solution. The layup of the plate is syn1n1etrical but is not orlhotropic. The be.n
= =
ding stiffnesses are Dn 34.61 N m, Du 12.34 N m, D12 4.58 N m, =
y
SS
x
Figure 4.10: The platein Example 4.3.
106 THIN PLATES
Table 4.2. The maximum defle.:lion and the maximum bending and twist
moments calculated by the numerical solution and by the orthotropic
approximation for the plate in Example 4.3
M., M.,
... M, M, X= Y = O X= L, Y= O
mm Nmim
numerical 17.60 160.65 64.53  69.28 36.47
orlhotropic 16.93 154.07 63.21  49.56 49.56
itpJJroximation
D.. = 5.14 N m, Drn = 3.34 N m, Di.= 3.34 N m (Table 3.7, page 84). The
rmaxin1u1n deflection and the maxin1un1 bending and nvist 11101nents n1ust be ca)..
culated fro m Eqs. (4.58), (4.64), (4.66). and (4.67). With the preceding stiffnesses
tthe calculations yield the results give n in Table 4.2 (first row).
The layup follows the JO.percent rule (page 89), and we treat the plate as
o rthotropic. The deflection of the pl.ate is (Eq. 4.58)
Wo ""'
I J
11rx l "Y
= LL W;jSll\SJO
; . 1 ; 1 L_,
.
i_.,,
.
(4.74)
Since the plate is treated as orthotropic Du:. = Di6 = 0, and the relevant bend
= =
<ng stiffnesses are D11 34.61 N m, D,1 I 2.34 N m, D12 4.58 N m. D.. = =
5.14 N m (Table 3.7, page 84). The maximum deflection occurs a t the center of the
l!Jla te, where x = = = =
L,/2 0.1 m and y L,./2 0.1 m. From Eq. (4.68) w;1 x JO'
are
i\j 2 3 4 5 6 7
17.3628 0 0.3409 0 0.0314 0 0.0061
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0.1439 0 0.0238 0 0.0052 0 0.0014
4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 0.0119 0 0.0030 0 O.OOIL 0 0.0004
6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 0.0022 0 0.0007 0 0.0003 0 0.0001
= LL "' '"2
IV
i l f I
IVj; S1n ,s1n 
_.
(4.75)
The bending mome nts a t the center of the pla te are (Eq. 4.67)
~7~
t ~
, wI/ (!.:!.)
. l sin !..!.
L, .l sin E!.
1 I
LwJ  J),J 1~ ~
/lrfx _ Du
[ Du
D 11 il 11
i.,.; t,_,
i I f I
w(b.)2 sin "'sin
l/ L, l
i
1
= 1154.07 1 N m (4.77)
63.21 m
The twist moment al the corner of the plate (.t = y = 0) is (Eq. 4.67)
(4.78)
The n'kaxilnum de.Hection and the n1axin1urn mon1ents thus calculated are in
duded in Thble4.2 (second row). The maximum be nd ing momeots and the maxi
n1um deftec.tions calculated by the numerical method and the orthotropicapproxi
n1ation are in close agreen1ent, but the maxin1un1 t\\ist mon1ents differ significantly.
edges (Fig. 4.1 I). The layup is o rthotropic and symme tr ical. The plate is subjected
to a unito:rmly distributed load p.
The po te ntial energy of the pla te is obtained from Eqs. (4.55) a nd (4.56) by
setting Di.6 and Di.6 equal to zero:
0 "
2a 
+ D,. ( 
2
w)' aax' aay.
axay + 2D.,
2
w
0 1
w"
2
 pw0 ] dydx. (4.79)
(4.83)
Equations (4.79)(4.83) yield the pote.n tial energy and the moments (per un it
le ngth) as follows:
4
2
1
rr =  j'"!L,
0
.
[),_, [(a'
0
w)' + (a'..,)'
axe
1
, + 2 ( fly
1 IA)
' (w1w")'

D11 D,,

axay
JY.,_,_
+? __
(4.84)
 / D11 D,,
aw
(Du a'ay'w")]
2 0
M, =a' [  Du  
&.rrl
M,. = [
fDf: (  a'w")
y~
ax'
 a'ayw"] [),,
2
[),,
 2
(4.85)
Df, i&lw].
Du D,..1 ax1 ay
(4.86)
(4.87)
(4.89)
Equations (4.85) a nd (4.87) show that the mome nts (per unit length) o( a Huber
orlhotropi cplate a re re lated to the moments (per unit length) of the corresponding
isotropic Jl'late by
Mx (x, y) = a 2 ,~ (.r', y)
By the preceding method. the de Hections and moments (per unit length) of
an orthotropic pla te can be obtained fro n1 the deflections a nd n1oments
110 THIN PLATES
Table 4.3. Maximum deflections and maximum moments of rectangular plates with builtin edges
subjected to a uniformly distributed load p (v;" = 0.3). The loeations p, , Pz. and p., are shown in
Flgwe4.12.
L,
w*..L "t~c..
 314 o
at P1
Ml..
. = nea:
at P2
pL j Ml'  
1 
at P,
pLf
1:l
o.i ,, 
Ml 
at P1
..
JJLf 4 ... , t1
M1 = t tCs
at P1
L' c, c. ~
1.0
'
0 .484
"'
0.616
"'
0.6t6 0.554 0.554
I.I 0.576 0.697 0.646 0.634 0.554
L2 0.661 0.767 0.665 0.718 0 .547
1.4 0 .795 0.871 0.682 0.838 0.509
1.6 0 .883 0.936 0.685 0.914 0 .463
1.S 0 .941 0.974 0.685 0.962 0 .418
2.0 0 .975 0.995 0.685 0.989 0 .379
1.000 1.000 0.685 I.ODO 0 .300
""
(per unit le ngth} of the corresponding isotropic plate. The calcu lation steps are as
folJO\VS.
Step 1. \ Ve calculate t he equivalent length L~. stiffness [j.~u, and Poisson's ratio
v"" o( the isotropic plate (width Ly):
. ~ .,
v
vso = 75;;li;;_" (4.92)
\vhere
(4.93)
Step 2. \\'e detern1ine the deHections wij{) and moments (per unit leng th) A~~ .
.1w;I), and M7; of the "equivale nt" isotro pic plate. ?vlaximun1 deflections and max
imum bending moments (per unit length) of isotropic plates (width a, length
I>, be nd ing stiffness D) subjected to a unifo rn1Jy distributed load are given by
T in1oshenko a nd \\1oino\vsky Krieger! 3 We 111odified t hese resuJts and adopted
them for Huber orthotropic plates. The resuJting n1aximum de Hections and max
in1um bending mon1ents are given in TabJe 4.3.
Step 3. The deflection and mon1ents (pe r unit length) M.x, My. a nd M.ty o( the
w(I
orthotropic plate are calculated by (Eqs. 4.90 a nd 4.91)
IJ Jbid., p. 202.
4.2 OEflECTION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 11 1
:Pi
~  + '   
f"1gurc 4.l Z: Locations \\'here the moments and the. deflcc ' P3 :P1
tion arc calculated. I
L,
x
The preceding a pproximate procedure yields the de Hect ions and be nding mo
n1ents o f o rtho tro pic plates \\~th builtin edges \\'ilhin about 10 percent. 14
Solution. \Ve ueat this plate as Hube r o rt hotropic. The bending stiffnesses are
D 11 = 34.61 N m. lh..i= 12.34 N  m, D 12 =4.58N m, D, 6 =5.14 N m (Table3.7,
page 84). From Eqs. (4.83) and (4.89) we have
JD,; , L.v
a = fi5; = 1.29 N m L, = ";" =0.155 m (4.95)
From Table 4.3 (at Ly/ L:, = I .29) we obtain the constantsc 1 = 0.724, c2 = 0.816,
C) = 0.673, c, = 0.774, and <s = 0.529. With the values of these constanl< the
n1aximu1n d eflection and the 111axiluum bending mome nts o f the correspo nding
isotropic plate are (Table 4.3)
. 1 pl:'
w" 0 Ial r, = 384
 ~cor.u 1 = 0.0044 n1 (4.97)
.~"'I ,, ,., =
,,,,, 1_.,; C1 =  81.21 
pt: N 
m
(4.98)
. n1
M'..~i = pl~
 C)
Nm
=  66.96   (4.99)
.> a l ft, 12 Ol
. pla. N n1
M'}"I,, I\ = 24x C, = 38.52 ;, (4.100)
The points Pt i'J are shown in F.igure 4.13. The n1a..xin1um de Hection and the
m aximum bending moments of the con1posite plate are (Eq. 4.94)
w
0
J.al l 'i = w
110
L,, I\ = 0.0044 111 (4.102)
(4.107)
l .S J. ~t. Whitney. S1r11c111rol 11110/)'.~U fl/ .Lor11u1tue1/ AriM>tropie. PlttJCJ. Tcchnomic. Lllncaster.
Penni.)'l vani:t. 1987. p. LSI.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 113
Figure 4. 14: Rectangular simply supported (ss) plate sub)tcd 10 comprcss:r.c and shear cdg.c
loads.
A.lr a plate subjec1ed only to inplane loads. which do nol vary \vilh x and Y~
the potential or the external forces is 1()
(4.108)
where N,. N,.. N., arc the in.plane forces (per unit length) inside 1hc plate. These
internal in plane (orces are related to the edge loads >.N_10 ).N>~ AN~,a by
(4. 109)
We use 1hc Ritt me1hod 10 obtain the deOectioo. For 1hc simply supported
plate under consideration the geometrical boundary conditions require that the
deflectio"' be zero along the edges (Eq. 457):
W
0
=0 at
r .r= ,_
O=:;.rsl,
O~x;::L;1
and O=:;y=:; L,.
and y=O
and y= L,.
s
and 0::: )' l,
y,here I and J :ire the number of terms. chosen arbitrarily. in the sumn1ations~ w,1
are consuanu and are calcuJated from the principle of stalion:.ry potential energy
(Eq. 2106) expressed "'
16 S. P. Tinlmhcnko :ind J. Gere, 111rory nf Elturic Stab11i1y. 2nd cdilion. Mc<Jrnw1hll, Now York.
1961. ,.., J.<I!).
114 THIN PLATES
I I
L m = 1. 2. 3, .. . . I
LL (Gmru 1  Ab1n11ij} Wjj = 0 {
J. 11 =1,2, 3, . . . , 1.
(4.1 13)
i I j I
i.= 1, 2, 3, .. . . I
k = (i  1)1 +j
I J = l , 2. 3, . . . , 1
(4.1 14)
I = (111  1)1 + II l m = 1, 2. 3. . . . . I
11=1,2,3, . . . 1.
(4.115)
Ix/ lxJ
L G.,w, = ), L bktwk, I = 1, 2, 3.. . . , I x 1. (4.116)
k I kl
where C., (= C,.) is given in T.'ble 4.1 (page 102) and b"' (= b1) is
(4.1 17)
T he Kronecker delta t51t and the paran1eter ri; are also given in Table 4.1. In
expanded fonn Eq. (4.11 6) is
( [
C(fxJ )I Gu x J )(l x J )  ). bv~1)1
\Vhen the plate is not buckled. the deflection is zero, whereas for a buckled
!Plate it is no nzero. The values of ). for Ute buckled plate (denoted by ),") are
tthe eigenvalues of Eq. (4.118), and. these can be calculated by comme rcial soft
ware. There are J x I eigemalues, of which the lowest gives the lowest buckling
Coad.
\Ve no\\' consider an o rthotropic plate subjected to N.s.0 and 1~0 e dge loads.
T he forces inside the plate are
L,= 100 mm
l< "    >I
i ii iiiii
I
SS
F'i~urc 4.1~: 1'he platcln 11.xample 4_.;. I/
SS SS L,.= 200 mm
SS
1' t t t t t t
/ \l I (J
D1 = >,_. = 0. (4.120)
The eigenvalues of Eq. (4.118) can now be calcula ted directly. T he result is
2 4
!. .. = 11' [Dn(f.:) +2(D12+2D.. )({;)'(t)' + D21(t )']_
( a),,
Nxo T. + N,Q (1..)'
{; )'
L,
(4.121)
(;",),; must be calculate d tor different sets of i and ; . (i.; =I. 2 ... . ). The
lo\\est resulti ng value o( (Ac.);; is the value of interest.
Libove 17 s ho\\ed that, (or simply s upported orthotropicplates, the Jo,vest buck
ling load corresponds to a mode that has a half \\'ave in at least one direction. (In
this directtion e ither i o r j is equal to unity.) \Vhe n the plate is subjecte d to uniaxia.I
co 1npressjon, or to co n1pression in one d irection and tension in the o the r direction,
buckling occurs with a half wave pe rpendicu]a r to the compressive load. ig
Solution. From E q. (4.121), with N,o = Oand with Ulestiffnesses D11 = 45.30N m.
D,, = 25.26 N m, /Jn= 19.52 N m, D,, = 20.62 N m (Table 3.7, page 84) we
have
n C. Libo \'c, Bmk:lc Paucm for Bia:ici.nlly Con1prcsscd Simpl)' Supported Orihotropic Rectangular
Plates. l tNuna/ of CQ1up1,sire ,itrueriols. Vol. 17, 4548. 1983.
I$ T. K. Tung and J. Surdcnas. Buckling or Rcctangula:r O nho tropk Pla 1cs unde r Biaxial Loading.
Journal c>f Ctu"pQ.ti1e Af,11eriaf,, Vol. 2 1, 124 128, 198.7.
116 THIN PLATES
E
~
~==i=,.,..,J
lO
>:... 20
g __ '\____________________ 
0
~J O
.s longplate.approxiniatinn
~ o'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'
"' 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.694 0.8
Length, l\. (m)
Figure 4.J6: The IO\\esl buckling load or the plalc in Example4_<; as a (unciion of the plate
Ccngth.
i\ j 2 3
13.67 21.63 36.57 (4.123)
2 47.17 54.66 67.58
3 103.04 110.46 122.99.
(4.124)
\Ve oov" assess the lengthto,vidth ratios under which the long.plate approx
iin1ation is reasonable. To this end, "\Ve calculate the lowest buckling loads of the
plate, keeping the width Lx the san1 e whiJechanging the length Ly. In A gure 4.16
't.Ve plot the buckling loads thus calculated versus Ly. In this figure \Ve also in
elude the lowest buckling load given by tl1e Jongpla te a pproximation (Eq. 4.1 70).
The results in this figure show t ha t, in accordance with Eq. (4.19), the Jong
p late formula is reasonable when l, is greate r than 3L,:J D11/ D12 = 0.694 m. At
L_, = 0.694 m the longpla te fo rmula underestimates the buckling load by about
18 pe rcent.
Solution. The layup of the plate is symn1etrical but is not orthotropic. The bend
i ngstiffnesses are D11 = 45.30 N m , D,, = 25.26 N m, D12 = l 9.52 N m, D.,, =
=
20.62 N m, D1 = 4.45 N m, Di 4.45 N m (fable 3.7, page 84). The buckling
Uoad is calculated from Eqs. (4.117) a nd (4.1 18). With the preceding stiffn esses and
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 117
SS
ss :
<E
I
L.,= 200 n1n11
x
t t t
with I = J = 7, these calculations i;eld the following results for (N");1 x 10 ':
i \ j 2 3
23.47 45.05 76.62 (4.125)
2 61.25 94.61 132.38
3 119.45 164.43 214.29.
(4.126)
The layup follows the 10perce ot rule (page 89), a nd we may treat t he plate as
orthotropk With N..o = N,,, = N,,, fro m Eq. (4.1! 1) we have
i \ j 1 2 3
I 23.70 46.16 78.58 (4.128)
2 61.00 94.78 135.61
3 118.14 160.34 2 13.26.
The lowest value is N,, (J.0 );; = 23.70 kNfm, which corre spo nds to i = j = L
Thus, the lowest buckling load is
This buckling load, based on the orthotro py approxin1ation, is 'Ni thin 1 percent
of the buc kling load given by Eq. (4.126).
118 THIN PLATES
tt = U +Q
1
= 2 . C) + C)
D11 ( ax'
) + J),,
8 2w"
 ay1
2d 1 w0
D.. ax ay

0 0
(4.131)
a nd 1JJ0 is the deflection of the n1idpla ne, which is assun1ed to be o f the {orn1
;;;; ~ ~ ~ ~
..'<, ...., ~
Equations (4.1 30) and (4.133), together with! Eq. (4.132) and the e xpressions in
Table 4.4, yield
011 4 [),..z 4
L a 1 + L' a, +  (D12+ 2D,;,,)
, . _I
vv"' _ I"' ( N,o N,. )]  0.
L2 a 4 + ''.as
[ ' y xy ' }
(4.134)
The param eters <>i, a 2, u3 , u4, a 5 a re de fine d in Table 4.5 (page 120). The in
tegrations ind icated in Table 4.5 simplify when .X;(.r) a nd Y;(y) are calcula ted by
the approxin1ate expressions of 1 given in Table 4.4. The resulting approxin1ate
expressions for 0t1 thro ugh Cts are given in Tables 4.6 and 4.7. and a2 is
(4.135)
By rearranging Eq. (4.134), we o btain the following expression for)." :
This equa.tion applies \vhen each edge is either sin1ply supported or builtin. When
all fo ur edges are simply s upported, Eq. (4.136) simplifies to Eq. (4.121).

a3 = ~
' 1'
r\ .
<"''
.,...., )'
..
dlf
c,.
""
iir 1.2.3....
(i + 0.25)ll a1(1  I) I. 2. 3.
4.730 O'J (1  2)
(i +O.S)rr a1 (1  2) 2. 3. 4....
I
" 0.5
wr.
4.730
(j +0.5)rr
a ; (UJ2)
Cf3 (ctJ  2) 2.3.4....
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 121
L.,= 200 mm
 I i i i i y
<
Figure 4.20: 1'he plate in E:tamplc 4.7.
N,,, _,
x
 t t t
< L,= 200 mm
TI1e c ritical Load parameter must be calculated for d iffe rent sets of i and j,.
(i. j = 1, 2 .. . . ) . The lo\\est resulting value of A.0 is the value of interest. The
lowest buckling load (as in the case of simply suppo rte d pla tes) corresponds le>
a mode that has a half wave in a t least one direction. (In this direction eithe r i
or j is equal to unity.) \\'hen the pla te is subjecte d to uniaxial con1pression>or to
oon1pression in one direction and tension in the other direction, buckling occ.urs
\Vilh a half \Vave perpe ndicular to t he compressive load.
Solution. The layup follows the JOpercent rule (page 89), and we treat the plate
as orthotropic. With t he stiffnesses D11 = 45 .30 N m, D12 = 25.26 N m, D, 2 =
19.52 N m , D.. = 20.62 N m (Table 3.7. page 84,) and with N_,o = Nyo = No. from
Eq. (4.136) we ha\'e
" 4.73
l 2.9l
7.85
45.98
11.00
98.91
"'
j =I i= 2 i=3
4.73 7.85 11.00
"'<>s 12.91 45.98 98.91 .
122 THIN PIATES
 jY
~"~
i,
:=

> S.'i or builtin Figure 4.2 1: Uniaxially loaded rectan
:V,,,11=:: SS SS J\irl> gular plate.
'I ss or builtin
~~ >
x
i\ j 2 3
I 53.80 81.05 122.31
2 I09.16 142.82 188.79
3 185.55 226.18 280.57.
The lowest value is N,, (A,,);; = 53.80 kNlm, which conesponds to i = j =I.
T hus, the )o\vesl buckJing load is
.x
4.3 BUCKLINGOF RECTANGULAR PLATES 123
Table 4.8. Buckling loads of unidirectionally loaded ptates (ot1hotroplc and symmelrlcaJ
layup) with simply supported, bolllln, and rotationally reSlralned edges(/, = L, / /,
=
I 1, 2, . ( = + .(=1,
f i10(
.g& ): L,. L, are Ille length and the width, ntSl)eCtively,
and k 1$ lhe spring constant
5'lpports lklcl<ling load 1140
~ (Dut + l),_,~+2(Du+2l\.l)
~ (Dut +2.441Dntt+ 2.3.l(Di: + 2l\.))
~l ( D117f
,;
+ ( 1 +4.13900.,~. +(2+0.62~ 2 )(D12 + 20,.))
To dercrnline cr 1 nnd tt4 \Ve re call that th e edges parallel to the yaxis are
simply s upported. The corresponding values o f a 1 and o, are given in the first row
ol Table 4 .6 and are
a, = l:r (4.140)
(4.141)
111e va lues of a;i a nd a 5 to be used are those give n in rablc 4.7 ror j = I. The
resulting b uckling loads a re listed in the first three ro'vs o f Table 4.8.
111e \'l.:lluc o f JV.,,cr n1ust be calculated (or diffe re nl vnlues or I (i = I , 2, ... ) ,
and. gener nlly t he lowest resulting \alue is of interest.
:!Ll__. JI E
L,
L,
,.igurc 4.2~ : Buckling lo11ds o f unidirectionally k>adcd rccla ng:ulnr pla1c1w11h 111mpl)' supporled
or huihtn C'dgc:11. The plntc's lcngth is L.v
124 THIN PLATES
jY
N~ 1 L, lsN~
free
SS
'"''  >
L, x
I~ ssl I~
(al (b) <cJ
.Figure 4.24: Supports along edges parallel (lop) and perpendicular (bottom) to the load
direction.
The buckling loads of plates with simply supported o r builtin edges (Fig. 4.2 1)
.are illustrated in Figure 4.23. For each value of i the lo\vest buckling load is the
same as the lowest buckling load of the corresponding Jong plate that will be given.
s ubsequently, in the first three rows of Table 4.11 (page 136).
4.3.3 Plates with One Free Edge  Orthotropic and Symmetrical Layup
We consider a rectangular plate with length L., and width L,. The layup of the
:plate is o rthotropic and syn1metricail.
One Edge Parallel to thex Axis is Simply Su pported; the Other i.< Free
T he plate is simply supported along the y = 0 edge and is free along t he y = Ly
.edge (Fig. 4.24, top). The edges par allel to the yaxis may be either simply sup
:ported or builtin (Fig 4.24. bottom). The plate is subjected to uniform uniaxial
con1pression N.,0 in the x dire.ctioo (Fig. 4.24, top). \Ve 'vish to d etern1ine the
:lowest value of the load at which the plate buckles.
Edges parallel to the yaxis are simply su pported. We consider pla tes whose
.edges parallel to the ya~is are simp ly suppo rted (Fig. 4.24, a). The buckling loads
.are denoted by Nx,a An exact analysis resulting in a transcendental eq,uation for
N_,...c r is given by Whitney.20 Here. \Ve present a.n approximate analysis, which yields
.a closedfonu expression for Nx.o lo our analysis 'Ne apply the Ritz n1ethod and
.approximate the buckled shape (shown in Fig. 4.25) by
u.1 . ("x)
= Aysin 
L.T
(4.143)
20 J. tvl. \\'hilocy. SUU<'tural Aual)'.f/.$ ()j Lar11u1t11etl A1uS()tropic Plate.r. Tccbnomic , Lnncnstcr.
Pcons)'lvnnia. 1987. p. 108.
4.3 BUCKLI NG OF RECTANGULAR PIATES 125
y
free
Figure 4.2'>: Suckled shape of a rectangular plate "'1th o ne free and three simply supporled
edges.
We exp ress lbe potential energy of the plate by setting Ny = 0 a nd N.x =  Nxo
in Eq. (4.130):
;r  I
P  2
1'"1"'[ (aax'
'u1")' + ~'n., (a'ay'w")' + De,(2a'
D 11    w")'

axay
0 0
a2w
+ 1( D12 [i';i'
0
ay')]dydx  2l j"'j"[N,.,(;;:;)
tJ2 w 0
U I)
au/ '
'] dydx. M
(4.1 44)
By introducing Eq. (4.143) into Eq. (4.1 44), we a rrive at t he following expres
sion fo r th e potential e ne rgy:
ir
P 4
I /}
A' L Di i 1+
= ~ ir
3 L!
414.<.L ir
4
  JVo 2
y L; x 3 Li
2
L' ir } .
2
(4.145)
T he buckling loads of plates that nave one or both edges paralle l to the yaxis
builtin (Fig. 4.24, band c) can be derived in a way similar to that ol E q. (4:146).
T he deta ils are not given here; the resulting buckling loads are given in Table 4.9.
One edge parallel to the x axi.1 is b11illi11; the other i.1free. The plate is built
0
i n along the y = 0 edge, is free a long the y = L,. edge, and is simply s upported
along the x = 0 and x = L, e dges ( Fig 4.26). The plate is subjected to uniform
uniaxial 001upression NJ.ii in thex direction. \\'e 'vish to determine the lo\vest value
ol the load at which the plate buckles (Fig. 4.27). An e xact analysis, resulting in
transcendental equations fo r the buckling loads 1Vx ,n is given by Bank and Yin.21
1\ n approximate expression for Nx.a is22
2
1' D11 1;D,, 12D"'
Nx." = ( 1 + 1.25/ T + f:T ' (4.147)
x y J'
\.vhere 1.i: = L.1 / i is the length of the half buckling '''ave in the x direction and
i = 1, 2, . . . is the numbe r of half \vnves in the x direction.
Equation (4.147) underestimates the buckling loads by less than 14 percent.
The value of Nx.cr nlus t be calculated (or diffe re nt values of; (i I , 2, . .. ) =
and, in general, the )o\vest resulting. value is of interest.
The buckling load is a function ol the length ol the plate L., (Fig. 4.23). For
each value of i the Jo,vest buckling load is the same as the lo\\est buckling load
o( the corresponding long plate given subsequently in the fifth row of Table 4.11
( page 136).
4.8 Exantple. A rectangnlar plare ivirlt /eiJglh Lx = 0.5 111 and width Ly = 0.05 111 is
r.uade ofgrttphite epoxy u11idirectional plies ~virh the fibers oriented along t/Je xaxis
ofthe plate (Fig. 4.28). The 11wterial properties are given i11 Table 3.6 (page 81 ). The
f ayup is (020]. 011e of rhe long edges ;s builti11: rlre other long edge is free. The short
edges are simply supported. The place is s11bjecrcd to 1111iform compres.rive loads i11
tire x direction. Ca/cu/are rhe bucklir~g load.
i:t L. C. Bank. and J. Yin. Budlin~ or 011hotropic Plates wi1h Free and Rot.ntionally Rcsuaincd
Un.loaded Edges. Tl1i1t\l'olled S1nrc111re.f. Vol. 24, 8396, 1996.
?:Z L. P. Kolli r. Buckling or UnidirtionuJI)' l.ooded Co1nposi1e Plates wit h One Free and One: R etU1
tionally Restrained l Jnloaded Edge. Jour,,ol <1/ S1n1crural Eugi11et!ri111; , Vo l. 128, 120212 1l . 2002.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PIATES 127
1igurc 4.27: Buckled shape or a unia.xiall>' loaded re.<tangular plate \\'tlh a builtin and a (rec
longitudinal edge.
Solution. The expression in Table 4.9. fo urth row (page 125), togethe r \\1th the
stiffn esses D 11 = 99.25 N m, D22 = 6.47 N 111, Di 2 = 1.94 N m, D66 = 3.03 N m
(Table 3.7, page 84) gives
2 3 4 5 6
N,.0 (kN/m) 342.04 111.12 85.78 97.47 125.46 164.60
The lowest buckling load corresponds to i = 3 a nd is 85.78 kN/m.
The buckling loads of plates o f the same "'vidth but with different lengths are
given by solid lines in Figure 4.29. The buckling loads calcula te d by the equa
lions of Bank and Yin13 are also included in lltis figure. The a.pproxin1ate forn1ula
(Eq. 4.148) underestin1ates 1V.t.cr and, hence. is a conservative estimate.
The lo ngplate expression gives the lowest buckling load of this plate as
90.64 kN/m (Example 4.11, page 138). This value is a lso shown in Figure 4.29.
23
L. C. Baok and J. Yin, Buckling or Orthotropic Plaitci; "'ith Free. and Rotnticmally Restrained
Unloaded Edges. Tl1 in \\lalltd Srr11c1ur.s, Vol. 24. 8396. 1996.
128 T.HIN PLATES
y
L,.= SOOmm
,.__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _I, /\'
J V.rt ..<>
of the e dge
.,..aw
M =k, (4.149)
' ay
\.Vhere k is the rotational spring cons tant. The rotational s pring constant is further
discussed in Section 6.9.3.
The plate is s ubjected to uniform unia xial compression N...0 in t he x d irection .
We \Vish to de te rmine the lo\\est value of t he load a t \Vbich the pla te buckles.
N,." = "'
L' ( D11 fi+(1
L; +4. 139S)D,,L'
. t;
+(2+0.620(D12+2D) , , )
y x y
(4.150)
1
"vhere ~ a nd ~ are parameters that depend on the support conditions a long the,
unloaded edges. These parameters are zero for a plate \vith sin1ply supported
unloaded edges a nd a re unity for a pla te '"ith builtin unloa ded edges. The values
of~ and ~ may be approximated by~'
r =~' (4.151)
P. Qian. J. F. Davalos. and J. \Vang, Local Buckling or Co1npositc FRP Sh11pcs by Discrete Pla1c
2:1
Analysis.Joun1tYI of Srn 1cl/JJ'ttl Erisineerin.t;, Vol. 127. 24>25.'i. 2001.
ZS 1.. P. Kolltlr, Discussion on the paper or Qiao. P. Oavnlos. J. F. and \Vang. J.: Local Buckling or
Composite FRP Sh11pcs b~ Di!:erctc Plate Analysis. ltJ11nwl tJ/ Suuc1111dl 11gi11eeri111:, Vol 128.,
1091 1093, 2002.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 129
~
160 :..
"'
~
~
120
>' ~
'ti
~
2
80
.s"
;;;
~
&i
40
.....
..... LL...._
' ____,I~ .~
l ,.
(4.153)
j y L, _. t!I l ,
x
/\'..II_,.
~
SS
<
'
S.'i <E
~~
fl
x
Figure 4.:lO: U nia.:ually loaded rectangular plate ,.,.ith two rota tionally re$lTained cdges or v.ilh
one. ro 1a 1ionall)' restrained and one: free edse~
130 THIN PlATES
(or the buckling loads A'x.o is given by Bank a nd Yin. l l> Here, \Ve present an
approxin1ate a nalysis, which yields a closedform expression (or N..a
The buckling load or a pla te 'vith a rotationally restrained edge must be be
tween the buckling load of a plate with a simply supported edge (Table 4.9, first
row, page 125) and t he buckling load of a plate with a builtin edge (Table 4.9.
fourth ro\v). \\1e co1ubine the expressions for plates with a simply supporte d and
\vith a builtin edge a nd v.rite
2
( .
1\1 :r D11
ix,n=11+f
,. 1.251;/Ji,
L4
12D"'
+;r 4 154)
x 1 y
\vhere /J.. = L.T/ i is the le ngth of the half buckling wave in t he x d irection, i =
1 . 2, . . . is the nun1ber o f half v.aves: in the x direction, a nd {" is a paramete r that
d epends on the supports along the unloaded edge. This parameter is zero for a
plate 'vith a sin1ply suppo rted unloaded e dge and is e qual to unity for a pla te " 'ith
a. built in unloaded edge. The value of~,, n1ay be a pproxin1ated by2;
26 L. C. Bank. :ind J. Yin, Budling or Orthotropic Plates v.ith Free nnd Rorntionally Restrained
l JnJoadcd Edges. Tliin\l'alletl S1ntr11.11e.1, Vol. 24. 8396. 1996.
27
L. P. Kollar, Buckling or Unidir.li on.nUy l.onded Co1npositc Pls1c.s with One Freeand One Rotn
tionally Restrained Unload<.>d Edge. ltJurriul of Su1~crurol E11.~i11eeriug . Vol 128, l202121I. 2002.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PlATES 131
80
~
~
<
,;
e 40
longplate approximatlon
""
Q
~
!!
"' :! IL, I~
L,
Solution. The expression in Table 4.9, fifth row (page 125). together with the
stiffnesses. D11 = 99.25 N m, D>..i = 6.47 N m , D12 = 1.94 N m, Dr..= 3.03 N m
(Table 3.7. page 84) gives
2
n" D11 1.25 1;Di2 12 1);,,
'v.T.tr = T + 1 + 4. t2.c L~ + .L~
1 .,
= 979.5/2 + 0.253 x JO/, + 14 560. (4.156)
'
where/., = L.,/; ands is the parame ter of restraint (Eq. 4.152):
Du
s = ...
kly
= I. (4.157)
1 2 3 4 5 6
1V.,." (kN/ m) 81.67 46.03 56.85 81.20 115.04 157.37
a L. C. Baok and J. Yin, Buc.kting or Onbouopic Plates v.i1h Free. and RotationaUy Rcsuained
Unloaded Edges. Tl1i11\\'(ll/td S1ruc1ur.s, Vol. 24. 83'96, 1996.
132 THIN PLATES
"y
,{;S,
~ 4 iV.,r,;
,
L, .__,v.,fJ

j
~
j ~ 4  :V,ro
<  :V.,o
:lo /\i.tO
x
1'lgure 4.33: Long platcsubjccted to a uniform compressive edge load and the different types of
~upports along the long edges..
T he length or the plate is L, and the widt h is L, ( L,. L,). T he s upports along
the long edges are as sho\vn in Figure 4.33. A uniform compressive load N.10 is
a pplied along o ne of the Jong edges or the plate. We wish to de te m1ine the lowest
value of t he applied under which the plate buckles.
\Ve treat the plate as Jong and assun1e that it undergoes cylindrical de
formation a long its length (Fig. 4.4). This a pproxin1ation is reasona.ble when
.L1 > 3L_..!/ D11/ [),_, (Eq. 4.19).
When three inplane loads N.,0 N,.0 , and N.,,.11 act on tbe plate (Fig. 4.14, right),
the equilibrium equations in the x, y, and ~ directions (Fig. 4.1) arel9
Nx + a'.~u = 0
()ax ay
aN,. aN.. ,
ay + ax = 0 (4.158)
~ S. P. Ttmoshcnko and l Gere. Tll e(Jry of Efosric S1tJl>ili1y. 2nd edition. ~kGrnwH iU. New York.
1961, pp.333334.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 133
the le ngth o( t he pla te. Thus, from the last of Eq. (4.1 58) and from the firs t of
E q. (4.159) we have
dV. d2wo
 '  N,.. 2 = 0 (4.160)
dx dx
As v.as sho,vn in Section 4.2.2, v.he n the pla te is syn1metrical. the be nding
moment M, is (see Eq. 4.25)
(4.163)
Jong plate
(4.164)
syn1n1etrical layup.
The eq uation describing the buckling of .an isotropic beam subjected to an
axial load iVJ;o is30
d4u; ..... tFuJ
4 + N," d
E/  
lfX . X2
=0 isotropic beam. (4.165)
The structure of the t\vo preceding equations is the san1e. There fore, the buck
ling load of a long plate (s)'mmetrical layup) may be obtained by substituting the
value of Di1 for El in the expression for the buckling load of the corresponding
isotropic beam.
It \Vas sho\\11 in Section 4.2.2 that 'vhen the layup o( t he pla te is unsyrnmetTicaJ.
the deHection may be obtained by replacing EI/ p' by l(f/ p in the expression fo r
the deflection of the c.orresponding isotropic beam. By sin1ilar arguments it can
be shown tliat the buckling load of a Jong plate with unsymmetrical layup may be
obtained i>y substitu ting the value of l(f for El in the e xpression for the buckling
load of the corresponding isotropic beam. (l(f is given by Eq. 4.52.)
30
Ibid .. p. 2.
/,,w 700mm L,,=100 nun
t t t t t t t
Figwc 4.,14: 1bc plat~ in Example 4.10.
Solutlon. The pla1e may be trea1ed as .. long" (Example 4.1. page 96). The buckling
loads of the corresponding beam a re (Eq. 6.337)
:r'EJ
1V,,, = V (ss) (4.166)
2
4
Q.  " El (buihin). (4.1 67)
' o  Ll
The buckling loads of the plale are obtained by replacing/ by Du (see page
133) as follows:
:r'D,,
,v," = ~ (ss) (4.168)
N.  41T' o,, (builtin ). (4.169)
.. o  Ll
,
Wi1h 1he \alue of Du= 45.30 N m (Table 3.7, page 84) and wi1h L, = 0.2 m.
tho buckling loads are
r"
IL, l,
lN,,
..
N,,
 s
ia,I fl bI
SS
Cc~I tdl
c:::;
(Cl I frtt
! fll fr
Cgl~
Simply supported and builtin edges. The buckling loads of long plates whose
long edges are either simply supported or built in (Fig. 4.35. a, b. c) are given below.
The buckled shape of a long plate away from the loaded edges is the same as
the buckled shape of a plate simply supported along the loaded edges. Therefore.
the buckling loads oflhe long plate are also given by Eq. (4.141 ). \Ve ue interested
in the lowest buckling load. \Ve denote the buck.ling length corresponding to this
buckling load by r,'. With this notation. Eq. (4.141) becomes
, I !l_r.2 a,
N,.a = Durrl'f + 0,," 2 1{+ 2(Du+20,,.) L( (4.172)
The necessary condition that gives the lowe$1 N,.., is d ( N ..n) / d(t; ) = 0. This
condition and Eq. (4.172) give
/
0
.t
= !!...l,
l . vrn;;,
rs;; (4.173)
'"
L 1 is the wldlh, and ii Is the spring constant. Plates with one
simply supported and one tree long edge buckle wtth a long
wave In the x direction, as lllustraled In Figure 4.21>.
supports BuckNng tenglll r,
g.cl_ _,,::,__,If iv... 1., fii!,
A'~
~L.I__'_'_..JI 0.RL,{!!jf
L.l___...JI E A'A 0.6641~/i
f~ L, ~
l.61SL. f/i
0.707L,~
1~ THIN PLATES
Table 4.11. The lowest buckling loads of long plates with olthotropic and symmetrical layup
<~ = , v = zo!ro~ K = ~ . .,,=j
r+h><<=A.u ' ). Ly Is the width, and kis the
, ,/1f;;1Ji l+flZZ 3 $$")(
spring conslant. The buckling loads of long plates with one simply supported and one free long edge
are given in the first three rows of Table 4.9 (page 125).
Supports Buckling load Nx.~ or N:(y,(t
~I
SS
:i5
IEN.. ;fl2J D11D,.,+2 (D11 + 20,,,))
I 1''s
~I
SS
~(3.125~ + 2.33(011 +20.,,)]
IE!V~,
I ~(4.53~ + 2.62( 0 12 + 2D,.l)
L>
_,1::~:::1 ~< N
=t
~ ...,......_ ,.._  ~ ~(2Jl + 4.139tJD11D12 + (2+0.62{ 2) (D11 +20,.)J
J o,,o" ~
Li I b.l vl  ,,+(K,  1)6( 1v) l whcnl < K
JI S.<
SS l(f ~ (13.9,/Du D11 + 11.1 (D12 + 20,.))
":.. / lltl!
z
Figure 4.36: Buckled shape of n lo ng plate with simply supported edges.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 137
The values of"' and <>s to be used a re those given in Table 4.7 (page 120) fo r
j = l . The resulting buckling lengths and buckling loads are listed in the first three
rows of Tables 4.10 a nd 4.11.
Both long edges are rotationally restrained. TI1e plate is rotationally restrained
along the unloaded long edges (Fig. 4.35. d). The buckling load for a pla te with
arbitrary length is given by Eq. (4.150). The value of I, t hat results in the lowest
buckling load is deno te d by /.~ . When the plate is long, the necessary condition
that gives the lowest Nx.a is d (Nx.") /d (I~) = 0. This condition a nd Eq. (4.150) ,
\Vilh Ix replaced by t.~. give
1~l JD,;
,  v~ 'vo; (4.175}
where~ is given by Eq. (4.151). Equations (4.150), (4.1 51), and (4.175) yield
One long edge is imply supported; the other i.< free. The buckling loads are
given in th e first three ro"' of Table 4.9 (page 125) for plates with one of the
edges parallel to the load direction simply s:upported and the other edge free.
These expressions are applicable regardless o( the aspect ratio of the plate and
hence may be used to calculate the buckling loads of long plates with one simply
supported and one free long edge (Fig. 4.35, el.
One long edge is buillin; t he other is free. The buckling loads of plates with
one of the unloaded edges builtin a nd the o the r one free (Ag. 4.35. f) can be
calculated by Eq. (4.147). The value of I, that results in the lowest buckling load is
denoted b)'1;.When the plate is Jong, the necessary condition that gives the lowest
Nx.n is d (N,.") /d (/~} = 0. This condition and Eq. (4.147), with I, replaced by 1; .
l~= 500 mm
!V~
~!~
free
:V, 0
I
'+~++l++il++':: L,= ~
1igurc 4.38: Illustration of lhe plate. in Example 4.12.
give
I"= 1675L
;i y'fD".
[),...1
(4.177)
.f7Jtt1J1i . D..,
N.w = 7 ' + 12L
' . (4.178)
L.v ."
TI1is expression gives a con....;ervative estin1ate of the buckling load and under
estin1ates it by less than 14 pe rcent. Mo re accurate e xpressions, determined by
Koll:\r,31 a re given in Table 4.11 (page 136). TI1e accuracy of these equations is
about 2 pe rcent \\hen 0 < K ~ 1 and is about 5 percent 'vhen 1 < K $ 3.
4.11 Exantple. A rectangular plate ~virlr length 4 = 0.5 "'and width Ly = 0.05 111
is tuade of graphite epoxy tUJidirectioua/ plies 1vitlr the fibers oriented along the
x axis of t/Je plate (Fig. 4.37). Tire material properties are given hr Table 3.6
(page 8 1). Tire layup is !Ow~ 011e of the /oug edges i.r builti11; the other lo11g edge
is free. The short edges are si1nply supported. The plate is subjecred ro u11ifor111
con1pressive loads iu tire x direction. Calculate the buckling load.
S ince the plate is longer t han the buckling le ngth ( L., > 1; ), we may treat the
pla te as Jong.'" From Table 4.ll (page 136), Kand 11 are
2D..,+ D12 D t2
K= 0.316 v= 0.242. (4.180)
.,/Du D,, 2D,,, + D,,
JI L. P. KolJar, Buckling of Unidirectionally Loaded Composite Plates wilh O ne Free nnd One
RotationnJI)' Rc$traincd Un1oadcd Edsc. }()unurl of S1nia ural 11gi11eeri11s,. Vol 128, 12021211 .
2002.
4.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 139
./Dii75;i ,.
N.w = L' ( 15. I K v I  v + 7 (1  K)) = 90.640 kN/m. (4.181)
y
One long edge is rotationally restrained the other i.< free. The buckling loads of
plates v"ith one of the. unloaded e dges rotationally restrained a nd the other one
free (Fig. 4.35, g) can be C'1lculated by Eq. (4.154). The value of I, that results in
the lowest buckling load is denoted by(~. When the plate is long the necessary
condition that gives the lov.est 1Vx.cr is d (1Vx,i:r) / d (/.~) = 0. This condition and
Eq. (4.154), with I, re placed by /~. give
(4.182)
where~ is the parameter of restraint given by Eq. (4.152). Equations (4.1 54) and
(4.182) yield
,,
J1ix CT 
 7 ./750l5ll + J? I.A..
_. ' (4.183)
. ) 1+ 4.12s Lf L~
This expression gives a conservative estin1ate of tJ1e buckling load and under
estimates it by less than 14 percent. More accurate e xpressions, determined by
Koll:ir,32 are included in Table 4.11 (page 136). The accuracy o f Ulese equations is
about 2 pe rce nt \\ he n 0 < K .$_ t and is a bout 5 percent when 1 < K 5 3.
1
4.12 Exan1ple. A recuurgular plate with /en grit Lx = O.S 1t1 and 1vid1h Ly = 0.05111 is
1nade ofgraphite epoxy unidirectional plies ~\'ith the fi bers orienrt~d along Jhe :<axis
ofthe plate (Fig. 4.3.~). The material properries are given iii Table 3.6 (page 81). The
layup is (020]. One of the long edges is rotationally restrained vlu'/e the other long
edge is f ree. Tire short edges are sitnply snpported. The rotational spri1Jg constant
of the edge is k = 129.4 JV. The plate is subjected to 111,~for111 corupressive loads in
1/re x direction. Ca/cu/are the bt1ck/i11g load.
l 1t:~::::,::::::rr
!V rYJ
> >
SS
SS
< < < < <
F'tgurc 4.40: Long ree.tangular plate subjec.ted to shear load.
Since the plate is longer than the buckling length ( L., > /~) . \\'e may treat the
pla te as " long." With the paramete rs Kand v give n by Eq. (4.180), fromTable 4.1 1.
sixtl1 row (page 136) we obtain ( K < 1)
This result is included in Table 4.11 (page 136). The buckling length is given in
Table 4.10 (page 135).
" S. G. Lckhnitskii. Ani.~or.ropic P/01tt. Gordon and Brca<h Science Publis.hcrs. New York. 196&.
pp. 462463.
4.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 141
0 ;5 K ;5 1
Simpl)' supported 8. l25 + 5.045K 11.71 + Li'l
.,
Buihin 15.07 + 7.0SK 18.59 + ~~
The plate is subjected to a. uniforn1 shear load 1'1.t>~' \Ve v"ish to de te rmine the
JO\\'eSt value O( the )oad /V.ty. er at \Vhich the plate buck)e.s.
Seydel derived the lowest buckling loads for infinitely long plates. The resulting
expressions, as quoted by \Vhitney,:w are
(4.188)
Seydel gave nun1erical values for fJ1. These values can be approximated within
2 percent by the expressions in Table 4.12.
where w is the circular frequency and f is the natural frequency. The period of
vibration Tis
I w=2Tr/= 2ir.
T= (4.190)
/ T
and U? is the deflection of the plate a t tin1e t = T/4.
In this section \\'e obtain the natural frequencies and, hence, the periods of
vibration, of free.l) vibra ting plates.
3'I J. l\.1. \\'hilnc.y, Struaurol Analysis of L(IJ11lrut1cd A11isotropic Plotu lCch nontic. Lancas ter,
Pcn n1'ylvnnia. 1987. p. 118.
142 THIN PLATES
,t;;, ~
~ ~
~ i
L,
J:'1gure 4.4l: 1 'hcditferent types or supports a long the long edges of a free.I)' vibratin!t long plate..
When L, > 3L,1Dii!Dll (Eq. 4.19}, a laterally loaded plate may be a pproxi
ma ted as a long pla te undergoing cylind rical deformation (Fig. 4.4), a nd the e qui
librium e quations a re (Eqs. 4.22 a nd 4.23)
dV,
dx + p=O (4.191)
\Vhere p is the lateral force (per unit area) acting on the plate. In the case o( a
free ly vibrating pla te .pis the inertia force, which, with the use of Eq. (4.189), is
aiw"
p =  p....,
at
= p (2.!r/)2 W" sin (21' f t ). (4.193)
" \ V. \Vcaver, S. P. Tin1oshcnko, and D. H. Young. Vil>rathn1 Pmblet'IS in 11gi11eeti11g. 51h edition.
John \Vile)' & Sons., New York. 1990, p. 417.
4.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 143
From Eq~ (4.196)and (4.197)we observe that the natural frequencies of a Long
plate (syn1n1etrical layup) with bending stiffness D 11 and n1ass p are the san1e as
the natural frequenc.ies of an isotropic beam 'vith bending stiffness El and n1ass p' .
Thus, the natural frequencies of a long plate (symme trical layup) may be o btained
by replacing El / p' by D 1if p in the expression for the natural frequencies of the
corresponding isotropic. bean1.
The natural frequencies or a long plate with unS)'lllme trical layup may be
obtained by replacing E l / p' by \II/ p in the expression for the natural frequencies
of t he corresponding isotropic beam (where 'if is given by Eq. 4.52).
4.13 Exan1ple. A 0.1111/011g and 0.2. . ntliiide rectangult1r plate lf n1ade of graphite
epoxy. Tire tuaterial properties are given hr the Table 3.6 (page Bl). The laynp is
[45\/012/451). Tire Odegree plies lire parallel ro the slrorr edge of tire plate. The
plate is either situply supported or builtiH ttlong all four edges (Fig. 4.42). The
nrass of the plare is unifor111 (p = 3.2 kg/in 2). Calculate tire circular and natural
frequencies.
Solution. The plate may be treated as "long" (Exa mple 4.1, page 96). T he circula r
frequencies of the corresponding beam are (Eq. 6.398, and 1hble 6. 13, page 308)
w (/~,
, = yp; Li .8 ; =tr.21t.3tr ... . (ss) (4.198)
W ,. p' ~
= ~/ El L'1 .RI = 4.730. 7.853. 10.996, . . . (builtin). (4.199)
Tiie circular freq uencies of the plate are obtained by replacing El/ p' by D11 / p
as follows:
W ,  I/ D11
.  ~; ., = 4.730. 1.s53. to.996, ... (builtin). (4.201)
P L.,1
144 THIN PLATES
W ith 0 11 =45.30 N . m (Table 3.7, page 84) and L, = 0.2 m. tbe circula r fre
quencies a re
\Vhere U is defined as
4
U=211'1 D11 (a'ax'""')' + >,,.. (a'ayW")' + D.,, (2a'
[ W ")'
axay1
" 0
+2 ( 0 12 .....
azW
......., +
azur aiwo za1iff'
o,.,.:;:;+
azU?
0,6  .  ,   , 
2a1wu)]dydx.
ax1 oy ox oxay ay axoy
(4.207)
i,f J (dw)
1... z.., '
K = I 71 p dydx. (4.208)
" 0
JI> J. tlil. Whi1ncy. S1tJJ<'t111ol Analy.,1..~ of Lar11ir1aJe(/ A11iso1ropic Pla1e.1. Tccbnontic. Lane.aster,
Pennsylvania. 1987. p. 166.
4.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 145
Subs tit ut ion o( the deflection, given by Eq. (4.189), into this equation yields
'~ ,"'!
K =&(21f/) ons (21f/ t) / 2 2
j pw" dydx. 1
(4.209)
0 I)
1\ ccording to the la\v of conservation of energy the c.haoge in strain e nergy
from tin1e / = 0 to tin1e / e quals the change in kine tic energy during this tin1e
(U,  U1. o) =  (K,  K 1. o). (4.210)
Initially. at time r = () the strain energy is zero (Eq. 4.206), but a t time 1 = Jr
the kinetic e ne rgy is zero (Eq. 4.209). Thus, we have
ul f, = Kl.I.I (4.211)
Equation (4.211), together with Eqs. (4.206) and (4.209), yields
L , I.>
(21f f)' =      
v (4.213)
1, L,
~ J J pW"'dydx
0 0
We use Rayleigh s ene rgy method~ 7 to o bta in the defle ction. For the s in1ply
supported pla te under consideration the geome trical boundary condit ions re quire
that the d eflections be zero along the edges (Eq. 4.57) as follows:
!'"'
and O::;y::; Ly
x = L" a nd O::;y::; L,. (4.21 4)
ul' =0 at
0 5 :c 5 L,, and y= O
05x 5 L,, and y = L,. .
The follo\\'ing deflection salisfies these geon1etrical bo unda ry conditions:
.!L o
tluJ;i 
(4.217)
n L. r.tei.ro\itch, Pritteiplt!.'1 and TI>ch11iqut!.\' of Vibrations. Prcntioc. H all, Upper Saddle River,
New Jcn:l")'. 1997. pp. 5 18522.
.13 ]bid., p. 520.
146 THIN PLATES
To dete rmine the values of w,;. we substitute Eqs. (4.207). (4.213), and (4.216)
into this expression. Algebraic n1ilnipulatio ns yield the follo\\'ing sy.sten1 of s imuJ ..
taneous a lgebraic equations:
I J
= 1, 2, 3, . . ., I
_L L (GmmJ 
i I ; .. 1
A~mnij) UJ;; = 0
I i. m
j.11=1 , 2.3 .. . ., f ,
(4.218)
where G;t (= G,;) and t he Kronecke r delta J!k (= ~kl) are given in Table 4.1
(page 102). Jn expanded form E q. (4.222) is
G11
([
Gu~1i1
In the case of free vibration the deflection is nonzero. For no nzero deHections.
Eq. (4.223) is satisfied when the determinant of the matrix in the parentheses is
zero. At this condition ), is the eigenvalue of Eq. (4.223). There are J x I eigen
value~ deno ted by A;; , \Vhich may readily be c.alculated by commercial softv.are.
The natural freque ncies are calcula ted from Eq. (4.219) as follows:
For an orthotropic plate 0 16 = 0,,, = 0, and the e igenva luesof Eq. (4.223) can
directly be calcula te d. T he result is
A;; = ~L,L,ir' [ D11 (LY +2(D,, + 2DM) ( L)' (LJ' + o,, (l)'l
(4.225)
4.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR PLATES 147
4.14 Exantple. A 0. 1~111 /oug and0.2n1 lt1ide rectangular plate is 111ade of graphite
epoxy. The n1aterial properries are given hr Table 3.6 (page 81). The layup is
(45\f012/ 45j). Tire Odegree plies are parallel to the short edge of the plttte.
Tlie plate is simply supponetl along all four edges (Fig. 4.44). Tile mass of the plate
l'i u11ifor111 (p = 3.2 kg/1112). Cttlculate rhe natural frequencie.'i.
Solution. From Eq. (4.226), with the stiffnesses D11 45.30 N m, 0,2 = =
= =
25.26 N m, D 12 19.52 N m, ~ 20.62 N . m (Table 3.7, page 84} we
have
i\j 2 3
1 163 205 267
2 607 653 727
3 1 346 1 393 1 470 .
~
longplate.appruxi1n.ation
o '~~~~~~~~~~~"~~~~__,
\Ve now assess the lengthtO\\idlh ratios under 'vhich the longplate approxi~
mation is reasonable. To this end. \\'e calculated the lowest natural frequency of the
pla te, keeping the width 4 the same while c hanging t he length L,_ In Figure 4.45
\Ve plot the Jo,vest natural frequency thus calculated versus Ly. l n this figure 've
also included the lov.est natural frequency given by the longplate approxin1ation
(Eq. 4.204). The results in this figure show that, in accordance \\ith Eq. (4.19), the
lo ngplate fonuula approxin1ates \vithin 10 percent the natural frequency when
Ly is gre ater than 3L.,:/D 11 / 1),..1 = 0.694 m.
Solution. The layup o f the plate is symmetrical but not orthotropic. The bend
= =
ing stiffnesses a re D11 34.61 N m, D22 I 2.34 N m, D12 4.58 N m, D66 = =
5. 14 N . m, D 10 = 3.34 N . m, D,6 = 3.34 N. m (Table 3.7, page 84). The na tura l
frequencies a re calcula ted from Eqs. (4.224) a nd (4.223). With t he preceding
stiffnesses, and with I = J = 7, these calculations yield the following /;1 (Hz)
values:
i \ j 2 3
1 211 446 9 10 (4.229)
2 640 797 1 179
3 I 359 I 569 1 955 .
The layup follows the lOperc.e nt rule (page 89), a nd we may treat t he plate as
orthotropic. from Eq. (4.226) we have
i\j 2 3
l 2 15 460 886 (4.231)
2 642 860 1 257
3 I 363 I 566 1 934.
We see that these natural frequencies (v.hich are based o n t he orthotropy
approxin1ation) a re within 8 pe rce nt of the natura l frequencies resulting from the
exact calculatio ns (see Eq. 4.229).
By introducing this w 0 into the e xpression of the stra in e ne rgy (Eq. 4.107). and
by setting D1 = Di = 0, we obtain
U = Usin 2 (2tr/1) . (4.233)
\vbere U is defined as
U= l
2.
rf ' " ' [
(a'iii") + Dn (a'iii'
D11  
ax'
,
 ') + D.,, (za2u;
ay'
,

0
axa )'
)
2
0 0
+ 2 ( D 12 a'W"
axi ay' a'W") Jd yd.r. (4.234)
J., 1 = 4
I (211'/;;) ' pL,L,.. (4.238)
The parame ters cri. &2, a3, a4, as are given in Table 4.5. The values of a 1
through as 1nust be calculated numerically. The integrations simlify when X;(x)
and Yi (Y) are calculated by the approx:in1ate expressions of i given in Table 4.4.
The resulting approximate expressions for a , through as are given in Tables 4.6
and 4.7. 'vhereas a2 is
(4.239)
Tile parameters a 1a5 and the corresponding eigenvalues ).;; n1ust be calcu
lated for dif!erent sets of i and ; , (i, j = I, 2... . ). The natural freque ncies are
then c.alculated by
.  !..1t JpL,Ly
f; , 
'A;;  .!...
 2..
(4.240)
(page 81). The layup is IG.i/452/902/  452],. Tire p lare is b11iltin along the four
edges (Fig. 4.47). Tire mass of tire plate is tmiform (p = 2 .56 kg/111 2 ) . Calculate the
narural frequencies.
Solution. The layup follows the JOpe rcent rule (page 89), and we treat the plate
as orthotmpic. With t he stiffnesses 0 11 = 34.61 N m, Dii = 12.34 N m, D 12 =
4.58N. m, D06 = 5.14 N . m. 0 16 = 3.34 N. m, 0,. = 3.34N. m ('fable3.7, page84)
Eq. (4.240) yields
/;;= 2'r
1 1[
P at a~ et1 ]
D11 E+ o,20 +2(D12 + 20 .. ) ~I.j
\Ve consider a sn1all e le ment of a thin plate. The ten1pe ra ture a nd moisture con
centration (both of v.hich n1ay vary across the t hickness o( the pla te) a re T a nd c.
152 THIN PLATES
respectively. lnplane forces and n101nents n1ay also act on the e len1enl (Fig. 4.48).
Q\ving to these hygrothern1al and n1echanical loads, under plane.s uess condition,
the strains at a point are (see Eqs. 2.155 and 2.156)
(4.242)
and (J and fl a re the the nnal expansion and n1oisture expansion coefficients
(Section 2.6). The stress at a point is obtained by inverting Eq. (4.242) as
follows:
M, } '" {u,}
{ =j
M,
A1xy  Iii.
t " '
fx}'
dt . (4.245)
With the definitions o f the [A), [BJ, and [DJ matrices (Section 3.2.2),
Eqs. ( 4.244)( 4.247) may be combined to yie ld
au a 12 <Y16 PH N,
0'12 <Y22 &26 /J21 N,
0'16 &26 &'(t() /J61 Nxy
=
fJ11 fJ21 p,,, 611 M,
+
{J,, {J,, p,,, 6,, My
{J,. {J,. fJ 6,. M.1:v
(4.249)
where a;;. /3;;, and S;; are the e len1e nts of thecon1pliance n1atrices (Eq. 3.22). \Ve
define the Collo\\'ing generalized bygrothennal strains a nd curvatures:
=
a 16 a26 a> jJ"' (4.250)
fJ11 fJ21 {J., 611
fJ12 fJ22 (J., 612
fJ1 {Ji. 11.. 6,.
These gene ra lized hygrotherma l strains \vo uld occur in t he re[erence plane of an
unrestrained plate subjected to changes in ten1pe ra ture and moisture content.
Expressions for calculating N'", M'" (Eqs. 4.246 and 4.247) are given in
Table 4.13 for piece,vise linear, linear, and unifor1n te1nperature distributions
(Fig. 4.49).
tlT
Piccewise
linear Linear Unifonn
Figure 4.49: Piece\\ise Hnea r. linc.ar. and uniform lcmperalure dts1ributions acroi;s lheplale.
,.. rHINPlATtS
{ ~}
~
= t. ("; 1 ({1J.cA7(,.,+A701l {~: }) U u l
With the preceding dcllnition o f the hygrothermal strains Eqs. (4.248) and
(4249) may be written in the following forms;
Al,
M,
= A"
Bu
Bu
A.... A..
8 1? B,.
Bu 8,,, o,,
B,.
Du
B,. 8,,,,
Du o..
0,,,
r:y
K, .......,,
yo.bl
,
e,.
l),J Ky
,.
M,, B,.. &. Dt. 0,,. 0... ....... K.a}'
"'
(4.251)
4.5 HYGROTHERMAL EFFECTS 155
f; fl),hi
,.. x
fo,hl
y
y'''
xy
y:>,hl
Kx
= '"
"hi
(4.256)
x
Ky Khl
Kxy
hi
l(l:y'
Rectangular plates with b11ilti11 edges. \Vhen a plate 'vit h builtin edges is sub
jected only to a te mpera ture c ha nge 8 T and 1noisturec, the strains and curvatures
are zero (Table 4.14) as follows:
" =0
x
0
fy =0 .t y =0
y" (4.257)
Kx =0 Ky = 0 K.ty = 0. (4.258)
The normal forces a nd moments a re calculated by Eqs. (4.246) (4.248).
Long recta11g11/ar plates. When the plate is long and is subjected only to a
change in ten1perature 6. T and moisture content c, some of the strains, curvatures,
n1oments. and inplane loads are zero. as shov.n in Table 4.14. The response of
the pla te is the n calcula ted by setting equal to zero in Eq. (4.248) tbe quantities
indicated in this table. The de Hections of the plate are calcula te d by Eq. (4.16).
156 THIN PLATES
f: =0 E ~ = 0 y~',, = 0
K, =0 Ky =O Kr;: =
0
~LIT
~ngp~atc !lT
f: =0 E:
= 0 y~~, = 0
K,1 =0 K~ =0 K1.,, =0
Lons plate
!lT
c
.
x K,. =0
:.l' Long plate ,v_,, = 0
4.17 Rxan1ple. A I 1n~long and/ .1nwide plate is n1ade ofgraph ire epoxy unidirec
tional plies. The layup is 1456/0.aJ~. Tire edges of the plate are free. The 1e111perature
of rhe bortom rnrface is raised by 80 c and the rop surface by 120 c (Fig. 4.50).
Estinutfe the ce1nperatureilrduced change in the di111e1Jsio11s of the plate. The ply
propertles are glven in Table 3.6. (pase 81) 1/ie thernutl expattsiou coefficients are
;;, = =
 0.7 x 10<~ w1d ;;, 25 x 1 0 ~.
Solution. The tempe rature disLribution ncross the plate is represented by the
sum o f a constant and a Hnearly varying temperature distribu1ion. as sho\\'ll in
Figure 4.50. The temperature dif(crcnccs shO\\'ll in this figure are
(4.260)
(4.261)
N':'} ;J, }
L: zl2.l._, 1~1. { ;;,
{"">"
K
=fl r, (4.262)
f't/l''
"Y Ali
k1 ;;
u t
(4.263)
The stiffness mauices [QJ for the zero nnd 45dc~rce plies are (Eqs. 3.49 and
3.52)
(4.264)
a,.. a,  .
1
~ } = { ~
 }= { ~
07 } 10 c (4.265)
{
=
\\ilereti1 = 0.7 x 10...... ~ andiiz 25 x 10~ are the 1hermal expansion coef.
ficients parallel and perpendiculorto the fibers. The thermal expansion coefficients
158 THIN PLATES
z,= lnun
.::2= 0.4 m
Figure 4.51: "fhc layup of the plate 1n f:x
o, ampk 4.17.
: 1=  0.4mm
45,
.:... =  Jmm
(4.266)
where [7;] is given by Eq. (3.51). Hence, in the 45degree direction the thermal
e xpression coefficie nts are
{ }" [
a, 0.5 0.5 0.5 ti1 12.15 I
ti, = 0.5 0.5  o.5 I { ti, } = { 12.15 } 10 c' (4.267)
ii.T)'  1.0 1.0 0 ] 0  25.70
'''here z is the distance from the n1idplane (Fig. 4.51, Z1> =  0.001 111, .z 1 =
 0.0004 m. t 1 = 0.0004 m, z, = 0.001 m) a nd K is the numbe r of ply groups
(K = 3). With the preceding values of [QJ and ti t he hygrothe rmal forces and
mon1ents are
{N:' }
,v~ =
{ 10041 } N
31 804  {,1r,
M'.' 1 = 0 {} (4.268)
l'iht
.Ty :17'
 16 323 m /\.~~. 111ii
0
{~}
1
{,yhl
1\~ll } =
{,1r,
A1: }
=
{ 16.195 }
5.1 43 t o'N. (4.269)
\ fht
I :ff A1i: !\.lxy A7j  4.697
1),h l
L7mm
t """"
.~~~~~~>
IOOO mm / ,
! '
/
' IOOO mm
'
f.,
eE / /
..at"
'
I
,'
I
x
figure 4.52: 'fhc delormed shape of Lhe plat~ In E.<tamplc 4. 17.
The layup is symmetrical ((/!] = 0), a nd the compliance matrices are (Table 3.8,
page 85)
 2.99  3.77 ]
[ 7.45
[a) = [a]= 2.99 37.81  29.39 10 m (4.271)
 3.77  29.39 48.20 N
,.h}
" 0.hl
{Y.y y
(I.hi
.11'
=
{
0.041 }
t.653 10'
 t.760
{ K~'}.f; {o}
" hi 
6T11 
0
0
(4.273)
;,.hi }
{""'
y<.hl
11y A7i
= {o} 0
0
(4.274)
,. {J,. N, \i'hl
,.,.
x
"" U12
"'
a16
fJ11
p,, /J22
/J12
{J,,, Ny
I '
1\fhl
"" U22
p,,, p., ~:,
y
Y;1,
Kx
= "'
f!11
a20
p,,
"
p,,, 611 (jl2
{J.,,
liu,
1V:r>'
M., + 1\1.!1
~,.
'
,,~,
Ky /JI? fJ21 /J62 811 ()21 M,,
" '(l' {J,. p,. p,,. s,. ()26 ~,,, J\1xy J~l
, JiY
(4.275)
The hygrothermal fo rces are given in Eqs. (4.268) and (4.269). The complia nce ma
trices arc give n in Eqs. (4.271) and (4.272). From Table4.14, sixth row (page 156),
\Ve have
Equation (4.275) represents six equations that contain the six unL'TlO\VOS 1Y_v,
t\ify. /\.f"Y f;, Y.~" K.T
The temperature distribution across the plate is represe.nted by the sum of a
constant and a linearly vat'}~ng ten1perature distribution, as sho\\'n in Figure 4.50.
The temperature differences sho\\'D in this figure are
~
= so+2 120 =100 c = 120Ir 80
LI. ' O LI. 7i = 20 000 0
C/m. (4.278)
The correspo nding hygrothermal forces are given in Eqs. (4.268) and (4.269),
respectively. By substituting the values o( the hygrothermal forces given in these
equations into Eq. (4.275) we obtain
 l 1
(K, )..7; = 36.71 X 10 . . (4.280)
m
''
'
'' IOO mm ' \ 0 48 x l0_, rad
~ .:
1
' .
::: t :
g+ ... "
x
figure 4.53: Oc.formcd shape o( a 100 by IOOmm cleme nt of lhc platein Example 4.18..
(4.284)
{ :: } = [7;. J { : ; } .
t'tz r..ty
where [T. J is give n by Eq. (2.182). Jn the .r, y laminate coordinate system the
Figure 4.54: Change in thickness of a composile plate nnd the. laminate and ply coordinate
S)'Stcms.
stresses in the ply a re (Eqs. 2. L26 a nd 2.l 65)
{ : : } = [ Q] ({ :: } 
1Jty Yx.v
t> T {; : }  c {
<xxy
~:
fJ...,,
}) . (4.285)
YxJ
= ~~
Yx~
+Z Ky
K.t y
. (4.286)
Equations (4.282) (4.286) describe the c hange in t hickness. For a plate sub 
jected to a uniforn1 6. To change in te mperature these equations n1ay be combined
to yield
"'' = t {is,,

(4.287)
\Vhere k is the ply number, K is the total nun1be r o( plies, and z is the coordinate
of the ply (Fig. 3.12). For unifo rn1 n1oisture distribution the change in thickness is
calculated by replacing I> To and ;; by c and '/i, respective ly.
\Vben t he mechanical loads are zero, the stra ins in, and the cunature.s o f the
refere nce surface are due only 10 hygrothermal effects and, from Eq. (4.252), we
have
{
f~ =
}
o
Yxy
,;.h1
{ hi }
y o.ht
xy
{ :: } = {
K.ry
:~: } '
KJtY
(4.288)
"To= so c. (4.289)
.,u I t..J"l lt.U t l l l l l l'I V lllVV....11 VII ............... l l U "IL.1 1\.1 ..... . u ....
~ a.. . .7 l
{ %:, = ~ 10<> c
}" { 0 }
{
"
~'
Clx1
}" { =
12.IS
12.IS
25.70
} 1
10 c'
(4.292)
IT,, I =
0.5
0.5
o.s
o.s  LO
l.0] . (4.293)
[  0.5 0.5 o
111e slrains nnd curvatures o( the n1idplanearegive n by Eq. (4.273) ns fo llows:
.=~
K;r
o.041 x 10 l ~ t.653 x 10 J
: 0 Kv =0
= r.:',
Kxy
=  t.760 x 10 >
= 0.
(4.294)
elliptical hole (Fig. 4.55). The dimensions of the hole are small eompnred with the
diinensions or Lhe plnte. \\'e assume that a t some distance fro111 the hole 1here is a
region '"here the inplane forces and strains are nearly uniform. TI1ese "farfield"
forces and strains are taken to be those that v.ould exist in the plate in Ihe absence
o( the hole. We 1Nish to determine the s trains ne ar the hole in tc nns o f the fa rfie ld
forces a nd s trains..
!I
2b p
2a
Far fro111 the hole the "farfield" inplane forces are de noted by 1V,~, ~ tv:f.
and the .;farfield .. inplane strains are de noted by t;.~:: , ~;= , Y.~;/' . 111ese forces
and strains a re related by (Eq. 3.26)
{ 1v:;
.v~}
~\~ = [ A]
{...~t.:~ } . (4.296)
Yx.1
'vhere N;. 1V)~ . N;,, are modification tern1s that depe nd o n x a nd y. Expressions
where I = rT.
2. The roo ts {ti nnd '"2of t he characteristic polyno miaJ glvc n in Tnble 4.15 are
ca1cu1o.ted.
3. Modification term.~ fl.':. 1V,,
. '
. at point P and N. fl.'~, at point Q a re calculated
for four different sets of C 1. C2 C3 C..
Set I C1 = I. C2 = C3 = C, = 0. resulting in
(N;)f. (N;,li and (N;)r. (N;,)~
Set 2 C2 = I. C 1 = c,
= c, = 0. resulting in
(N;lr (N;,)f and (N;)r (N;,l?
Set 3 C, = I. C 1 = C2 = C, = 0, resulting in
(N;)f. (1\~,)f and (N; lf, (N;,)f
Se t 4 C, = I .C1 = C2 = c,
= 0. resulting in
CN:,>f.
I
(N; lf, (N;,)f and (N;)f,
Fo r arbilrary values of C 1 C4 \Ve have
[(N;)f
I
N;I' (N; )[ (N; )f
N:: (N;,>r (N;,)f (N;v)f
(4.300)
N.,Q = (N)Q
y t (N')Q
yl
(N vJ
;)Q
N;$1 (N;,)f (N;,lf (f'i;,)f
I
4. Equatioos (4.298) a nd (4.300) give
N:"
~
N':
[(N;)f (N;)[ (N;)j
+ (N;,)f (N;,)f (N;,)f (N;,)f
(N;)f
(N")Q (/>r.)Q (N')Q (N;l,Q c,
llc,IC, O
 (4.301)
I,v:;
1 ' 1 y l ' .)
<N:,>P <N:,>f ui;,>f <N;,)'/ c.
5. Equalions (4.301 ) are solve d for the C 1 C2 C3 c, oons tnnt~
.iu S. G. Lckhn1ukil. A11l,1t11t<1plr Plates. G ordon and Brc.nch Science Puhlb hcrs, New Ycwk , 1968,
ll. 31.
166 THIN PLATES
'''''''''
Next we a pply the preceding equa tions to o rtho tropic plates containing a cir
cular hole with radius R and s ubjecte d lo a unilom1 tensile load N:;' (Fig. 4.56).
T he n1axin1un1 forces (per unit length) at the surface o( the hole ar~4 1
K r= 1 + ~
2 ( \ I~
A11 An  .412 + A11A22  Ai,)
2"'66  . (4.304)
N~
=t (R)'
:; + 3 (R)'
:;  ( Kr  3) [5 (R) (R)']}
6
N,(.t. O) { 2+ :;  7 :;
(4.305)
outof plane stress components are zero (11.: = 0, ry. = 0, r.c.: = 0). This a.ssump
tion is reasonable in regions a\\ay from free edges. Near free edges. both shear
and norn1al stresses n1ay arise be t,veen the layers. These interlaminar stresses n1ay
significantly alter the stress field existing a\vay fron1 the free edge and, importantly.
n1ay cause separation (delan1ination) of adjacent layers.
We illustrate the stresses near a free edge through the example of a f0/901~
cross..ply laminate (Fig. 4.57). The lan1inate is subjecte d to a unidirectional force
(per unit length) N, with x being in the direction of the ().degree fibe rs. 111e axial
load is shared by the plies., and the axial defom1ation of each ply is the sa1ne
(E~ = E.~). 'Ve no\v consider one of the 0degree plies and the adjace.nt 9().degree
ply. Their transverse Poisson ratios are different (~.?,.:ft "!";). Hence., if the two
plies \Vere alJO\Ved to n1ove freely, they \VOuld deform by diffe rent amounts in the
transverse y direction (F1g. 4.57). ln reality, the t\VO plies are bonded together, and
their transverse deforn1ations (and transverse strains) are equal. Ob\riously, one
of the plies (in this example the 0degree ply) must be in tension, and t he other
one (90degree ply) must be in oomrression.
The stresses on a Odegree ply e le 1uent are s hown in Figure 4.58. A\vay from
the free e dge, on a sn1all e len1ent the ay stresses equilibrate each other, and there
is no interlaminar s hear stress ( r>'~ = 0). At the free e dge a y is unbalanced and is
".v ~~
~~7
u, 7~~~ "
17.v ~ ~ ~ 11,
y y
Figure 4.58: Frccbody diagrams and lhe stress dislnbutions near a free edge.
168 THIN PIATES
equilibrated by the interlaminar s uesses ( r>'~ : 0). Furthe nuore, 1'1y and r,,:: c reate
a mo1nent, which n1ust be equiJibrate d by the interlaminar normaJ stress d;, s hown
in Figure 4.58. The norn1al stress, as 'veil as ry;,. diminis hes in regions away from
the edge.
Care must be take n in calculating the interlan1inar stresses. Under t he ass ump
tion that the n1aterial is linearly elastic, t he calculations result in infinite stresses
at free edges.
CHAPTER FIVE
Sandwich Plates
Sandwich plates~ con..i:isting of a core cove red by faceshccts1 are rrcquently used
instead o f solid plates because of t he ir high bending stiJfnessto"'cight ratio. The
high bending sliffncss is the result of the distance be tween the faceshee t.s. "hich
carry the load, and the light weight is due to the light weight of the core.
Here. we consider rectangularsand\\i.ch plates with racc!lhccts on bo1h sides of
the core (Figs. 5.1 and 5.2). Each fa"'sheet may be an isotropic material or a fiber
reinfor<Jed composite k1minate but must be thin compared >Aith the core. The core
may be foam or honeycomb (Fig. 5.1) and must have a material symmetry plane
parallel tons midplanc: the rores inplane stillnesses must be small compared
with the inplane stiffnesses of the fa=heets..
The bcha"ior of 1hin plates undergoing small dc!onnations may be analyzed
by the Kirchhoff hypothesis.. namely. by the assumptions that normals remain
straight and perpendicular to the deformed reference plane. For a snndwich pJate.
consisting of a core covered on both sides by Caceshects.. the firs t assumption
(nonuals ren1ain s tra ight) is reasonable. However, the second nssuniption 1nay no
longer be valid, bccnusc norn1als do no t necessarily ren1nin perpendicular to the
refere nce plane (Fig. 5.3). In this case the x and y displacements o f a point located
at a distance t (rom an arbitrarily chosen re.fere nce plane are
v.here rl' and v0 arc the .r and y displacements at the reference plane (v.hcre
z = 0) and x.. ~. X,r: arc the rotations of the normal in the xz: and )"Z planes. The
angle x.: ~illustrated in figure 5.3.
As shown in Figure 5.3. the first derivative of the deflection w" of the reference
plane 'vith respect to xis
(5.2)
169
170 SANDWICH PLATES
Figure S.1: lllustration ort hesandwich plate and the hone)'Comb rorc.
Similarly, the first deriva tive or the deflection w0 or the reference plane v. ith
1
respect to y is
aw
. = X1 + y,.. (5.3)
ay . 
'1u 0 ()v0
o
Yxy 
ay + ax (54)
aw 0
Yx .; = ~ Xx:: (5.5)
ox
ax.,, ax.,. .
K ,  ax
  Ky.    ay (5.6)
\Ve note that K,,, Ky, and Kxy are no t t he curvatures of the re.fere nce pla ne.
They a re tJ1e refere nce pla ne's curvatures only in the absence of she ar deform a
tion.
The three e quations a bove represent the strain displacement re la tionships for
a sandwich plate.
']:~1

.
Jt f
. . R~fe!C'!c.e~pl!,Ul~
.
5. 1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS
.4
Ne xt we derive the force strain relationships. The starling point of the analysis
is the expressio ns for t he forces a nd moments give n by Eqs. (3.9) and (3.10)
J
loo ho loo
1V., =
 1111
cr,dz N, = j <t .d z
11,,
1 N.cy = J
_,,,,
rJ..,, d z
(5.7)
lo,
f f J
loo ho
..
J
ho
I', = .r r..,dz
_,,.
v,. = r,.d t, (5.8)
 h.
where Ni, J\1;, and V; a re the inplane Corces, the mon1ents. a nd the transverse
shear forces pe r unit length (Fig. 3.11, page 68), respectively, and 11 1 and " are
the distances from the arbitrarily chose n reference pla ne to the plate s s urfaces
(Pig. 5.2). The stresses (planestress condition) a re (Eq. 2.126)
(5.9)
Prom Eqs. (2.2), (2.3), and (2.1 1) together witl1 Eq. (5.1) the strains at a dis
tance z from the re ferenc.e plane are
an au ax.~~ 0
.r==
ax a.r  zax
au 3v
0
"x":.
, = ay = iii  z ay (5.10)
By combining Eqs. (5.4), (5.7). (5.9), and (5.10) and by utilizing tl>e definitions
of the [A], I B], [DJ ma trices (Eq. 3.18), we obtain
~ l
1\f fo  :ix
{}{}I ~v:.
N.tf
=(A) :; + (B)
r;.~
 a:;~
_2!.u  ~XI~
(5.11)
l
3y ~J:
{ <~ } + (DJ
I
Af.t f.~  ii.I
N, } { } ~
{ <, }
N,, = [Aj ~ + (BJ Ky (5.13)
{
Nxr Y.1:y K:ry
In addition \Ve need the relationships bet\veen the transverse shear forces and
the transverse s he.ar strains.. The re levant expressions are derived in Section 5.l .3.
Here \Ve quote t he resulting expression. \\ hich is 1
1Vy11, I= [s"I 12
s"]jr. . I
522 r,.~
(5.15)
In the analyses we n1ay entploy either the equilibrium e quations or the s tra in
energy. The e quilibriun1 equations a re identical to those given for a thin plate
(Eqs. 4.4 and 4.5).
t= r
%
~
~
~
~ J
~
Figure S.4: Boundary conditwns for an cdJe panllcl to the ,..iaxis..
Along a simply supported edge. the deflection w0 , the bending M, and twist
ftlx.. moments, and the inplane forces N,,. N,, arc zero:
When inplane motions are prcvcn1ed by the support. 1he inplane forces are
not zero ( 1Vi . 0. N.J;1 ~ 0). \\lhercns the inplane displacemen1s are zero:
u0 = 0 v0 =0. (5.19}
When there is a rigid pl:ne covcrin!t lhc side of the sand\\'ich plate the norn1al
ca nno t rotate in the y z plane, ::ind \VC hnve
(5.20}
Substitution of Eqs. (5.4) (5. 15) and Eqs. (5.26) (5.32) (derive d on pages I 75
176) into Eq. (5.21) gives
,., J112 B11 8 11 Bi
A i ,...
f~
" 0
Ky
K.~y
LB,, Bi2 B,_. D12 D,, D,,
B1 s,. s..
D,. D,, D,.
Ky
Kxy
+ ly.,_ y,.J 
.... S12
[s;, ~"H I
S21
Yx;
YJ~
dydx, (5.22)
Table s.1. The (A), (BJ, (OJ stillness matrices of san<lwich plates. The
supersripts t an<I b refer to the t<>p and bottom facesheets. The
distances d, d'. and d are shown In Figure 5.2.
layup of each facesheet
with respect to the facesheet's midplane
Symmetrical
Unsymmetrical (identical faces!leets}
(A] {A)' + (A)" 2 (A]'
[BJ d' [A]'d"[AI' +(BJ' + [BJ'' 0
[DJ (11' )' I A)'+ ("'>' [A)"+ (D(' + [Df
+ 2t1' (BJ'  2,f' IBj" \111IA)'+2IDJ'
5.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 175
t.'
Fi~ure S.5: Shea r stress distnbution lr: (left}
c in a sandwich pla te a nd the appro:umate dis
tribution (right).
1.
n1idpla ne.) \Vhen the top and bo tto n1 faceshee ts are unsymme trical \\ith respect
to the faces heets midplane but are sym1netrical \\ith respect to t he n1idpla ne of
the sandwich pla te. t he n [A)' = [ AJ, I BJ' =  [BJ. [DJ' = [DJ, a nd the [A), ( B],
[DJ ma trices of the sandwich plate become
IBJ =0 (5.24)
111e s hear stiffness ma trix [S) is de termined as follo\vs. In the core, as a conse
quence of the assumption that the in pla ne s tiffnesses are negligible, the transverse
shear s tress rx~ is uniform. Jn general, in the facesheets the s hear stress d istribu
tion is as s ho\vn in Figure 5.5 (left). \ Ve appro:\;1nate this distribution by t he linear
shear s tress distTibution s ho \\'U in Figure 5.5 (right). t\ ccordingly, the transverse
shear force V, is
(5.26)
where the superscripts c. t. a nd b refer to the core, the top, and the bo ttom
facesheets, respectively. The distanced= c + 11/ 2+1 /2 is s hown in Figure 5.5.
Similarly, we have
V1 = r;.n. (5.27)
"
The s tressstra in relationship fo r t he core materia l is given by Eqs. (2.20) a nd
(2.27). With the s upe rscript <: identifying the core. t hese equations give
(5.28)
Figure 5.6 (middle). The relationship between this average shear defonnation and
the core deformation is given by (see Fig. 5.6. right}
Y.,' . _ = ;rx.::
d (5.29)
' = d
Y.v.:: ;r,,:: (5.30)
Equations (5.26) (5.30) yield the relationship between the transverse shear
forces and the ave rage shear deformation:
l"I=d' [~
\', C' C!CS
(5.31)
[~"
S 12
~"]
S21
= d'
c
[Ss5
~
(5.32)
The preceding four e le n1ents of t he n1atrix (C] characterize the core n1ateriaJ.
\\lhereas [SJ is the she ar sliffness n1atrix of the sandv.ich plate. \Ve point o ut that
(3) is 1101 the inverse ofthe [Ej matrix.
Orthntropic sandwich plate. A sand y,ich plate is orthotropic 'vhen both face
sheets as v.ell as t he core are orthotro pic a nd the orthotropy directions are parallel
to the e dges. The facesheets n1ay be d iffe re nt. and their layups n1ay be unsytn
me trical. For such an orthotropic sand,vich pla te there a re no extension shear.
bending t\vist, a nd extension l\\'ist couplings. Accordingly, t he fo llov.ring e.le n1ents
o( the stiffness n1atrices are zero:
Furthermo re, fo r a n orthotro pic sandv.ich plate the transverse shear force Yx
acting in the x z plane does not cause a shear stra in Y~ in the yt plane. This
co ndition gives
Isotropic sandwich plate. Jo\ sand,vich plate is isotropic v.he n the core of the
sand,vicb pla te is made of an isotro pic (such as foa n1) or transversely isotropic
(such as honeycon1b) ma te ria l a nd the top a nd botton1 facesheets a re n1ade of
5.1 GOVERNING EOOATIONS 177
c/2
,.
e'} c
 : =~=:\== ~~ r,dl~
..
'MidplIDlc
..
I
(A)'
.,., [1
11 1:.. r
0]
0 .
I  ('')' ~ '1"
(5.35)
The d is tances ti' and db bet\\een the reference plane (passing through the
center of gravity} and the n1idplanes of lhe facesheets are
(5.37)
By substituting Eqs. (5.35)(5.37) into the expression for the (BJ ma u'Lx given
in Tuble 5.1 (page I 74) we obtain tha t fo r the entire sand"1ch pla te tbe I BJ ma trix
is zero 'vith reference to the o reference plane. This means that for a sandwich
plate \\'ith isotropic core and isotropic facesheets bending does not cause strains
in this plane. Therefore., this re(erence plane is a "neutral plane:
By substit uting t he expressio ns of d' a nd t1 (Eq. 5.37) into the expressions
given in Table 5. I. we o btain the following (A) a nd I DJ matrices for the sandwich
178 SANDWICH PlATES
Table 5.2. The stiffnesses and the Poisson ratios at Isotropic solid plates and
Isotropic sandwich plates; R Is defined In Eq. (3.46).
Isotropic sandwich plate
Isotropic Isotropic Quasiisotropic
sotid plate facesheets facesheets
1
A"" .,[},_
1 ..:
1!
(( l + (") J(M l )Z (r' + rin
c.it)Z1' +P~1t> + (l't'~r,.t\ E}
lY'"' FY
1!(1 t>!l 1(ol )!
(r'(d'l2 + 1' (1l'l') R
,,1,,.;) " n + o. +t>01  C?~
,.
" "
pla te:
[~' ~, . J [~'
~ l
v' 0
v'
0
(A)= A' l IDJ = lY' l (5.38)
"'
.lJJ
"'
= ..>22 "'
=,,) = d'
c
q, 2 q, s,, = 0. (5.39)
The sand '"ich plate n1ay also be treated as isotropic \\he n the top and bottom
facesbeets are quasi.isotropic lan1ina tes (page 79)consisting or unidire ctional plies
made of the san1e n1a.terial. For such sa.nd,vic.h plates the {BJ n1atrix is negligible.
the (A) a nd I DJ matrices are approximated by Eq. (5.38) (with the te mlS A~ and
fP" define d in Table 5.2), and the e le n1ents of the she ar sti ffness matrix are given
by Eq. (5.39).
L,
T.
f igure S.M: 'lhc different types of !iupporls along the long edge~" of Ji long 1111ndw1eh plate.
deflection of the plate ul ' and the ro tation x., z do not ''ary along y:
fJw> <>xx: = o.
=0 (5.40)
ay Hy
We neglect the shear d efomrntion in tbe y t plane (y1" = 0). Consequently, the
rotation of the no rmol is zero (Eq. 5.3):
Xg =0. (5.41 )
dV. 0 (5.42)
dx + p =
dM
tfx'  ".
v, = O. (5.43)
When the sandwich plate is symmetrical with re specl 10 the mid pla ne (I BJ = 0)
from Eqs. (S.12). (S. IS), (5.40), and (5.41 ) , we bave
<~Xx:
M, =  0 11  
l>:r
(5.44)
111'''J
x,. S11
  (dw"  x,) = 0.
Du + (5.46)
tlx' dx
For a transnely loaded isotropic sandwich beam the corresponding equa
tions are (Eqs. 7.83 a nd 7.84)
isorropic sa11d1vic/J h~ani:
d'x+ p'= O
 ifl (5.47)
d:cJ
o"'x
;;;;+ ~(dw
"JX  x) =0 . (5.48)
180 SANDWICH PLATES
\vhere 'El and ! are the bending and shear stiffnesses of the isotropic sandwich
bean1, respective ly, and p' is the load per unit length.
The equations describing the deflections of long sandwich pla tes and isotropic
sandwich beams are identical when in Eqs. (5.45) and (5.46), D,,. S11. and p
are replace d, respectively, by El, S, and p' . The re fore, the deflection of a long
sandwich plate (symmetrical layup) may be obtained by substituting the values of
Di 1 Su . and p for El. S. and p' in t he expression, given in Section 7 .3, for the
deflection of the corresponding isotropic beam.
\Vben the layup is unsymmetr ical, the e xpression for the mon1ent A1x can be
derive d analogously to the equation of a solid composite plate (Section 4.2.2).
He re \Ve only quote the result, which for sand\vich pla tes is
(5.49)
\Vhe.re Xxz is shown in Figure 5.3. The tern1 in parentheses is the bending s tiffness
parame ter defined by Eq. (4.52). Equations (5.42), (5.43), (5.44, right), and (5.49),
togethe r with Eq. (5.2), give
sandwich plate, t11Jsy111111etrical layup:
d'x
 "' ____:!i 0 +" = 0 (5.50)
dx'
d'x,. + S11
"' dx'
 (dw
dx 
)
x.._ = 0. (5.51)
:1=2nun
d=22 mmI   .  .. .
 
1 c= 20mnl
! t. =2mm
1..tgurc S.9: The cn>l>S scc.tion of the sandwich plate.an E xample 5.1 .
5.2 DEFLECTION OF RECTANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 181
430.34 65.47 0 ] kN
[A) = 2 [AJ' = 65.47 96.34 0 10' (5.52)
[ 0 0 72.02 Ill
l [ 52.16 7.96 0 ]
[D) =zd' [A)1 +2(D]'= 7.96 11.71 0 kNm, (5.53)
0 0 8.76
where [Al' a nd [DJ' a re give n in Table 3.7 (page 84) and d = c + r = 0.022 m. The
shear stiffness matrix is (Eq. 5.32)
[S~" 12
~"] =d'(S' 5]
s,, c ~' q,
=[18615
0
o ] kN .
18615 m
(5.54)
(5.55)
In the present proble m. L,./ L, = 4.5 and 3;:/ D11/ Du  4.36. Thus, the preceding
condition is satisfied and the Jong plate expressions n1ay be used. The maxin1um
deflectio ns of the corresponding beam a re (Table 7.3, page 332)
_ 5 p' L4 p' L1
(ss) (5.56)
UJ = 384 El + SS
(builtin). (5.57)
182 SANDWICH PLATES
_ 5 pL~ pL!
w =    +~ (ss) (5.58)
384 Du 8Su
_ I pl~ pL!
w=+~ (builtin). (5.59)
384 Du 8S11
With the values of D11 = 52.1 6kNm a nd S'11 = 18 615~, a nd with L_. =
0.2 m, the maximu1u deflectio ns are
iJi = 0.000 200 + 0.000 134 = 0.000 334 m = 0.334 mm (ss) (5.60)
iJi = 0.000040 + 0.000 134=0.000 174 m = 0.174 mm (builtin).
(5.61)
Substitution of Eq. (5.62) into the expression of t he strain e ne rgy (Eq. 5.22)
gives
s,,JIrr,...., I} tlytlx.
s,,
(5.63)
5.2 DEFLECTION OF REC:TANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 183
For o rt hotropic sandwich plates Di = D,, = S 11 = 0 (Eqs. 5.33 and 5.34). With
these values and the expressions in Eqs. (5.5) and (5.6), t he strain energy becomes
U= ~11
' "' [ (ax") Di +(ax ,,) D, + 2 ax8x. ,ax,,
' 0 1
12
2 8.t 8y I 8 )' l.
(5.64)
For an applied transverse load p (per unit area), the potential of the external
forces is (Eq. 4.56)
l., I.,
Q = I.!
0 0
(pw")dxdy. (5.65)
For a simply suppo rted sand\vicb plate the deflection, bending n1oments, and
rotations of the normals along the edges are zero, resulting in the follo,ving bound
ary conditions:
x =0 and 05y _::; Ly
x= L., and 0 .::; y ::= L,.
Wu =0 at (5.66)
0 5 x _::; Lt and y =0
I 0 5 x _::: L.t and y = L.v
. LL
u,1 =
I J
'1
.
u. sin 11fX

,
sin
L
J 1f)'
 
.
.
L
i I i 1 ' Y
I I i;rx . j ;ry
X.t i = L L (X.t i)ij cos T
i I j I .T
sin T
>'
(5.7 1)
I I . i7TX j:ry
Xr
...
= '\" '"' (X1} Sin 
~~ "' 1' L.T
cos 
L}'
.
i I j I
184 SANDWICH PLATES
\\/here I and J a re the nun1ber o( tern1s, chosen a rbitrarily, for the su1nn1ations
and w;j, (X.iz.)i; and (Xy~),., a re unkno\\'l\S and are evaJuated by the principle of
stationary potential e nergy expressed ;1s
il(U+ n} =O
i) (X,,)1;
il(U+ l'l) =O
(5.72)
a(xd1;
il(U+ l'l)
"'"' = 0.
(}tJJjj
We substitute w. x.. ,. x," (from Eq. 5.7 1) into tbe expressions or U (Eq. 5.64)
and Q (Eq. 5.65} and perfo rm tbe diffe re ntia tions indicate d a bove. Algebraic
manipula tions yield t he (ollov.~ng syste111 ot silnultaneous algebra ic equations:
4
L L
p.lJ p.\'i ] { UJ;;
{  pL.L,
l 'J,j , . .
}
~ ~J F4$
<L }
Y F34 (Yxz);; = n Q' . (5.73)
[
!'.,,, F..s Fs, (Yr.l1; 0
2. 4, 6 . . . .). The e le ments of the coefficient matrix are give n in Table 5.3 and (vd1;
and (Yr: );; a re defined as
j1f
(y,J
. ,,.. = w1;
Ly  (x,..)
. I). . (5.74)
For each set of i , j values tbe tbree equations in Eq. (5.73) a re solved simul
taneously (or the three unkno\\ns we;, (Y.T~};; (y,,~};; The de Hection and the rota
tions are then ca lcula te d by Eqs. (5.71) and (5.74).
5.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR SANOWICH PLATES 185
dV. d 2wQ
'  N_,..., d l =0 (5.75)
dx .\'
dM, _ I', =O. (5.76}
dx
We no\v consider a sand\vich plate that is symn1etrical \Vit h respect to the
midplane. For this plate the bending mo1nent and the t ransverse shear force are
(Eq. 5.44)
M.v =  Du  ax
ax,. (5.77)
Equations (5.75), (5.76), (5.n), toge ther with Eq. (5.2). give
sa11dwich plttte, syn1111etrical layup:
<f3x diul'
 D 11  '  1VJto =O (5.78)
dx 3 dx2
d'x  (dw
D11 d x' + Sn dx  x
0
)
= 0. (5.79)
~ J\i"
A ~
L, l ~
~ JV#O
' J 
== ~/\llO
~/\'~
l,
IE 11
"
Figure S.12: Long rc.ctangular sandwich plate s ubjec.ted to a uniform compre ssive edge. load a nd
the d1ffcrcnt types o f s upports along the long e dges.
186 SANDWICH PLATES
Fo r an isotropic sandwic.h beam the correspond ing e quations are (Eqs. 7.1 13
and 7.114)
i sorrop ic sand1vic/J f)eatu:
d' x  d1 w
 El  .  N,o  =0 (5.80)
d x,, 2 dx
~ dd'x
r1 x' + ,""(dw
dx  X) = 0. (5.8 1)
\Vhere EI and S are the be nding a nd s hear stiffnesses o( t he sand,vich bean1 and
,VJ.0 is the con1pressive load (per unit length).
The e quations describing buckling of long sandwich plate.s (s ymmetrical layup)
and isotropic sandwich beams are ide ntical whe n in Eq~ (5.78) and (5.79) D11 ,
5;,. and N.,o are re placed, respectively, by/. S, a nd N_,,,. There fore. the buck
ling load (pe r un it length) of a long sandwich plate (symmetrical layup) may
be obta ined by s ubs tituting the va lues of D11 a nd S11 for El and S in the ex
pression for the buckling load of the corresponding isotropic sandwich beam
(Section 7.4}.
ll was shown in Section 5.2. I (page 180) that whe n the layup o f the sandwich
pla te is unsymme trical the defle ction may be obtained by substituting the values
of 'II, 5; 1 and p for El, S, a nd p' in t he e xpression fo r the deflection of the
co rresponding isotro pic sand,vich beam. Similarl)1, the buckling load of a Jong
unsymn1e trical sand \\ich plate 1nay be o btained by substituting the values o f \JI
and S11 fo r El a nd S in the expressio n for !he buckling loa d o f the correspond ing
isotropic bean1 ('vhere \II is given by Eq. 4.52).
I~.,, I~_,
SS y y
SS .SS
SS
ttt tt t t t t tttttt t
x iV1!0
x ..,.
!V,o
figure 5.13: 'fbe sa nd\vich plates in B:ta mple 5.2.
5.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR SANOWICH PLATES 187
Solution. The pla te may be treated as " long" (Example 5.1 . page 180). The buck
ling loads of the corresponding beam are (Eqs. 7.175 and 6.337)

Na=
( L2
rr2/ +f
1) 1
(ssl (5.82)
 ( 4L2 I)_,
1V0 = !rlEJ + S (builtin). (5.83)
The buckling loads of the plate a re o bta ined by replacing El, Sby D11 , S11
(see page 186} as follows:
4L2 I ) _,
N.. " = ( ,,., + (builtin). (5.85)
011 511
With tbe values of D 11 = 52.16 kN m and S11 = 18 615 ':;.',(see Eqs. 5.53 a nd
5.54) and L_, = 0.2 m, t he buckling loads are
1
I l ) 
N.,." = ( 'i21i7o + i8'6i5 = 7 609 kN/m (ss) (5.86)
1
I l ) 
N"" = ( 51 481 + 18 6 15 = 13 672 kN/m (builtin}. (5.87)
I
I'!= 2. rf /..,Ly
N, ax
,
(aw") + N,. (aw") ay
2
dydx, (5.88)
" 0
188 SANDWICH PLATES
\Vhere Nx, 1\/_v a re the inpla ne tensile (orces related to the inplane con1pressive
forces J..1\~10. ).N_.<1 by
(5.89)
The deflection is assumed to be of the form given in Eq. (5.71). By s ubstitut
ing Eqs. (5.71). (5.64), (5.88), and (5.89) into Eqs. (5.72) and by performing the
diffe rentiation, after algebraic manipulations we o btain
2 2
44

4
([F.F,," F,..F.is]  ).
F.u F.,
p.,, F45 p.,,
["""(\!) +N,11(1;)
o
0 ~ ~])
x
{
w;;
(Yd;; }
= {o} 0 .
(Yf'l;1 0
(5.90)
where (Y.d;; a nd (YY<);; are defined by Eq. (5.74) and F;; a re given in Table 5.3
(page 184). When the load set is under the crit ical value, the deftection of the plate
is zero. \Vhe n the pla te is not buckled, the deHection of the plate is zero, \Vhereas
for a buckled plate it is nonzero. The values of). for the buckled pla te (de noted by
/ , 0 ) are the e igenvalues of E q. (5.90} and a re obtained by setting the detern1inant
\Vhere I I denotes the detern1inant. The values of ();i)cr are calcula te d for di(..
fe re nt sets of i and j, (i , j = 1, 2 . .. . ) . The lo,vest resulting value of (A;i )0 is the
value of intere.s t.
\Vhen t hesand\vich plate is isotropic, \\'e obtain ().;i )cr by re placing Du. Du,
V,,,, in Table 5.3 by (jw, ,,; D"", and ( 1  v;'") D;w /2 (see Table 5.2, page 178)
11,
and S S12 by S (see E q. 5.39). With these substit ut ions Eq. (5.91) simplifies to
(')""
"11 er 
(t.)'+(t )'
2 .
(1
2 / D.n
+S
1)1 (5.92)
N..,, ( t;) + N,<> (f.)
\vhere 1\ 'D. 0 is defined as
(5.93)
5.3 Exan1ple. A 0.9111 /ong and O.b n1lvide rectangular sand1vich plate is 1nade
of a 0.02in thick core covered 011 both sides by graphite epoxy faceshee1s. The
o.J ou1..N.1nu ur nc.1,,1>1.nuuLAn ~AR u wn..n ruur~ ..
,
L1 000 nim
~ >I
i iiiiii ii
. .. "
d= 22nunf
l C
! t l mm
c 20 mm
I t l mm
tttttttt
.v,.
Agurc 5.1.S: 1lac n ndw.ch pl.ate 1n Example SJ.
111attrial pro~rr;t!s art given in Tahlt 3.6 (pagt 81 ). Tht layup of e11cl1 foceshttl
is (4S~/012/ 4SI (. 011d 1/Je t/Jick11ess of each faces/rut is 0.002111. The 0degree
piles are /Jltrttllel to t/Je s/Jon edge of rite plate. The plate. sh11ply st1ppor1etf along
ttll four edgej' (Flg. S. ISJ. is subjec1etf 10 unifor1n co111pressfve /()(Jds along 1l1e long
edges. Cttlculote the buckliug load. Tire core is isorroplc ( ~ = 2 x lff' kNh11 2 v, =
0.3).
F"
P,..
F,..
F4.1
F"I
Fu
Fn F45 F,,,
(5.94)
I~: ~:I
The poramcl<N F,1 are given in Table 5.3 (pa.ge 184) as follows:
i \ j 1 2 3
1 7 965 9 070 11 041
(5.96)
2 13 875 14 491 15 544
3 16195 16668 17 470 .
The s mallest value is N,o (1.n);; = 7 965 kN/m, which corresponds toi = j = 1,
T hus, the buckling load is
In Exa111ple 5.2 \Ve treate d this sandv,.ic.h as a long plate and obtained the
buckling load N= = 7 609 kN/m (Eq. 5.86). This is within 5 percent of the value
given by Eq. (5.97).
N_,,
Figure S.16: Pace ,~rinkling of sandwich plates.
..
,
>
I. and (ii) the wavelength is ..long such that// Ir I (11 is the thickness of
/ / /1
the plate as shown in Fig. 5.2).
111e loads thnt con1ribute to the \.\'aviness of the aceshec1s t\re the inplane
load perpendicular to 1he wave ~ and the norma l load "'~ (corresponding to the
stress o, ) exerted o n the facesheet by the deforme d core (Fig. 5. 17, lcft). Under
these londs the equilibrium e quation of the racesheet isl
l)duJI a'lwl r
11 (5.99)
"' ae' + Nf ae' = ''
where Wt is the bending stiffness of the faceshee t in the~ d irection  1hnt is, the
11 e le me nt or the matrix I DI in the E1' coordinate system. Transformation of the
matrix [DI follows the transformation rule of the matrix (QI given by Eq. (2.195).
Thus.. v;e have
where a is the angle bctv.een the X and Saxes a nd '1., arc the clements of the
bending stiffness matrix of the facesheets in the .r y coordinate system.
The parameter'"' is the out0plane displaceme nt (deHcction) of the aces beet
(Fig. 5.1 7, right).
(5.101)
where I.Vo is the amplitude or the deflection aod I is the hal( buckling \\ avclength. 1
1l1e parameter Nt
i.s the inplane force in the facesheel in the (direction and is
obtained from the inplane fore.es J\I.! . .,,.. and N!,
by transformalion. By using the
stress transformat.ion in Eq. (2. 182). we can define /\1
by the fo llowing equation:
\Ve are interested in 1.he value of~ at which the 'vavinc.ss firs t :.rises.
Isotropic con  composit' fatahtns. \Vben the core is isotropic. the out0!
plane stress in 1.he core a : varie.s across the. thickness as illustrated in Figure 5.18
(left). When the wavelength is small, the stresso, varies. as illusiratcd in Figure 5.18
(middle). Since the s tresses vanish away from the facesheeu. the problem may be
1 S. P. l l 1n011hcnkc1;ind J, Otre, Tl1t><JJ'f Of las1ieSmhili1y. 2nd edition. ~1c0raw Hill . New York, 1961,
p. 2.
192 SANDWICH PIATES
F'igurc: 5. 18: 1be slrcss er: d1stribut1on in an isotropic core (left) and 1n an isotropic core with
short WU\'clc.ngth (middle); buckling of a plate on a n elastic foundatjon (right) .
treated as a plate on an infinite e lastic founda tion (Fig. 5.18, right). Then, the stress
at the core faceshee t interface 0'% isl
I a . 1'~
'1 =   u; 11 sin  where (5.103)
' I I
\Vhere .:and Ve are the Young modulus and Poisson's ratio of the isotropic core.
Equations (5.99), (5.101), and (5.103) yie ld
I 1fl a Jl
isotropic core
(i\~t, = "'~ 11 + Ttr1 composite faceshee ts (5.105)
s hort 'vave.
\Vhen the v.avelength is long, the solution is obtaine d by assuming that the
stress distribution ":. is uniJonn (Fig. 5.19, n1iddle) and is approxi n1ated as "J
I r ~
" ' =  a= (5.106)
'  l' = w c/ 2
where.,= w1/ (c/2) (Fig. 5.19, right). SubstitutionofEqs. (5.101) and (5.106) into
Eq. (5.99) gives
isotropic core
r rr' ~ I'
(N)
~a
=llf,+
' /2
 
c/ 2'lr2 con1posite faceshee ts (5.108)
long \Vave.
2 H. C'.r. Allen. Aualy.,is 1111d Dd i>?JI of Strue1ur11l Sa1ulwicl1 Pa11el.v. Pcrs:unon Press. Oxford. 1969,
p. 158.
5.3 BUCKLINGOF RECTANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 193
 
Figure 5.19: The stress at dislritiution in an isotropic core (lcfl): in nn isotropic core \\ith long
W<t\'ck.ngth (middle): buckled shape: (right).
We are interested in the lo\\est value of (JVl)cr This value is obtained by setting
the derivative of ( Nf)o \vilh respect to I equal to zero as follov.s:
d(N/)a _
di  0 (5.109)
Table S.4. Face wrinkling of sandwich plates with eithe< a hooeycomb or an isotropic core. The
constant a is given by Eq. (5.103) and G, = 11.~~
)SOLrOpic
(N')
f .;r n11D 
 I ..'' \1 "'"'"'
J( l 1j) (J1t)!0+V.:)
(l'I,) ( l , IUlll
=I
1
j
1.1&
r(lf)
facesheets ::::: 0.191.~
I "''t;''
er= . 6(1 f)
I
~' = ;r
J14&(1"f)/ c
Eo ,
194 SANDWICH PLATES
\vhere F..:: is the Young n1odulus of the core perpendicular to the plane of the
sand,vich plate.
l11e lo\\'est value of the buckling load and the direction a in which the \\ ave 1
propagates is de te rmined as previously above fo r pla tes v.ith isotropic core and
con1posite faces heets.
Isotropic core  isotropic facesheets. We now consider sandwich plates v.~th
isotropic core and isotropic faceshee ts. The bending stiffness o( an isotropic face
sheet is (see Eqs. 3.42 and 5.100}
\Vhere I is t he t hickness of the faces heet and the s ubscript f denotes the facesheet.
When both the core and the facesheets are isotropic and the faces heets buckle
\vi th short v.aves., the Jo,vest value of t he buckling load is obtained by substituting
Eq. (5.11 1) into Eq. (5.105) and by performing the differentiation indicated in
Eq. (5.109). The result is
isotropic core
isotropic facesheets
s hort '''a\'e.
(5.112)
where G, is t he shear modulus of the core (G, = Ed2 (I + ,,, )). f and c refer to
the facesheets and the core. By the definition o( the inplane force (Eq.5.7) the
tern1 in the bracket is the critical stress.
By neglecting the Poisson ratios (11, = "' = 0). Eq. (5.112} reduces to
isotropic core
isotropic faces beets (5.113)
s hort \Vave.
Hoff a nd 1'.lautner;l obtained this expression with the value of the constant
0.91 instead of 0.79. Ho\\ever, (or practical use they reco1n me nded the value 0.5.
\Vhen bo th the core and the facesheets a re isotropic and the faceshee ts buckle
witl1 long waves, E qs. (5.108), (5.111), and (5.109) give
isotropic core
isotropic facesheets (5.114)
long \\'ave.
For an isotropic facesheet the bending s tiffness does not depend on the di rec
tion. Consequently, buckling \\'aves occur in the direction in \vhich the con1pressive
stress is n1aximum.
l N. J. Hoff and S. E. ~1au tncr. Buck.Lins: of Sandwich l)pc.Pnncls. lt>111?1al of1/Je A t r<Hllutical s~ie11c~s.
Vol. 12, 285 297. 1945. Sec 11Jso in J. R Vinson, StJ1uJwidJ S1nu.111res t>f f.fOtropic dnd Ct>tU/l'Mit~
it1at1rials. 1Cchnon1k . l ancas1cr. Penns)'lvnnia. 1999, p. 239.
5.3 BUCKLING OF RECTANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 195
L,= 900 mm
l = 2mm
d = 22 nun
ID f
c=20 mm
l= 2 mm
:r. iV~
Figure S.20: Thesand\\ic:h plate in Example SA.
honeycon1b core
( ''' '' ) [ 2 EtE, isotropic facesheets (5.115)
~ er.mm =I 3 c (1  vf)
s hort or long wave.
5.4 Exan1ple. A 0.211lloug turd 0.9nJ 1vide rectangular sand1viclr plate is u1ade
of a 0.021nthick core covered on both sides by graphite epoxy facesheets. The
nrateria/ properties are given in Table 3.6 (page 81). The layup of each fi1cesheet
is ( 45\/012/ 45\1 mu/ tire thickness of eaclr facesheet is 0 .002 111. Tire Odegree
plies are parallel to t11e slron edge of the pltlle. The plare is sinrply supported along
all four edges (Fig. 5.20). The plate is subjected to u11idirectional iHplane loads N,.o.
Estituate tire load at whiclr tire facesheet wrinkles. The core is isotropic ( : = 2 x
106 kN!m 2, "<= 0.3).
Solution. Let us first assun1e tha t the facesheet \\Tinkles paralle l to the y a xis 'vith
long waves (a= 0, Fig. 5.16). In this direction "11 is (Eq. 5.100)
' \V. G. Healh. Standwich Construction, Part 2:Thc 0ptimum Desi.g:n orFLnt Sandwi.::b Pnncls. Aircut]i
Engi11e.eri11;: . Vol J2, 230235, 1960. Sec also in J. R Vinson. Stu1dwi('/J Srruaur..s o/ t.fotrop ic and
Co,11posit~ .\tatt'rial.~. Tcchnomic, Ltlnc.aster. Pcnnsyl\'ania. 1999. p. 2.39.
flAlt:i
'"" ~AN.UWltiH
T he value of D[1 is given in Table 3.7 (page 84). T he lowest buckling load and the
corresponding half wa velength are (Table 5.4, page 193)
r
( N,) .
~a. mm
=2 Hi ,
"1; c
12
= 19 006 kN
m (5.117)
la= "y.~
T =0.0069 m = 6.9 mm. (5.1 18)
Theassun1ption that the \\'ave is long is valid \vhen/0 is large compared \\ith the
core tl1ickness. Here, In is only abo ut a third of the core thickness and, therefo re,
the long.wave approximation is invalid.
Let us no\\' assun1e t hat the \\'ave is short. With this assun1ption \Ve have
(Table 5.4, page 193)
I 2'4'~ll 2 kN
( N,) . = l.5 ' 
; er.nun
,  = 34 116 Ol
rr
(5.119)
111e 'vave may be assumed to be short whe n lcr is significantly sn1aUer than
the core thickness c. Here, the ra tio 10 / c is about one ..third. Thus., the sho rt \\'ave
approximation is unreasonable.
In this proble n1, the \\'ave cannot be t reated as e ithe r Jong or short. 1\ s a con
servative estimate we take the lo\\er of the two buckling loads given by the Jong
and shortwove approximatio ns. Thus, the lowest buckling load is (see Eq. 5.98)
N.m = 2 ( N,')a.nun
'i
. = 2 >< 19 036 = 38 072 kN
m (5.122)
figure S.21: lhc d1ffcrc:n1 types of supports aloog lhc long cdgc1 of long. a.:and.ich plates undct
gomg free und:ampcd \'lhrahon.
   V, = O,
t!M,.
(5.124)
d,t
vlhere ul' i.s the dellection and p is the mass per unit area or the sandwich plate.
We now coraider n sand"ic.h plate that is symmetrical with respect to the mid
plane. The bending moment and the transverse shear force acting on the sandwich
plale arc (Eq. S.44)
tfl X1.: ,
 D11  d 1 +p(2rr/J111 =0 (5.126)
x
D,, rl';<.:
r1.r2

+S11 d
x
(dw"  x,,) =0. (5.127)
"'he re El and S:ire the bending and she.ar stiffnesses o f the sand\vich beam and
p' is the inass per uni1 length.
111e preceding set of equations describing the vibration or
long. sandwich
plates (sy1nmc trical layup) and isotropic sandwich bea1ns are identical \vhcn Di 1.
S, 1 nnd p nre re plncccl. respectively. by El. S. nnd p'. Therefore. 1he natural
198 SANDWICH PLATES
Solution. The pla te may be tre ated as Jong'' (Example 5.1 , page 180). The circular
frequenc.ies of the corresponding beam are (Eq. 7.243. Eq. 6.398, and Table 6.13,
page 308)
W;=
p' L'
(
p' L'
. +=,
)1' (5.130)
El,. S" s,
\Yhere
and
L, L,
Figure S.23: Rectangular sandwich plate. \\ith simpl)' supported edges.
The circular fre quencies of the plate a re o btained by replacing EI. S, p' by
D 11 , S11 fJ (see page 198) as follows:
w= (
fJ

L'
7 +=+
fJ L' )1. (5.!34)
Du /Ji Su ILS;
With t he values of D11 = 52.16 kN m and S11 = 18 615~ , (see Eqs. 5.53 and
5.54) a nd \\ ith L.t = 0 .2 n1. the first three n1odes of the c ircular freq uencies of the
1
plate a re
where W", :X.tz and Yyt are as yet unknown funct ions of x a nd .Y T hese func
tions must be c hosen s uch that W' , Xxz and Xyz satisfy the boundary conditions
given in Section 5.2.2 (Eqs. 5.665.70). To dete nnine t hese functions we introduce
Eqs. (5.139)(5.141) into t he e xpression for the strain energy given by Eq. (5.64).
This results in
'vhere U is defined as
Following the s te ps used in the analysis of free vibration of thin plates (Sec
tio n 4.4.2), \\'e arrive at the follo\ving expression for the natural frequency:
(27rf)' =  L,
L,   
u (5.144)
! Pf f pW'~dydx
u (t
I J , ,
 '\''\' . / 1fX /1')'
w = L., L wii sin  sm  
,_, ; 1 LI( L,.
I J . .
 '\''\' ( 11fX . /1' )'
x.T:; = L .L X.i::Jij cos T SID T (5.145)
1..,1 i I X .Y
With these expressions the deHec.tions and the ro tations give n by Eqs. (5.139)
(5.141) satisfy the boundary given by Eqs. (5.66)(5.70). The unknown coefficients
w;;, (X,.);;  (X,..);; are determined from the conditions (Eq. 4.217)
a/ =0 (5.146)
a(x.,J,1
where (Yd;; a nd (y,.),; are de fined by Eq. (5.74), P;; are given in Table 5.3
(page 184), and A is defined as
(5.148)
5.4 FREE VIBRATION OF RECTANGULAR SANDWICH PLATES 201
In the case of free vibration the deflection is nonzero. For nonzero deftec..
lions. Eq. (5.147) is sat isfie d when the determinant o( t he ma trix in the paren
theses is ze ro. At this condition), signifies the e igenvalues of Eq. (5.147), and \Ve
obtain
F.n F,. F.is
f.,4 F" F.s
F_,~ F., Fss L.xL>'
A;1 =
r.
F._,
F.,I
F.~s
4
(5.149)
The values of A;; are calcula te d for diffe re nt sets of i a nd j. (i , j =I. 2, ... ),
o( which the)o\vest value is o( interest.
The natural fre que ncies are calculated from Eq. (5.148):
When the s.and,vich plate is isotropic, we obtain ),;; by replacing Du. Dii,
D.. in Table 5.3 (page 184) by /jw, ,,w f>', a nd (I  v"") a w;2 (see Table 5.2.
page 178) a nd S11 , S12 by S (see Eq. 5.39). With these substitutions Eq. (5.149}
sin1plifies to
..  L.,4L,.'1r
A,, '[(.!....)'
L
:~
+ (1.)']
L
)'
(N 1 + s ' ) 1'
D.ij (5.151)
CJ I
1 = 2 nun
d = 22 mmI c= 20 mm
t= 2 mm
plies are parallel ro the short edge oftire plate. The plate is situply supponed along all
four edges (Fig. 5.24). A u11ifor111 1na..'is is over tire plate such that for the co1nbined
tuassplate systen1p = 200 kg/1111. Ca/culttu! the circul<tr a11d the natural frequencies.
The core is isotropic ( E.:_ = 2 x JOb k Nltu2, Ve = 0:3).
Solution. The eigenvalues A;; are (Eq. 5.149)
The paran1eters F,i are given by Eq. (5.95). The e)e.ments o( the stiffness n1a
trices are (Eqs. 5.53 and 5.54)
and L., = 0.2 m, t.,.= 0.9 m. Wit h these values. Eqs. (5.95) and (5.153) give the
folJo,ving v:ilues o f (An);, x 10 9:
i\j I 2 3
1 0.0884 0.1007 0.1226
(5.1 54)
2 0.6162 0.6436 0.69(}4
3 1.6183 1.6656 l.7458
The natural frequencies are (Eq. 5.150)
1~
fi; = ;; y;f,t, (5.1 55)
Beams
The response of con1posite bea1ns to loading is more con1plex than that of isotropic
beams, and the analyses of composite beams must take these con1plexities into
account. This requires analyses that are. by necessity, n1ore involved than for
isotropic bean1s but which, nonetheless, result in expressions readily amenable to
numerical con1putations.
In this chapter \\'e treat rectangular solid cross sections as \\ ell as tJ1in ..,valled
1
bean1s that undergo s111all deforn1ations and in \vhich the n1aterial behaves in a
linearly elastic manne r. \\'e neglect shear deforn1ations and adopt the Be.rnoulli
Navier hypothesis, according to \vhich the origina lly plane cross sections of a beam
undergoing bending re111ain plane and perpendicular to the a.xis of the bea1u.
Axial, transverse. and torque loads may be applied lo the beam (Fig. 6.1 ), re
sulting io the follo\\~ng internal forces: normal force /\!~ bending mo1nents Al1 , Al:.:
torque f: and the transverse shear forces v,,
V, (Fig. 6.2).
Figure 6.1: Axial transverse., and torque lo.ads a c.ttng on a section o! a beam .
I 1~,
NI =
M,
T
[p"p,_,
P 12
P,.
a1ii.
a,\i,, = V.
ax ' ax<= v,.
The preceding t hree sets of equ ation~ (together with the appropriate bound
ary cond itions) con1ple te ly describe t he d isplacen1ents of, and the forces in, a
con1posite beam.
l11e internal forces N, J\1.v. M;. V,. V;:, a nd fa re de te nuined by the simuha
neous solution of Eqs. (6.1) (6.3) togethe r with the a ppropriate boundary cond i
tions give n belov". When a bean1 is statically dete rminate, the inte rnal forces can
be obtaine d fro n1 the equilibriun1 e quatio ns. \Vhe n a con1posite bean1 is static.ally
indete rmina te, the internal forces can be o bta ined \\ith the use of replace1uent
stiffnesses in the rele \'ant isotropic beam expressions provided that e ither the
beam is o rtho tropic o r the cross section is sy111me trica l a nd the load is applied
in the plane of syn1metry. The concepts of o rt hotropic bean1 a nd replace1nent
stiffnesses are discussed in Section 6.1.2.
1
T. H. G. fl.tcgimn, Aircraft S rn1c1tirt'S for Eri>!intering S1udenu. 3rd edition. Halsted Press. John
\ViJcy & Sons. New York. 1999, p. 284.
2 B. K. D<inald1;:on, A11a/y1is of ~1in:roft Srrur:t~J'('S. An b11rmluaicu1. ~tcGraw HiJ I. New York, 1993,
pp. 277 278.
6.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 205
Figure 6.2: 1'hc norma l force f.'i: the bendi ng momc.nls tW.,, .Mt; lhe torque'f: and the traOS\'erse
shear torccs Py. 11; i nside a beam.
'
y )/
x
1igurc 6.3: Displacements of a he.am.
206 BEAMS
~ I [(EA)
0 0
ltWv
ii,
f
=
0
o
0
(E/1.,) (El,_)
(Ely;} (E/;J
0 0
The terms in parentheses are the tensile EA, bending El y,.. El.,. Et,., (= Et,,.),
and torsiona l G h stiffnesses.
isotropic. (6.4)
\Ve o bserve that for an isouopic beam the re is no coupling between tension (or
con1pression), be nd ing, and torsion. On the other ha nd. for a bea1n made of coin
posite n1aterials.., in general, no ne of the e leme nts of the stiffness ma ui.x is ze ro,
and the re is coupling bet\veen tensio n, ben ding, and torsio n. Accordingly. ten
sion may cause bending and torsion, torsion n1ay cause tension a nd be nd ing, and
bending n1ay cause te nsion and torsion (see Eq. 6.2). The displace1ne nts resulting
from these couplings are often unexpected a nd are most o f the t ime undesirable.
Fortunately for t he designe r, son1e of the couplings a nd the corresponding dis
placen1ents are no t present \\he n e ither the bean1 s cross section is syn1me trical
or 'vhen the beam is orthotropic.
Sy111111etrical crosssectio11 bea111s. First, \Ve consider a n isotropic be..101 whose
cross section is syn1me trical a bout the t a.xis. 1\ n axia l load FJ and a be nd ing
moment My (acting in the xz syn1n1e tT)1 pla ne) are applied to the bean1. For this
beam the force strain relationships (Eq. 6.4) reduce to
the zaxis (Fig. 6.4). As a result o( t he symmetry, an axial load N acting at the
ce ntroid does no t int roduce e ither bending or t\\isting of the beam, \vhe reas a
Jo T. H. G. l,l egson. Airc1oft S1111cr1u1!sfor n1:ineerin,: S111der1ts. 3 rd editio n. Hal1'lcd Press. Jo h n \Vik)'
& Sons.. New York. 1999, pp. 56 nnd 285.
6.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 207
1igurc 6.4: Hlustralionsof composttc. beams \\i1h symmclric.al c ro:;s sec lions subjected to a trans
\'Crsc load in the :cz S)'mm c!l)' pla ne.
n1oment IJ1 acting in the x t symn1euy plane introduces o nly bending in this
plane. We d.esignate the elen1ents of t he stiffness n1atrix by lfA and Elyy and \\rite
the stressstra in relationships as
Orthotropic bea111s. 1\ bea1u is o rthotropic \vhen its 'vall is made of an or
thotropic laminate and one of the orthotro py axes is aligned "'ilh the axis o f the
bean1. A lan1inate is ortbo tro pic \\lhen every layer is n1ade o f either an isotropic
n1ateria l or a fiber.re inforce d con1posite (page 75). In the latter case, a layer n1ay
consist of plies n1ade e ithe r of wove n fa bric o r of unidirectiona l fibers (Fig. 6.5).
\''oveo fabric plies must be a rra nged s uch that one of t he ply syn1n1etry axes is
aligned with the longitudinal xaxis o f the beam. Unidirectiona l plies n1ust be
*"'
I
~
'
1' x
I
~
'
Figure 6.5: Layups t ha t resu.11 in no coupli ng bet\\1ee.n te nsion. llcnding. a nd torsion. U nidirc.c
tjonal ply {left); ,~oven fa tiric (middle); l\VO ply layer ( right). For each configuralion. one o f the
S)'mmetry axes must be parallel to the beams longiludinal x axis.
208 BEAMS
mounted so that all the fibers are either parallel o r perpend icular to the longi
tudinal x~axis or one of t he symme try axes of t\vo adjacent unidirectional plies
(treated as a single layer) must be parallel to the beam's longitud inal axis.
It is sho,vn subsequently (Section 6.3.3) that for an orthotropic bean1 P12 =
P13 = P 14 = Pu = P"J.t = 0, and the forcestrain relationship is
orthotropic. (6.7)
Jr)
Fron1 the preceding equation \Ve see that the re is no tension bending torsion
coupling in an orthotropic bean1.
( P] =
ii
0
[ o
0
o
El,,,
fl,.
o"
o
El,.,
fl..
o" Cl,
o0
0
l
We designate the e lements of the stiffness ma trix by EA El, Cl, a nd write
orthotropic. (6.8)
Principal direclion. For isotropic beams, t here is a coordinate systen1 y' z'
(Fig. 6.6) in which the moment of ine rtia 1,,t is zero (l,'t = 0) . The a ngle bet
\veen the y' ..axis of this coord inate system and the y ..axis is11
21..
tan2.p=  ' = (6.9)
fry  I:.::
The re lationships De.twee n the mome nts of ine rtia in the y .z and y' i coordinate
systen1s a re
(
lyy 
2
I")'+I ' )'Z
(6.10)
l,v:: = 0. (6.12)
2Ell"
tan 2.p = (6.13)
' E. P. Popo\'. 111;irietriri1: i\t.l1LJ11ics of So/his. PrcntkcHall. Engk\\'Ood Cliffs. New Jersey. 1990.
p..142.
6.1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 209
By referring to Eq~ (6.JOl(6.12), we express the bending stiffnesses in the y' z'
coordinate system in the ronns
(  )'+Er;,
E /l'f  /._~
2
_,
(6.14)
fl,,+ lfi,,
2 (  )'+ Er;,
El,.,  El..
. 2 "
~
(6.15)
El,., (6.16)
. ' = 0.
il=[i
l tJ
r \\'14
0
\Viz
\\~3
lV2.1
0
IV,,
W1.' w ..
\\~:1
ll'i. l\~14
l!"I
l\) .i J~y
M~
f
.
(6.17)
The \ V11 and \VJl tern1s are zero bec.atL1ie an axial fo rce applied at the centroid
does not cause be nd ing. 'vhereas l Vi 2 and l.Yu are zero because tl1e con1pliance
n1atrix is syn1metrical. The. con1pliance n1atrix ( \\'] is the inverse o f the stiffness
matrix
P~
~ r
0 0 P 12 /'J3
\22 \\'23 w,.l ["P
124 _ Pn P,,
l11~. w,,
l.Y?4
IV"
w,.
w.,J Pu
W.., P"
12
P,,
P,,,
P,,
p_,4 p.,
(6.18)
(6.19)
/J
Figure 6.7: Rc.ctangular laminated beam.
xz plane (Fig. 6.7). In this section, we develop e xpressions for calculating the
displace1nents and the stresses.
We treat the be am as a narro'v plate a nd build tJ1e an alysis o n the results of
laminate plate t heory presente.d in Cha pter 3. By convention, for plates a long an
edge parallel to the ya.xis, the in ..plane force per unit length is 1V.t a nd the mo111ent
per unit length is M, (Fig. 6.8). For beams, the tota l force Na long a n edge paralle l
toy a.nd the total n1on1ent in the xz p lane M1 are specified . The total a.xia.1 force.
in t he beam Nconespo nds to b1V., in the plate, a nd the total n1oment in the beam
!Wy corresponds to bMx in the plate (where bis the width). Thus. we c.an a pply the
laminate plate theory expressions to beams by making the folJo,ving substitutions:
lJ
N:r= (6.20)
b
plate. (6.2 1)
Bean1 Plate.
Figure 6.8: lntcrnal forces a nd curvatures in a bea m and in lhc. correspondjng plale.
212 BEAMS
\Vhere a 11 and d 11 are the elements of the compliance matrices (Eqs. 3.29 and
3.30). We observe that the curvature of the plate in the .t l plane K.T corresponds
to the curvature of the beam l / p,. (Fig. 6.8) . If we re placet<., with I/ p,., for a beam
Eqs. (6.20) and (6.21) yield
.!.
p,
= (a") ii,.
b .
con1posite
beam .
(6.22)
~
Mo'::
By comparing this equation with Eq. (6.17), we see that the tenns in paren
theses are the \..Yj 1 and " '22 elen1ents of the con1pliance 111atrix.
For a bean1 n1ade of an isotropic n1aterial, the suain and curvature are (Eq. 6.5)
1  I 1  isotropic
E('=N =M,. (6.23)
' EA Py El beam.
It follows from Eqs. (6.22) and (6.23) that the axial strain a nd the curvature
of the axis (and consequently the displacen1ents u and w) of a co1nposite beam
(symmetrical layup) can be calculated by replacing EA and El by .~, and ;;, in
the relevant expressions for the corresponding isotropic beanl.
An isotropic beam subjected to an axial force Nanda bending n1on1ent 1'1,, only
bend~ in the x t plane. On the other hand, under these loads the cross sections of
a composite bean1 may also t\\i~ t. To determine the an1ount of this t\vist \Ve refer to
the twisting of a plate. The outof plane curvature of a pla te (symme trical layup)
is (Eq. 3.32)
plate, (6.24)
where K,,. is defined in Eq. (3.8) and is re peated below
2a1u,u () ~
K.w
y
=   =  2,
axay ax (6.25)
\Vhere w0 is the deflection of the tni<lplane. The expression CJw"/3y in the plate
corresponds to I/I in the bean1 (Fig. 6.8). Thus, we have
J1/f
.,,. =  2, (6.26)
ax
Equations (6.1) a nd (6.26) give the rate of tw ist of the beam as follows:
(6.27)
By combining Eqs. (6.20), (6.24), and (6.27), we obtain the rate of twist of a
bean1 as folJo\vs:
composite
(6.28)
bean1.
\Vhen only ,Q and 19 ,, ac.t, the relevant elen1eots of the con1pliaoce 1natrix are
W11 , W22, Wn. IV,. , IV,. (Eq. 6.17). The eleme nts IV11, IV22, and W,.. a re given
6.2 RECTANGUl.AR, SOI.ID BEAMS SUBJECTED TO AXIAL LOAD AND BENDING 213
'Ncutr31" plane
a
e
~fi dplane
by Eqs. (6.22} and (6.28). Elements W14 and w,, a re zero because t he layup is
synunetrical.
When the beam is ortho tro pic, d 16 is zero (Eq. 3.37). a nd the rate of twist is
zero ( 1? = 0) \vhen the beam is subjected to an Jij.v bending mon1enl.
plate. (6.29}
where at 1 , p~1 , and 8f1 a re evaluated at the aa "neut ra l.. pla ne. According to the
f:
aforen1entioned definition of t he "neutral.. plane, depends only on Nx. and K.T
depends only on Mx. Therefore. /J~1 must be equal to zero. Thus, 've write (see
Eq. 3.48)
where J:J1 1 and ~1 1 are evalua te d a t t he arbitra rily chosen reference plane that here
we have ta ke n to be the n1idplane. The consequence of Pr, = 0 is t\vofold. The
first consequence is that the d istance e is
e=  /l11 (6.31}
liu
plate. (6.32}
214 BEAMS
\Ve note again that the curvature of the plate Kx corresponds to the cunature
o( the beam l / Pr Then, fo r a beam, Eqs. (6.20) and (6.32) yield
cotnposite
(6.33)
beam.
By comparing this equation wit h Eq. (6.17), we see that the tem1s in paren
theses a re the lV11 and \\'22 ele1uents of the compliance n1atrix.
II follows from Eqs. (6.33) and (6.23) that the axial strain a nd curvature of
the axis (and conseque.ntly the displacements u and w) of a composite beam
(unsymmetrical layup) can be calculated by replacing EA and El by 1/r
11
and fo.:
11
in the relevant expressions for the corresponding isotropic bean1.
\Vhen a n isotropic bean1 is subjected to an axial force lJ a nd to a be nd ing
mon1ent :\!}., it \viii only bend in the :cz: plane. The cross section of a con1posite
beam subje~ted to fJ and M1 n1ay a lso l\Vist. To determine the rate of twist of a
con1posite beam. we again refer to a lan1inated plate. The outofpla.ne cunature
o( a laminated plate (unsymmetrical layup) is (see Eq. 3.22)
\Vhere flf<i and sr6 are evaluated at the a a ''neutral .. plane. From Eq. (3.48) \Ve
bave
(6.35)
From Eqs. (6.20), (6.27), and (6.34) we obtain the rate of twist of the beam:
composite
(6.36)
beam.
By comparing this equation with Eq. (6.17), we see t ha t the terms in the paren
theses a re the lV14 and \V24 e len1ents of the con1pliance n1atrix.
\Vhen only lJ and :\1y act, the relevant e lements of the con1pliance n1atrix are
111. II',,, Wu , l\'14, W,. (Eq. 6.17). Elements Wu, W,,, W14. and II',.. are given by
Eqs. (6.33) and (6.36), and Wi.1 is zero.
\Vhen t he bean1 is o rthotropic and one of the orthotropy axes is aligned \\ith
the beam's axis, 816 a nd /3 1 are zero (Eq. 3.37). Therefore. (see Eq~ 6.35 and 6.36),
the rate of t\\ist is zero ('/J = 0) \vhen an orthotropic bean1 is subjected to an axial
force Nanda bending mo1nent Mr
.~y1111t1 etrical
layup. A t the neutral plane (\\hich fo r a sy1nmetrical laminate
coincides \\~th the n1idplane). the strains and curvatures are (see Eqs. 3.31. 3.32.
and 6.20)
(6.37)
In a ply at a distance t from the midplane, the strains a re (see Eq. 3.7)
fx
fy } = <.~
{ f~ } + .Z { Kx }
Ky (6.38)
{
Y.~y Y:v Kry
<fx }
(fy = ~II 021 Q
g21 Q11 16] {<, }
Qu. fy (6.39)
Q~il
{
fxy Q61 Qu, Yxy
U1Jsy111n1etr ica/ layup. TI1e strains and curvatures of the axis passing through
the centroid (which is in the "neutral" plane) are (see Eqs. 3.22 and 6.20)
<"x af, 0
f;
Y.~
=
. .1 flt,
"1
0
16 p61 {~'' }. (6.40)
Kx 4r1
Ky fJf, $r1
KN}' fJf. $r6
where at? and pe are evaluated al the ''n eutral .. plane (Fig. 6.9). The location of
the "neutral" plane is given by Eq. (6.31).
In a ply a t a distance z fron1 the ''neutral'' plane, the strains and stresses are
given by Eqs. (6.38) and (6.39).
6.J Rxantple. An L = 0. 2~111 ./ong and b = 0.02n11vitfe bea1n, 1vith the cross section
sho1v1t in Fig. 6.10, is 1nade of graphite epoxy. The 1na1erial properties are given in
Tttble 3.6 (page 81). The layup is (45V011/4S1J. The beam, simply supported at
eacl1 end, i.s loaded tu1ifor111/}' ( p = 1 CX>O 1\ 11111). Calculate the 1naxinuan bending
1non1ent, 1/Je 1uaxin1un1 de.flection, aud the ply srresses t111d srraius.
p = JOOONlm
tttttttl
;;;. i:
~ l = 200mm IJ = 20nun
Solution . The maximun1 bending mo 1n ent a t the n1iddle o ( the bean1 is (Table 7 .3.
page 332)

J\1v==5N
pL'
nl. (6.41)
. 8
The maximum de.Hection of t he correspond ing isotro pic beam is (Table 7 .3)
 5 pL'
U/ = 384 El . (6.42)
With the value of d 11 =33.10 x 10 1 ,_, 10 , (Table 3.8, page 85), the maximum
d e.ftection is
The axia l force is zero (iJ = 0). Thus, \\'ith the co n1pliance n1atrices given in
Table 3.8, the midpla ne s tra ins and curvatures a re (see Eqs. 6.37 and 6.41)
~
; } {""
0 }
{ Yxy = <tt6
" bFl = I I {o} 0
0
(6.45)
Kx }
K)' = {d11
d12 } 7:
_ I = { 33.10}
25.59 10 l I0.02 I
5
{
K.xy d16
1 Q
8.28}1 (6.46)
= { ~40 ~
\Vhere Ks and Ky a re illustrated in Figure 6.11. In a ply, at a d ist ance l fro n1 the
midplane, the s tra ins are give n by E q. (6.38) as follows:
"<y } =l { "'
Ky } =z {  8.27}
6.40 . (6.47)
{
Yxy Kxy 0
"'
6.3 THINWALLED, OPENSECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTION BEAMS 21 7
: : :
=
i 4Sr
E o,, 0
E
N
0.5 t, o.s .
t%)
j 4S'
1
""'  1
Agu.rc 6. 12: The: nonuro Sll"ts:ie'.s and stTatOS m the beam an Example: 6.1. lbc un11 of o ts
10' Nim'.
The eleme nu ol 1hc IQ I matrix ol the 0 degree ply are given by Eq. (3.65) a nd
ol the wove n fobric by Eq. (3.66). The stresses are calculaled with these values ol
the ( Q J matrices and "'i lh lhe strains given in Eq. (647). The rcsuhs are shown in
Figure 6. L2. We note agnin that these stresses are valid only in regions a\\ay from
the edges.
<xis (Fig. 6. 13). The layup ol both the Hange ond the web ;., o rthotropic a nd
I.
'~ v
,..igurc 6.13:
Gl
,,
U l u ~1rn 1 1on
iii,
y
of 1hc 'r.ticnn1.
i.....+ ..',=.
' :' :,
218 BEAMS
syn1metrical. An axial force Rand a Dending mon1ent fi.1y act at the centroid of
the beam. The origin of the x y .r coordinate system is attached to this centroid.
Jn addition \Ve use the ~ i t'Ji('l and ~2 JJ2~2 coordina te. systems a ttached to the
midpoints of the flange and the \veb, respectively. The flange and t he web are
designated by the subscripts 1 a nd 2.
In the folJo,ving \Ve derive the replacement stiffnesses. The displacements of
a Tbeam a re obtained by substituting these re placen1ent stiffnesses into the e x
pressions for the displacen1ents of the corresponding isotropic bean1. Because the
cross section is symmetrical \vi th respect to the zaxis and the loads act in the xz
plane. the beam be nds only about the yaxis. Consequently, only EA and Et,,. are
o( interest.
The calculation proceeds in four steps. In Ste p 1 we deforn1 the axiso( the beam
and calculate the strains in, and the curvatures o~ each wall segment; in Step 2
\Ve calcula te the forces a nd 1noments in e ach \\all segment; in Step 3 \Ve calculate
the resultant (orces a nd n1on1ents acting on the bean1; in Step 4 \\'e determine the
replace111ent stiffnesses.
We treat both the flange a nd the web as thin plates and a nalyze them by the
lan1inate plate t heory.
(6.49)
'vhere ~;, and f;2 are the axial stra ins in the midplanes of the flange and the \\eb,
respective ly.
Step 2. The axial stra ins result in distribute d axial forces (per unit length) N~ 1 ,
N, 2 in the midplanes of the flange and the web (Fig. 6.14, left). These forces are
(see Eq. 3.31)
" 1 (6.50)
"" = 
au(
)1 .,,
Figure 6.14: 'fbc dL<>lrihulcd forces and lhc (orcc resullanl.s.
6.3 THINWAI.LEO, OPENSECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTION BEAMS 219
whe re (a 11 )1 nnd (a 11 )2 arc evaluate d in the E11~ coordin ate system a t the mid
planes of the fla nge nnd the web.
Step 3. The total forces acting in the flange and in the v. eb arc b1N, 1 and f>i.N1.1
respectively. and lhe 101al force acting on the beam is (Fig. 6.14. righl)
(651)
fJ = (....L + ...!!L)
(a11 h (011 )? "
(6.52)
nA
The te rnl indicntcd by the bracket is the replacen1ent te ns ile s tiffness !fit
111e coordinnte of the ce ntro id ~ is calculated by a n10 1n cnt bnlance about the
bouom edge of the web (Fig. 6.14, right) as follows:
(6.53)
The dis1anccs Z1 and i 2 are sho\\'ll in Figure 6. l4. By combining this equation
v.ith Eqs. (6.49){652). we obiain the position ol the centroid:
";A.+':,~
1
.. tu)t ....;Ci1h
l.= '11: ..  (654)
~11'1 +~
The coordina1es of the centers of the flange and the v.eb iith re.spea 10 the
centroid are (Fig. 6. 13)
l~gurc 6 . 1 .~: The rndiu or cunaturc p ~. the s1ra1n distnbution. and lhe tlc(ormed lihllJlCll of lhe
midph1ncs of the Oangc a nd the \\'eb.
At the midplane of the Hange t = z1 and the strain is
1
.;, = z,. (6.51 )
Pr
The curvature of the midplane of t he ftange about the yaxis (by definition) is
I
Kt l = . (6.58)
Pr
In the n1idplane of the web, the strain 1 is
1
E.f2 = /Jy l . (6.59)
The n1idplane of the \Veb remains flat. and its curvature is zero (Fig. 6.15) as
denoted by
Kt.1 = 0. (6.60)
Step 2. The axial force No and the bending moment M, , (per unit le ngth) acting
on the flange are (Eq~ 3.31 and 3.32)
The preceding fo rce a nd moment a re illustrated in Figure 6.16 (left). The tenns
(a11)1 a nd (d11) 1 a re e valuated in the ~i~ coordinate syste m at the midplane of
the flange.
The layup of the \veb is syn1metrical, and Kt 2 = 0. Consequently. M~ 2 is zero.
Thus, the only force acting in the web is N12 (Flg. 6.16, right). and this force is
1 0
1\h = ( l ...,. (6.62)
au . 2
\vhere (a11)2 is evaluated in the ~rr~ coordinate sy.sten1 at the midplane of the
\Veb.
Step 3. The resultant bending moment about the yaxis is (Fig. 6.16)
0 +   >
11
Figure 6.16: The distributed force.s and moments (per unit lc:ngth) in the flange and tn the.\\eb
of a r. be.am bent about the yaxi.;.
Step 4. Equations (6.57) (6.63) yield
 =
1\f, 1 ..,b ++
P,. (011)1
[.,l
b 1
1
(d11) 1 (auh
1 (/~ , )] .
 +z;b1
12 
(6.64)
The term indic>tcd by Lhe bracket is the replacement bending stiffness El,,.
6.3.2 Displacements of LBeams
\\'e consider an Lbeam. The \Val.ls of the flanges are o rthotropic. and one of
the nxcs or
o rthotropy is aligned with the axis o( lhe beam . The layups of the
flanges need noc be syn1me trical ~ith respect to the nanges' midplancs. The beam
is subjected to nn axial force Nand bending n1oments Mynnd M._ acting at the
centroid (Fig. 6. 17).
We use nn .Y )1 l. coordinate systen1 with its o rigin ntlachcd to the centroid
of the bca1n ond the ~1 tJ 1 ('1 and ~2 112 ~1 coordinate syste ms a ttncbe d to the
n1idpoints of the arbilr:irily chosen reference planes in the hori1.ontal and vertical
Hanges, respectively. 111e horizontal and vertical flanges are designated by the
subscripts I nnd 2.
ln this sectio n lhe re placement stiffnesses are de1ermincd. The displacements
are obtained by substituting these replacem ent stiffnesses into the expressions for
the displacements of the corresponding isotropic be.a m. BcC3usc the cross section
o( the Lbcam is unsymmetrical. all three bending stiffnesses El,,. El,,. and El,_
as \\'ell as 1hc tensile stiffness tii are n eeded to determine the displacements.
We treat the Aang.. a. thin plates and employ Lhe laminate plate theory equa
tions. The calculation proceeds along the four st eps use d in the nnalysisofT~beams
(page 2 18).
Tensilt ,Yti/f11ts.'I .4. and centroid. The tensile stiffn e$.., is obtnined by consid
ering 1hc elongotion of the beam while the axis of the bca1n remains straight.
Step I. The nxis of t he beam (passing through the centroid) isclongutcd . and the
strain o f the axis is denoted by f;. ln the absence of bending.. the nxial s tra ins are
0 G
, ,;;: . /
.,....
(, :,
?
0 'h
Centroid
Figure 6.18: The distributed forces a nd moments acting in an Lbcam with unsymmetrical la)'up
whc.n the axis of the beam is elongated.
(6.65)
\Vhere ff1 a nd E"(2 a re the axial strains of the reference planes of the t\vo flanges.
respective ly. The locations of the re ference pla nes n1ay be chosen a rbitrarily.
Step 2. The axial forces 1V~ 1 , N!.2 and the bending moments M!. 1 , M~ 2 (pe r unit
length) in t he ftanges (Fig. 6. I 8) are expressed in tenns of the strains ; , , ; ,.The
derivation of these expressions is discussed subsequently on pages 227 228. Here
\Ve quote the r esults. \vhich are
1 (ouh o
(6.66)
'' " = (Dl. 2 <p
,~ _ _ (/l11h. (6.67)
. "'  (D), '12
\Vhere Dis defined in Table 6.2, a nd 611 a nd /311 are evaluate d in the ~ 11~ coor
dinate systen1.
Table 6.2. The axial force and moments inside the wall
(N,, = N,,, = M,, = 0). The elements of the compliance matrix 6u, 6,.,
6", 13,,, and 1316 are evaluated in the wall's ~tr( coordinate system.
S)mmetrical
Arbitrary cross section cross section
Orthotropic Orthotropic and Albitrary
1.11symmetrical layup symmetrical layup layup
(6.73)
The coordinates o f the centers of the fla nges with respect to the centroid are
(Fig. 6.17)
The locatio n of the centro id detern1ines whethe r y,, y2 .t1 , and <2 a re positive
or negative. In Figure 6.1 7, )"1 and Zt a re positive and Yt a nd t1 a re negative.
Bending stiffnesses Ei,,, Ely:. To detem1ine the be nding stiffnesses EJ,..r a nd
El>':. the bean1 is bent a bo ut the y~axi.s, \Vhich passes through the centroid. The
radius o( curvature is p,, (Fig. 6.19, left). This be nd ing results in mon1ents J\/,,
~ ~ . 
224 BEAMS
z z z
P,
Figure 6.l9: The radii of cun aturcs Py and P: a nd illustration of the axial strain distributjons.
Step 1. The strains and curvatures of t he l\\'O Ranges are ide ntical to those of the
Tbeam (see Eqs. 6.576.60}. Hence. we write
= I I
E~l z1 K( I = (6.76)
Py Pr
I
Etz =  z K( l = 0. (6.77)
Pr
Step 2. The axial forces 1V~ 1 , N( 2 and the bending moments /\1( 1 M~ 1 in t he Hanges
(Fig. 6.20) are expressed in tern1s of the strains E:1 ' ( 2and curvatures Kf. J, Kt l The
derivation of these expressions is discussed subsequently on pages 227 228. Here
\Ve quote the results, \vhich are
(6.78)
(6.79)
'
N{I
0 0
y .Y
JV!.?
Figure 6.20: fo rces a nd mo me nts (per unh lc.ngth) acting in the t.....beam with unsymmetrical
layup bent about the )'axis.
6.3 THINWALLED, OPENSECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTION BEAMS 225
'
11
y
= ..!... [ b1 ((J11)1,i1 _ 2 (.811)1 + (<>11) 1) + (S11)z (~ +
Py (D)1 ' ( D)i ti ( D) 1 (D), 12
'b,)].
r, .
(6.8 1)
Steps I and 2. ln t he calcula tion o f the bending n1on1ent Mz the first t\vo steps
are identical to those given fo r the calculation of 1Wy.
Step 3. When the bean1 is be nt a bo ut the yaxis, the resultant bending n1on1ent
iW,about the zaxis is (Figs. 6.20 a nd 6.17)
111, = b1N, i}\ + .f N,,)~dz+ .f M,,dz. (6.82)
\bi) \bi)
I
11  ..!... [( (&11)1
'  Py ( D) 1 t i
 (/111)1 )
(D) 1
bY + ((811)2
( D)z >~
 (/l11}2)
( D)z l2 ' .
b]
(6.83)
t:t,t
The term indicated by the bracket is the bending stiffness fl" .
Bendittg sti!Jiresses El,~ El_,. To determine the bending stiffnesses El" a nd
Ef;..v the bean1 is bent about the z~.axis \Vit h a radius of cur\'ature P::. (Fig. 6.1 9,
right). Expressions for these bending mome nts ca n be derived in the sa111e \Vay as
Eqs. (6.81) and (6.83). 111e results a re
Eit:
(6.84)
11 _ ,!_ }2 _ (/l11)2) b]
'" p, [((811)1
(D) , z'
_ (/l11) 1)b
(D) 1 ,y,+ ((811
(D)z~ ( Dh l2 2
(6.85)
The tenns indicated by the brackets are the bending stiffne.sse.s ft::.::. and 1!1;).
(=El,.).
226 BEAMS
Figure 6.21 : Illus tration of thin\\'alled. opensect ion llea ms with symme tncal and unsymme trical
CT OliS liCCt ions.
The re are no tensionbend ing torsion couplings in any of the preceding three
types o f beams. In the first two types of bean1s these couplings are not present
because the beam is ortho tropic (page 207); in the third type or be am couplings
are not present because the c.ross section is symn1etrical a nd the loads act in the
symmetry plane.
In the following we derive the re placen1e nt stiffnesses. The displacen1e.n ts are
then obtained by substituting these replace ment stiffnesses into the expressions
for the displaceme nts of the corresponding isotropic beam.
We perfomi the analysis fo r beams of the first type, that is, the layup is or
thotropic but is not necessarily syn1metrical and the cross sectio n is a rbitrary. \Ve
then gene ralize the results to the other t \\'O types of beams in t he list above.
We e mploy three coordinate systems (Fig. 6.22). For the beam we use the x yz
coordinate system \\ith the origin at t he centro id a nd the i  Jii coordinate system
\vi th the o rigin at a n arbitra rily chosen point. We also define a ~r1' coordin ate
systen1 \\~lh the origin a t the reference plane of the \Vall. t\t each point in the wall
~ is parallel to the x coordinate.'' is tangential to t he circun1ference of the \Vall.
and ~ is pe rpe ndicular to the circun1fe re nce.
The calculation proceeds in fo ur ste ps. ln Ste p 1 \\'e deform the axis of the
bean1 (axial strain E~ and curvatures I/ p,, and I/ Pz) a nd calculate the strains in,
' J. C. ~1assa nnd E. J. Barbero, A Strcng1h or r..ta1crials F.ormul.a1ion for Thin \Vntkd Composite
Be.ams with Tomon. lr>u111al <1/Co1111J()JiJe ,1,,fotedlllt. Vol. .1'2, 15601594, 1998.
6.3 THINWALLED, OPENSECTION ORTllOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTIOH BEAMS 227
>
y
and the curvatures o( the \\all: in Step 2 .'t c.:alcula1e the Corces and moments in
the waU: in Step 3 \\l! calculate the rcsuhant forcc.s and moments acting on the
beam: in Step 4 we determine the s ti(fncsscs.
Step I. The Bernoulli avier h)'POlhCJis s1a1CJ 1ha11he axial slrain varies linearly
with thecwvaturesof the beam. Th~ lhe axial strain'( at a point on the arbitrarily
chosen reference surface of the .all is related to the axial strain': and curvatures
I/ P,. and I/ p, of the beam by
I I
(; = (; + l  + y  (6.86)
Py P,
where z and y are tl1e coordina tes of the point o n the \Valls refe rence surface.
From geom etry, it can be shO\.\'Jl 1hat the wall's curviuure Kt in 1he ~' plane is,
(Fig. 6.23)
I 1 .
Kt=  COS<t   s1na. (6.87)
Py P:.
where a is the nngle belwee n the 11 and ycoordinnte nxes (Fig. 6.23).
Step 2. In this step \\'e express lhc axial rorcc /\'t and bending mon1ents 1\1~ and
Aft " in terms of~; and Kt Tu derive the nccCS$nry expressions \\'e observe that
along the free longitudinal edges o f the bca111 the in plnnc forces and 1noments
(per unit length) are zero: N. = = =
N,. M,1 0 (Fig. 6.24).Since the dime nsions of
FiguTC 6.23: Cunaturcs of the bc:am (left) and the curn1urc o( the ...II (madd~) and 1ts vcctor
rcprescntatJoo (n ghl).
228 BEAMS
N,1 = 0
<i9'
Figure 6.24: The:.fore.es a nd momc:.nls along the longitudinal edge of an opens.echon, thin,valkd
bea m.
the cross section are small con1pared with the bea1n s length, these inplane forces
and n101nents are a pproxima te.ly zero ins ide th e \Vall:
\Ve appl)' only axial strain and curvatures to t he bean1, but no twist. Therefore.
the t\\ist of the 'Nall is zero:
(6.89)
\Ve OO\V recall t he strain force relationships given by Eq. (3.22) \Vi th the com 
pliance matrix for an orthotropic material given by Eq. (3.37). To apply the re
lationships to the \Vall we re place x by ~ a nd )' by '' The resulting gene ra lized
strain force relationships are (orthotropic):
,. <>11 12 0 /Jn /312 0 N,
"'" <>12 <Y22 0 /J21 /322 0
..
N,
y~lt 0 0
"0 0 0 N(,, (6.90)
=
/(' fJ11 fJ21 811 (jl2 0 M,
Ko {Jii p,, 0 811 Sn 0 M,
0 0 p.. 0 0 a.. Mf ,,
"''
S ubstitution of Eqs. (6.88) a nd (6.89) into Eq. (6.90) yields
l'tl
'"
= ["" 811
/l11
I [o]
N, J + 0 M, ,
/l11] M, (6.91)
!((, = .rM~
(S)
cos akd'I + f
( SJ
t.1Vt.tf'1 (6.94)
6.3 THINWALLED, DPENSECTION ORTHOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTIOH BEAMS 229
fl,
~ (
~
.~/{
p,\/{IJ
Figure 6.25: The rorces and moments ac.ting on the beam and the forces and moments (per uni I
length) at.ting inside the wall.
X1, = J
(SJ
 M; sin a.,111 + J
(S)
yN,d11 (6.95)
f =I
( S)
2M;,,d11 = o. (6.96)
where Sis the length of the circumference. The torque resultant f is zero because,
for orthotTOpic beams. M,, is zero (Eq. 6.92).
Since T is zero for orthotropic beams. P14 , P24 a nd P"' are zero (see Eq. 6.2).
Consequently, tl1ere is no tension bending torsion coupling in o rlho tropic
bean1s.
Step 4. We axially elongate the beam such that I/ Py and 1/ p, remain zero. Thus.
from Eqs. (6.86) and (6.87) we have
K( =0. (6.97)
I
1V= 811
D <"
d11 x
(6.98)
\St
~
EA
The coordinates of the centroid are o btained by taking a mon1ent about point
0 shown in Figure 6.22:
\vhere Y and l are the coordinates of a point on the wall's reference swface in
thex, y,! coordinate system. By se tting l / Py = 1/ p, = Oand by using Eqs. (6.86),
(6.98), and the e xpression fo r N1 in Table 6.2 (page 222), left column, we obta in
the coordinates of the centro id as follows:
f (z.';;  !!ff oos ")d11
( S)
z, = ''~ (6.101)
! '~a,,
( S)
1,,
+
f[
(')
811
(D/ t
/J11
+D . au . ] I
(t smet  ycosa)  D cos et smet d11 p,
(6.102)
 f[
M, = 811
(D/ t + D
fi11
(tsma  ycosor)  'II .
D ooset smet ] 1
d11 Py
( S)
f [D
11 , 2fi11 . Ct11 , ] 1
+  y + ysma +  sma d11  (6.103)
D D ~
( S)
The tensile stiffnesses, the coordinates of the centroid. and the bending stiff
nesses o( bean1s 'vith orthotropic and syn1n1etrical layup (arbirrary cross section)
and \vith arbitrary layup (sytnn1etrical cross section) are obtained sin1ilarly. The
main difference is in Step2, \\he re the appropria te stress strain relationships must
be used ins te ad of Eq. (6.90). The results are given in Tables 6.36.5.
Choice oftl1e refere11ce surface. T he expressions of the replacen1ent s tiffnesses
simplify ""hen the properties are oot evaluated at an arbitrary refere.n ce surface
but at a " neutral'' surface. \\here /1 11 ( orthotropic layup arbitrary cross section) or
fo11(arbitrary layup  syn11u etrical cross section) is zero. The s urface is .;neutral"'
in t he sense that a bending mon1ent M{ does not cause axial strain f t in this
surface. (Ho\vever, it is not a real neutral surface because . unlike in an isotropic
bea111, in this re ference surface the strain perpendicular to t he bean1 s axis EIJ is not
ze ro.)
6.3 IHINWALUU, UPtNSECllUN UHIHUTHUPIC UH SVMMEIHICAL CHUSSSECl'IUN BEAMS 231
Table 6.3. The tensile and bending stiffnesses and lhe coordinates
of lhe eenlJOld ol open and closedsection beams wilh oumd walls.
The CR>$$ section Is >Wtitrary, and lhe layup ol lhe wall is orlholn>ple
and symmetrical; a11 and d11 are evaluated al the midsullace.
Tcnsllc stiffnc,;s
EA= J J.,,,,
(SI
...
Coordinates of lhc c<:nlroid
(6.104)
\Yhere JJ11and d11 ure the components of the compUancc malricc.s in 1hc arbi 1rarily
chosen reference surface and e is the location of the "neutral" surface {Fig. 6.26).
{J:
At the "neutr3J" surface 1 = 0, and the preceding equation yield.5
This cqu:llion npplies to orthotropic beams v.i th S)mme tric31 as y,e ll as un
symmetrical cross sections.
Rn bcoms wil h arbitrary Layup (symmetrical cross section), Eq. (3.48) and the
expression for Pu
in Table 6.2 (page 222) yield
(6.106)
Table 6.4. The tensile and bending stiffnesses and lhe coordinates of lhe
oentroid of open and closedsection beams with curved walls. The cross
section is arbitrary, and lhe layup of lhe wall is orthotropic and unsymmetrical;
611 . {3 11, and 011 are evaluated in the wall's ( 1)( coordinate system: D is
defined in Table 6.2 and 611 and 1J are defined by Eq. (6.157).
Tunsilc. stiffness
Open seclio n: lA = J ~"" Closed section: VI= J ~d11
(S) (l)
Coordinates of the ce.ncroid
I (r.~+'4f sui ..} '"
>.r  ~>l~~
! ~~"
>!
Bending stiffness.es
1fln = J (ift 1 j!' zcosat + "~' c.os2 a)d,,
E'lu = f~ (ifr + ~ y sin et +!ff sin 1 &) d11
(.<)
Table 6.5. The tensile and bending stiffnesses and lhe coordinates of lhe
oentroid of opensection beams with symmetrical cross section. The layup of
the wall is unsymmetrical and nonorthotropic; 0 , 61 1, and ~11 are defined in
Table 6.2. The elemenlS of the compliance matrix are evaluated in the wall's
ew<. coordinate system.
z
scy1nmeLric.al cr0$S s.ection
nonorlhotropic
un.symme1rical layup
Tensile stiffnc.ss
i;,1lhJ
EA = c
Coordinate.s of the centroid
}'t =0
Bending S.liffness.
El_,,,= J ("4t.t ~ zcosa.t+ ~ cos:a)lhJ
"'
Arbitrary
rcfcrcn1.1c sur(acc (
figure 6.26: The '"neutral surface 'here j~1 (orthotropw: layup  arhttrary Cft.:m1CCl1onJ or ?,1
(arbrtnry llllyup  rymmc1nul cross section) ts uro.
For selected cross sections the replac.e me nl stiffnesses and the location of the
centroid nre given in Thbles t\ .l  A.4.
~rg11uu1te1/ 'tttt1/I. n 1e bea1ns \\all n1ay consist of several Oat \Vall seg111ents
(fig. 6.27). The thickness of e acJ1 \Vall segn1ent is s1na ll com1,ared \l/ith the \\ idth of
1
=
the segment. The wnll segments are designated by the s ubscript k(k I. 2, ... , K ,
where K is the total nun1ber or \vall segn1ent~). The layup of each wall seg
men1 may be sy1n1netrica1 or unsymmetrical with respect to the \vall seg1nenCs
ntidsurface.
When 1he v.aU consists of segments and each segment i.s flat. the integrals in
Tables 6.J6.S may be replaced by summations
I ( )d~ = ""'"'2
L I ( )d11.
K ..fl
(6.108)
t S)
where h is the \\idth or the kth 'vaJJ segment. For each v.all segment 've define
a ~ 11~ coordinntc system. \1there ~ is parallel to the .r coordinate. 11 is along
the circumference ol the wall. and ~ is perpendicular 10 the wall (Fig. 6.27). The
origin of this coordinate systen1 may be at a.n arbitrarily chosen re fe rence surface
but n1us1 be at the ntiddle of the 'viclth of the \\ a ll scgntcnt. By performing the
1
Table 6.6. The tensile and bending stiffnesses and the coordinates of the
centroid of open and olosetlsection beams with flat walls. The cross
section is arbitrary, and the layup of eaoh wall segment is orthotroplc
and symmetrical; a11 and d11 are evaluated at the wall's midplanes.
Tunsile stiffne.ss
EA=L: ...!!...
t ...1 (ornJ
T hese stresses a re illustrated in Fig. 6.28. Howeve r, the shear flow, defined as the
integral of the shear stress across the thickness. is zero,
q= f ""~
( h)
= 0. (6.109)
0 
f.K
!!.__
 (6.110)
EA
Ei,"~'  Ei,,M,
 = (6.11 1)
Py fl,,fl.,  (fl,y
1  Ei,_M, + Ei,,M,
 =
p, 
El, 1 1.,  (El,d ' (6.112)
6.3 THINWALLED, OPENSECTION ORTltOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTION BEAMS 235
Table 6.7. The tenslle and bending stiffnesses and lhe coordinates of lhe
centroid of open and closedsection beams with flat walls. The cross
sectioo Is arbitrary, and lhe layup of each wall segment Is orthotroplc and
unsymmetrical; 611 , {J ,, . and o 11 are evaluated In the wall's {ri(
coordinate system; D Is defined In Table 6.2. The parametets 611 and tJ
are defined by Eq. (6.157).
T<nsilc stiffness
.
Open <ttlJon: EA=

... )( ~
J: ~
l/llt + '"' ......,,
At an arbitrary point o n the re ference sur(:1cc o( the \\ all, the axial s train ' ;
1
and curvature Kt :ire related to the strain and curvnture$ of the bea111 by Eqs. (6.86)
and (6.87).
,a =
{
fu
x
+ yL
P:.
+ lp,I (6. 113)
I . I
Kt =   s1n a+  cosa. (6. 114)
p, Pr
or
whe re a is the angle between the tangent the wall (coordinate~) and the yaxis
(Fig. 622).
The layup or the Wllll is onhotropic. nnd hence the following fo rces and mo
ments are zero (see Eqs. 6.88 and 6.92):
(6.1 15)
236 BEAMS
Table 6.8. The tensile and bending stiffnesses and the coordinates of the
oentroid of opensection beams with symmetrical cross section. The layup
of each wall segment is nonorthotroplc and unsymmetrical; 71, d',,, and /i,,
are defined in Table6.Z. The elements of the compliance matrix are
evaluated in the wall's er1<
coordinate system.
Tensile stiffness
K 
EA= I: V1_!!~'~
t.I (IJ)t
f..
1:.':1h~
 ~~
u (7>)4  i""l4 (l)O;.ll,\
'< = I: C>t(611 >t
""'' (l\)4
Bending. sliffness
.:, <i~1>.'
EiJY = f;. ID)A.
(bz'?+ bl ~?111)  ?t~1>tb z cos a + fi,;._1>.t b cos? a
'k. ~ I! (0).., k 4 4 10),. 'k I(
The axial fo rce N, and the moment M, (per unit length) in the wall are
(Table 6.2, page 222)
611 a /3n
(6.116)
'"' = JS'<  7)/(1
/311 Uu
Mi =  D<, + f) K! .0
(6.117)
z
u,
M, = ..!...
p_,
(tfuD +cosa~)
D
 .!...
p,
(yfuD +sinCt~)
D
 EA
FJ fi11 ,
D
(6.119)
where l / Pr and 1/ p, are given by Eqs. (6.111) a nd (6.112). Tiie strain force rela
tionships a re (see Eq. 6.90)
,. fin
,.l ""
0'12 fi21
l~ l
YE" = 0 0
(6.120)
K~ fl11 a,,
K,J fl12 cS12
Ki. 0 0
By a pplying the results of the laminate plate theory (see Eq. 3.7), we obta in
the follo\\ring expression for the strains in eac.h ply:
(6.121)
The stresses fro m Eq. (3. I I) are ( orthotropic la mina te, Q16 = Q16 = 0)
(6.123)
238 BEAMS
The a xia l fo rce N~ and the n1oment ArfE. (per unit le ngth) in the wa ll are (see
Table 6.2. page 222)
I
Mi =
," (6.124)
<II
11 1 1 1V 1
N, = z + y+= (6.125)
Py a11 P~ a11 A a 11
I l I . 1
A.ft,= COSCt'   SJO (Y. (6.126)
Py d 11 p, d11
Fo r ortho tropic and symmetrical layup the e leme nts of the [a J a nd [~ J matrices
area,1 = aq,Ji;; = d;i, \Vhereas /Ji; = 0. Thus, the s tra in fo rce re la tions hips(Eqs. 6.00
and 3.28) give
,." rail
0 11
0
0
Yt11" IN,}
"l!""
0
M, . (6.127)
"
... " d11
0
The ply strains and stresses are given by Eqs. (6.121) and (6.122).
Arbitrary layup (syn1n1e.trica/ cross sectio11). The layup of the \Vall is arbitrary,
and the cross se ction is synun etrical about the zaxis. The loads a re a pplie d in the
:c z syn1n1etry plane. Such a bean1 bends only about the y..axis. Correspondingly.
I/ p, is ze ro a nd we have (Eq. 6.6)
0 Fl 1 /iJ,. 1
. ==
:r  = 0. (6.128)
EA Py = El;., p,
I
Kt. =  cosa. (6.129)
Py
Tiie axial force N, and the moments M, and M,. (per unit length) inside the
wall a re (Table 6.2, page 222)
(6.131)
(6.132)
(6.133)
Equations (6.128H 6.133) may be rearranged to yie ld the axial force N, and
the 111oment Aft (per unit le ngth) in terms of applied force and mome nt:
M,
M, = _ li11 +cosa 1'11)
(  z= =  =IV li11
= (6.135)
' E~,r D D EA D
The strain force rela tionships in the x, y, z coordinate systen1 a.re given by
Eq. (3.22). We apply this e quation in the ~ , 11, t coord inate system with N, =
N E.rt = i\111 = 0. Thus, \Ve \vrite
,. P11 p,.
,.' "" /l21 fl26
y~lt
..,.
Ct'J!
P" p,,. { M,
N, } .
"',,
=
/l11 bu a,. 1\f(lt
(6.136)
/( f311 b 12 ~26
K ( 11 (3,. a,. a
TI1e ply stra ins are calculated by Eqs. (6.121). The ply stresses a re (Eq. 3.11)
(6.137)
The elen1ents of matrix [Q] are evaluated in the ~ , rt, (coordinate syste.01.
6.2 Exa1nple. An. L = 0.6.111~/ong Tsectio1t bean1 lt1fth the cross section shO\VIJ in
Fignre6.29 is 111ade ofgraphirt~ epoxy. T/Je 1naterial properties are given in Table 3.6
(page 81). The layup is [45\/012/ 45\l The beam is builrin lit both ends. The
bea1u is subjected to a u1uj'Otnlly distributed load ( /1 =  1 500 Nini) acting in the
plane of syn1111etry. Calculate the 111axbnu111 ileftectio11 and the ply stresses and
strtu'ns.
l4U tstAM5
b0= br= SO mm
Figure 6.29: The Th<am in Example 6.2.
Solution. Fro n1 Table A.2, 'vit h bri set equal to zero. the tensile stiffness and the
location of the centroid a re
 bn hw ,,,.
EA=   +   = 21.22 x Lu N
(a11}n (a11)w
(6.1 38)
b,. b. )
= 1 ( bn= (
)d + ()  = 0.0441 m.
EA a u n 0 11 w 2
For syn1metrical layup (which is the case he re) , & 11 is re placed by a, l The e le ment
=
11 for both the web and the flange is (a11 )w (a11)n 5.18 x 10 'j!) (Table 3.8, =
=
page 85). The dime nsions bn br = 0.05 m, b.. 0.06 m, and d O.<l6J m are = =
sho\\'11 in Figures 6.29 and 6.30. Setting be equa l to zero in the expressio n given in
Table t\.2 results in the followi ng bending stiffness:
For symmetrical layup (which is the case he re) ~11 is replaced by d11. The ele
me nt d11 for both the web and the flange is (d11 ),. = (d11)n = 33. JO x 10 3 " 1m
(Table 3.8, page 85). Equation (6.139), with b., =
z, 0.0441 m and b,., b.  = =
z, = 0.0159 m, yields
{ ,,
bwl
b,..2 z,
11
[ I/
1i gure 6.30: 1.''bc cros..<> sec lion of the beam in E:)'.ample 6.2.
6.3 THINWALLED, OPENSECTION ORTllOTROPIC OR SYMMETRICAL CROSSSECTIOH BEAMS 241
Ki\l cNn1>
4S ii,
0.6 Length, r (m)
06 Lcnath. z 1m
 450
Figure 6.31: Bending, moment ,\i, and hc1u force ii, for lhc hc:.m 1n Example 6.2.
The distributed load is p =  I SOO Nim. 'l"M corresponding bending moment
II, and shear force P, diagrams arc given in Fig. 6.31. The maximum values are
 =
M, pL' =45N m
U (6.141)
v
'
=
2
pL = ~SON.
The maximum deftection is (Thblc 7.3. page 332)
jjj
1
=   f!!:'
384 El_,
=  0.0593 x 10 > m =  0.0593 mm. (6.142)
The axial force Nt and the moment M1 (per unit length) in the wall are (see
Eqs. 6.l25. 6.126, 6.l 11 . and 6.112)
1\~ =
,q,
::::;:::Z
l
El>'Y 011
(6.143)
,\jv I
1\1t. = ~cosa ,
Ely,v d11
where i is s hO\\'U in Figure 6.30 nnd cos u is zero for the \VCb and + I for the
flange. For co111pleteness we nlso cnlculatc lhc shear now, which will be djscussed
in Section 6. 7. The s hear Oow is (Eq. 6.2R2)
v ,,
q"cs,) = N1 =  ~'
E/1 )
J(:...!..)
nu
d11. (6.144)
The tt coordinate is sho,vn in Figure 6.$0. We next determine the forces at point
Q, which is at the inte rsection or the Oange and the web (z = d  :,) at the builtin
...... ....._. . nm
end(.t = 0. M, = M , .and V, = v , ) . At point Qthe forcesand moments are
Jij;u l N Af;:u 1 N m
N, = =(d  ;:.) = 17 209 
El,, a,, m
M1 = =
1,, du
= 0.1594  
m
V~'br I N
q"" = N,. = =F::1::(<I
1,., 2
 :,)
lilt
= :1:2 151 
m
(6.145)
242 BEAMS
Figure 6.32: T he axial forc.e /I;~. t he moment A4. nnd the s he.tar force JV~., an the. flange a nd the
wc.h a t the builtin end of the. beam in x.amplc. 6.2.
l11e plus and minus values of the shear flo,v refer to the left and right of Q
(Fig. 6.32). We also calculated these forces and n1oments around the entire cross
section a t x = 0. The results are sho\\n in Figure 6.32.
The relevant elements of the compliance matrices are (Table 3.8, page 85)
Jn m m
a 11 =5.18 x 10 
N
a,,=
  3.52 x 10 N
9 a,. =21.11x10 N
I 1 1
d11=33.!0x10'  N d,, =  25.59 x LQJ   d,.=48.51x10 1  N
nl  Nm . Ill
At point Q the strains are calculated by the strain force relationships (see
Eq. 6.90 with Ct replaced by a,~ replaced by d, and fj is zero)
a11 0 0 0.0000892
'
f~ 0 11 0 0  0.0000606
Y~it
=
0 a.,, 0
1~~1 }  0.0000597
(6.146)
.."',
K ( I
0
0
0
0
0
()
d11
d,,
0
M,
= 0.005 28
 0.00408
0
\vhere K t, K 11 , a nd K~,, are in 1/ m. With the preceding strains. the ply stresses are
calculated by Eqs. (6.121) and (6.122). The results are given in Figure 6.33.
z ,
I '
I I
0
"
o.s 0 ' o.4 0 .4 u, 2 T r.&
 1
I  I
I
figure 6_13: The ply s tresses in t he. beam at the buih in end JUSt lc(I of the vertica l symmell)'
axis of t he Range in Example 6.2. ' l'he uni I o( the s tresses is 10< Nhn 2 (Just to t he right of thc
S)'mmctr)' ll)'.is. r.1.y is ne gati\'c.)
6.4 THINWAllED, CLOSEDSECTION ORTHOTROPIC BEAMS 243
y y
figure 6.34: Thinwalled. closed sec lion beams \\ith cur\'ed a nd straight "'all seg mcnt:>suhjected
to axiaJ load and bending moments.
1. The layup of the wall is o rthotropic and symmetrical; the beam's cross section
is a rbitrary.
2. The layup of the wall is orthotropic but unsymn1etric.al; the beams cross section
is arbitrary.
Undefonncd Deformed
cross sct:tion cross section
Solid
D D
Closed
section
beam D 0
Open
section
beam D 0
Figure 615: 1'hc changes of the c.ros..; sections orsolid and thin\\allcd open and closedsection
isot ropic bean1s subjcc.tcd to a:tial load and bending.
in the same way as we treat opensection bean1s and calculate the displacen1ents
with the replacement stiffnesses given in Table 6.3 (page 231).
Displace111e11ts  u11s)'n1"1etrica/ layup. The layup of the \\aJI is o rtho tropic
but unsy1nme trical. \Vhen such a bean1 is s ubjected to loads FJ, J\1.l., and 1 \1z. the
s hape o( the cross se ctions changes significa ntly, as sho\\'11 in Figure 6.36. In this
case \Ve can no longe.r approxin1ate closedse ction beams as opensection beams.
An opensection beam 'vould "open up .. under the axial load and bending, as
s ho\\n in Figure 6.36 (right). Sin1ilarly, if a closed section beam \\'e re c ut, the two
cut edges 'vould move re lative to each o ther, as shown in Figure 6.37. Jn a closed
section beam these displaceme nts are prevented by a s hear force Nt.t'/ a be nd ing
moment 1\111 , a nonnal force /\~,, a nd a transverse shear fo rce \I" acting alo ng the
c ut. Since t he 'valls are o rt hotropic, (a) the bean1 does not tv.ist (K~., = 0), and
(b) the t\\'O "cut" e dges do not n1ove relative to ea ch o the r in the axial d irection.
In the a bsence o( these Lnotions no s hear force arises along t he cut (1V{,, = 0). The
forces N a nd v, are gene ra lly s mall a nd can be negle cted (N, =
0, V, 0). Thus. =
ClosedS'bon
bum tSC 0:: 6C
J\~'f ;l/" /\' "
~ t:9 qp a.~
N,
Figure: 6_17: 'Jhe forte$ :1long the lcnglhwilicedges of an opcn11eclio1' bctun {lop) nnd ulong the
cut of a c:loi1cd11cction bc:Jm (hottom).
N, = N,, = 0
c.l osedsection. (6.147)
"'" = 0
v. = 0
There is a bending moment Af4 along the cut that prevents rotation of the
edges reh1li,c 10 each other. The slope of the ,vaJJ musl be the same 10 the left and
to the right of the cut (Figure 6.38)
aw"J
;;;j' 1lx,hl =
aw"J
iJ11 lefl.
(6.148)
1""'''' =  [aw]"

a,,  o
(6.150)
'I
Figure 6,Jg: k cll'llhc rot11t1on o f l hc cut edges.
"'"
Undeforn1t
cross section Bending ..\.xial load
D 0 [J
0p<n
sec.tion
beant
c'loscd
section
beam D 0 D
or
Figure. 6.39: The change..; of the cross sections thinwallcd open and closcdscctjon beams
subjcc.1cd to axial load and bending.. Each wall hai> t he same o thotroptc unsymmclrical ln)'Up.
By perfonning the integration along the entire circumfere nce (s 1 = S). we ob
tain (see Eq. 6.148)
(6.1 51)
closedsection
(6.152)
in tension.
By substituting Eqs. (6.147) and (6.152) into Eq. (6.90), after a lgebraic mani
pulations. we obta in
., = (1")
, ,~ D " (lf")
jj ~t  Kt, (6.153)
(6.154)
(6.155)
6.4 THINWALLED, CLOSE.DSECTION ORTHOTI!OPICBEAMS 247
By romporing Eq. (6.153) with the expression for N1 given for opensection
beams in Thblc 6.2 (page 222). we see that they differ only by the terms in the
brackets. Therefore. the 1ensile stiffness EA o( thin\\'alled dosedsection beams
(ortbotropic but unsymmetrical layup) may be calculated from the expressions of
opensection beams (Thbles 6.4 and 6.7, pages 232 and 2.lS) by re placing 811 , D by
iu.15.
111e \11, lA':u. \V23( = \\131), \1' elements of the compliance nlatrix are then
detenuined by s ubs1ituting the replacen1ent stiffnesses (given in Tnblcs 6.4 and
6.7) into Eq. (6. 19).
TI1e expressions for EA. 111 , El~, and Eiy~ in Tables 6.4 and 6.7 are also
reasonable approximations "'he n the layup is not uni!onn but the "'all is .. thin ...
Slrts.s#S a11d .vtrai11.f. As "'ith displacements. the stresses and s1rains in closed
section beams with orthotropic and symmetrical layup can be cnlculated by the
same exprc.ssions used for 1he stresses and st rains in open.sec1ion beams (see
Section 6.3.4. orthotropic and S)mmetrical layup).
\Vhen a closedsection beam \vith onhotropic but unsymmetric.31 layup is in
bending. the stresses and strains c.an be calculated by the same expressions used
for the s tresses and SITains in opensection beams (see See1ion 6.3.4. orthotropic
layup. arbitrary cross sec1ion).
When a closedsection beam \vith orthotropic but unsymmetrical layup is in
tension , '''C dclcnnine the s1resses and strains as fo llows.. At an arbitrary point
on the reference surface of the 'valJ the axial strain is related to the s train of the
beam's nxis by (Eq. 6.11 3) as follows:
(6.158)
\Vhe n t.hc layup of the "'all is orthotropic, Nit = N(" = i\1t" = 0. a nd the axial force
and Lhe moment (perunit length) in the wall are given by Eq$. (6.153) nnd (6.154).
Thus.. ~'e have
fJ 611 fJ ii11
Ni = Cl i5 M, =
EA D
== (6.159)
The strnin foroe relationships (see Eq. 6.90) give the strnins
( au Pu /111
a11 /J12
{~}
/J11
rt.. = 0 0 0
(6.160)
..,
1
i.
/J11
fJ 11
()
811
812
0
6i1
611
0
where Af,1 is give n by Eq. (6.155).
248 BEAMS
The strains and s tresses inside t he wall (ortho uopic, unsy1n1ne trical layup) are
calculated by Eqs. (6. 121) and (6. 137).
f
O=  isotropic. (6.161)
GJ,
Sin1ila rly, for a cotnposite bean1 \Ve write
f (6.162)
0== composite.
G/1
\Vith these defl nitions the rate of t\vist of composite beams can be o bta ined by
replacing the stiffnesses G /1 by Gt 1 in the expressions for tJ1e torsion of isotropic
beams. ln the fo llowing \Ve obtain expressions for G/1
Figure 6.41: 'Ille shear slrcss distribution. lhc twist moment. and the shear ftow in a solid thin
beam under lorsion.
where d and b' a re the length and width of the path of the resultant shear flow.
The latter is take n to be approximately equal to the width of the beam (b',.. b).
The l\Vist 1non1ent Mxy (per unit Length) in the cross section is
f=  2bM,, . (6.165)
When the bean1 is treated as a plate, the outofplane cunature K.TJJ is (see
Eqs. 3.22)
(6.166)
?= a4b..T . (6.168)
Cl, = 4b.
... (6.169)
= =
For a thinwalled isotropic beam, 666 d,,,, 12/ Gi1 3 (Eq. 3.43). a nd the tor
sional stiffness in Eq. (6.169) becomes Gi, =GI,= G";'.
250 BEAMS
\Vhen the \\ all is not Hat but is curved, the torsional stiffness 1nay be approxi
1
ma ted by
s
 11.... tf,,,
G/ 1 = 4 (6.170)
0
'vhere '1 is the coordinate along the circu1nference of the \Vall and Sis the length
or the e.ntire circumference.
Although the beam is subjected to pure torque, there are axial ~; and shear
strains Yx0>" and there is a change in the curvature Kx given by (see Eq. 3.22)
(6.171)
(6.172)
To detern1ine ll.i, \V24 , and l\'4.a elements of the oon1pliance matrix, \Ve rear
range Eqs. (6.168) a nd (6.172) in the form
By comparing this equation with Eq. (6.17), we see that the terms in brack
ets are the IV14 (=  /1 16/ 21>), IV24 (= ~ 16/2b), and 1..,(= ~,,,,/4b) e le ments of the
con1pliance 111at rix.
\Vhen the layup is syn1n1etrical, /366 is zero and there is no shear strain. When
the layup is orthotropic, {J16 and 8 16 are zero. and there is neithe r axial stra in nor
a c hange in curvature. \\'hen the layup is bo th orthotropic and syn1metrical, there
are neither axial nor shear strains and the re is no change in curvature.
(6.174)
'vhere the subscript re fers to the kth segn1ent. Similarly, \Ve a ppro:cin1ate the tor
sional stiffness of a con1posite be am \\ith orthotropic \Valls by
For Oat and curved segments. (Gl,). are given by Eqs. (6.169) and (6.170).
The rate of l"\\'ist is calculated by
(6.176)
Stras~s and strains. ln each \Yall segment we en1ploy a (11{ coordinate sys
tem. The origin or each coordinate system is at the \Vall segment's reference sur
face. The outofplane c:urwture of each wall segment is obtained from Eq. (6.167)
by replacing x and y by { and r1 as follows:
(6.177)
We consider only Mh resulting Crom the 1orque. Thus we have (see Eq. 6.90)
(6.178)
(6.179)
Equations (6.178) and (6.177) give
1 2
J\ftq = KtlJ = 11. (6.180)
a... a.,,
Equations (6.121} and (6. 122) together with Eq. (6. 179) yie ld tlie strains a nd
stresses
{ :: } = {
Yt11
~ } +~ { ~ }
Yt!J "'t u
(6.181)
{ :: } =
f4,,
[J]
Q"
Y!
(6.182)
T. H. G. Mcpon.Auc1ft Slmctwafw En_pw111t1 .fOl,kNJ ltd rdrtion. H!llsltd PrtU. Joh.JI \\'iky
& Soos. New Yort. IWCJ. p. 318.
HtAM:i
\\here fJ is lhe rate of t\\~Sl, and A,;1 is the S\\'ept area f ron111 = 0 to '~ = s 1 (Fig. 6.43)
about the center o( twist (point 0). For thin\va lled bean1s the center of t'vist and
the shear cente r coincide. The shear center is defined such that a transverse load
acting a t the shear center of an orthotropic bean1 does not cause t \\ist (see Sec
lion 6.7.3).
When there is no she ar strain the angle bet\\een the c.irc.un1fere ntial and the
longitudina l e dges re mains 90 degrees (Fig. 6.42). For a con1posite bea1n t he shear
strain is zero \\he n /JM is zero (see Eq. 6.178). \Vhen {J66 is not zero the originally
90 degree angle bet\veen the circumfere ntia l and the longitudinal edges becomes
4
111e total re la tive axial displaceme nt (warping) is (see Eqs. 6.183 a nd 6.184)
611=11(s1)  u(O) = l
2A,,~ + Y~,dry.
0
(6.185)
For a thin ..\valled. opensection bea m with o rt hotropic layup r,, is given by
Eq. (6.178).
\Vhen the layup of each wall segment is syn1n1etrical, y(,, is ze ro, a nd such
con1posite beams warp sin1ilarly to that of isotropic beams.
y~,
where A is the enclosed area and 1 is the shear strain. Fro1n this equation the
rate of t\vist is
0=
1 1.
A .f Y,,dq. (6.188)
2
ln thin\\aJled, cl osed~section beams the torque due to the induced t\vist mo
n1e nt :\1~~ is s mall con1pare d with t he torque d ue to the induced shear force NE,,
(Fig. 6.45). In the follo\ving v.e neglect the twist mome nt M~ 11
We introduce the s he ar flov. q defined as the integral of the s he ar s tress across
the thickness
q= f r,,d~
(11)
N,,, (6.189)
where it is the thickness or the waU. The torque produced by q (or N,, ) is (Fig. 6.46)
where p is the distance Detween an arbitrary point and the tangent to the \Vall.
Accordingly, the s hear fto\v is
f (6.191)
q = 2A.
Equation (6. 191) is the some as the Bre dt Batho formula' developed for thin
walled, closedsection isotropic bean1s.
Equation (6.90) yields
(6.192)
To sin1pliCy this expression '"e select a re ference surCace at 'vhich !J66 (denoted
by ~;0 ) is zero. l11e 66 con1ponent of the con1pliance matrix corresponding to this
1 T. H. G.1''1ci.<SOn, AiYcraft S1n~cturesftJr Engi11nrl118 Studer11S> .lrd cdi1ion. Ha1!>tcd Pr~ Jo h n \Vik)'
& Sons.. New York. 1999, p. 307.
254 BEAMS
s urface, \\ hich v.e refer to as the "torque neutral'' surface, is (Eq. 3.48)
1
'vhere f366 and ~66 are the components of the co111pliance n1atrices in the arbitrariJy
chosen reference surface, and v is the location of the "torque neutral., surface
(Fig. 6.47). For fJ;;. = 0, Eq. (6.193) yie lcl<
"=  fJ..

8.,,
(6.194)
'vbere the superscript v refers to the ''torque ne utral surface (Eq. 6. t 94). and &66
is given by Eqs. (3.48) and (6.194) as follows:
" =
(l66 Oi66 + 2.
''"'66. + v,,066 = 0t66  & (6.196)
8
By combining Eqs. (6.188) (6.195), we obtain
(6.197)
With refere nce to Eq. (6.162), we see t ha t the replaceme nt torsional stiffness Ci,
is
 4A2
GI,= y;;d (6.198)
.'l' CIM '1
\Vhen t he 'valJ"s layup is syn1metrical, a~ = a66 For a thin~v.aUed isotropic
beam,<>66 = a.. = 1/ Gh(Eq. 3.43). a nd the to rsional stiffness (Eq. 6.198) becomes
. 4A:
GI, = GI, = G/C l/ hld 
The "'4.t element of the compliance ma trix is \V44 = l / G/1 .
" ,,
Figure 6.4 7: ' Jbc torque neutral sur(ace. \\1hcre. iM is ze,ro.
6.5 TORSION OF THINWAI.LED BEAMS 255
,,
1,,. 52 nt1n
I[]fl
p = 6SOON/m
bw 68mm
t*******i h 2mm
l = tOOO mm df SO mm
rl 70 mm
. d .
1. t i
Figure 6.48: The beam in Eumplc. 6.3.
Strtssu an.d strain. The strai1U and curvature in each ply a t the torque neu
trar surface are given by (sec Eq. 6. 90)
0
Yt',
K(
= 0
0
a .. N,,. (6.199)
Ko 0
Kh 0
6.3 Exantple. An L = l .0..111 ... fong box bel11tJ, udrh the cross section s!JOH'n in Fig
ure 6.48. is 1nade of graphit~ t /) O.f)' 1'1H nJttferlal properlies are given in Table 3.6
(page8/) Tire layup i" [45~/012/4SIJ. Tlie beam, b11i/1i11 at eacll emf. is s11bjec1ed
=
ro a t1nifor111/y di,strif111ted load (/1  6 500 Nhn) 11ctiug ttt 1/Je ulidplnne of tire lefl
lt1eb (Fig. 6.49). By negl ecting the cjJ'ec1s of 11.rial restraint, C(l/culate tire 1naxiu1111u
dejfettiou and the 111axinuun 1111i.\'I,
Solution. The cross sect ion is doubly syn1mctricnl, nnd both the centroid and the
shear center (see Section 6.7.3) coincide \Vith the center of the cross section. The
p = 6 SOO Nim
n',,
z
i<..1
d,
~
2
Figutt 6.49:: Load.mg on 1hc box beam 1n Eumpk 6..3 (kft). and the loaduig .,,h respect lo the
shear ceo.ter (ngbt).
256 BEAMS
~(Nm)
541.7 /1
~ l.O~ength,x (m)
81.25
b:. <:::::::::j l.0 '
Length, :i: ( n1>
Figure 6.50: 'l'he bending moment i\11 . shear force: Ci':. and torque. f diagrams for the: beam 1n
Ex.ample: 6.3.
'
nrn~x 2
pL
.u, =  )2 = 541.7 N . m
v"~' = pL =  3 250 N (6.201)
' 2
f"~' = tL =81.25N m.
2
The compliance matrices for the flange and the 'veb are the san1e., and their
relevant e leme nts are n:,ble 3.8, page 85)
m m _ 1
a11 = 5.18 x J0 9  a,. = 27.77 x 10 N d11 = 33.10 x 10>  N
N m
The dimensions are (Pig. 6.48) be= 0.052 m, bw = 0.068 m. d = 0.07 m, de=
0.05m.
From Table A .I the bending stiffnesses are
 be d' 2bc
E 1vr =    +   +
2b! 34692N m'
(a11)r 2 (d11)1 12(au }w
(6.202)
Ef .. =~df + 2b.. + 2bi 20924N m' .
(ll11}w 2 (d11)w 12{ll11)1
The torsional stiffness GI, is (Table A.6, with a;:. replaced b y a66)
2
 2di d :!
GI, = aa6(, I) = 7 352 N m . (6.203)
fir+ (,
b.b I UK~IUft UI" I "INWALLtU tU:AM~ lbl
.\ 24000N
Figure 6.SJ : Cron Kct1o n or lhr beam 1n Examplc 6.4 and 1hr l~d 11ppl11:.d on the bram.
'/! =
1.o
1./l 11tfX =1'n" =tfX.
f
G/
(6.205)
1
The torque r varies linearly with x. and !he preceding integral yie lds
f'L
t = ~ = 0.002 76 rad= 0.158'.
4..,,, (6.206)
6.4 Exampk. An L = l .0.111/ong box bta111. witlr d1t cross staio11 sh~11 i11 Fig
urt 6.51, is 11u1dt ofgraphite epoxy. Tlrt 111art.rial proptrtits an glvtn in Tobit 3.6
(page 81). Tlr. layup i.< I45~/0 10]. 17refabric iso111heo111sid<ofrh mll. 71re b.am,
=
l>ui/1./11 al eaclt end. is subjected 10 a unifortuly dis1rlb111ed loud ( p  6 500 Nltn)
acling along rht 111idpla11e of rite left iveb and to an axial load N = 24 000 N. By
neglecti11g the effec.~rs of axit1l restraint, calculate tire nuLti11111111 deflection a11d the
111axi11u1111 uvi.rt.
Solution . The c 1os.~ section is doubly S)'llln1etrical. and the ccn1roid a nd the shear
center (see Section 6.7.3) coincide \vith the center of Lhc cross scc1io11. TI1e loads
Yr'ilh respect LOthe she ar cen1er and the corresponding be nding mome nt 1 \.i ,. shear
force V,. and torque f .re given in Example 6.3 (page 255).
The layup or each "'311 is orthotropic and unsymmetrical. The compliance
matrices for the flange and 1he web are the same. and their rclcV3nl ele ments are
(see Table 3.9. page 86).
m
a;:'= 11.65 x t 09 N a:!' = 43. 70 x 10 mN
l I I
tJW =  13.97 x 10 
N
>1r = 12 22 x JO" 
{J12 N tJ::: = 51.60 x io 
N
1
6'11' = 34.94 x 10"'  
1
N in
&~t =  25.74NI 6~ =98.83 Nm
.
11 m
1
6!',!" = 131.l I x 10 i  
N m
.......
/ Neutral plane
o,o....... 7.. . . . . . . . t e
452' t
IE
Figure" 6.52: The neutral plane.o f Lhe beam in Example 6.4.
\vhere MP refers to the midplane of the wall. The dimensions of t he bean1 are
(Fig. 6.51) br = 0.052m, b. = 0.068m, d = 0.07 m, and d1 = 0.05m.
To evaluate the bending stiffnesses, \Ve determine the position of the neutral
plane (Eq. 6.105 and Fig. 6.52) as follows:
(i =  ::r
/3't>.f1'
~II
= 0.0004 m = 0.400 mm. (6.207)
At the O reference plane the con1pliances of the flanges and the 'vebs are
(Eq. 3.48)
where the dime nsions J and de are (Fig. 6.52) J = d  2(1 = 0.0692 m, d1 =
de  2i1 = 0.0492 m.
The torsional stiffness Gi1 is given in Table A.6 Y.~th reference to the Bneutra l
plane as
2
  2dfd  2
(6.21 1)
Cf,_ a;:.(de+d)  8726N m.
~"''  109 ~.
2
' 
66  "'66
(f!,';J,")
()~tJ>


2340 x N (6.212)
" 66
T he accuracy of Ci,, as calculated by Eq. (6.2 11), is improved whe n Ci, is evalu
ated in reference to the "torque neutrar surface. Equation (6.194) gives
11=  f!i:f,P/J't,f," =  0.394 mm. When d a nd de a re replaced by d  211 = 0.0708
and de  211 = 0.0508 m, respectively, Eq. (6.211) results in Ci, = 9 087 N m2
Next, we c:alculmc the tensile stiffness. From Eqs. (6. 156) and (6.157). we have
_.,,.
{J 
II 
(fJ"''  Pt~'' tl)  to 79
ll
6
t.tP
6~
 . X
10< .!._
N
(6.213)
6""
u 
 (1"'
u
 (&~i"J') 28
&~' .
1
23 x 10J  .
Nm
'"
At the e reference surface. the complianc.e.s of the flanges and lhe \Vebs are
(Eq. 3.48)
 ( (/112)') _9 m
'"' = U!!  ~ =6.01x10 N
(6.216)
 11 ( 11 (612)') l
8 = ~  &,;, =28.23 x 10 3
N. n
>/t = 1 ~tl.r J.
U2
=
U2 f
&, dx. (6.219)
\\/here fm:iJr. = 81.25 N~'" (Eq. 6.201 ). The elongation of the bean1 is
1L fii FJL
1
1.
t;. L= s,tlx = =dx = = = 0.000 601 m = 0.601 mm. (6.221)
o o EA EA
6.5.4 Closed Section Orthotropic Beams  Multicell
For multicell con1posite beams the rate of t\vist a nd the shear flo\\'Sare detem1ined
in the s..1n1e v.ay as for isotropic bean1s. Accordingly, for a beam consisting or L
cells the torque is
I.
f = I; 2A,q,, (6.222)
,_,
\\here A 1 is the enclosed a rea or the /th cell and q1 is the shear flow in the /th cell
(Flg. 6.53). The shear strain y. in each wall segment iscakulated by (Eq. 6.195)
(6.223)
\vhere q is the shear flov. in the wall segme nt. Then, the rate of twist of each cell
is (Eq. 6.188)
11, = ,!
_ A,
f ;:.qt111
i:dl l
(6.224)
For a v.aJI that De.longs to one cell only, q is equal to the shear flo,v of the
appropriate cell (q = q1). For a wall that belongs lo two cells, the shear flow is the
sum of the shear Ho,vs of the adjacent cells, as illustra ted in Figure 6.53.
The rate of t\vist of each c.ell is the same
(6.225)
There are L + I equations (Eqs. 6.224 and 6.222) that can be solved for the
L + I unknowns: q1 (I = I. 2, . .. . L) a nd O.
The stresses in the \\'alls are calcuJated a....; for a single cell beam.
v,
(6.226)
When the bean1 is axially constrained a t one of its cross sections (for exan1ple
at a builtin e nd). then. at this cross section, warping cannot occur. The shorter the
bean1, the n1ore important are the effects of restrained \varping. Furthern1ore, the
effects o( restrained \\'arping a.re more pronounce d for thinwalled opensec.tion
bean1s than for thin.walled closedsection bean1sand for solid cross.section bean1s.
Therefore. in this section, \Ve consider only restraine d \Varping of opensection
bean1s.
We illustrate lhe analysis through the exa1uple of a sy1nme trical Ibeam
(Fig. 6.54).
Isotropic I bea111s. Under pure torque, in lhe absence of ax:ial constraint. the
shear stress distribution in an isotropic l ~beam is as shov"1t in Figure 6.55. When
the beam is axially restrained, axial forces 1V~ (per unit length) a re introduced in
the \\all (Fig. 6.56, botton1). These axial forces ere.ate a bending n1oment Mrg
....... d 2 ur
M 1 =  d , Et,, (6.227)
x
where 11 is the moment of inertia of the flange about the taxis denoted by
vr =~ 2 " (6.229)
where d is the distance bet\\een the n1idplanes of the Hanges. We recaJI that
~
~
Figure 655: Isotropic lbcam unde r pure. torque with no axial constraint

A/Pl =  d11
 (Ehrbf
dx
d .
24
J (6.233)
~
El, .
v, =aft,_ (6.234)
dx
The s hear force results in a torque fw(Fig. 6.56, bottom) de fined by
f . = Vcd (6.235)
Figure 6.56: Isotropic Ibeam unde r pure torque wilh axial cons.traint.
6.5 IUHSIUH U~ THIN WAll.fU KEAMS 263
(;7,,, +
1' = .._,_ d D) '
mW( ,
1
(6.240)
tfX
f. ~
f.
The torsional stiffness Gi1 presented in Section 6.5.2 is unaffected by the axial
cons traint and i.s given by Eq. (6.175).
h remain< to determine the warping stiffness fl... By referring to Eq. (6.238).
we see th31 the warping stiffness or an isotropic Ibeam is a function of the product
of the Range's modulus and thickness Ii (El..  Eli). This Ell is related to the
o.<ial fo rce (per unit length) in the Oaoge as follows:
For a beam with orthotropic la)'Up, N1 is (see Table 6.2. page 222)
,., 811 <u /J1 I
= (6.242)
' "~
D t   K1
D
264 BEAMS
This equation applies at a reference plane chosen arbitrarily. At the neutra l..
plane (see Eq. 6.105) fJ11 = 0, and, he nce (see Table 6.2. page 222), we have that
8 11/ D = 1/a~1 where the superscript e indicates that a f 1 is evaluated a t the flange's
"neut ra r plane. With these substitutions the preceding equation becomes
" I o (6.243)
1 "~ = e~E
Ct ll
By compa ring Eqs. (6.243) and (6.241). we see that an orthotropic beam's ten
sile stiffness 1/crf1 corresponds to an isotropic beanl's tensile stiffness Eh. \ Ve use
this correspondence and evaluate the warping stiffness of an o rt hotropic Ibeam
by replacing Eh by l/a~1 in Eq. (6.238). The result is
.l..b'
 r 2
El... ~d24 . (6.244)
Orthotropic bean1  arbitrary cross section. Equation (6.240} can aJso be used
for thinv.alled bean1s \vi th o the r c ross.sectional shapes by using the a ppropriate
torsional a nd warpingstiffnesses. The torsional stiffness&, is given by Eqs. (6.170)
and (6:t75). TI1e \varping stiffness El~ of an ortho tropic beam is obtained by re...
placing Eh by l /ar1 in the a ppropriateexpressions9 for thecorrespooding isouopic
l:>ean1. The warping stiffnesses El"' of frequently use.cl cross sectio ns are included
in 'fable A.5.
Boundary co11ditio11s. When the 'varping of the cross section at the e nd of
a bean1 is restrained. the distortion is ze ro. When \Varping is not restrained. the
bi11101nent is zero.
\Vhen the e nd may rotate. the to rque is zero. '\Vhe n the end is rotationally
restraine d, the rate of twist is zero.
The preceding boundary cond itio ns a re sun1ma rized in Table 6.9.
" S. P. li.mosbcnko and J. Gere. T/umry fJf El'u'tic Srahilitr. 2nd edition. ~tcGrawHiJI, NC\\' York, 1961.
p. 530.
6.6 THINWALi.ED BEAMS WITH ARBITIIARY LAYUP 265
~ ,
,'
,
'
z
Agu.rc 6~ \\~rpng, of hox beam sut>,cctcd to 1ors1on ilcn (..). C: (..)..
au a2w=   a~
=
a:t '
"'3"
ax P'J
 
ax /), (6.246)
J:jgurc 6.59: Forcell on open nnd closed cros.<>sec11on. lh1nwnlkd 11<:anl11 '''llh Onl w::ill $cgments.
266 BEAMS
4:th \VSJI
scgnlt~ nt
;;
Figure 6.60: fbe coordi nalc syste ms emplo)1Cd in the analysiso( thin,~alled bea ms wilh ar bitra.l)'
layup.
'''here f*,
1/ p y, 1/pz are the axial strain and the curvatures of the longitudinal
axis passing t hrough the origin of the X )i t coordinate systen1, and ii, ii. W, and
~ are the displacen1ents o( the Xaxis.
The force, n1ome nt, and torque resultants at the origin o( the bar coordinate
system Rx, tWy, ,\1;;, f K are related to the force applied at the centroid by the
expressions,
(6.247)
\\here ~ and Ye are the coordinates of the centroid in the bar coordinate syste m
(Fig. 6.61 ). For bo th open and c.losed sectio n beams t he (orcestrain and strain
force re la tionships in the x yi coordinate system are (Eqs. 6.2 and 6.17)
r1['
~..,, =
M,
f
P 11
P,,
P"
P12
Pu
P,_,
p,.,,
Pu
f'.14 P.,
,,.,
,,.L
I>
(6.248)
11"' .
.L
P<
/}
[:
w;,
0
\i'22
H'n
\\'Ll
0
"~1
l\~u
l\~a
""]! ~1
\Vi.t
11'.1'
w,.
M ,.
,:;;; .
f
(6.249)
 ~ z
> y ;1,.''6 : y
y
fi,
./
x
Figure 6.6 1: Scam subjected lo an axial (orce a l the cc nlro 1d a nd the resultant a:ual forceand
n1oments in t he XYZ coordinate. S)'Stcm.
6.6 THINWALLED BEAMS WITH ARBITRARY LAYUP 267
1~1
,Q,
f.
=
l'
P11
/513
/514
P 12
P22
Pn
Pu
P2J
Pi., P:u ? ,..
pl4 p .l4 P,14
~"] 11
,,
.L
p;
F
(6.250)
111 [w
.Lw,,,
111
PZ
F


lV12
w,,.

IV12
\.V22
\..VL,
W2i1
w,_,
l \'2.~
IV.JJ
w.. .
w,.lJ
\.V1.f
IV:w
W.i.s
r1
!~y
'1< .
T;
(6.251)
where [ P ], IP], I IV), and [W] a re the stiffness and compliance matrices in the
ce ntroid x y x and bar XY Zcoordin ate systems. These matrices are obtained by
reasoning similar to that used in the derivations of the stiffness and con1pliance
n1atrices of o rt hotropic beams (Sections 6.3.3 and 6.4). For beams \\'ith a rbitrary
layup the algebra ic steps are long and laborious lo a nd the ir presentation is beyond
the scope of this book. The results are sun1n1arized in Table 6.10.
The compliances 0t;;.fi1i, ~;;, which a ppear in Table 6.10. are evaluated in the local
~1~~ coordinate systen1. For the kth segn1ent " 'e e n1ploy the ~k'11:~k coordinate
system \vith the origin at the. midpo int of the re ference plane of the kth segn1ent,
where~ is paralle l to the x coordinate, 1~ is a long the circumfe re nce of the \Vall,
and ( is perpendicular to the circumfe re nce; Yk and Zk a re the coordinates of the
~1rrr1:~k coordinate system's o rigin . \\hich is at t he n1idpoint of the refere nce plane
(Fig. 6.60). For c losedsection bea1ns, rJA: points in the oounte rclock\vise direction
(Pig. 6.62), ct1: is the angle betwee n the 111: a nd )icoordinate axes., and b1r is the 'vidth
of t he wall segment (Fig. 6.59).
We o bserve that for orthotropic beatns the expressions in Table 6.10 yie ld the
stiffness matrix given in Eq. (6.7).
tu L. P. Kollar and A . Plu1..sik. Analysis or 1ltin \Vallcd Composite Bcanls with Arbitrtu)' Layup,
Jt11~nu1I of Rei11forced Plastics t111d C<HU/>O.~ites. Vol. 21 . 14231465. 2002.
268 BEAMS
Table 6.10. Stiffness and compliance matrices in tile bar ([PJ , [WD and centroid
([ PJ, ( WJ) coordinate systems of open and closedsection beams with art>itrary
layup. The elements <>11, {:111. 611 are evaluated at tile {.q1.(k coordinate system
of each wall segment. The enclosed area of closedsection beams is denoted by A.
The superscript T denotes transpose.
Bar coordinate systt tn: [W) = [PJ 1
K
Opensection be.a m:
...
[Pl= I::IR..f'[w,J'[R..I
K
...
[Pl= E<I 11,J'[.,,J'I R;I) + [LIT[ FJ 1[L)
I 'i.
(R,) =
[
0 cor,
0
0
s1 n a~
0
~"]
ki
A.\1 t
=
[""/Jn
/Ju,
[w) = ;;
I
[""
/ju
0
f111
611
0
0
0
__g_
cAuJrt.i
lf!"] [~.1 [~
~di(,
= ) '<
0
0 0OJ
0 I 0
~/.116 iiSu. 0 !&.t. 0 0 0 I
t. [""
[ii = .1....1 P12
f!&l?.. 0 )~] [w,r' IR.J
0
 i l' l) *
[LJ =[O 0 0 2
0 0 0 :]111
l!l.s  !Su ,
0
l)
,,
[~J = [~ [a"p,. .. .
0 /!11
0
0 0 3J (ii,] = P11 ~,,
~
f!~ .. ]
.!,,; ;
[""p,., .,.P"],
1;;,1= /li.1 ,,
Figure 6.62: The local coordinate system attached to the.kth wall seg.mc.nt (kf1) and the direc.Llon.c;
of the n coordinates (right) in a dose.c:lsection beam.
(6.252)
(6.253)
where IQ'Jk is evaluated in the .t'th \Vall segme nt's ~k''k(k coordinate systen1.
In the kth segn1ent's reference plane the strains and curvatures a re calculated
from the strain force relationships (Eq. 3.22), which. for convenience, are repro~
duced as foLJo,vs:
,.. /111 /112 fJ1 N,
,.' "" "" "'
Y(1t
K!
=
012
"'
/J11
etio
et22
Ct26
/J,1 P.1
.
.,
/J,1 lh1 /Ju.
A.1 /J61 !J..
811 612 &t6
N
Nt.,
M,
(6.254)
where the k subscript refers to the kth seg1nent and <xq, fJij &;; are evaluated in the
.(1h \Vall segment's ~k1~1;{1: coordinate systen1. The preceding expressions apply
both to open and c.losedsection beanu. The dif(erence in the t\vo types o( beams
is in the expressions used to calculate the forces and mon1ent (per unit length)
Figure 6.63: Displacements of an orthotropic beam {left) and a beam "'ith a rbilraT)' layup (right)
under tension.
2711 BEAMS
ONwM"'
figure 6.64: 'The fore.cs and moments (per unit length) acting 1n lhe .(1h \Vall o f an o pc.n or
dosedsection beam .
inside the \\ all. The relevant e xpressions, derived by Pluzsik and Koll:ir,11 are
1
(6.255)
(6.256)
(6.257)
(6.258)
(6.259)
where Ill]. IR,,], [R.], Iv], IF], and [ L] are defined in Table 6.lO.
ll Jbid.
6.6 THINWALLED BEAMS WITH ARBITRARY LAYUP 271
6.6.3 Centroid
The centroid is locrtted s uch thnt lhc bcnm 's axis rein a ins s traigh t when an a xial
force Fi is applied a t the ce ntroid. Allhoug.h this axis ren1ains stra ight, the beam
n1ay t\\ist about the axis of twist. which docs not necessarily coincide '"ith the axis
passing through the centroid.
From E qs. {6.25 1) and (6.247). the curvaiures or the axis. possing through the
origin o f the bar coordin:11e system. are
(6.260)
Since Nx is applied at the centroid. the curvatures of the axis passing through
the centroid are zero (I/ Py = I/ P: = 0). furthcnnore. the curvatures of the a.Os
passing through the centroid arc the same :tis the curvatures of the axis passing
through the origin of 1he bar ooordinatc system. Thus " 'e have
I I I I
 =  =  =  = 0. (6.261)
Py P: P; P'f
Equations (6.260) and (6.261) yield the coordinates<.. y, o[ the centroid with
respect to the origin of the bar ooordinrnc systen1 as follov.s:
I I [Ill" w,,
z,
w,,1
y, =  111,,
rw.lJ LWIJ . (6.262)
whe re /,,. is to be calc ulated ns for orthotropic beams.. The efects of restrained
warping on 1he displacements and stresses of beams \\'ith unbalanced layup a re
discussed by Bo uld and Tung."
I? A . Ptuzsi.k arid L P. Kollir, Ecc1 Of ShC'ar ~f(l11'11lation and Rcstraiocd \\'arping on the Dis
plactmcnts of Compoii.u: lkarm. kHlmal of R~ft>t~ftl l'ftultc.1 #Md Composua. Vol 11. 2002
(mprcss).
u N. R. Boald and L Tttng. A Vbtolbtory !Of' FlbcrR~anlOl"d lk:arru: "1lh llun\\'.alkd ~
Stttions. /111t'm0lttllt#ll.loh1nol of.'WJMJ """ Suutturd. VaL lO. 277M. 198'.
272 BEAMS
FJ = 24 000N
6.5 E.xan1ple. A.IJ L = l n1long boxbea111, lVit/J 1/1e cross section sho1v1r in Fig. 6.65,
is 1nade of graphite epoxy uuidirecrional plies. Tire tnaterial properties are given in
Tllbfe 3.6 (page 81 j. Tire layttp is [Oto/45 ml, tvirlr the 0degrce ply 011 rlre outside of
tire 1vall. The bea1n, builtltt at one end and free at the other end, is subjected to a1'
axial load of 24 000 1\1 By neglecting tire effects of axial restrai1tt, find tire position
of the centroid and calculate the 111axin11on axial displttct!lnent and the 1naxi11uu11
11vis1.
Solution. The analysis follows the steps in Table 6.10 (page 268). From Table 6.10
\Ve have
1 t.. >'
(R,,J = 0 c~Slltk  sin 0
ol (6.264)
0 S JDQ'k COS&.t 0 '
[
0 0 0 1
\vhere Y* and z,,. are the coordinates of the midpoints of the \Vall segn1ents, and
Ctk is t he angle bet\veen 11 and the y coord inates at \\ hich ~~ is tangent to the wall
1
segn1ent (Fig. 6.60). The values of these para1ueters for each Range a nd web are
shown in Figure 6.66. \\Cith these values ( R,,J are
,,,, = [j 00
t
0
0.025
 I
0
0
0
OJ
0
1
0.035  0.025
 t l
0 0
0 0
Au]
~13 = ["
P11 11 (6.265)
A;u k /316
b.b I HIN WALLtU tl tAM~ WllH AHtlllKA.Kf LATUt' Z/"J
y, = 0
b~ b 1 50mm :;, = 35
~ aJ = 180"
o
. 3
E
E ::
y, 25 Y,=25
".... i..
g :. o " :;,=O
01 =90"
n, 'lttr
2 q,
.... h 2mm Y1=0
:,=35
<:r1=0I>
With the cleme nts of the compliance matrix in Eq. (3.56), ii11 for the nanges
(k = I. 3) and ror the webs(k =2. 4) a re
(ii11)1 = (ii11)l = (ii11). =(An)= 1.615 x 10. (6.266)
The distances bely,een the midplanes o f the corresponding wall segment~ are
bi = b, = 0.050 m. I>, = =
b, 0.070 m (Fig. 6.66). The ele me nlS of [wt[ re
0.1920 243.8 0
78.98]
243.8 575 970 0 1520950 x 10 .
lWJ=W=
I l l Q 0 216.62
[
78.98 152 950 0 695 920
111e [ i ). ( L), uncl ( F[ matrices are
(6.271)
;_I [
The strain~ \\ hich are uniforn1 a long the cantilever, are (Eq. 6.249)
1
0 0
I
0.2576 0Jl004 0
,,., = 10 1 0
x 0
.,l. 0 0.0006
IJ  0.0042 0 0
= 10.6182 10 1 .
(6.272)
 0.01017
The unit of 11 is l / n1. The axial displace1nent a nd the t'vist of the free e nd are
~ ,
~
q c J t{lld(
(')
Figure. 6.67: Internal (orccs a nd stresscs acting o n 1he cross section of a transversely loaded
thinwalled beam. The. t1t{ coordinate sys Iem is shO\\n in Figure 6.60.
stress a(. and the internal fo re.es ~. v~. and f give rise to shear stress r(lf in the
wall. It is customary to represent the shear stress by the shear flo''' q defined as
(Eq. 6.189),
q f
(/1)
r1qd( = Ni.. (6.275)
v=
.'I. due lo
O"(
due lo
+ qT + qV
due to p, a long an a rbitrary
line A A