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WATERPROOFING

SOIL STABILIZATION

REDUCE BUILD INCREASE


EXPANSIVITY IMPERMEABLITY COMPACTION
GRANULAR / AGGREGATE
LAYER REPLACEMENT

IMPROVED EROSION USE LOCAL


CBR CONTROL SOILS
MAKE SOIL BASE INVISIBLE TO WATER
CAN DRY CBR BE USED AS A DESIGN PARAMETER ?

Maintain friction value


CBR Dry & Wet
FEATURES
Water soluble, spray application

UV and heat stable

Chemically converts water absorbing silanol groups to water


resistant alkyl siloxane surfaces at room temperature

Si-O-Si Siloxane bond (sand) survives for centuries

Works with all types of soils

One time full drying essential for performance

Non leachable, Safe Chemistry, REACH & TSCA registered


THE CHEMICAL ACTION

-OH groups make surface very hydrophilic (water loving)

Particle surface
OH OH OH OH OH OH OH
Si Si Si Si Si Si Si
O O O O O O O O
O O O O O O O
O Si Si O Si Si Si Si
Si O
O O
O O O O O
O O

Soil / clay / Sand / Aggregate surface silicate structure


THE CHEMICAL ACTION
Water vapor comes out

Water vapor comes out 4 - 6 nm Alkyl


Siloxane surface

Terrasil creates molecular


O
level hydrophobic zone O
O
O O O
Si O Si Si Si Si Si Si
(water repellent) O O O O O O O

O O O O O O O

Si Si Si Si Si Si Si
O O O O O O O O
O O O O O O O

O Si Si
Particle
Si O Si O Si
O
Si Si
Internal
O O O
surface
O O O O O Siloxane bonds

Soil / Clay / Sand / Aggregate surface silicate structure after Terrasil reaction
EXPANSIVITY

Hydrated Soil expands horizontally & vertically creating swelling


pressure in the soil bases due to water absorption & adsorption

This typically causes undulation and cracking of the top


bituminous & concrete layers

Terrasil reduces expansivity by 90 % at dosage of 0.3 1 kg per


cum for soils ranging from PI 5 to 40
IMPERMEABILITY

Water permeability of 10-5 cm/s allows water ingress through


capillary rise and top down percolation

Terrasil solution (1:400 dilution with water) applied at 3 l/sqm


waterproofs 5-10 mm soil depth and reduces permeability
upto 10-7 cm/s

Physically it means water will require minimum of 100 days to


travel through this barrier
MAINTAINS BREATHABILITY TO
WATER VAPORS
One Way Barrier : Water drop cannot go in but
Water Vapor can come out

Water 1cc = 1200 cc Vapor (Avogadros Law)

Soil Sub-Base remains dry with Terrasil treatment


through out the rainy season due to > 99.5%
reduction in water ingress while maintaining 100% breathability
IMPERMEABILITY

Permeability reduced
by 500 folds
Cm/sec

CH (Black Cotton) Soil, India


COMPACTION

Proctor Density is less than maximum because of


repulsion of electrical charge on clay, sand, silt etc. and
improper distribution / variability of OMC water

Terrasil reacts with silanol groups and converts at a


nano level to alkyl-siloxane surface

Charge Shield & Lubricity Effect of alkyl chains helps


the soil to pack better even with variability of OMC near
the optimum range

Proctor Density of 99 102 are reported from field trials


Zycobond is a sub-micron acrylic co-
polymer emulsion with long life of 10+
years for bonding soil particles

It is recommended to mix with Terrasil


solution for one step expansivity control
and bonding to strengthen and stabilize
the soil

It imparts waterproofing and resists water


ingress through the unpaved areas like
shoulder/slopes
IMPROVED CBR FULL SCARIFICATION

Moisture : 11%, Density : 1.88

Sample CBR Water Expansion


5.0 mm (4 absorb of soil
days soak) (%) inch
Cm/sec

Control 10.5 3.5 1.83

Terrasil + 57.10 0.8 0.08


Cement
Terrasil+ 28.1 0.5 0.31
Zycobond
CEMENT SOIL STABILISATION

Cement stabilized soils lose strength due to


repeated wet & dry cycles

Water ingress causes Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) &


Carbonation to weaken calcium silicate bond

Terrasil prevents capillary rise and water ingress


from top to eliminate ASR & Carbonation

CBR rise upto 100 can be achieved by adding 1


% Cement in Terrasil solution or Terrasil
Zycobond mix treated soil
IMPROVED CBR CRUST REDUCTION
Cm/sec
EROSION CONTROL

Spraying Terrasil : Zycobond : Water (1:0.5:300) solution


on soil, gravel, distressed roads can be a universal
solution to achieve waterproofing and erosion control

Applications can range from surface stabilization of farm


roads, mines, side slopes and preventive maintenance
for distressed bitumen pavements particularly of cities &
rural areas
HAVE GOOD SOILS ? BE GREEN

SAVE FUEL

SAVE COST

USE LOCAL WITH TERRASIL


APPLICATIONS

Granular Sub-Base replacement in paved roads

Granular Sub-Base replacement & reduced thickness of


aggregate & bituminous layers in paved roads

High Load, High Traffic Rural / Mining / Oil & Gas etc.
unsealed roads

Low Load, Low Traffic Rural / Farm unsealed roads


EXECUTED PROJECTS
RUNWAY EXTENSION SUB-GRADE,
ENUGU AIRPORT, NIGERIA
Soil surface leveling Compacted soil layer

Spraying Terrasil Waterproofing confirmation


MULTI LAYER WATERPROOFED RURAL
ROAD, INDIA YEAR 2010

Untreated compacted Spraying Waterproofing confirmation


bottom layer
MULTI LAYER WATERPROOFED RURAL
ROAD, INDIA 4 YEARS PERFORMANCE
CONTROL
2010 2011 2012 2013

Repaired in
2010

TERRASIL & ZYCOSOIL


2010 2011 2012 2013
HONDURAS PROJECT
Scarification Spraying Scarifying treated soil

Compaction after Spraying on Finished top Surface


second spray compacted layer layer
THANK YOU