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Table of Contents

Contents

General Budget 2016

GST 2016

Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code 2016

Union Civil Code

BREXIT

Rio Olympics 2016 Update

Indias Political Journey 70 years

Indias Economic Journey 70 years

Update : Political, Economic, Industries, Art & Culture 2016

Top Events 2016

Top Ideas 2016

Top Issues 2016

Top People 2016

Top Emerging Trend in 2016

Top 20 Companies of India/World

Top 20 Economies of the World

Top 20 Industries of India

Top 20 Sports Personalities of India

Major E-Commerce Acquisition in 2016

Important Appointments 2016

Awards & Honours 2016

Bills & Acts in 2016


Policies & Schemes in 2016

Book & Authors 2016

General Knowledge

Indian Panorama

World Panorama

People Forever

INDIAN HISTORY

Ancient History

Medieval History

Modern History

World History

Polity

Geography

Economy

GENERAL SCIENCE

Physics

Chemistry

Biology

Ecology & Environment

Art, Culture & Tourism

OctoberCommunication, Transport, News & Media

Healthcare

Computers, IT & Technological Innovation

Sports

Indian Panorama
World Panorama

People Forever

INDIAN HISTORY

Ancient History

Medieval History

Modern History

World History

Polity

Geography

Economy

GENERAL SCIENCE

Physics

Chemistry

Biology

Ecology & Environment

Art, Culture & Tourism

OctoberCommunication, Transport, News & Media

Healthcare

Computers, IT & Technological Innovation

Sports

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[ii]

CONTENTS

CURRENT AFFAIRS UPDATE CA-1-28

General Budget 2016

GST 2016

Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code 2016

Union Civil Code

BREXIT 6

Rio Olympics 2016 Update

Indias Political Journey 70 years

Indias Economic Journey 70 years

11
Update : Political, Economic, Industries, Art & Culture 2016

12

Top Events 2016

16

Top Ideas 2016

18

Top Issues 2016

18

Top People 2016

19

Top Emerging Trend in 2016

19

Top 20 Companies of India/World

20

Top 20 Economies of the World

21

Top 20 Industries of India

21

Top 20 Sports Personalities of India

22

Major E-Commerce Acquisition in 2016

23

Important Appointments 2016

23

Awards & Honours 2016


24

Bills & Acts in 2016

26

Policies & Schemes in 2016

27

Book & Authors 2016

27

[iii]

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

Indian Panorama

World Panorama

16

People Forever

30

Indian History

33

Ancient History

33
Medieval History

38

Modern History

42

World History

47

Polity

51

Geography

61

Economy

70

General Science

79

Physics

79

Chemistry

87

Biology
93

Ecology & Environment

101

Art, Culture & Tourism

105

Communication, Transport, News & Media

112

Healthcare

118

Computers, IT & Technological Innovation

119

Sports

123

[iv]
Current Affairs Update
CA-2

Current Affairs Update


Current Affairs Update
CA-3
CA-4

Current Affairs Update


Current Affairs Update

CA-5
CA-6

Current Affairs Update


Current Affairs Update

CA-7

CA-8

Current Affairs Update

INDIAS POLITICAL JOURNEY 70 YEARS

Date/ Period

Events

1946

The Constituent assembly elected in 1946 served as the Parliament

15 Aug. 1947

India became independent

Jawaharlal Nehru becomes the 1st P. M. of Independent India

30 Jan. 1948

Mahatma Gandhi was shot dead Nathuram Godse

India sends troops and took over the State of Hyderabad

Sheikh Abdulla became the Prime Minister of Jammu and Kashmir.

Pakistan adopted Gorila War in J & K but India recaptures Dras, Kar-

gil and Poonch.

26 Nov. 1949

Constitution of India was adopted with a Preamble, 395 Articles & 8

Schedules.

26 Jan. 1950

Constitution of India was enforced & India was declared a republic

State

Rajendra Prasad, 1st President of India


Home Minister Vallabhbhai Patel died on 15 Dec.1950.

1951

Indias first general/Lok Sabha election ( 25 Oct.1951 to 21

Feb.1952) & Indian National Congress won with full majority (75%)

1953

Sheikh Abdulla was dismissed, arrested and Ghulam Mohammed

became the prime minister of Jammu & Kashmir.

1954

French finally gave up its territory Pondicherry to India.

1956

Death of B. R. Ambedkar on 6 Dec. 1956

1957

Second general elections were held in India & Congress won 371

seats

1959

Mrs. Indira Gandhi was elected the president of Indian National

Congress.

1960

The states of Gujarat and Maharashtra came into being on May 1,

1960 & Bombay got allocated to Maharashtra.

1961

Indian troops liberated Goa from Portuguese colony by Operation

Vijay

1962

Congress retained its majority in the general elections (361 seats


out of 494).

1964

Jawaharlal Nehru died. Gulzarilal Nanda was sworn in as acting

prime minister.

Congress Working Committee finalized on Lal Bahadur Shastri as

Nehrus successor. (Other contenders were Tamilian K. Kamraj &

Morarji Desai)

Current Affairs Update

CA-9

1965

Pakistan invaded india over a salt marsh in Kachchh desert forcing

Indians to withdraw some 40 miles.

1966

L.B. Shastri & Pakistani President Ayub Khan met in Taskent along

with the Soviet Union P.M. Kosygin, and signed Taskent Agreemetn.

On the same night Lal Bahadur Shashtri dies in sleep, of cardiac ar-

rest.

Gulzarilal Nanda was (once again) sworn in as acting prime min-

ister.

Indira Gandhi became PM on Congress president Kamraj endorse-

ment for which Morarji Desai was interested.

Punjab and Hariyana divided into separate staes.

1967

4th general elections was held in February & INC got 283 seats.

1969
14 banks were nationalized which was opposed by then Finance Minister

Morarji Desai

1971

The Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 over Bangladesh liberation. Pakistani

troops surrendered & Provisional Government of the Peoples Re-

public of Bangladesh came into being.

5th general elections of India was held 14 months before scheduled

time and Congress returned with 362 seats out of 520

1975

On 26th June 1975 national emergency was declared.

Opposition leaders, including, Jayprakash Narayan, Morarji Desai,

were sent to jail. Sanjay Gandhi became leading political executive

overshading Indira Gandhi

1977

Mrs. Gandhi by surprising opponents dissolved Lok Sabha and gen-

eral elections were held.

The Congress lost around 200 seats. Both Indira Gandhi and Sanjay

Gandhi lost.

Janata Party came with majority & Morarji Desai became PM of India.

1979

Morarji Desai resigned after Janata Party splits into three parts:

headed by Morarji Desai, Jagjivan Ram and Charan Singh.

Charan Singh was sworn as Prime Minster, but a month later Indiras

Congress (I) withdrew support, which forced a mid-term election.

1980
General elections of India was held & INC won 353 seats as a result

Mrs.I.Gandhi became PM. Sanjay Gandhi died in a plane accident.

1984

Indira Gandhi is shot dead by two of her Sikh personal bodyguards.

Rajiv Gandhi became prime minister of India.

8th general elections of India was held & INC won 404 seats.

1989

general elections of India was held & INC won 197 seats. The Janata

Dal led by V P Singh secured 143 seats, BJP 85 & Left

Parties 45 seats. V.P. Singh became PM with support of BJP

& Left parties.

CA-10

Current Affairs Update

1991

Rajiv Gandhi assassinated by suicide bomber sympathetic to Sri

Lanka's Tamil Tigers(LTTE)

10th General elections were held. INC+ got 244, BJP+ 120 & NF got 69

seats. P.V. Narasimha Rao became PM with the support of Left parties.

1992

Babri Mosque in Ayodhya was demolished, triggering widespread

Hindu-Muslim violence.

1996

General elections were held. UF 192(Janata Dal+) won 192, BJP

187, & INC 140 seats.

AB Vajpayee became PM only for 13 days followed by H.D. Deve Gowda


& IK Gujral(Janata Dal). The 11th Lok Sabha produced three Prime

Ministers in two years.

1999

General elections were held. NDA(BJP+) won 254(182+), INC+ 144 &

UF 64 seats. AB Vajpayee became PM.

1999

Kargil war between India & Pakistan. India came as victorious.

2004

General elections were held. UPA got 218, NDA 181 seats & Manmohan

Singh became PM of India.

2009

General elections were held. UPA got 262, NDA 159 seats & Manmohan

Singh became PM of India.

2014

General elections were held. BJP got 282, INC 44. Narendra Modi

became PM of India.

2016

India got entry into Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) group.

Current Affairs Update

CA-11

YEARS

70

INDIA'S ECONOMIC JOURNEY

Update : Political, Economic,


Industries, Art & Culture 2016

Political

LG is the administrative head of National Capital Territory: Delhi High Court ruling.

The Strategic Forces Command (SFC) a part of National Command Authority (NCA) added

to Second Schedule of the RTI Act, 2005 to exempt from RTI purview.

First BRICS Employment Working Group meeting held in Hyderabad, Telangana in July
2016.

Haryana Government has launched Pashudhan Bima Yojana.

The Union Ministry of Earth Sciences announced that India Meteorological Department
(IMD) will use supercomputer to forecast Indias annual summer monsoon based on a
dynamical model.

The Union Cabinet has approved the establishment of a new AIIMS at Bhatind, Punjab.

The Union Government approved ` 1,600 crore for J&K under skill development initiative

Himayat programme.

The Union Rural Development Ministry and ISRO, signed a MoU for geo-tagging the assets
created under MGNREGA in each gram panchayat.

Union Government has asked all state governments to link Aadhaar with caste and domicile
certificates to be issued to school students.
6

Maharashtra Govt. accorded minority status to Jews as per State Minorities Commission
Act.

Union Government banned potassium bromate (KbrO3) as a food additive as it is


carcinogenic.

The Union Finance Ministry announced that NRIs can open National Pension Savings (NPS)
accounts online through eNPS if have Aadhaar Card or Permanent Account Number (PAN).

Union Cabinet approved retirement age of Central Health Services doctors from 62 to 65

years.

Lakshadweep became first UT in the counry to sign 247 Power for All document.

PM Narendra Modi & Sri Lankan President released Simhastha Declaration at Ninora in
Ujjain.

PM Narendra Modi invited to address a joint meeting of the US Congress on June 8, 2016.

India and Mauritius signed MoU to promote cooperation in traditional medicine and

homeopathy.

The 13th edition of India-European Union Summit was held on in Brussels, capital of
Belgium.

Supreme Court approved Union Governments guidelines to protect Good Samaritans, who
help road accident victims.

Union Government approves winding up of National Manufacturing Competitiveness

Council.

President Pranab Mukherjee declares Kerala as first digital state in the country.

Union Government extended e-Tourist Visa Scheme to 37 more countries to make the total
150.

Faustin Archange Touadera won the 2016 Presidential election of Central African Republic
(CAR)

NATO and European Union signed agreement on Cooperation in Cyber Defence to counter

modern forms of hybrid warfare.

Current Affairs Update

CA-13

India-Nepal Combined Military Exercise Surya Kiran IX commenced at Pithoragarh,


Uttarakhand.

First Ministerial Meeting of Arab-India Cooperation Forum held at Manama, capital of

Bahrain.

US lifts nuclear sanctions on Iran after commitments to roll back its nuclear programme.

6
India decided to become member of International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems.

Justice Lodha Committee submitted its report to the Supreme Court on BCCI reforms.

India and Pakistan exchanged the list of their nuclear installations and facilities under the
Agreement on the Prohibition of Attack against Nuclear installations.

Economic

Bank of Japans (BoJ) announced that it is joining the European Central Bank (ECB), the
Swiss National Bank and the central banks of Denmark and Sweden in charging a negative
interest rate on commercial bank reserves.

Union Cabinet increases limit for foreign investment in Stock Exchanges from 5% to 15%.

Permanent Court of Arbitration(PCA) at Hague, Netherlands rules against Antrix


Coroporation in Devas Corporation over sharing of spectrum on satellites.

E-commerce giant Flipkart acquired online fashion portal Jabong through its fashion unit
Myntra.

G-20 Finance ministers and Central Bank Governors meeting held in the Chinese city of
Chengdu pledged to boost the global economy.

The Parliament has passed the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Amendment Bill.

Japans cabinet approved an economic stimulus package worth 275 billion dollars to boost
growth of the worlds third-largest economy.

6
Technocrat Anant Maheshwari is appointed as the President of Microsoft India, a
subsidiary of US based software giant Microsoft Inc.

The fourth tranche of the Sovereign Gold Bonds (SGB) scheme opened for subscription.

Government has fixed 3,119 Rupees per gram as the issue price for the bond in this
tranche.

The Housing Development Finance Corporation (HDFC) has become the first Indian
company to issue rupee-denominated bonds masala bonds on London Stock Exchange

(LSE).

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has set up an inter-regulatory Working Group to study the
regulatory issues relating to Financial Technology (Fintech) and Digital Banking in India.

SBI has signed a MoU with the Society for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (SINE) at IIT

Bombay to promote innovation by start-ups in the financial sector.

Mahindra Aerostructures becomes the first Indian company to receive a direct


manufacturing contract from Airbus (European aviation major) as a Tier 1 supplier.

India set up an apparel training centre in Kaduna, Nigeria to support textiles industry.

India ranks 35th in 2016 Logistics Performance Index: World Bank Report.

People of UK in a historic Brexit referendum have voted in favour of leaving European


Union.

6
The Bharti Group chief, Sunil Bharti Mittal elected as chairman of the International

Chambers of Commerce (ICC).

India has surpassed Japan to become the worlds third-largest oil consumer.

India ranked 2nd on GRD index on ease of doing business by A T Kearney, London.

The National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO) signs MoU with Iran to set up smelter

plant in Chabahar.

Apple Inc opens Development Office in Hyderabad, Telangana.

CA-14

Current Affairs Update

SBI seeks to take over 5 associate PSBs, Bhartiya Mahila Bank. 5 subsidiary banks are: (i)
State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur, (ii) State Bank of Hyderabad, (iii) State Bank of Mysore,
(iv) State Bank of Patiala and (v) State Bank of Travancore.

India and other 5 countries viz. Canada, Iceland, Israel, New Zealand and China have signed
OECDs (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Multilateral
Competent Authority Agreement in Beijing (China).

Industries

The Indian auto industry accounts for 7.1% of the country's GDP.

The Automobile Mission Plan (AMP) for the period 20062016, designed to accelerate and
sustain growth in this sector.
6

The industry has attracted FDI worth US$ 14.32 billion during the period April 2000 to
December 2015.

American car maker Ford has unveiled its iconic Ford Mustang in India within the price
band of ` 45 lakh and ` 50 lakh.

Mahindra Two Wheelers Limited (MTWL) acquired 51 % shares in France-based Peugeot

Motorcycles (PMTC).

L&T Power has won a contract worth ` 3,860 crore from Neyveli Uttar Pradesh Power Ltd.

CAG in a report tabled in Parliament, said 831.88 sq km of KG-D6 area needs to be taken
away from RIL as per the contract because of $1.6 billion of excess cost.

India ranks third, just behind US and China, among 40 countries in renewable energy

production.

Agricultural product is the 4th largest exported principal commodity with a share of 10%

of total exports of the country.

Indian auto component industry grows by 8.8% in FY16 t 2.55 lakh crore.

The civil Aviation Ministry has cleared proposals for small airports in Uttar Pradesh.

6
Tata Advanced Systems Ltd.is tying up with US- Bell Helicopter to compete against the
Mahindra-Airbus combination for a $2-billion naval chopper manufacturing contract.

Government infused ` 22,915 crore into 13 PSU banks to boost lending, balance sheet, etc.

IDFC Bank Ltd will acquire a Tamil Nadu based microfinance institution (MFI),i.e. Grama
Vidiyal.

State Bank of India, has opened its first branch dedicated to serving start-up companies, in
Bengaluru.

Exim Bank of India and the Government of Andhra Pradesh has signed a MoU to promote

exports in the state.

SBI and the World Bank have inked agreements for a $625 million (` 4,200 crore) for Grid-
connected Rooftop solar Programme (GRPV) in the country.

US- medical devices maker Boston Scientific Corp. has agreed for its biggest R&D at
Gurgaon to develop stents, catheters and pacemakers for the Asia Pacific, Middle East and
Africa by 2017.

Nirma, the Ahmedabad-based detergent and soap maker, announced its acquisition of

Lafarge Indias 11-million-tonne (mt) cement business for $1.4 billion (about ` 9,478 crore).

The Indian food industry, currently valued at US$ 39.71 billion is expected to grow 11% to
US$65.4 billion by 2018.

6
The overall gross exports of Gems & Jewellery in April 2016 stood at US$ 3.23 billion,
whereas exports of cut and polished diamonds stood at US$ 1.78 billion.

A total of 3,598 hospitals and 25,723 dispensaries across the country offer AYUSH
(Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy) treatment to the people.

Current Affairs Update

CA-15

The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), agreed for a soft loan of JPY 19.064

billion (US$ 161.2 million) for the project of pollution abatement of Mula-Mutha river in
Pune.

Vice Media LLC(USA) has entered into a Joint Venture with the Times Group to open a new
bureau and production hub in Mumbai through digital, television and mobile.

Art & Culture

UNESCO lists Khangchendzonga National Park and Chandigarh Capitol Complex in World

Heritage Sites.

Kerala Tourism campaign wins Golden City Gate Award at the Internationale Tourismus-

Brse Berlin (ITB-Berlin) 2016.

The 42nd Khajuraho Dance Festival began at Khajuraho in Chhatrapur in Madhya Pradesh.

The 30th Surajkund International Crafts Mela began at Faridabad in Haryana.

6
World famous Rath Yatra of Lord Jagannath begins in the coastal city of Puri at 12th
century Jagannath temple.

Every year World Heritage Day is being observed across the world on April 18. It is also
known as International Day for Monuments and Sites.

Traditional Chapchar Kut festival celebrated across Mizoram.

South Koreas Seong-Jin Cho has won the prestigious 17th international Frederic Chopin
Piano competition.

Canberra based art gallery in Australia has agreed to return a 2,000-year-old Indian-origin
sculpture of Gautama Buddha back to India.

Varanasi and Jaipur became the Creative City Network of UNESCO.

A French scientist claimed a different portrait hidden behind that of the Mona Lisa of
Leonardo da Vinci , created between AD 1503 and 1506 at the Louvre. It is the most valued
painting in the world with its insurance value adjusted for inflation being at $782
million.

Losar festival beings in Ladakh region of J&K.

Annual Hundred Drums Wangala Festival began in Meghalaya.

Australian art gallery to return 2000 year old Buddha idol to India.

6
The Central Board of Film Certification had asked makers of film Udta Punjab to remove
all references to Punjab.

A team of Italian and Pakistani archaeologists unearthed layers of an Indo-Greek city in


Barikot of Swat valley, Pakistan.

Nearly thousand year old inscription on Kapalikas has been discovered in Raichur,
Karnataka.

Recently, United States initiated the process of returning over 200 stolen artifacts back to
India.

500 years old MUD PALACE in Sural village, close to Udupi in Karnataka is madeover. It
has no foundation and is supported by wooden pillars using the inter-locking method.

BHARATVANI portal launched at Lucknow to deliver knowledge about various languages

in India. It is a project of the Ministry of HRD implemented by Central Institute of Indian


Languages (CIIL) Mysuru.

Narikurava tribe from Tamil Nadu recently included in the Scheduled Tribe category by the
Union Government.

The Ministry of Tourism is set to announce the Buddhist Circuit as Indias first trans-
national tourist circuit. Its map includes Bodh Gaya, Vaishali, Rajgir in Bihar, Kushinagar,
Sarnath and Shravasthi in UP, along with Kapilvastu and Lumbini in Nepal.

IIT Kharagpur and ASI published in the Nature journal that Indus Valley Civilization might
be 8000 years old rather than 5500.
Top Events 2016

THE NEW COUNCIL OF MINISTERS AT THE CENTRE

S.no Portfolio

Name

Union Council of Ministers

Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, Department of Narendra Modi

Atomic Energy, Department of Space, All important policy

issues and All other portfolios not allocated to any Minister

Cabinet Ministers

Home Affairs

Raj Nath Singh

External Affairs

Smt. Sushma Swaraj

Finance, Corporate Affairs

Arun Jaitley

Urban Development, Housing and Urban Poverty Allevia- M. Venkaiah Naidu

tion, Information & Broadcasting

Road Transport and Highways, Shipping

Nitin Jairam Gadkari


6

Defence

Manohar Parrikar

Railways

Suresh Prabhu

Statistics & Programme Implementation

D.V. Sadananda Gowda

Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation Sushri Uma Bharati

10

Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution

Ramvilas Paswan

11

Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

Kalraj Mishra

12

Women and Child Development

Smt. Maneka Sanjay Gandhi

13

Chemicals and Fertilizers, Parliamentary Affairs

Ananthkumar

14

Law & Justice, Electronics & Information Technology


Ravi Shankar Prasad

15

Health and Family Welfare

Jagat Prakash Nadda

16

Civil Aviation

Ashok Gajapathi Raju Pusapati

17

Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises

Anant Geete

18

Food Processing Industries

Smt. Harsimrat Kaur Badal

19

Rural Development, Panchayati Raj, Drinking Water Narendra Singh Tomar

and Sanitation

20

Steel

Chaudhary Birender Singh

21

Tribal Affairs

Jual Oram

22

Agriculture & Farmers Welfare

Radha Mohan Singh


23

Social Justice and Empowerment

Thawar Chand Gehlot

24

Textiles

Smt. Smriti Zubin Irani

25

Science and Technology, Earth Sciences

Dr. Harsh Vardhan

26

Human Resource Development

Prakash Javadekar

Current Affairs Update

CA-17

Telugu writer Kalakaluri Enoch conferred 6

President Pranab Mukherjee on 27th

with Moortidevi Award of Bharatiya

February declared Kerala as the first digital

Jnanpith

state in the country.

The World Tourism Day (WTD) is being 6 PM Narendra Modi launched the Rs. 50,000

observed annual y on 27th September to

crore Setu Bharatam project on 4th March.


raise awareness about the importance of 6 The project aims to make all national

tourism. 2016 Theme: Tourism for all

highways free from railway level crossing by

promoting universal accessibility. It seeks

2019 to ensure road safety.

to spread both the importance and immense 6 The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and
benefits universal accessibility of tourism.

a test stationary lander called Schiaparelli

Indian womens kabaddi team wins gold

were launched on 14th March 2016 on a

medal in Asian Beach Games

Proton rocket. The spacecraft will arrive in

India has been ranked 39th among the

the Martian orbit in October 2016.

138 countries in the 2016-17 Global 6 According to the UNIDO report ranked

Competitiveness Index (GCI). The index

India sixth among the worlds 10 largest

was released as part of the World Economic

manufacturing countries, up by three

Forums (WEF) Global Competitiveness

positions.

Report for 2016-17.

6
The 6th Heart of Asia (HoA) - Istanbul

India has won the test match against New

Ministerial Process was held in New Delhi

Zealand by 197-runs in their historic 500th

on 26 April, 2016.

cricket Test in Kanpur.

Union Governments Unnat Jyoti by

The International Day of Peace is observed

Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA) was

across the world on 21 September every year

launched on 30th April in Madhya Pradesh.

to strengthening the ideals of peace, both 6 India successful y test-fired its indigenously
within and among all nations and peoples.

developed Advanced Air Defence (AAD)

2016 Theme: The Sustainable Development

supersonic interceptor missile from an

Goals: Building Blocks for Peace.

Abdul Kalam Island launch complex in

The International Democracy Day is being

Balasore.
observed every year on 15 September to 6

raise public awareness about the democratic

US space agency NASA successful y

system.

deployed the first experimental inflatable

room attached to the International Space

The National Hindi Divas, an annual literary-

Station.

day is being observed on 14 September in

Hindi speaking regions of India and other 6

World Health Organisation (WHO)

countries with Hindi speaking population.

announced, Thailand has become the first

country in Asia to eliminate mother-to-

SBI has launched dedicated specialized

branch for start-ups called SBI InCube in

child transmission of HIV and syphilis.

Bengaluru, Karnataka.

Goods and Services Tax bill (the 122nd

Constitution Amendment Bill) has been

6
Tsai Ing-wen (59) has been elected as first

female and 14th President of Taiwan.

passed by the Rajya Sabha in July.

India has joined the Missile Technology

ISRO launched PSLV-C31 rocket

successful y, carrying 5th satellite (out of

Control Regime (MTCR) on 27th June as a

7) of India Regional Navigation Satellite

full member.

System (IRNSS).

NASAs Juno spacecraft successful y slipped

Google parent Alphabet Inc. has replaced its

into orbit in July 2016 around Jupiter on

Silicon Valley rival Apple Inc. to become the

a mission to probe the origin of the solar

worlds most valuable company. The rise in

system.

Alphabets shares by 1.7 percent has pushed 6

Hindi academic and author Sunita Jain was

its market capitalization to $531 billion.

conferred with the prestigious 25th Vyas


6

BHEL has commissioned a 101 MW

Samman 2015. She was presented with

gas-based Combined Cycle Power Plant

the award by West Bengal Governor K N

(CCPP) on Engineering, Procurement and

Tripathi.

Construction (EPC) basis, in Tripura.

Real Madrid's Portuguese forward Cristiano

Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the

Ronaldo was awarded the Best Men's player

National Rurban Mission from Kurubhat,

in Europe at the ending of the UEFA

in Rajnandgaon district of Chhattisgarh on

Champions League Group stage draw

21st February.

ceremony, on 25th August, 2016 in Monaco.

CA-18

Current Affairs Update

Top Ideas 2016

A team led by an Indian-origin scientist

manufactured the worlds lightest material


Ashutosh Tiwari in US has discovered a

called silica aerogel or blue air.

new kind of 2D semiconducting material 6

Worlds first public dengue vaccination

for electronics which opens the door for

programme was launched in Philippines

much speedier computers and smartphones

on April 4th with nurses injecting the first

that consume a lot less power.

batch of a million children with a French

Union Minister of Health and Family

drug to combat the deadly disease.

Welfare on 21st March launched 6

Scientists at the Vikram Sarabhai Space

Bedaquiline - new anti-TB drug for Drug

Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, recently

Resistant TB as part of the RNTCP (Revised

manufactured the worlds lightest material

called silica aerogel or blue air.

National Tuberculosis Control Program) on 6 China has developed the worlds first

the eve of World TB Day.

graphene electronic paper which will

Worlds first public dengue vaccination


catapult the material to a new level.

programme was launched in Philippines 6 BJP government in Haryana has started

on April 4th with nurses injecting the first

the process for merger of its two power

batch of a million children with a French

distribution corporations, Dakshin Haryana

drug to combat the deadly disease.

Bijli Vitran Nigam (DHBVN) and Uttar

Scientists at the Vikram Sarabhai Space

Haryana Bijli Vitran Nigam (UHBVN), into

Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, recently

a single unit.

Top Issues 2016

Union Health Minister J.P. Nadda launched

the resolution 64/35, which was adopted

the Project Sunrise for prevention of AIDS

unanimously.

in the eight North-Eastern states.

South India's first Children's Court was

Pakistans Sindh Assembly passed first the

inaugurated in Hyderabad on 24th August,


Hindu Marriage Bill in Pakistan.

giving a push to fast disposal of cases related

March 22nd was celebrated as World Water

to children.

Day to generate global awareness among 6

Karnataka government has released water

people on the importance of fresh water.

from the river Cauvery to the neighboring

21st March was observed as the International

state of Tamil Nadu on 6th September,

Day of Forests to raise awareness about all

abiding by a Supreme Court order that

types of forests, and trees outside forests, for

numerous angry farmers protested by

the benefit of current and future generations.

standing in the river water.

The Nitish Kumar government declared 6

The International Day for the Preservation

Bihar a dry State on 5th April while

of the Ozone Layer is observed every year

imposing total prohibition on the sale and

on September 16 for the preservation of the


consumption of liquor, with immediate

Ozone Layer.

effect.

The International Literacy Day is being

Scientists have for the first time cloned the

observed 08 September every year to

Zika virus, a development that could bring

emphasize the importance of literacy to

a desperately needed vaccine within closer

individuals, society and communities

reach.

This year, the world is celebrating 50th

The International Day against Nuclear Tests

International Literacy Day. The day was

is observed on August 29. It was established

established in 1966 by the United Nations

on December 2, 2009 at the 64th session of

Educational, Scientific and Cultural

the United Nations General Assembly by

Organization (UNESCO).

Current Affairs Update

CA-19
Top People 2016

The DSC Prize for South Asian Literature 6

Jammu-born poet and novelist Padma

2016 has been conferred upon Anuradha

Sachdev has been chosen for the prestigious

Roy for her novel Sleeping on Jupiter at the

Saraswati Samman for the year 2015 for her

Fairway Galle Literary Festival in Sri Lanka.

autobiography in Dogri language.

Veteran actor Manoj Kumar was conferred

with the 47th Dadasaheb Phalke Award for 6

Trinamool Congress Mamata Banerjee

the year 2015.

sworn in as the chief minister of West

British mathematician Sir Andrew Wiles

Bengal for the second consecutive term.

has won 2016s recipient of the Abel prize 6 The former world heavyweight champion

which is widely regarded as the Nobel for

Muhammad Ali died late on 3rd June

mathematics.

2016, Friday at a hospital in the US city of

6
Mehbooba Mufti, president of the Peoples

Democratic Party, took the oath as the

Phoenix, Arizona

first woman Chief Minister of Jammu and 6

Rodrigo Duterte was sworn in as the 16th

Kashmir on 4th April.

President of Philippines.

Top Emerging Trends 2016

Sl.

Trends

Information / Issues

1.

Geopolitical instability

Strained US Sino relations

Europes migrant crisis and violence

Russia West political tension

2.

Global extremism

ISIS extremism in Syria and Iraq

Fascism, extremism and violence spiking in G20

countries

3.

U.S. economic growth

Consolidation of the labor and housing markets

Consumer expenditure has risen


Wage stagnation and income disparity still an issue

4.

Post BRICS emerging markets

Global growth drivers shifting to Pacific Basin

Countries with heterodox economic policies (Venezu-

ela) and high geopolitical risk (Russia) will be badly

tormented

Indian economy expected to do well

5.

Slump in commodity pricing

A 13 15 year period of low commodity pricing

In equilibrium between global supply and demand

US expected to benefit from oil renaissance

Higher consumer expenditure is on the cards

6.

Global climate change

Increased frequency of extreme weather events

Economic costs to increase

Global warming leading to increase in sea levels

El Nino to propel a record storm session in the

Northern Hemisphere

7.

Depopulation grievances

Outward migration in emerging markets

Rapid aging in developed markets like Canada


Debate about sustainable retirement and age old advantages

CA-20

Current Affairs Update

8.

IT Revolution Version 2.0

IT revolution to customize consumer goods and

retail experiences

Adoption of predictive analytics and learning apps

Development in mobile phones

9.

Cyber insecurity

Cyber espionage on the rise

Civilian distrust

Privacy Vs Surveillance issue

10.

Rise of the machines

Technological sophistication is on the rise

Unmanned systems and robotics is gaining priority

TOP 20 COMPANIES OF THE WORLD (AS PER ANNUAL TURNOVER)

Sl.

Company /Country

CEOs Name

Industry

Employee Turnover

Strength
(US$)bln.

1.

Walmart/USA

C. Mcmillon

Retail

2,20,000

482

2.

Sinopec Group/China

Fu Chengyu

Oil and Gas

3,58,571

455

3.

China National Petroleum Wang Y.

Oil and Gas

1,636,532

428

Corporation/China

4.

Saudi Aramco/Saudi

Amin Nasser

Oil and Gas

60,000

338
5.

State Grid/China

Liu Zhenya

Power

1,564,000

333

6.

Samsung/South Korea

Dr. Oh Hyun Conglomer- 4,89,000

305

Kwon

ate

7.

Royal Dutch Shell/London

Ben Van Beur- Oil and Gas

94,000

273

den

8.

Vitol/Europe

Ian Taylor

Commodities 5,441

270

9.

Exxon Mobil/USA
Rex Tillerson

Oil and Gas

75,300

268

10.

Kuwait Petroleum/Kuwait

Nizar Adsani

Oil and Gas

45,000

252

11.

Volkswagen/Germany

Matthias uller

Automotive

5,72,800

245

12.

Apple/USA

Tim Cook

Consumer

1,15,000

234

Electronics

13.

Toyota/Japan
Akio Toyoda

Automotive

3,44,109

227

14.

BP/UK

Bob Dudley

Oil and Gas

83,900

223

15.

Glencore/Europe

Ivan Glasen- Commodities 1,81,000

221

berg

16.

Total/Europe

Patrick Pouy- Oil and Gas

1,00,307

212

anne

17.

Berkshire Hathaway/USA

Warren Buffet

Conglomer- 3,16,000
211

ate

18.

McKesson/USA

John Hammer- Pharmaceu- 32,000

179

gren

ticals

19.

China Railway/China

Sheng Guangzu Transport

2,045,600

163

20.

Philips 66

Greg Garland

Oil and Gas

13,500

161

Current Affairs Update

CA-21

TOP 20 ECONOMIES OF THE WORLD (AS PER NOMINAL GDP)

Sl.

Country

President
Nominal GDP (in

trillion dollars)

1.

United States of America

Barrack Obama

17.95

2.

China

Xi Jinping

10.98

3.

Japan

Shinzo Abe

4.12

4.

Germany

Joachim Gauck

3.36

5.

United Kingdom

Elizabeth-II

2.85

6.

France

Francois Hollande
2.42

7.

India

Pranab Mukherjee

2.09

8.

Italy

Sergio Mattarella

1.16

9.

Brazil

Michel Temer

1.77

10.

Canada

Justin Trudeau (PM) 1.55

11.

South Korea

Park Geun - Hye

1.30

12.

Russia

Vladimir Putin

1.17

13.
Spain

Mariano Rajoy (PM) 1.2

14.

Australia

Tony Abbott

1.2

15.

Mexico

Enrique Nieto

1.07

16.

Indonesia

Joko Widodo

0.93

17.

Netherlands

Mark Rutte (PM)

0.76

18.

Turkey

Tayyip Erdogan

0.75

19.

Switzerland

Johann Scneider - 0.65


Ammann

20.

Saudi Arabia

Salman bin

0.61

Abdulaziz Al Saud

TOP 20 INDUSTRIES OF INDIA (BASED ON THE COMPOUNDED AN-

NUAL GROWTH RATE)

Sl.

Industry

Giant

CAGR (%)

1.

Healthcare

The Apollo Hospitals

23

2.

Biotechnology

Biocon

20

3.

Oil and Gas

BPCL

16.89

4.
Education

Educomp

16

5.

Pharmaceutical

Sun Pharma

15

6.

Media and Entertainment

Zee Entertainment

14.3

7.

Research & Development

Tata Motors

14

8.

Agriculture

DuPont India

13.8

CA-22

Current Affairs Update

9.

Infrastructure

Larsen & Toubro

13.1
10.

Retail

Reliance Retail Ltd.

13

11.

Consumer Market

HUL

13

12.

Insurance

LIC / ICICI Prudential

12 15

13.

Real Estate

DLF

11.2

14.

Bank

HDFC

11.14

15.

Manufacturing

Aditya Birla Group

11.1

16.
Food Processing

Nestle India

11

17.

Aviation

Indigo Airlines

10.5

18.

ITES

TCS

9.5

19.

Automobiles

The Escorts Group

9.4

20.

Cement

ACC

6.7

TOP 20 SPORTSTERS OF INDIA

Sl.

Name

Sport

Awards / Titles / Honours

1.
Sachin Tendulkar

Cricket

Bharat Ratna

2.

Milkha Singh

Athletics

The Flying Sikh

3.

Vishwanathan Anand

Chess

Padma Vibhushan

4.

Leander Paes

Tennis

Padma Bhushan

5.

Balbir Singh Sr.

Hockey

Olympic Record Most Goals

6.

Kapil Dev

Cricket

Arjuna Award

7.

Pullela Gopichand
Badminton

Padma Bhushan

8.

Prakash Padukone

Badminton

Arjuna Award

9.

Sania Mirza

Tennis

Padma Bhushan

10.

Saina Nehwal

Badminton

Padma Bhushan

11.

Baichung Bhutia

Football

Padma Shri

12.

Dhyan Chand

Hockey

Dhyan Chand Award was started to

felicitate him

13.

Sushil Kumar
Wrestling

Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna

14.

Sourav Ganguly

Cricket

Arjuna Award

15.

Mahendra Singh Dhoni Cricket

Padma Shri

16.

Jeev Milkha Singh

Golf

Padma Shri

17.

PV. Sindhu

Badminton

Silver in Olympic 2016

18.

Abhinav Bindra

Air Rifle Shooting

Padma Bhushan

19.

Sakshi Malik

Wrestling

Silver in Olympic 2016


20.

Dipa Karmakar

Gymnastics

Arjuna Award

Current Affairs Update

CA-23

MAJOR E-COMMERCE ACQUISITONS

Sl.

Alliance / Mergers

Industry / Business Type

1.

Walmart and Jet.com

Retail

2.

Mahindra and BabyOye

Online Retail (Baby Products)

3.

FoodPanda and JustEat India

Food Joints

4.

Bookmyshow acquired Ticketgreen

Online movie ticket booking

5.

Future Group and Amazon

Online shopping
6.

Croma and Snapdeal

Online shopping

7.

Flipkart and Letsbuy

Online shopping

8.

Fashion and you and Urbanclap

Online shopping

9.

Redbus and Ibibo

Online Transport Booking

10.

Snapdeal and Freecharge

Online recharge

MAJOR APPOINTMENTS IN 2016 15. D Rajkumar appointed as CMD of BPCL

1. RK Pachnanda appointed as DG of Na-

16. Sudarshan Sen appointed Executive Di-

tional Disaster Response Force

rector of RBI

2. Sudhir Pratap Singh appointed as DG of 17. NS Vishwanathan appointed as deputy


National Security Guard

governor of RBI

3. OP Singh appointed as DG of CISF

18. Sujoy Bose appointed as first CEO of NIIF


4. Alka Sirohi appointed as UPSC chairman

19. BCCI appoints Anil Kumble as the head

coach of Indian Cricket Team

5. BHVS Narayana Murthy appointed Direc-

tor of Research Centre Imarat

20. Ken Miyauchi appointed as President and

COO of SoftBank Group

6. CK Asnani appointed as CMD of Uranium 21. Hollywood actress Anne Hathaway ap-
Corporation of India Limited

pointed as UN Women Goodwill Ambas-

7. Urjit Patel assumes charge as 24th RBI

sador

Governor

22. Peter Thomson elected as President of

8. K M Hanumantharayappa assumes

71st session of United Nations General

charge as Chairman of Central Silk Board

Assembly

9. Dinesh Kumar Khara appointed as Man-

23. Navin Agarwal appointed as DG of NADA

aging Director of SBI

24. Admiral Sunil Lanba takes charge as

Navy chief

10. Anant Maheshwari appointed as Presi-

dent of Microsoft India


25. Bhupendra Kainthola takes charge as

FTII Director

11. Rani Singh Nair appointed as Chairman

of CBDT

26. CP Gurnani appointed as Chairman of

NASSCOM

12. Ajay Bhushan Pandey appointed as CEO

of UIDAI

27. Justice Permod Kohli appointed as Chair-

man of Central Administrative Tribunal

13. Guruprasad Mohapatra appointed as 28. Htin Kyaw elected as first civilian Presi-
Chairman of Airports Authority of India

dent of Myanmar

14. Rakesh Kumar Chaturvedi appointed as 29. Lt Gen N P S Hira appointed Deputy Chief
Chairman of CBSE

of Army

CA-24

Current Affairs Update

30. Justice Balbir Singh Chauhan appointed 35. Ashok Chawla appointed as new Chair-as
Chairman of 21st Law Commission of

man of TERI

India

36. DJ Pandian appointed AIIB Vice-Presi-

31. Vice Admiral Atul Kumar Jain appointed

dent

as Chief of Staff of Eastern Naval Com-


mand

37. Archana Ramasundram becomes 1st

woman DG of Sashastra Seema Bal

32. Former CJI HL Dattu takes over as Chair-

man of NHRC

38. K Durga Prasad appointed as DG of CRPF

33. Rajendra Singh appointed as DG of Coast 39. RK Mathur sworn in as 8th Chief Infor-
Guard

mation Commissioner

34. KN Vyas appointed as Director of Bhabha 40. Amitabh Kant appointed CEO of NITI
Atomic Research Centre

Aayog

Awards and Honours

Moortidevi Award of Bharatiya Jnanpith - 2016 Dhyan Chand -Satti Geetha (Athlet-
Telugu writer Kalakaluri Enoch

ics), Sylvanus Dung Dung (Hockey) and

Tamil film Visaranai selected as Indias of-

Rajendra Pralhad Shelke (Rowing).

ficial entry to Oscars 2017

Actor Kamal Haasan selected for Frances

Kiran M Shaw appointed Knight of Legion

Chevalier de LOrdre Arts et Lettres

of Honor by France

IOA President N Ramachandran bestowed

Bezwada Wilson, TM Krishna receive 2016

with Olympic Order award


Magsaysay Award

AR Rahman honoured with Tamil Ratna

Padma Sachdev awarded 2015 Saraswati

Award

Samman

Shubha Mudgal selected for Rajiv Gandhi

2016 Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award-PV

National Sadbhavana Award

Sindhu (Badminton), Sakshi Malik (Wres-

51st Jnanpith Award conferred on Gujarati

tling), Dipa Karmakar (Gymnastics) and

writer Dr. Raghuveer Chaudhari

Jitu Rai (Shooting).

Four Indian-Americans honoured with

2016 Dronacharya Award - : Naga-

2016 Great Immigrants Award in US

puri Ramesh (Athletics),Sagar Mal Four Indian-Americans are-

Dhayal (Boxing), Raj Kumar Sharma

(Cricket),Bishweshwar Nandi (Gymnas-

Sunder Pichai

tics), S. Pradeep Kumar (Swimming) and Hari Sreenivasan

Mahabir Singh (Wrestling).

Vikram Malhotra

2016 Arjuna Award -Rajat Chauhan (Ar-

chery), Lalita Babar (Athletics),Sourav Bharati Mukherjee


Kothari (Billiards & Snooker), Shiva Thapa PM Narendra Modi conferred Afghani-

(Boxing),Ajinkya Rahane (Cricket), Subrata

stans highest civilian honour Amir

Paul (Football), Rani (Hockey),Raghunath

Amanullah Khan Award,

V.R. (Hockey), Gurpreet Singh (Shooting), AR Rahman conferred with Japans Fukuo-

Apurvi Chandela (Shooting), Soumyajit

ka prize 2016

Ghosh (Table Tennis),Vinesh (Wrestling),

Amit Kumar (Wrestling), Sandeep Singh South Korean author Han Kang wins 2016

Mann (Para-Athletics) and Virender Singh

Man Booker International Prize for her

(Wrestling).

novel The Vegetarian.

Current Affairs Update

CA-25

Best Actor: Amitabh Bachchan (Piku)

PM Narendra Modi conferred Saudi Ara-

Best Actress: Kangana Ranaut (Tanu Weds

bias highest civilian honour-the King Ab-

Manu Returns).

dulaziz Sash.

Best Direction: Sanjay Leela Bhansali (Ba-

Playback Singer P. Susheela enters Guin-

jirao Mastani).
ness World Records for singing highest

number of songs.

Best Film on Social Issues: Niranayakam

(Malayalam) directed by V. K. Prakash.

Indira Gandhi International Airport wins

three international awards

Best Supporting Actor: Samuthirakani for

the film Visaranai (Tamil).

Retained Worlds number one airport for

consecutive second year in 25 to 40 Million

Best Supporting Actress: Tanvi Azmi for

Passengers Per Annum (MPPA) category.

the film Bajirao Mastani (Hindi).

Best airport by size & region Asia Pacific

Best Childrens Film: Duronto (Hindi) di-

rected by Soumnedra Padhi.

(25-40 MPPA).

Best Child Artist: Gaurav Menon for the Second best airport by region (Asia Pa-film Ben
(Malayalam).

cific).

Special Jury Award: Margarita with a Straw Oscar Awards: 88th Academy

(Hindi) directed by Kalki Koechlin.

Awards

Best Cinematography: Sudeep Chatterjee Best Picture: Spotlight.

for the film Bajirao Mastani (Hindi).


Best Actor: Leonardo DiCaprio (The Rev-

Indira Gandhi Award for Best Debut Film

enant).

of a Director: Neeraj Ghaywan for the film

Masaan (Hindi).

Best Actress: Brie Larson (Room)

Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film Best Supporting Actor: Mark Rylance on
National Integration: Nanak Shah Fakir

(Bridge of Spies)

(Punjabi) directed by Sartaj Singh Pannu.

Best Supporting Actress: Alicia Vikander

Swat activist Tabassum Adnan wins 2016

(The Danish Girl). Best Director: Alejandro

Nelson Mandela Award

G. Irritu (The Revenant). Best Original

Screenplay: Tom McCarthy (Spotlight).

List of 2016 Pulitzer Prize Winners

Yes Bank wins inaugural Green Bond

Books, Drama and Music

Award in UK

Fiction: The Sympathizer by Viet Thanh Malayalam film Ottal named best chil-Nguyen.

drens film at Berlin International Film

Drama:

Hamilton by Lin-Manuel Miranda.

Festival
History:

Custers Trials: A Life on the Fron-

Sarangi maestro Ram Narayan chosen for

tier of a New America by T.J. Stiles.

Bhimsen Joshi Award

Biography:

Barbarian Days: A Surfing Life 2016 Padma Vibhushan Awards

by William Finnegan,

Rajinikanth-Art-Cinema

Poetry:

Ozone Journal by Peter Balakian.

Music: In for a Penny, In for a Pound by Hen-

Girija Devi- Art-Classical Vocal

ry Threadgill.

Ramoji Rao -Literature & Education

World No 1 tennis player Novak Djokovic Dr. Viswanathan Shanta Medicine- Oncol-from
Serbia has won the 2016 Laureus

ogy

Sportsman of the Year Award.

Viswanathan Anand conferred with 2016 Shri Shri Ravi Shankar-Spiritualism

Hridaynath Mangeskar Award

Jagmohan- Public Affairs

CA-26

Current Affairs Update

Padma Bhushan Awards


Dr. Yarlagadda Lakshmi Prasad -Literature

Anupam Kher -Art-Cinema

& Education

Udit Narayan Jha Art-Playback Singing

Prof. N. S. Ramanuja Tatacharya -Litera-

ture & Education

Ram V. Sutar -Art-Sculpture

Dr. Barjinder Singh Hamdard- Literature

Heisnam Kanhailal- Art-Theatre

& Education

Vinod Rai- Civil Service

Prof. D. Nageshwar Reddy -Medicine-Gas-

troenterology

Bills & Acts 2016

Union Cabinet approves Admiralty (Juris-

Union Cabinet approves Transgender Per-

diction and Settlement of Maritime Claims)

sons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2016

Bill, 2016

Parliament passes Insolvency and Bank-

Rajya Sabha passes Maternity Benefits

ruptcy Code Bill, 2016

(Amendment) Bill, 2016

Parliament Passes Anti-Hijacking Bill, 2016

Parliament passes Central Agricultural Uni-


versity (Amendment) Bill, 2016

Parliament passes Mines and Minerals

Amendment Bill, 2016

Lok Sabha passes Taxation Laws (Amend-

ment) Bill, 2016

Real Estate (Regulation and Development)

Act, 2016 comes into force

Parliament passes Enforcement of Secu-

rity Interest and Recovery of Debts Laws Parliament passes Industries (Development
Amendment Bill, 2016

and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2015

Lok Sabha passes Employees Compensa-

Parliament passes Constitution (Scheduled

tion (Amendment) Bill, 2016

Castes) Order (Amendment) Bill, 2016

Parliament passes The Constitution (122nd Parliament passes Sikh Gurdwaras (Amend-
Amendment) (GST) Bill, 2014

ment) Bill, 2016

Rajya Sabha passes Mental Health Care Bill

Maharashtra becomes first state to pass law

Union Cabinet approves Motor Vehicle

against social boycott

(Amendment) Bill, 2016

Haryana Assembly unanimously passes

Benami transaction bill passed in Rajya Sabha


Reservation Bill

Parliament passes Institutes of Technology Union Government notifies Aadhaar Act,


(Amendment) Bill, 2016

2016

Parliament passes Indian Medical Council Lok Sabha passes Enemy Property (Amend-

(Amendment Bill), 2016

ment and Validation) Bill, 2016

Parliament passes NIT, Science Education & Parliament passes Carriage by Air amend-
Research (Amendment) Bill, 2016

ment Bill, 2015

Parliament passes Compensatory Afforesta-

Lok Sabha passes Election Laws (Amend-

tion Fund Bill, 2016

ment) Bill, 2016

Lok Sabha passes Lokpal and Lokayukta Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities)
(Amendment) Bill, 2016

Amendment Act, 2015 came into force

Parliament passes Child Labour (Prohibi-

The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of

tion and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2016

Children) Act, 2015 comes into force

Lok Sabha passes Bill for new NIT in Andhra President gives assent to The Sugar Cess
Pradesh

(Amendment) Bill, 2015

Current Affairs Update

CA-27
Policies and Schemes 2016

Odisha Government launches Biju Kanya Income Declaration Scheme 2016

Ratna Yojana

Andhra Pradesh Government launches

Union Government notifies National Ap-

Chandranna Bima Yojana

prenticeship Promotion Scheme

Union Government launches UJALA Scheme

Indian Railways launches insurance scheme

for passengers travelling on e- ticket

Jharkhand Government launches Bhimrao

Ambedkar Awas Yojana for widows

PM Narendra Modi launches Mission Bhagi-

ratha in Telangana

Odisha Government launches Adarsh Vidya-

laya Project

Odisha Government launches Baristha Bu-

nakar Sahayata Yojana

Union Cabinet gives nod to implementation

of One Rank One Pension Scheme

Union Government launches MAA, nation-

wide breast feeding programme

PM Narendra Modi launches Stand up India

scheme for SC/ST, women

Haryana Government launches Pashudhan


Bima Yojana

Union Cabinet gives nod to implementation

of Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana Gramin

Rajasthan becomes first state to approve

sewage & waste water policy

Karnataka launches Mukhyamantri Sant-

wana Harish Yojana for free treatment to

Union Government launches KVK portal for

accident victims

monitoring of farm centres

Swachh Himachal Padhai bhi, Safai bhi

Namami Gange projects for cleaning river

Ganga launched

Udyam Aakansha scheme to promote SMEs

Union Cabinet approves National Appren-

National Capital Goods Policy 2016

ticeship Promotion Scheme

Bihar becomes sixth state to join UDAY

Union Cabinet Approves Interest Subven-

Scheme

tion Scheme for farmers for year 2016-17

Rashtriya Gram Swaraj Abhiyan

Union Government launches National Green Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana

Highways Mission

National Dialysis Services Programme


Union Government approve Ramayana &

Krishna Circuits under Swadesh Darshan Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana

Scheme

Books and Authors 2016

Driven: The Virat Kohli Story Vijay Loka-

AB The autobiography: AB De Villiers

pally

Citizen and Society: Hamid Ansari

Democrats and Dissenters: Ramachandra The Ocean of Churn: How the Indian Ocean
Guha

Shaped Human History: Sanjeev Sanyal

One Indian girl: Chetan Bhagat

R D Burmania: Panchamemoirs- Chaitanya

Six Machine (I Don't Like Cricket ... I Love Padukone

It): Chris Gayle

India Rising: Fresh Hope, New Fears- Ravi

His Bloody Project: Graeme Macrae Burnet

Velloor

CA-28

Current Affairs Update

The Great Derangement: Climate Change The Kiss of Life- Emraan Hashmi

and the Unthinkable- Amitav Ghosh

Anything But Khamosh: The Shatrughan

Courage & Commitment- Margaret Alva

Sinha Biography- Bharathi S Pradhan


India vs Pakistan: Why Cant we just be Gandhi: An Illustrated Biography- Pramod
Friends? - Husain Haqqani

Kapoor

Chaos and Caliphate: Jihadis and the West in Fixed! Cash and Corruption in Cricket-
Jour-the Struggle for the Middle East- Patrick Cock-

nalist Shantanu Guha Ray

burn

Who was Shivaji?- Govind Pansare

A Call to Mercy: Hearts to Love, Hands to A Kingdom for His Love- Vani Mahesh, Shinie
Serve- Mother Teresa

Antony

The Unseen Indira Gandhi: Dr KP Mathur

Nathuram Godse: The Story of an Assassin-

Anup Ashok Sardesai

A Life in Diplomacy: Maharajakrishna Ras-

gotra

The Turbulent Years, Volume II- President

Pranab Mukherjee

Blood on my Hands: Confessions of Staged The Z Factor-

Encounters- Kishalay Bhattacharjee

Subhash Chandra

Jawaharlal Nehru and The Indian Polity in

The Making of India: The Untold Story of Perspective- Hamid Ansari

British Enterprises- Kartar Lalvani

MARU BHARAT SARU BHARAT- Jain Acharya

A State in Denial- BG Verghese


Maharaj

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or

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ari

vacha

Tribes

Andh, Bag Bhil, K

Abor Apatani

Mikirs, Khasis, Nag

Gonda, Mundas, Gaur

Ag Baig

Dhodia, Dubla (Halpati),

Bhils, Bar Ba

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e

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ar

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ee

Danc

Kuchi pudi

Bar

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Bidesia Ka jari

Panthi, R Nacha

Dekhnni, Fugdi

Rass-g

Saang, Dhamal

e,

anti

eej, Lohri,

vals

ear

yanti, y.& y

amdeo

ar Sankr

ali T

Festi
G.Ja I.Da R. Da

Sankranti, Ugadi

Losar or The New Y

Bihu

Chhath

Bastar Dusser Bhor

Ganesh Chaturthi

Mak

Hary

Indian Panorama

sity

per

ORIES

P. Den Sq. Km

382

308

17

397

1,102

189

394 sq km.

310/

573

acy age

erLit Aver % 73%


67.7%

66.95%

63.4%

71.04%

88.70%

79.31%

76.64%

Sex Ratio /1000

940

992

920/ 1000

916

991

968

918

877

ed

ATES & UNION TERRIT

Establish Year

15-08-1947

01-10-1953

20-02-1987

1st April 1912


1st April 1936

1-11-2000

30-05- 1987

01-05-1960

01-11-1966

INDIAN ST

vi

ali,

ani

ati

an

du

hattis hi, Hindi

Language

No National Language

Telegu, Ur

Eng

Assamese, Beng

Bhojpuri, Maithili

C gar

Konk

Gujar

Punjabi, Hary

ea/Ar Sq.Km
3.3 Million

160205

83,743

78,550

99,200

135,194

3,702

196,204

44,212

ar

har

abad

ar

der

nag

Capital

New Delhi

Hy

Ita

Dispur

Patna

Raipur

Panaji

Gandhinag

Chandig
h

ar

at

ana

adesh

adesh

Arunachal

Bihar

India/Stat

INDIA

1. Andhr Pr

2. Pr

3. Assam (Assom)

4.

5. Chhattisg

6. Goa

7. Gujar

8. Hary

da,

ar
an

a,

-o-o

aria,

uki,

, Bodh,

, Gar

, Ag a, Banjar

yan, Bar vacha, Bhil

yan, Ar

, Binjh

da,

ami

a, K

ata, Bathudi, , hor

Bhot Gaddi, Gujjar

Balti, Beda, Bot Bot

Asur Baig

Adi Ba

Adi dan

Bhil, Bhunjia, Biar

Andh, Baig Bar


Aimol, Anal, Ang

Chakma, Di masa, Gar

Chakma, Di masa, Gar

Nag Mikir

ag Bir

at

-aat

ai,

oli

ali

em`

a,

sam

kr

am, V

ata-naty

aw

vitri

vani, K

Losar Shona Chuk


Dumhal, Rouff

Kar sa

Bhar am, Bolak

Kathak

Badhai, R Sair

La

Manipuri

Nong

Cher Khuallam

Zeliang

Odissi

Bhangr Giddha

Ghoomar

a,

a,

e-

ouba,

, ut ut

aik

eej,

,P

,T
e Dasar

em,

atri, Bah

ai-ni

kr ala

avang K

aur

sor adi

vr ya

yadashami or

aji

ang

Kullu, Shoolini

Hemis, Urs

Jhumar Chau, Agni

My Ug

Onam

Shi gori

Vija Dasar

Lui-ng Ningol Chak Yaoshang

Nong W

Chapchar K Thalf

Hornbill, Sekr nyi,

Ganesh Chaturthi
Bandi Chhor Vaisakhi, Lohri

Gang Gog

123

56

414

320

860

236

370

120

130

52

119

270

550

201

83.78%

66.7%

67.6%

75.60%

93.91%

70.60%

82.9%

79.21%

75.84%
91.58%

80.11%

73.45%

76.68%

67.68%

974

883

947

968

1,084

930

929

987

986

975

931

978

893

926

25-01-1971

26-10-1947

15-11-2000

01-11-1956

01-07-1949

01-11-1956
01-05-1960

21-01-1972

21-01-1972

20-02-1987

01-12-1963

01-04-1936

15-08-1947

01-11-1956

am,

-aj

eilon

du

ayal lish

athi

lish

al

Pahari, Kangri

Kashmiri, Ur

Santhali, Mundari, H

Kannada
M Eng

Hindi

Mar

Meet

Khasi,Gar

Mizo

Eng

Odia, Eng lish

Punjabi

Hindi, R asthani

55,673

222,236

79,714

191,791

38,863

308,245

307,713

22,327

22,429

21,087

16,579

155,820

50,362

342,239
h-

har

ar

aluru

vanantha-

am

ar

Shimla

Srinag

Ranchi

Beng

Thiru pur

Bhopal

Mumbai

Imphal

Shillong

Aiza

Kohima

Bhubanes w

Chandig

Jaipur
a

ya

ashtr

am

khand

ya

ala

hala

aland

adesh

er

adesh

ajasthan

Himachal 9. Pr 10. J & K

11. Jhar

12. Karnatak

13. K

14. Madh Pr

15. Mahar

16. Manipur

17. Meg

18. Mizor

19. Nag

20. Odisha
21. Punjab

22. R

ana

sa, aji

sa, a

a, o

onda

, Chari

yan, Ar

, Baig

lis, dublasar

Bhutia, Lepcha, Limboo

Adi dan,

Andh, K

Bhil, Bhutia, Chaimal

Bhotia, Buk Jaunsari, R

Bhotia, Buk Tharu, Baig

Asur Bedia, Cher

Andamanese, Chariar

Dhodia, Dubla (Halpati)

Koya, Malmi

Grulas, Villi

am

ali

olk

hi Chh

ata- am

va, K

adi

Sing

Bhar naty

Kuchipudi

Goria, Jhum

Langvir Nrity

Kathak

Chau dance

Bhangr

Tarpa, Bha vada

Mando, Vir

La

Gar

anti,

amman,

, Mu

he, Losar

al

ar Sankr

al

am

al

adi

ga Puja, Kali

ba

ali, Eid ul-Fitrw

Mag

Pong

Ug

Kandali, R

Mak Chhath

Dur Puja

Lohri

Pong
Gar

Eid-Ul-Fitr harr

Di

Pong

86

550

310

350

189

820

1,000

46

9,300/

698

2169

2013

11,297

2,500

82.2%

80.33 %

66.50%

94.65%

79.63%

69.7%

77.08%
86.27%

81.9%

77.65%

87.07%

92.28%

86.34%

86.34%

889

995

961

963

908

947

878

818

775

618

946

866

1,038

16-5-1975

26-01-1950

02-06-2014

21-01-1972
9-11-2000

01-04-1937

15-08-1947

01-11-1956

01-11-1966

11-08-1961

30-05-1987

01-11-1956

01-02-1992

07-01-1963

du

ok

ali ,

ali,

ali and

ati

ati,

yalam

yalam,

du

bor

hw

lish

lish,

lish,
athi

lish,

Nepali, Bhutia

Tamil

Telugu, Ur

Beng Kok

Gar Kumaoni

Hindi, Ur

Beng Eng

Eng Hindi

Punjabi

Eng Gujar

Gujar Mar

Eng Mala

Hindi

Mala Tamil

7,096

130,058

114,840

10,491.69

53,483

243,286

88,752

8,073

114
102

102

32

1,484.0

492

har

ok

abad

adun

ata

atti

der

artala

vassa

var

Gangt

Chennai

Hy

Ag

Dehr

Luckno

Kolk

Port Blair

Chandig
Sil

Daman

Ka

New Delhi

Pondicherry

al

ory

eep

ana

ar

veli

akhand

erit

a and

amil Nadu

elang

ripur

adesh
est Beng

ar Ha

shad

23. Sikkim

24. T

25. T

26. T

27. Uttar

28. Uttar Pr

29. W

Union T

1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands

2. Chandig

3. Dadr Nag

4. Daman and Diu

5. Lak

6. NCT of Delhi

7. Puducherry

Indian Panorama

FOUNDATION DAY OF STATES

National Anthem The anthem was composed

by Rabindranath Tagore;

1st January
Nagaland Day

adopted by the Constituent

21st January

Manipur, Meghalaya and

Assembly 24th January

Tripura Day

1950.

6th Febuary

Jammu and Kashmir Day

National Song

Vande Mataram was

composed by Bankim

20th

Mizoram and Arunachal

Chandra Chatterjee. It was

February

Pradesh day

adopted as the National

11th March

Andman and Nicobar

song of India in 1950.

Islands Day

National Flower

Indian lotus is the

22nd March
Bihar Day (Bihar Diwas)

national flower. It is the

representation of purity as

30th March

Rajasthan Day

it remains flawless despite

1st April

Utkal (Odisha) Day

growing in mud and water.

National Fruit

Mango, also known as

14th April

Tamil Nadu Day

the King of Fruits, is the

15th April

Himachal Pradesh Day

National Fruit of India.

1st May

Gujarat and Maharashtra Day

National River

Ganga is the national

river of India. It is also the

16th May

Sikkim Day

longest river of the country.


1st November Chattisgarh

National Tree

The Indian Banyan (Ficus

9th

Uttaranchal (Now

bengalensis) is the national

November

Uttarakhand) Day

tree.

15th

Jharkhand Day (Jharkhand

National Bird

Indian peacock (Pavo

cristatus) is the national

November

Diwas)

bird of India.

2nd June

Telangana Day

National Animal

The Tiger known as the

(2014)

Lord of the Jungle is the

national animal of India.

NATIONAL SYMBOLS OF INDIA


National Calendar Saka calendar was

National Flag

The national flag consists

introduced as the National

of a horizontal rectangular

calendar by the Calendar

tricolour with saffron

Committee in 1957.

at the top, white in the AWARDS AND HONOURS

middle and India green

at the bottom. The centre National Awards

has a navy blue wheel with Param Vir Chakra:

twenty-four spokes, known

The highest Gallantry

as the Ashoka Chakra. The Award

Mahavir Chakra: The second highest Gal-

flag is designed by Pingali lantry Award

Venkayya.

Vir Chakra: The third highest Gallantry Award

National Emblem The national emblem is Ashok Chakra: The highest peacetime Gal-the
Lion Capital of Asoka lantry award

at Sarnath which was Kirti Chakra: For conspicuous Gallantry

adopted on 26th January Shaurya Chakra: For an act of Gallantry

1950. The motto inscribed Bharat Ratna: The highest civilian award of

on the emblem is in Devana India.


gari script: Satyameva The first three recipients of Bharat Ratna:

jayate which means Truth

C. Rajagopalchari, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan and

Alone Triumphs.

DR. C.V.Raman (1954)

Indian Panorama 5

Padma Awards:

Two Years Eight Months and Twenty Eight

Nights:

adma Vibhushan : The second highest

Salman Rushdie

Globalisation, Democratization and

civilian award given for exceptional and Distributive Justice: Professor Mool Chand
distinguished service.

Sharma

Padma Bhushan : The third highest civilian Making India Awesome: Chetan Bhagat
award given for distinguished service of a Flood of fire: Amitav Ghosh

high order.

Neither a Hawk nor a Dove: Khurshid M

Padma Shri : The fourth highest civillian Kasuri

award given for distinguished service.

The Red Sari: Javier Moro

Sourav Ganguly: Cricket, Captaincy and

OTHER NATIONAL AWARDS


Controversy: Saptarshi Sarkar

China Confucius in the Shadows: Poonam

Bharatiya Jnanpith Award

Surie

Instituted in 22 May, 1961, carries a cash Mrs Funnybones: Twinkle Khanna

R.D. Burman: The Prince of Music:

prize of

Khagesh

` 5 lakh, a citation and a bronze

replica of Vagdevi (Saraswati).

Dev Burman

Beyond Doubt: A Dossier on Gandhis

This award is given for the best literary Assassination: Teesta Setalvad writing by an
Indian citizen in a language Benazir Bhutto: A Multidimensional

listed in eight schedule of the Indian Con-

Portrait: Dr Anna Suvorova

stitution.

Modi - Incredible emergence of a star:

Gandhi Peace Prize

Tarun Vijay

Established in 2 October, 1994. It carries a The Accidental Prime Minister The cash
prize of

making and unmaking of Manmohan Singh:

` 1 crore.

Sanjaya Baru
Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace,

Hard Choices (Autobiography): Hillary

Disarmament and Development

Rodham Clinton

I am Malala (Autobiography):

Instituted in 1985, this prestigious award

Malala Yousafzai

And Then One Day:

is regarded as Nobel and over the years

Naseerudin Shah

Playing It My Way: Sachin Tendulkar

it has been awarded to those persons who The Narrow Road To the Deep North:

have done outstanding work for interna-

Richard Flangan

tional peace, disarmament and develop-

Go Set a Watchman: Harper Lee

ment.

Super Economies: Raghav Bahl

Borlaug Award

Family Life: Akhil Sharma

Lucknow Boy: A Memoir:

Instituted in 1973, carries a cash prize of

Late Vinod Meht

A Brief History of Seven Killings:

1 lakh.
Marlon

James

Instituted to honour outstanding agricul-

Beyond 2020: A Vision for Tomorrows

tural scientists.

India: A. P. J. Abdul Kalam and Y. S. Rajan

Sahitya Akademi Award

Leading: Alex Ferguson With Michael Moritz

Awarded for outstanding literary work and The Outsider: Frederick Forsyth

carries a cash prize of

The Courage to Act A Memoir of a Crisis

` 1 lakh.

Sahitya Academi gives 22 awards for liter-

and Its Aftermath: Ben S. Bernanke

Ruled or Misruled: Story and Destiny of

ary works in the languages which has rec-

Bihar:

ognized works.

Santosh Singh

Hungry Bengal: War, Famine, Riots and the

IMPORTANT BOOKS AND

End of Empire: Janam Mukherjee

To the Brink and Back: Indias 1991 Story:

AUTHORS

Jairam Ramesh
Transcendence: My Spiritual Experiences The Pakistan Paradox: Christrophe Jaffrelot
with Pramukh Swamiji: Abdul Kalam

Crusader or Conspirator: P.C. Parakh

Unbelievable Delhi to Islamabad: Prof Born Again On the Mountain: Arunima Sinha
Bhim Singh

The China Model: Daniel A bell

Scion of Ikshvaku: Amish Tripathi

Indian Panorama

Purity: Jonathan Franzen

God Help the Child:

Stretched

13-Jul-88 ASLV

Toni Morrison

Love + Hate: Stories and Essays:

Rohini

Hanif

Satellite Series

Kureishi

The Heart Goes Last: Margaret Atwood

(SROSS-2)

Deep South: Paul Theroux

INSAT-1C

21-Jul-88 Ariane-3

The Country of First Boys: Amartya Sen


INSAT-1D

12-Jun-90 Delta 4925

A Strangeness in My Mind: Orhan Pamuk

IRS-1B

29-Aug-91 Vostok

Autumn of the Matriarch: Indira Gandhis

Final Term in Office: Diego Maiorano

INSAT-2DT

26-Feb-92 Ariane-44L H10

Gods of Corruption: Promilla Shankar

Stretched

20-May-92 ASLV

Restart: The Last Chance for the Indian Rohini

Economy: Mihir S. Sharma

Satellite Series

The Tears of the Rajas: Ferdinand Mount

(SROSS-C)

The Z factor - My journey as the wrong man

INSAT-2A

10-Jul-92 Ariane-44L H10

at the Right Time : Subhash Chandra

Nathuram Godse - The Story of an Assassin

INSAT-2B

23-Jul-93 Ariane-44L

: Anup Ashok Sardesai


H10+

The turbulent year - 1980-1996 (Volume IRS-1E

20-Sep-93 PSLV-D1

II) : Pranab Mukherjee.

Stretched

4-May-94 ASLV

Jawaharlal Nehru and The Indian Polity is Rohini

Perspective : Prof (Dr) P.J. Alexander

Satellite Series

The Kiss of life - How a superhero and my

(SROSS-C2)

son defeated cancer : Emraan Hashmi

IRS-P2

15-Oct-94 PSLV-D2

SPACE SCIENCE

INSAT-2C

7-Dec-95 Ariane-44L

H10-3

Space mission 1975-2016

IRS-1C

29-Dec-95 Molniya

Satellite

Launch

Launch Vehicle

IRS-P3
21-Mar-96 PSLV-D3

Date

INSAT-2D

4-Jun-97 Ariane-44L

Aryabhata

19-Apr-75 u-11

H10-3

Interkosmos

IRS-1D

29-Sep-97 PSLV-C1

Bhaskara-I

7-Jun-79 C-1 Interkosmos

INSAT-2E

3-Apr-99 Ariane-42P

Rohini

10-Aug-79 SLV-3

H10-3

Technology

Oceansat-1

26-May-99 PSLV-C2

Payload

(IRS-P4)

Rohini RS-1

18-Jul-80 SLV-3

INSAT-3B
22-Mar-00 Ariane-5G

Rohini RS-D1

31-May-81 SLV-3

GSAT-1

18-Apr-01 GSLV-D1

Ariane

19-Jun-81 Ariane-1 (V-3)

Technology

22-Oct-01 PSLV-C3

Passenger

Experiment

Payload

Satellite (TES)

Experiment

INSAT-3C

24-Jan-02 Ariane-42L

Bhaskara -II

20-Nov-81 C-1 Intercosmos

H10-3

INSAT-1A

10-Apr-82 Delta 3910

Kalpana-1

12-Sep-02 PSLV-C4

PAM-D

Rohini RS-D2
17-Apr-83 SLV-3

(METSAT)

INSAT-1B

30-Aug-83 Shuttle [PAM-D]

INSAT-3A

10-Apr-03 Ariane-5G

Stretched

24-Mar-87 ASLV

GSAT-2

8-May-03 GSLV-D2

Rohini

INSAT-3E

28-Sep-03 Ariane-5G

Satellite Series

RESOURCE-

17-Oct-03 PSLV-C5

(SROSS-1)

SAT-1 (IRS-P6)

IRS-1A

17-Mar-88 Vostok

Indian Panorama

Indian Panorama 7

EDUSAT

20-Oct-04 GSLV-F01
Youthsat

20-Apr-11 PSLV-C16

HAMSAT

5-May-05 PSLV-C6

GSAT-8 / INSAT- 21-May-11 Ariane-5 VA-202

CARTOSAT-1

5-May-05 PSLV-C6

4G

INSAT-4A

22-Dec-05 Ariane-5GS

GSAT-12

15-Jul-11 PSLV-C17

INSAT-4C

10-Jul-06 GSLV-F02

Megha-

12-Oct-11 PSLV-C18

CARTOSAT-2

10-Jan-07 PSLV-C7

Tropiques

Space Capsule 10-Jan-07 PSLV-C7

Jugnu

12-Oct-11 PSLV-C18

Recovery

RISAT-1

26-Apr-12 PSLV-C19
Experiment

SRMSAT

26-Apr-12 PSLV-C18

(SRE-1)

GSAT-10

29-Sep-12 Ariane-5 VA-209

INSAT-4B

12-Mar-07 Ariane-5ECA

SARAL

25-Feb-13 PSLV-C20

INSAT-4CR

2-Sep-07 GSLV-F04

IRNSS-1A

1-Jul-13

PSLV-C22

CARTOSAT-2A 28-Apr-08 PSLV-C9

INSAT-3D

26-Jul-13 Ariane-5

IMS-1 (Third

28-Apr-08 PSLV-C9

GSAT-7

30-Aug-13 Ariane-5

Mars Orbiter

5-Nov-13 PSLV-C25

World Satellite
Mission (MOM)

TWsat)

GSAT-14

5-Jan-14

GSLV-D5

Chandrayaan-1 22-Oct-08 PSLV-C11

IRNSS-1B

4-Apr-14 PSLV-C24

RISAT-2

20-Apr-09 PSLV-C12

IRNSS-1C

10-Nov-14 PSLV-C26

ANUSAT

20-Apr-09 PSLV-C12

GSAT-16

7-Dec-14 Ariane-5

Oceansat-2

23-Sep-09 PSLV-C14

IRNSS-1D

28-Mar-15 PSLV-C27

(IRS-P4)

GSAT-6

27-Aug-15 GSLV-D6

GSAT-4

15-Apr-10 GSLV-D3
Astrosat

28-Sep-15 PSLV-C30

CARTOSAT-2B 12-Jul-10 PSLV-C15

StudSat

12-Jul-10 PSLV-C15

GSAT-15

11-Nov-15 Ariane 5 VA-227

GSAT-5P /

25-Dec-10 GSLV-F06

IRNSS-1E

20-Jan-16 PSLV-C31

IRNSS-1F

10-Mar-16 PSLV-C32

INSAT-4D

RESOURC-

20-Apr-11 PSLV-C16

IRNSS-1G

28-Apr-16 PSLV-C33

Corbo Set-2C

22-Jun-16 PSLV-C34

ESAT-2

DEFENCE & SECURITY

Defence of India

The supreme commander of the Indian Armed Forces is the President of India.

1. Army Command and Headquarters


Command

Headquarters

Command

Headquarters

Western Command

Chandimandir

Eastern Command

Kolkata

Northern Command

Udhampur

Southern Command

Pune

Army Training Comm.

Shimla

Central Command

Lucknow

South Western Comm.

Jaipur

Indian Panorama

2. Navy Command and Headquarters:

Command

Headquarters

Command

Headquarters
Eastern Command

Visakhapatnam

Southern Command

Kochi

Western Command

Mumbai

3. Air Force Command and Headquarters:

Command

Headquarters

Command

Headquarters

Eastern Air Comd.

Shillong

Western Air Comd.

New Delhi

South-West Air Comd.

Gandhinagar

Central Air Comd.

Allahabad

Southern Air Comd.

Thiruvananthapuram

Maintenance Comd.

Nagpur

Training Comd.

Bangalore
RANKS OF INDIAN ARMY, NAVY & AIR FORCE

Indian Army

Indian Navy

Indian Air Force

Field Marshal

Admiral of the Fleet

Marshal of the Air Force

General

Admiral

Air Chief Marshal

Lieutenant General

Vice Admiral

Air Marshal

Major General

Rear Admiral

Air Vice Marshal

Brigadier

Commodore

Air Commodore

Colonel

Captain

Group Captain

Lieutenant Colonel

Commander

Wing Commander
Major

Lieutenant Commander

Squadron Leader

Captain

Lieutenant

Flight Lieutenant

Lieutenant

Sub-Lieutenant

Flying Officer

Internal Security of India

Organization

Year

Headquarters

Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)

1939

New Delhi

National Cadet Corps (NCC)

1948

New Delhi

Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)

1962

New Delhi

Border Security Force (BSF)

1965

New Delhi
Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)

1969

New Delhi

Defence Training Institutions of India

National Defence Academy (NDA), Khadakwasla (near Pune)

National Defence College (NDC), New Delhi

Rashtriya Indian Military College (RIMC), Dehradun

Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC), Pune

Air Force School, Sambra (Belgaum)

College of Air Warfare, Secunderabad

Air Force Academy, Hyderabad

I.N.S. Chilka, Chilka

I.N.S. Mandovi, Goa

Indian Naval Academy, Ezhimala

Indian Panorama

Indian Panorama 9

Research Centres of India

Saha Institute of Nuclear Kolkata

Indian Agricultural Research

New Delhi

Physics

Institute

Vikram Sarabhai Space

Thiruvantha-
Central Rice Research Institute Cuttack

Centre

puram

Central Potato Research

Shimla

Indian Space Research

Bangalore

Institute

Organisation (ISRO)

Central Forest Research

Dehradun

Space Applications

Ahmedabad

Institute

Centre

IINRG, Indian Institute of Natu- Ranchi

Missiles of India

ral Resins and Gums

National Diary Research

Karnal

Astra- Air-to-air missile

Institute

Prithvi I- Surface to Surface

Central Mining Research

Dhanbad
Prithvi II- Surface to Surface

Institute

Prithvi III- Surface to Surface

Central Jute Technological

Kolkata

Dhanush- Surface to Surface

Research Institute

Agni I- Surface to Surface

National Geophysics Research

Hyder-

Shaurya- Surface to Surface

Institute

abad

Trishul- Surface-To-Air Missile

Tata Institute of Fundamental

Mumbai

Research

Akash- Surface-To-Air Missile

Maitri-

High Altitude Research Labora- Leh

Surface-To-Air Missile

tory

Barak2- Surface-To-Air Missile

Centre for Cellular and Molecu- Hyder-

BrahMos- Supersonic Cruise Missile


lar Biology

abad

BrahMos II- Hypersonic Cruise Missile

Nuclear and Space Research

K-15 Sagarika- Submarine Launched Ballistic

Centres in India

Missile

Nag -

India Rare Earths Limited Mumbai

Anti-Tank Guided Missile

Helina -

Uranium Corporation of

Singhbhum

Anti-Tank Guided Missile

India

Nirbhay- Subsonic Cruise Missile

Bhabha Atomic Research Trombay

Agni V- Intercontinental ballistic Missile

Centre (BARC)

(Mumbai)

Astra- Air-to-air missile

Nuclear Power Plant of India

Power station

State

Type
Operator

Total capacity

(MW)

Kaiga

Karnataka

PHWR

NPCIL

660

Kalpakkam

Tamil Nadu

PHWR

NPCIL

440

Kakrapar

Gujarat

PHWR

NPCIL

440

Rawatbhata

Rajasthan

PHWR

NPCIL

1180

Tarapur

Maharashtra
BWR (PHWR)

NPCIL

1400

Narora

Uttar Pradesh

PHWR

NPCIL

440

Total

4560

10

Indian Panorama

ATOMIC & NUCLEAR SCIENCE

1957, it is located at Trombay (Maharashtra),

and is Indias largest atomic research centre,

ATOMIC RESEARCH

for R&D.

Indias atomic research programme is committed

to peaceful uses only, for example, atomic NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

power, generation of electricity, development Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of


of agriculture and industry, medical science electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric
application, etc.

and renewable sources of electricity. India has

First Nuclear Explosion

21 nuclear reactors in operation in 7 nuclear


Carried out on 18 May 1974 at pokhran in power plants, having an installed capacity of
Rajasthan (Thar) desert. Bhabha Atomic 5308 MW and producing a total of 30,292.91

Research Centre (BARC) Established in GWh

POWER STATION IN INDIA

Power station

Operator

Establishment

Location

State

Date

Tarapur Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

1969

Tarapur

Maharashtra

Rajasthan Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

1973

Rawatbhata Rajasthan

Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

1993

Kakrapar

Gujarat

Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant NPCIL


2013

Kudankulam Tamil Nadu

Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant

NPCIL

2000

Kaiga

Karnataka

Madras Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

1984

Kalpakkam Tamil Nadu

Narora Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

1991

Narora

Uttar Pradesh

Gorakhpur Atomic Power Station

NPCIL

Fatehabad

Haryana

Talcher Super Thermal Power

NTPC

1995

Kaniha

Odisha
Station

Sipat Thermal Power Plant

NTPC

2008

Sipat

Chhattisgarh

Vindhyachal Super Thermal Power NTPC

2013

Singrauli

Madhya

Station

Pradesh

Mundra Ultra Mega Power Project Tata Power

2009

Mundra

Gujarat

Korba Super Thermal Power Plant NTPC

1983

Jamani Palli Chattish Gahr

Bhusawal Thermal Power Station

MAHAGEN-

1968

Deepnagar

Maharastra

CO
Satpura Thermal Power Station

MPPGCL

1967

Sarni

Madhya

Pradesh

Sterlite Jharsuguda Power Station Vedanta

2006

Jharsuguda Odisha

Durgapur Thermal Power Station

DVC

1996

Durgapur

West Bengal

FOUR ENDS OF INDIA

End Points

Places

Northern most

Siachen Glacier

Southern most

Kanya Kumari District (Cape Comorin)

Eastern most

Kibithu Village, Arunachal Pradesh

Western most

Guhar Moti in Kutch, Gujarat


10

Indian Panorama

Indian Panorama 11

FIRST IN INDIA (MALE)

First governor of Bengal

Lord Clive(1758-60)

Last governor of Bengal

Warren Hastings(1772-74)

The first British Governor General of Bengal

Lord Warren Hasting(1774-1885)

The first British Governor General of India

Lord William Bentinck(1833-1835)

The first British Viceroy of India

Lord Canning(1856-62)

The first Governor General of free India

Lord Mountbatten(1947-1948)

The first and the last Indian to be Governor General C. Rajgopalachari(1948-1950)

of free India

The first President of Indian Republic

Dr. Rajendra Prasad

The first Prime Minister of free India

Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru

The first Indian to win Nobel Prize

Rabindranath Tagore

The first President of Indian National Congress


W.C. Banerjee

The first Muslim President of Indian National Congress Badruddin Tayyabji

The first Muslim President of India

Dr. Zakir Hussain

The first man who introduced printing press in India James Hicky

The first Indian to join the I.C.S

Satyendra Nath Tagore

Indias first man in Space

Rakesh Sharma

The first Prime Minister of India who resigned without Morarji Desai

completing the full term

The first Indian Commander-in-Chief of India

General Cariappa

The first Chief of Army Staff

Gen. Maharaj Rajendra Singhji

The first Indian Member of the Viceroys executive S.P.Sinha

council

The first President of India who died while in office

Dr. Zakhir Hussain

The first Muslim President of Indian Republic

Dr. Zakhir Hussain

The first Prime Minister of India who did not face the Charan Singh

Parliament

The first Field Marshal of India

S.H.F. Manekshaw
The first Indian to get Nobel Prize in Physics

C.V.Raman

The first Indian to receive Bharat Ratna award

Dr. Radhakrishnan

The first Indian to cross English Channel

Mihir Sen

The first Person to receive Jnanpith award

Sri Shankar Kurup

The first Speaker of the Lok Sabha

Ganesh Vasudeva Mavalankar

The first Vice-President of India

Dr. Radhakrishnan

The first Education Minister

Abdul Kalam Azad

The first Home minister of India

Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel

The first Indian Air Chief Marshal

S. Mukherjee

The first Indian Naval Chief

Vice Admiral R.D. Katari

The first chief of Army staff

K.M. Cariappa

The first Judge of International Court of Justice

Dr. Nagendra Singh

The first person to reach Mt. Everest without oxygen Sherpa Anga Dorjee
The first person to get Param Vir Chakra

Major Somnath Sharma

The first Chief Election Commissioner

Sukumar Sen

12

Indian Panorama

The first person to receive Magsaysay Award

Acharya Vinoba Bhave

The first person of Indian origin to receive Nobel Prize Hargovind Khurana

in Medicine

The first Chinese traveller to visit India

Fa-hein

The first person to receive Stalin Prize

Saifuddin Kitchlu

The first person to resign from the Central Cabinet

Shyama Prasad Mukherjee

The first person to receive Nobel Prize in Economics Amartya Sen

The first Chief Justice of Supreme Court

Justice Hirala J. Kania

The first Indian Pilot

J.R.D. Tata (1929)

FIRST IN INDIA (FEMALE)

The first lady to become Miss World

Reita Faria

The first woman judge in Supreme Court


Mrs. Meera Sahib Fatima Bibi

The first woman Ambassador

C.B. Muthamma

The first woman Governor of a state in free India

Sarojini Naidu

The first woman Speaker of a State Assembly

Shanno Devi

The first woman Prime Minister

Indira Gandhi

The first woman Minister in a Government

Rajkumari Amrit Kaur

The first woman to climb Mount Everest

Bachhendri Pal

The first woman to climb Mount Everest twice

Santosh Yadav

The first woman President of Indian National Annie Besant

Congress

The first woman pilot in Indian Air Force

Harita Kaur Dayal

The first woman Graduates

Kadambini Ganguly and Chandramukhi

Basu, 1883

The first woman Airline Pilot

Durga Banerjee

The first woman Honours Graduate


Kamini Roy, 1886

The first woman Olympic medal Winner

Karnam Malleswari, 2000

The first woman Asian Games Gold Medal Winner

Kamlijit Sandhu

The first woman Lawyer

Cornelia Sorabjee

The first woman President of United Nations General Vijaya Laxmi Pandit

Assembly

The first woman Chief Minister of an Indian State

Sucheta Kripalani

The first woman Chairman of Union Public Service Roze Millian Bethew

Commission

The first woman Director General of Police

Kanchan Chaudhary Bhattacharya

The first woman Judge

Anna Chandy (She became judge in a

district court in 1937)

The first woman Cheif Justice of High Court

Leela Seth (Himachal Pradesh High

Court)

The first woman Judge in Supreme Court of India

Kumari Justice M. Fathima Beevi

The first woman Lieutenant General

Puneeta Arora
The first woman Air Vice Marshal

P. Bandopadhyaya

The first woman chairperson of Indian Airlines

Sushma Chawla

12

Indian Panorama

Indian Panorama 13

The first woman IPS officer

Kiran Bedi

The first and last Muslim woman ruler of India

Razia Sultan

The first woman to receive Ashoka Chakra

Neerja Bhanot

The first woman to receive Gyanpith Award

Ashapurna Devi

The first woman to cross English Channel

Arati Saha

The first woman to receive Nobel Prize

Mother Teresa

The first woman to receive Bharat Ratna

Indira Gandhi

FIRST IN OTHERS

First Wax statue of a Living Indian

Mahatma Gandhi at Madame Tussauds in 1939

First Exclusive internet magazine


Bharat Samachar

First Miss India to participate in Miss

Indrani Rehman

Universe

First Judge in International Court of Justice Dr. Nagender Singh

First Graduate in Medicine

Soorjo Coomar Goodeve Chukerbutty

Indias First University

Nalanda University

Indias First Open University

Andhra Pradesh Open University

Indias First Lok Sabha Member to be

P.V.Narasimha Rao

elected with a record

maximum number of votes

First Indian to reach Antarctica

Lt. Ram Charan

First British to Visit India

Hawkins

First Test tube baby of India

Indira (Baby Harsha)

First Post Office Opened in India

Kolkata(1727)

SUPERLATIVES : INDIA

Biggest Auditorium (Mumbai) Sri

Shanmukhanand Hall

Structures

Largest zoo Arignar Anna Zoological Park

Highest Tower ( Minaret ) Qutub Minar

Largest Cave Temple Ellora

Higher Gateway Buland Darwaza at

Largest Gurudwara Golden Temple,

Fatehpur Sikri near Agra. Built by Akbar

Amritsar

(53.5 m /175 ft High)

Largest Mosque Taj-ul-Masjid at

Highest Dam Bhakra Dam

Bhopal(M.P) with area-430,000 sq. ft, &


Highest Bridge Chenab Bridge

capacity 1.75 lakh people.

Highest Airport

Largest Man-made Lake

- Leh Air Port in Ladakh

Govind Sagar

(3256 m/ 16080 ft high)

(Bhakra)

Largest Dome

Highest Hydel Power Station

Gol Gumbaz (Karnataka)

- Rongtong

Largest Cantilever Bridge Howrah


Hydel Project in Kinnaur district of

Bridge

Himachal Pradesh.

Longest Railway Tunnel- Pir Panjal

Highest Mountain Peak- Kanchenjunga

Railway Tunnel (11 km)

Highest Road- Road at Khardungla in the

Longest Road Tunnel - 9.2 km long tunnel

Leh-Manali Sector

on Jammu-Srinagar National Highway

Highest Waterfall- Jog Waterfall, Largest Public Sector Bank- State Bank Karnataka

of India

Largest Residence Antilia Bhawan built


Largest Botanical Garden - National

by Mukesh Ambani

Botanical Garden in Kolkata

Largest Cinema Hall Prasad Max, Largest Church- Se Cathedral at Old Goa, Hyderabad

10 km from Panaji.

Largest Museum National Museum Largest Delta- Sunderbans (75,000 sq km) Delhi

formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra in

Largest River Barrage Farakka Barrage

West Bengal and Bangladesh

14

Indian Panorama

Largest Stupa- Kesariya Stupa in Bihar

Sadharan Brahma Samaj-Shivananda


Largest Library- National Library, Kolkata

Sashtri, Anand Mohan Bose

Largest Planetarium- Birla Planetarium, Servants of India Society-Gopalakrishna


Kolkata.

Gokhale

Largest Prison- Tihar Jail, Delhi

Sewa Sadan-Bahuramji M.Malabari

Largest Concentration of Scheduled Sewa Samithi-H.N.Kunsru

Tribes- Madhya Pradesh

Social Service League-N.M.Joshi

Largest Scheduled Caste Community-

Thathwabodhini Sabha-Debendranatha

Santhal

Tagore

Longest River Bridge Bandra-Worli sea

Theosophical Society-Madam H.P.

link which is 5.6 km.

Blavadski, Col.H.L.Olkott

Largest Corridor Rameshwaram

Temple Corridor

FOUNDERS OF TOWNS IN INDIA

Largest irrigation Canal-Indira Gandhi

Canal or Rajasthan Canal (959 km long)

Agra- Sikkandar Lodhi

Longest Dam-Hirakund Dam on Mahanadi

Ahmedabad - Ahmed Shah


river in Odisha (24.4 km long)

Ajmeer- Ajaypal Chauhan

Longest Glacier-Siachen Glacier on the Allahabad- Akbar

Indo-Pakistan border (75.6 km long and

Culcutta- Job Charnok

2.8 km wide)

Delhi- Anankapalan

Longest Railway Bridge Nehru Setu Fathepur Sikri - Akbar

Bridge (4.62 km) long

Hisar- Ferozshah Tuglaq

Fastest Train- Gatimaan Express which Hyderabad - Quli Qutabshah


runs between Delhi and Agra (166 km/hr)

Jodhpur- Rao Jodha

Tallest Statues Statue of Jain Saint Mahabalipuram - Narasimhawarman

Gomateswara at Sravanabelagola in

Siri- Alaudden Khilji

Karnataka

Vijayanagaram - Hariharan 1

Oldest Church- St. Thomas Church at

Palayar in Trichur district in Kerala built SOBRIQUETS

in 52 AD.

Oldest Monastery- Buddhist Monastery, A sobriquet is a nickname, Occasionally (situated


at an altitude of 3,048 m /10,000 assumed and often given by anther. It is usually ft) at
Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh.

a familiar name. This significant distinctive


Largest mall- Lulu Mall Kochi

is a ample familiarity that the sobriquet can

Most Populous City- Mumbai

become more familiar than the original name.

Natural

Person

Primary Names

Longest River Ganges

Anna

C N Annadurai

Largest Desert Thar ( Rajasthan)

Largest Fresh Water Lake-Kolleru in Badshah Khan/

Abdul Ghaffar Khan

Andhra Pradesh

Frontier Gandhi

Largest Cave- Amarnath (about 44 km Buddha

Siddhartha Gautama

from Pahalgam in Jammu and Kashmir)

Chacha/Panditji

Jawaharlal Nehru

FOUNDERS OF INDIAN INSTITU-

Grand Old Man of

Dadabhai Naoroji

TIONS

India

Gurudev

Rabindranath Tagore

Arya Samaj-Swami Dayanand Saraswathi

Athmiya Sabha-Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Guruji

M S Gohlwalkar

Brahma Samaj-Raja Ram Mohan Roy


Kaviguru

Rabindranath Tagore

Deccan Education Society-G.G.Agarkar, Lokmanya

Bal Gangadhar Tilak

M.G.Ranade, V.G.Gibhongar

Dharma Sabha-Radhakanthadev

Loknayak

Jayaprakash Narayan

Indian Brahma Samaj-Keshav Chandra Sen

Man of Peace

Lal Bahadur Shastri

Manavadharma Sabha-Durgaram Manitas de Plate

Flamenco guitarist

Manjaram

Prarthana Samaj
Ricardo Baliardo

-Athmaram Pandurang

Pune Sewa S adan-Smt.Remabhai Ranade,

Netaji

Subhash Chandra Bose

G.K.Devdhar

Punjab kesari

Lala Lajpat Rai

Ramakrishna Mission-Swami Vivekananda

14

Indian Panorama

Indian Panorama 15

Rajaji

C Rajagopalachari

Gateway of India

Mumbai

Saint of the Gutters

Mother Teresa

Gods Own Country

Kerala

Haryana Hurricane
Kapil Dev

Land of Five Rivers

Punjab, India

Prince of Kolkata

Saurav Ganguly

Pink City

Jaipur, India

Places

Primary Names

Queen of Arabian Sea Kochi, India

Bengals Sorrow

Damodar Rever, India

Spice Garden of India Kerala

Blue Mountain

Niligiri Hills, India

The City of Joy

Kolkata, India

City of Golden Temple Amritsar, India

The City of Palaces

Kolkata, India

City of Palaces

Kolkata, India

Venice of East

Alleppey, India

Diamond City in India Surat, Gujarat


Queen of Arabian Sea Kochi, India

Garden City of India Bengaluru

Garden City of India Bangalore

Garden of India

Kashmir

Blue Mountains

Niligiri Hills, India

CREMATORIUM OF FAMOUS PERSONS

Rajghat

Mahatma Gandhi

Shanti Van

Jawahar Lal Nehru

Vijay Ghat

Lal Bahadur Shastri

Shakti Sthal

Indira Gandhi

Kishan Ghat

Ch. Charan Singh

Abhay Ghat

Morarji Desai

Veer Bhumi

Rajiv Gandhi

Samata Sthal

Jagjivan Ram

Ekta Sthal
Giani Zail Singh

Karma Bhumi

Dr. Shankar Dayal

Sharma

Uday Bhoomi

K.R. Narayanan

Mahaprayan Ghat

Dr. Rajendra Prasad

FAMOUS NICKNAMES OF EMINENT PERSONS

Nickname

Person

Father of the Nation, Bapu

Mahatma Gandhi

Iron Man of India

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

Napoleon of India

Samudragupta

Shakespeare of India

Kalidasa

Mahamana

Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya

Deshbandhu

Chittaranjan Das

Deenabandhu

C.F.Andrews
Punjab Kesari

Lala Lajpat Rai

Nightingale of India

Sarojini Naidu

Lady with the lamp

Florence Nightingale

Tota-e-Hind (Parrot of India)

Amir Khushro

Shri Guruji

M.S.Golwalkar

FAMOUS PLACES ASSOCIATED WITH EMINENT PERSONS

Place

Person

Place

Person

Corsica

Napoleon Bonaparte

Belur Math

Ramakrishna Paramhansa

Kapilvastu

Gautam Buddha

Jerusalem

Jesus Christ

Macedonia

Alexander, the Great


Mecca

Prophet Mohammad

Jeeradei

Dr. Rajendra Prasad

Porbandar

Mahatma Gandhi

Anand Bhawan

Jawaharlal Nehru

Fatehpur Sikri

Akbar, the Great

Sabarmati

Mahatma Gandhi

Puducherry

Aurobindo Ghosh

Sitab Diara

Jai Prakash Narayan

Pawapuri

Mahavira

Shantiniketan

Rabindra Nath Tagore

World Panorama

COUNTRIES : CAPITAL, LANGUAGE & THEIR CURRENCY

Country

Capital
Chief Language

Currency

Afghanistan

Kabul

Pushtu Dari

Afghani

Algeria

Algiers

Arabic, French

Algerian Dinar

Argentina

Buenos Aires

Spanish

Argentine Peso

Australia

Canberra

English

Australian Dollar

Azerbaijan

Baku

Azeri

Manat

Bahrain

Manama

Arabic, English
Bahraini Dinar

Bangladesh

Dhaka

Bangla

Taka

Belgium

Brussels

Flemish (Dutch), French, German Euro

Bhutan

Thimphu

Dzongkha

Ngultrum

Bolivia

La Paz; Sucre

Aymara Spanish, Quechua

Boliviano

Bosnia and Herze- Sarajevo

Serbo-Croatian

Conv.Mark

govina

Brazil

Brazilia

Portuguese

Real

Bulgaria
Sofia

Bulgarian

Lev

Burkina Faso

Ouagadougou

French

Franc

Cambodia

Phnom-Penh

Khmer

Riel

Canada

Ottawa

French, English

Canadian Dollar

Chile

Santiago

Spanish

Peso

China

Beijing

Chinese (Mandarin)

Yuan

Colombia

Bogota
Spanish

Peso

Congo Formerly Zaire Kinshasa

French

Congolese Franc

Costa Rica

San Jose

Spanish

Colon

Croatia

Zagreb

Croatian

Kuna

Cuba

Havana

Spanish

Peso

Czech Republic

Prague

Czech

Koruna

Denmark

Copenhagen

Danish

Krone
Ecuador

Quito

Spanish

United States dollar

Egypt

Cairo

Arabic

Egyptian Pound

Ethiopia

Addis Ababa

Amharic

Birr

Fiji

Suva

English

Fijian Dollar

Finland

Helsinki

Finnish, Swedish

Euro

France

Paris

French

Euro

French Guiana
Caine

French

Euro

Georgia

Tbilisi

Georgian

Lari

Germany

Berlin

German

Euro

Ghana

Accra

English

Ghana Cedi

Greece

Athens

Greek

Euro

World Panorama 17

Country

Capital

Chief Language

Currency

Guatemala
Guatemala City Spanish

Quetzal

Guyana

Georgetown

English

Guyana Dollar

Haiti

Port-au-Prince French

Gourde

Honduras

Tegucigalpa

Spanish

Lempira

Hong Kong

Victoria

English, Chinese

Hong Kong Dollar

Hungary

Budapest

Hungarian

Forint

India

New Delhi

Hindi (official), English and

Rupee
22 officially recognised

regional languages

Indonesia

Jakarta

Bahasa Indonesian, Dutch, English Rupiah

Javanese

Iran

Teheran

Persian (Farsi), Turk, Kurdish, Arabic

Rial

Iraq

Baghdad

Arabic, Kurdish

Iraqi Dinar

Ireland

Dublin

Irish, English

Euro

Israel

Jerusalem

Hebrew, Arabic

Shekel

Italy

Rome

Italian
Euro

Japan

Tokyo

Japanese

Yen

Jordan

Amman

Arabic, English

Jordan Dinar

Kazakhstan

Astana

Kazakh, Russian, German

Tenge

Kenya

Nairobi

Kiswahili, English, Kikuyu

Shilling

Korea, North

Pyongyang

Korean

Won

Korea, South

Seoul

Korean

Won
Kuwait

Kuwait city

Arabic, English

Kuwait Dinar

Lebanon

Beriut

Arabic, French, English

Pound

Libya

Tripoli

Arabic

Libyan Dinar

Luxembourg

Luxembourg

French, German, English, Luxem-

Euro

bourgish

Malaysia

Putrajaya

Malay, English, Chinese, Tamil

Ringgit

(formerly

Kuala Lumpur)

Mauritius

Port Louis
English, French, Creole, Hindustani Rupee Mauritian

Mexico

Mexico city

Spanish, Amerindian languages

Mexico Peso

Mongolia

Ulan Bator

Mangolian

Togrog

Myanmar

Naypyidar or

Burmeses and tribal languages

Kyat

Pyinmana (for-

merly Yangon)

Netherlands

Amsterdam

Dutch

Euro

New Zealand

Wellington

English and Maori dialect

New Zealand Dollar

Nigeria

Abuja
English, Hansa, Ibo, Yoruba

Naira

Norway

Oslo

Norwegian

Krone

Oman

Muscat

Arabic

Omani Rial

Pakistan

Islamabad

Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pusthu,

Pakistani Rupee

Baluchi, Brahvi, English

Peru

Lima

Spanish, Quechua,

Nuero Sol

Aymara

Philippines

Manila

Filipino, English, Spanish

Peso

18
World Panorama

Country

Capital

Chief Language

Currency

Poland

Wrsaw

Polish

Zloty

Portugal

Lisbon

Portuguese

Euro

Qatar

Doha

Arabic, English

Riyal (QAR)

Russia

Moscow

Russian

Russian ruble

Saudi Arabia

Riyadh

Arabic

Rial (SAR)
Serbia

Belgrade

Serbo-Croatian (official), Albanian Dinar

Singapore

Singapore city Malay, Chinese, Tamil, English

Singapore Dollar

Somalia

Mogadishu

Arabic, English, Italian

Somali Shilling

South Africa

Capetown

Afrikaans, English

Rand

Spain

Madrid

Spanish, Catalan, Basque, Galician Euro

Sri Lanka

Colombo

Sinhala, Tamil, English

Sri Lankan Rupee

Sudan

Khartoum

Arabic, English, Dinka, Nubian

Sudanese Pound
Sweden

Stockholm

Swedish

Krona

Switzerland

Berne

German, French, Italian, Romansch Swiss Franc

Syria

Damascus

Arabic, Kurdish, Armenian

Syrian Pound

Taiwan

Taipei

Mandarian Chinese, Taiwan, Hakka

New Taiwan Dollar

dialects

Thailand

Bangkok

Thai, Chinese, English, Malay

Thai Baht

Tunisia

Tunis

Arabic, French

Dinar

Turkey
Ankara

Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic

Turkish Lira

Uganda

Kampala

Englsih, Luganda, Swahili

Ugandan Shilling

United Arab Emirates Abu Dhubi

Arabic

Dirham

United Kingdom

London

English, Welsh, Scots, Gaelic

Pound Sterling

United States of Washington D.C. English

Dollar

America

Venezuela

Caracas

Spanish

Bolivar

Vietnam

Hanoi

Vietnamese, French, English, Chinese Dong

Yemen
Sanaa

Arabic

Rial

Zimbabwe

Harare

English, Shona, Ndebela

Dollar (ZWD)

GEOGRAPHICAL DISCOVERIES

David Livingstone-Discovered course of

Amundsen (Norwegian)-Discovered South

the Zambesi, the Victoria Falls and Lake

Pole in 1912.

Nyasa in Africa.

Byrd-American aviator and polar

Edmund Hillary-Joint conqueror of Mount

explorer. Flew over the North Pole in 1926

Everest with Tenzing. He also led a Trans-

and made the first flight over the South Pole


Atlantic expedition and reached South Pole

in 1929. Discovered Edsel Ford mountains

on January 3, 1958.

and Morei Byrd land.

Ferdinand de Lesseps-Conceived the

Cabot (Venetian)-Discovered New Foundland

plan of the Suez Canal on which work was

in 1494.

completed in 1869 through his efforts.

Captain Cook (English)-Discovered Sandwich

Francis Younghusband-Explored the

(now Hawaiian) Isles in 1770.

frontier regions of India, China and Tibet.

Columbus-Discovered West Indies in 1492


Kepler-Discovered the Laws of Planetary

and South America in 1498.

Motion in 1609.

Copernicus-Discovered Solar System in

Lindbergh-Performed the first solo-flight

1540. Propounded the astronomical system

across the Atlantic in 1927 from New York

which bears his name.

to Paris.

World Panorama 19

Magellan-Commanded the first expedition

Pedro Alvares Cabral (Portuguese) -

in 1519 to sail round the world. Discovered

Discovered Brazil in 1500.

passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic


Shackleton-Arctic explorer, reached within

through Straits afterwards named after him.

160 km of the South Pole.

Marco Polo-Venetian traveller who explored

Iksman-

China, India, South Eastern countries

Dutch navigator, discovered the

and published the record of his various

Tasmania Island and New Zealand in 1642.

explorations. He was the first European to

Tenzing (Indian)-First to reach Mount

visit China.

Everest on 29th May, 1953 along with

Nansen-Norwegian explorer who explored

Edmund Hillary. The expedition was led

across Greenland and reached the highest


by Col. Sir John Hunt.

altitude in the North Polar Region, till then

Vasco da Gama (Portuguese)-Rounded the

attained.

Cape of Good Hope and discovered the sea

Peary, Robert-First to reach the North Pole

route to India in 1498.

in 1909.

NATIONAL ANIMALS OF THE MAJOR COUNTRIES

Country

Animals

Country

Animal

Afghanistan Snow Leopard

Nepal

Cow

Albania

Golden Eagle

New Zealand

Kiwi

Australia
Kangaroo

Pakistan

Markhor

Bangladesh

Royal Bengal tiger

South Africa

Springbok

Brazil

Macaw

Spain

Bull

Canada

North American beaver

United Kingdom

Barbary Lion

China

Panda, Red Crowned Crane

United States

Bald Eagle

Denmark

Mute Swan

India

Bengal Tiger

Japan

Green Pheasant
Kuwait

Camel

Myanmar

Tiger

Belgium

Lion

OFFICIAL BOOKS

Blue Book : An official report of the British Government

Green Book : An official publication of Italy and Persia

Grey Book : An official reports of the Government of Japan and Belgium

Orange Book : An official Publications of the Government of Netherlands

White Book : An official Publications of China, Germany and Portugal

Yellow Book : French official Book

White Paper : An official paper of the Government of Britain and India on a particular issue
Red Data Book: Russian official book which contains lists of species whose continued
existence is threatened

WORLDS MOST POWERFUL INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES

Detective Agency

Country

Detective Agency

Country

Ministry of State Security

China

VAJA

Iran
Australian Secret

Australia

MOSSAD

Israel

Intelligence Service (ASIS)

FSB

Russia

Egyption Homeland Security Egypt

State Security Agency

South Africa PSIA

Japan

20

World Panorama

Inter Service Intelligence Pakistan

Iraqi National Intelligence

Iraq

(ISI)

Service

MI (Military Intelligence) 5 UK

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), USA

and 6, Special Branch, Joint

Federal Bureau of investigation

Intelligence org.

(FBI)

Research and Analysis Wing INDIA


DGSE (Direction General Dela France

(RAW), Intelligence Bureau

Securite Exterieure

(IB)

INTERNATIONAL AWARDS

Community Leadership, Journalism, Litera-

ture & Creative Arts and International Un-

Nobel Prize

derstanding.

It was set up in 1895 under the will of Al-

Man Booker Prize

fred Nobel.

The Nobel prizes are presented annually on Instituted in 1968, is the highest literary 10
December (The death anniversary of the

award of the world, setup by the Booker

Company

founder).

and the British Publishers Asso-

It is given in the fields of Peace, Literature,

ciation along the lines of the Pulitzer Prize

Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medi-

of USA.

cine (from 1901) and Economics (from

1969).

Right Livelihood Award


Nobel Prize (Indian/ Indian origin)

The Right Livelihood Award was estab-

1913: Literature: Rabindranath Tagore; was

lished in 1980.

It is also referred as Alternative Nobel

also the first Asian to win the prize

Prize.

1930: Physics: C. V. Raman

It is given to persons to honour those

1968: Medicine: Har Gobind Khorana; US

working on practical and exemplary solu-

citizen of Indian origin

tions to the most urgent challenges facing

the world today.

1979: Peace: Mother Teresa; Indian citizen

of Albanian origin

Oscar Awards

1998: Economics: Amartya Sen

Instituted in 1929, are conferred annually

2009: Chemistry: Venkatraman Ramakrish-

by the Academy of Motion Pictures, Arts

nan; US citizen of Indian origin

and Sciences, USA, in recognition of out-

standing contribution in the various fields

2014: Peace: Kailash Sathyarthi


of film making.

Pulitzer Prize

Instituted in 1917 and named after US pub-

UN Human Rights Award

lisher Joseph Pulitzer.

Instituted in 1966, this award is given every

It is conferred annually in the United States

5 years for individual contributions to the

for the accomplishments in journalism, lit-

establishment of human rights.

erature and music.

Magsaysay Awards

UNESCO Madanjeet Singh Prize

Instituted in 1957. Named after Ramon Instituted by UNESCO (1995) for the pro-
Magsaysay, the former President of Philip-

motion of tolerance and non-violence on

pines.

the occasion of the UN Year of Tolerance

The award is given annually on August 31,

and the 125th bir th Anniversary of Ma-

the birth anniversary of Magsaysay, for out-

hatma Gandhi funded by a donation from

standing contributions in Public service,

Madanjeet Singh.

World Panorama 21
FATHER OF VARIOUS FIELDS

Field

Father

Field

Father

Atom Bomb

Dr. Robert Oppenheime

Computer

Charles Babbage

Aviation

Sir George Cayley

Biology

Aristotle

Chemistry

Robert Boyle

Microbiology

Louis pasteur and

Robert koch

Comedy

Aristophanes

Political Science

Aristotle

Economics

Adam Smith

Modern Philosphy
Rene Descartes

English Poetry

Geoffrey Chaucer

Psychology

Wilhelmam Wundt

Greek Tragedy

Aeschylus

Modern Observational Galileo Galilei

Astronomy

Immunology

Edward Jenner

Modern Physics Science

Galileo Galilei

Modern Chemistry Antoini Lavoisier

Modern Science

Galileo Galilei

Nuclear Physics

Ernest Rutherford

Nano technology

Richard Smalley

Sanskrit Grammar Panini

Indian Nuclear Science

Homi Jehangir Bhabha

Geography

Eratosthenes
Anatomy

Andreas Vesalius

Sociology

Auguste Comte

Geometry

Euclid

Mathematics

Archimedes

Internet

Vinton Cerf

SOBRIQUETS

Sobriquets Person

Primary Names

A sobriquet is a nickname, Occasionally Grand Old Man of Willian Ewart

assumed and often given by another. The Britain

Glandstone

sobriquet can become more familiar than the

Honest Abe

Abraham Lincoln

original name.

Iron Duke

Duke of Wellington

Sobriquets Person

Primary Names

Iron Lady
Margaret Thatcher

Angel of Death

Josef Mengele

King James

LeBron James,

American basketball

Bard of Avon

William Shakespeare

player

Bard of Twickenham Alexander Pope

Lady with the Lamp Florence Nightingale

Bloody Mary

Mary I of England

Little Richard

Rev. Richard Wayne

Penniman, a prominent

Bonnie Prince

Charles Edward Stuart

figure in rock n roll.

Charlie

Madge

Madonna

Caligula

Gaius Julius Caesar

Augustus Germanicus
Madiba

Nelson Mandela

Maid of Orleans

Joan of Arc

Desert Fox

Erwin Rommel

Man of Blood and

Otto Von Bismark

Diamond Dave

David Lee Roth, Singer

Iron

Digger

Australian soldier

Man of Destiny

Napolean Bonaparte

Dr. Death

Jack Kevorkian,

Old Blood and Guts George S. Patton

proponent of assisted

Old Blue Eyes

Frank Sinatra,

suicide

entertainer

Dubya

George W. Bush
Old Hickory

Andrew Jackson, 7th

EI Caudillo

Francisco Franco

President of the United

States

Father of his country George Washington

Old Kinderhook

Martin Van Buren, 8th

Fuhrer

Adolf Hitler

(OK)

President of the United

Genghis Khan

Temjin

States

22

World Panorama

Sobriquets Person

Primary Names

FIRST IN THE WORLD

Old Nick

Santa

The first person to reach Sherpa Tenzing,

Mount Everest
Edmund Hillary

Old Rough and

Zachary Taylor

Ready

The first person to reach Robert Peary

North Pole

Old St. Nick

Santa

The first person to reach Amundsen

Prince of the

Desiderius Erasmus

South Pole

Humanists

The first religion of the

Hinduism

Qaid-e-Azam

Mohammad Ali Jinnah

world

Saint Jimmy

Billie Joe Armstrong

The first country to print China

book

Satchmo

Louis Armstrong

The first country to issue China


Slick Willy

U.S. President Bill

paper currency

Clinton

The first country to

China

commence competitive

Slowhand

Eric Clapton

examination in civil

The Bard

William Shakespeare

services

The first President of the George

The Bird

Mark Fidrych, Baseball

U.S.A

Washington

pitcher

The first Prime Minister of Robert Walpole

The Boss

Bruce Springsteen

Britain

The first Governor General Trygve Lie

The Cincinnatus of George Washington


of the United Nations

the Americans

The first country to win

Uruguay

The Duke

John Wayne

football World cup

The first country to prepare U.S.A

The Fab Four

The Beatles

a constitution

The first Governor General Mohd. Ali Jinnah

The Godfather of

James Brown

of Pakistan

Soul

The first country to host Belgrade

The Golden Bear

Jack Nicklaus

NAM summit

(Yugoslavia)

The Greatest

Muhammad Ali, Boxer

The first European to

Alexander, The
attack India

Great

The King (of golf)

Arnold Palmer

The first European to

Marco Polo

reach China

The King of Pop

Michael Jackson

The first person to fly

Wright Brothers

aeroplane

The Man from

Andrew Jackson

The first person to sail

Magellan

Tennessee

round the world

The Material Girl

Madonna

The first country to send U.S.A

man to the moon

The Red Baron

Manfred von

The first country to launch Russia


Richthofen, World War

Artificial satellite in the

I, German flying ace

space

The first country to host Greece

The Rock Chemeleon David Bowie

the modern Olympics

The Tiger of France Georges Clemenceau

The first city on which the Hiroshima

Tricky Dick

Richard Nixon, 37th

atom bomb was dropped (Japan)

President of the United

The first person to land on Neil Armstrong

States

the moon

followed by

Edwin E. Aldrin

Uncle Sam

The U.S.A. or

The first shuttle to go in

Columbia

sometimes the

space

government
The first spacecraft to

Viking-I

Wizard of the North Walter Scott

reach on Mars

World Panorama 23

The first woman Prime

Margaret

Shortest Day

Dec. 22(in Northern

Minister of England

Thatcher

Hemisphere)

The first Muslim Prime

Benazir Bhutto

Largest Delta

Sundarbans, India (8000

Minister of a country

(Pakistan)

sq. miles)

The first woman Prime

Mrs. S.

Longest Desert Sahara, Africa (84, 00,000

Minister of a country

Bandamaike (Sri

(World)
sq. km.)

Lanka)

Largest Diamond The Cullinan (over 1

The first woman to climb Mrs. Junko Tabei

1b.)

Mount Everest

(Japan)

Biggest Dome

Gol Gumbaz (Bijapur),

The first woman

Velentina

(Old archi) 144 ft.

cosmonaut of the world

Tereshkova

diameter.

(Russia)

Longest Epic

The Mahabharata

The first woman President Vijaya Lakshmi

Largest Island

Greenland (renamed

of the U.N. General

Pandit

Kalaallit Nunaat)

Assembly
Largest Lake

Lake Mead (Bouler)

The first man to fly into

Yuri Gagarin

(Artificial)

space

(Russia)

Deepest Lake

Baikal (Siberia); average

The first batsman to score Mohd.

depth2300 ft.

three test century in three Azharuddin

successive tests on debut

Highest Lake

Titicaca (Bolivia) 12645

ft. above sea level.

The first man to have

Nawang Gombu

climbed Mount Everest

Largest Lake

Lake Superior, U.S.A

twice

(Fresh Water)

The first U.S. President to

Richard Nixon
Largest Lake

Caspian Sea 3, 71,000 sq.

resign Presidency

(Salt Water)

km.)

Largest Mosque Masjid-al-Haram (Mecca-

SUPERLATIVES

Saudi Arabia) Surrounds

the Kaaba.

Tallest Animal on Giraffe

Highest Mountain Himalayas

(land)

peak (World)

Fastest Bird

Swift

Longest

Andes (S.America) 5,500

Largest Bird

Ostrich

Mountain Range miles in length

Smallest Bird

Humming Bird

Tallest Minaret Qutub Minar, Delhi 238 ft.

Longest Bridge Lower Zambeji (Africa )

(Free Standing)
(Railway)

Tallest Minaret

Great Hassan Mosque,

Tallest Building Burj khalifa, Dubai (U.A.E)

Casablanca, Morocco

Tallest office

Patronas Twin Towers

Deepest &

The Pacific

Building

Kuala Lampur (Malaysia)

Biggest Ocean

Longest Big Ship Seuz Canal (Linkin red sea

Largest Palace

Imperial Palace (Gugong),

Canal

& Mediterranean)

Beijing (China)

Busiest Canal

Baltic White Sea Canal

Coldest Place or Verkhoyansk (Syberia),

(Ship)

(152 miles)

Region

Temperature 85 C
Largest Continent Asia

Driest Place

Death Valley (California);

Smallest

Australia

rainfall 1 inch.

Continent

Hottest Place

Al-Aziziyah (Libya, Africa)

Largest Coral

The Great Barrier Reef

(World)

136F

Formation

(Australia)

Highest Plateau Pamir (Tibet)

Largest Dam

Grand Coulee- Concrete

Longest Platform Kharagpur W.B, India

Dam (U.S.A)

(Railway)

(833m)

Longest Day

June 21 (in Northern

Largest Platform Grand Central terminal,


Hemisphere)

(Railway)

New York (U.S.A)

24

World Panorama

Largest Port

Port of New York & New

World Rainiest

Cherrapunji

Jersey (U.S.A)

Spot

(Mawsynram), India

Busiest Port

Rotterdam (the

Lightest gas

Hydrogen

Netherlands)

Hardest

Diamond

Longest Railway Trans-Siberian Railway

Substance

(6,000 miles Long)

Longest Animal Blue Whale, (recorded

Longest River

Nile (6690 km), Amazon


length 106 ft. weight-195

(6570 km.)

tons)

Longest River

Hirakund Dam (Orissa),

Longest Life Span 190 to 200 years, (Giant

Dam

India 15.8 miles.

of an Animal

tortoise)

Largest sea-bird Albatross

Largest Land

African Bush Elephant

Largest Sea

Mediterranean

Animal

(inland)

Fastest Animal

Cheetah (Leopard ) 70

Tallest statue

Statue of Liberty, New

m.p.h

York (U.S.A), 150 ft. high.

Longest Jump

Kangaroo
Longest

English Channel

Animal

Swimming

Longest wing

Albatross

Course

Spread Bird

Tallest Tower

C.N Tower Toronto

Slowest Animal Snail

(Canada)

Fastest Dog

Persian Grey Hound

Longest Train

Flying Scoutsman

(speed 43 m.p.h)

nonstop

Longest

King cobra

Longest Tunnel Seikan Rail Tunnel

poisonous snake

(Railway)

(Japan), (53.85 km.)

Biggest Flower
Raffesia (Java)

Longest &

Le Rove Tunnel (South of

Largest Stadium Strahov stadium in

Largest Canal

France)

Prague, (the Czech

Tunnel

Republic)

Longest Tunnel Laerdal, Norway

Largest Church

Basilica of st. Peter,

(Road)

Vetican city, Rome Italy

Highest Volcano Ojos Del Salado, Andes

Largest Temple

Angkor Vat (Combodia)

Argentine-Chile (6,885

Largest Diamond Kimbarley (S.Africa)

m.)

mine

Largest Volcano Mauna Lao (Hawaii)

Largest River in Amazon, Brazil

Longest Wall

Great Wall of China (1500


volume

miles)

Highest Straight Bhakhra Dam

Highest Waterfall Salto Angel Falls

Dam

(Venezuela)

Highest Capital La Paz (Bolivia)

Longest Strait

Tartar Strait (Sakhalin

City

Island & the Russian

Largest Asian

Gobi, Mongolia

mainland)

Desert

Broadest Strait

Davis Straits (Greenland &

Largest

India

Baffin Island, (Canada)

Democracy

Narrowest strait Chaliks-45 yards

Longest

Verazano-Narrows, New

(Between the Greek


Thoroughfare

York City Harbour

mainland the island of

Euboea in the Aegean Sea)

Largest Neck

Giraffe

Animal

Largest Bay

Hudson Bay, Canada

(Shore line 7623 miles)

Largest Animal of Lion

the Cat Family

Largest Gulf

Gulf of Mexico,( shoreline

2100 miles)

Most Intelligent Chimpanzee

Animal

World Panorama 25

WORLD FAMOUS LANDMARKS

12. Niagara Falls : Border of Ontario (Canada)

1. The Statue of Liberty in New Your: USA

and New York (USA)

2. The Eiffel tower in Paris: France

13. Angkor Wat : Cambodia

3. St. Basils Cathedral in Moscow : Russia


14. St. Peters Cathedral : Vatican City

15. Mount Rushmore: South Dakota

4. The Great Sphinx at Giza, The Pyramids of 16. The Grand Canyon : Arizona

Giza: Egypt

17. Sydney Opera House : Australia

5. Neptune and the Place of Versailles: 18. Forbidden City : Beijing

France

19. The Colosseum: Rome, Italy

6. The Great wall of China : China

20. The Empire State Building : New York

7. The Taj Mahal in Agra : India

21. Abu Simbel : Egypt

8. Christ the Redeemer: Rio de Janeiro

22. Tower of Pisa : Italy

9. Mecca: Saudi Arabia

23. The Burj al Arab Hotel : Dubai

10. Brandenburg Gate in Berlin: Germany

24. Stonehenge: Wiltshire, United Kindom

11. Acropolis of Athens: Greece

25. Big Ben : London

THE NATIONAL EMBLEMS OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

Country

Emblem

Country

Emblem
Australia

Kangaroo

Bangladesh

Water Lily

Barbados

Head of a Trident

Belgium

Lion

Canada

White Lily

Chile

Candor & Huemul

Denmark

Beach

Dominica

Sisserou Parrot

France

Lily

Germany

Corn Flower

Guyana

Canje Pheasant

Hong Kong

Bauhinia (Orchid Tree)

India
Lioned Capital

Iran

Rose

Ireland

Shamrock

Israel

Candelabrum

Italy

White Lily

Ivory Coast

Elephant

Japan

Chrysanthemum

Lebanon

Cedar Tree

Luxembourg

Lion with Crown

Mongolia

The Soyombo

Netherlands

Lion

New Zealand

Southern Cross, Kiwi, Fern

Norway

Lion
Pakistan

Crescent

Papua New

Bird of paradise

Spain

Eagle

Guinea

Sierra Leone

Lion

Sri Lanka

Lion

Sudan

Secretary Bird

Syria

Eagle

Turkey

Crescent & Star

U.K.

Rose

IMPORTANT DAYS OF THE YEAR

10th January: World Laughter Day

22nd March: World Water Day

2nd February: World Wetlands Day

23rd March: World Meteorological Day

4th February: World Cancer Day


24th March: World Tuberculosis Day

13th February: World Radio Day

27th March: World Theatre Day

14th February: St. Valentines Day

2nd April: World Autism Awareness Day

21st February: International Mother 7th April: World Health Day

Language Day

18th April: World Heritage Day

8th March: International Womens Day and 22nd April: World Earth Day

Mothers day

25th April: World Malaria Day

15th March: World Consumer Rights Day

30th April: World Jazz Day

26

World Panorama

1st May: International Labour Day

16th September: World Ozone Day

3rd May: World Asthma Day

18th September: International Day of Peace

5th May: World Athletics Day

21st September: Biosphere Day

8th May: International Red Cross Day

25th September: Social Justice Day, World

17th May: World Telecommunications Day

Maritime Day
20th May: World Refugee Day

27th September: World Tourism Day

24th May: Commonwealth Day

1st October: International Music Day

31st May: World No Tobacco Day

2nd October: Gandhi Jayanti, International

1stJune: World Milk Day

Non-Violence Day

5th June: World Environment Day

3rd October: World Habitat Day

8th June: World Ocean Day

9th October: World PostalDay National Postal

20th June: International Refugee Day

Week (9thOctober to 14th October)

21st June: International Yoga Day

12th October: World Sight Day

23rd June: International Olympic Day

16th October: World Food Day

27th June: World Diabetes Day

7th November: World Cancer Awareness Day

1st July: World Doctors Day Van Mahotsav 21st November: World Fisheries Day, World
Week (1stJuly to 7thJuly)

Hello Day, World Television Day

11th July: World Population Day

25th November: International Day for the


28th July: World Hepatitis Day

Elimination of Violence against Women

29th July: International Tiger Day

3rd December: World Conservation Day

30th July: International Day of Friendship

5th December: World Soil Day

6th August: Hiroshima Day

9th December: International Day against

12th August: International Youth Day

Corruption, National Immunization Day

19th August: World Humanitarian Day

10th December: World Human Rights Day,

8th September: International Literacy Day

International Broadcasting Day

15th September: World Engineers Day

11th December: UNICEF Day

LIST OF PARLIAMENT OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

Country

Parliament Name

Country

Parliament Name

India

Sansad/Parliament

Maldeep

Majlis
Pakistan

National Assembly

Span

Cortes

Bangladesh

Jatiya Sansad

Nepal

Rastriya Panchayat

China

National Peoples Congress Russia

Duma

Bhutan

Tsondu

France

National Assembly

Srilanka

Parliament of Sri Lanka

Iran

Majlis

Afganistan

Shora

Malasiya

Diwan Nigara

England

Parliament
Switzerland Fedral Assembly

Canada

Parliament

Turkey

Grand National Assembly

Australia

Parliament

USA

Congress

Germany

Wondstag

Taiwan

Yuan

Japan

Diet

Israil

Neset

World Panorama 27

Arms Control Treaties

Security Council: 5 permanent members

Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT): Banned

and 10 non-permanent

nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in The Permanent Members of the


outer space and under water. Signed by the

US, UK and USSR in Moscow on 5 August 1963. Security Council

Entered into force on 10 October 1963.

The Peoples Republic of China;

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT): The Republic of France;

Allows only the nuclear weapon states to

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and

have nuclear weapons and stops others from

aquiring them. There are five nuclear weapon

Northern Ireland;

states: US, USSR (later Russia), Britain, France

The Russian Federation; and

and China.

The United States of America.

Strategic Arms Limitation TalksI (SALT-I): The UN Flag and the Emblem

The first Talks began in November 1969.

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks II (SALT-II): The UN General Assembly adopted the UN
The second round started in November 1972. flag on 20 Oct. 1947. The white UN emblem
The US President Jimmy Carter and the Soviet is super-imposed on a light blue back
ground.

leader Leonid Brezhnev signed the Treaty on

18 June 1979.

Aims and Objectives

Strategic Arms Reduction TreatyI (START-I): The Main objectives of the UN are : Treaty
signed by the USSR President Mikhail (1) To maintain peace and security in the world.

Gorbachev and the US President George Bush (2) To work together to remove poverty,
disease (Senior) on 31 July 1991.

and illiteracy and encourage respect for each

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II (START-

others rights of basic freedom.

II): Treaty signed by the Russian President

Boris Yeltsin and the US President George (3) To develop friendly relations among nations.

Bush (Senior) on 3 January 1993.

(4) To be a centre to help nations achieve these

common goals.

UNITED NATIONS

NON-PERMANENT MEMBERS OF UNSC

Quick Facts

Country

Term

Membership: 193 Member States


Began

Terms Ends

Established: 24 October 1945

Official languages: Arabic, Chinese,

Angola

2015

2016

English, French, Russian, Spanish.

Egypt

2016

2017

United Nations Day, 24 October

Based on five principal organs

Japan

2016

2017

(formerly sixthe Trusteeship Council Malaysia


2015

2016

suspended operations in 1994, upon the

New Zealand

2015

2016

independence of Palau, the last remaining

UN trustee territory); the General Senegal

2016

2017

Assembly, the Security Council, the Spain

2015

2016

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Ukraine

2016

2017

the Secretariat, and the International

Court of Justice.

Uruguay

2016

2017

General Assembly: 193 Member States

Venezuela
2015

2016

SECRETARY GENERALS OF UNO AND THEIR TENURE

Name

Country

Tenure

Trigve Lie

Norway

1946-1952

Dag Hammarskjoeld

Sweden

1953-1961

U-Thant

Myanmar (Burma)

1961-1971

Kurt Waldheim

Austria

1972-1982

Javier Perez de Cuellar

Peru

1982-1991

Boutros Boutros Ghali

Egypt

1992-1996

Kofi Annan
Ghana

1997-2006

Ban-Ki-moon

S. Korea

2007- continued

28

World Panorama

WORLD ORGANISATIONS AND

United Nations Interna-

New York

THEIR HEADQUARTERS

tional Childrens Emer-

gency Fund (UNICEF)

Asian Development Bank Manila (Philip-

(ADB)

pines)

United Nations Fund for New York

ASEAN (Association of

Jakarta (Indonesia)

Population Activities

South East Asian Nations)

(UNFPA)

NATO (North Atlantic

Brussels (Belgium)

United Nations Development New York


Treaty Organisation)

Programme (UNDP)

African Union (AU)

Addis-Ababa

United Nations Institute Geneva

(Ethiopia)

for Training and Research

SAARC (South Asian

Kathmandu

(UNITAR)

United Nations Research In- Geneva

Association for Regional

(Nepal)

stitute for Social Development

Corporation)

(UNRISD)

United Nations Environ- Nairobi (Kenya)

ment Programme (UNEP)

World Food Programme Rome (Italy)

International Atomic

Vienna (Austria)

(WFP)

Energy Agency (IAEA)

International Civil Avia-

Montreal
United Nations Industrial Vienna (Austria)

tion Organisation (ICAO) (Canada)

Development Organisation

International Fund for

Rome

(UNIDO)

Agricultural Development

UNCTAD (United Nations Geneva,

(IFAD)

Conference on Trade and Switzerland

International Labour

Geneva

Development)

Organisation (ILO)

WWF (World Wildlife

Gland

International Monetary

Washington

Fund)

(Switzerland)

Fund (IMF)

International Olympic

Lausanne

Universal Postal Union

Berne (Switzer-
Committee (IOC)

(UPU)

land)

OPEC (Organisation of

Vienna

World Health Organisa-

Geneva

Petroleum Exporting

tion (WHO)

Countries)

World Intellectual Prop-

Geneva

OECD (Organisation for

Paris

erty Organisation (WIPO)

Economic Co- operation

World Meteorological

Geneva

and Development)

Organisation (WMO)

Commonwealth of Nations London

Woman Aid International London

United Nations Centre for

Nairobi

European Free Trade As- Geneva


Human Settlements (UNCHS)

sociation (EFTA)

INTL GROUPS/ORGANISATION

Acronym

Full Name

H.Q.

Establishment

NAM

Non-Aligned Movement

Belgrade

1961

CHOGM

The Commonwealth Heads of Government

Meeting

EU

The European Union

Brussels,

1993

Belgiwn

SAARC

The South Asian Association for Regional

Kathmandu, 1985

Cooperation

Nepal.

NATO
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Brussels

4 April 1949

SEATO

The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

Manila

September 8,

1954

World Panorama 29

INTERPOL

The International Criminal Police Organization Lyon, France 1923

G-8

GROUP OF 8

France

1975

G-77

Group of 77

Geneva

15 June 1964

G-15

GROUP OF 15

Belgrade

September 1989

G-20

Group of 20
1999

ADB

Asian Development Bank

22 August 1966

AL

Arab League

Cairo

22 March 1945

ASIAN

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations

8 August 1967

OPEC

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting

Countries

Vienna

1965

APEC

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

1989

OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation

and Development

1961

Amnesty

International Amnesty International


London

28 May 1961

Red Cross

Red Cross

1864

BRICS

Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa No. H.Q.

2008

MDG 2015

Millenium Development Goal

2000

CENSUS 2011

Chennai

8,696,010

It is the 15th National Census survey con-

ducted by the Census Organization of India.

Bangalore

8,499,399

Mr. C. Chandramouli -Commissioner & Reg-

istrar General of the Census 2011.

TOP GROWTH RATE

Survey has been conducted in 2 phases -

1
Dadra and Nagar Haveli

55.88 %

house listing and population.

Population of India 1,210,193,422 with

Daman and Diu

53.76 %

623, 724, 248 males and 586,469, 174 fe-

Puducherry

28.08 %

males.

Total literacy rate: 74.04%.

Meghalaya

27.95 %

Density of population: 382 persons/

sq.km

Arunachal Pradesh

26.03 %

Sex ratio: 940 females per 1000 males

Child sex ratio: 914 females per 1000

TOP LITERATE STATES

males
1

Kerala

94.00 %

HIGH POPULATION

Lakshadweep

91.85 %

Uttar Pradesh

199,812,341

Mizoram

91.33 %

Maharashtra

112,374,333

Goa

88.70 %

Bihar

104,099,452

Tripura

87.22 %
4

West Bengal

91,276,115

BEST SEX RATIO

Andhra Pradesh

84,580,777

Kerala

1084

Puducherry

1037

MOST POPULATED METROS

Mumbai

18,414,288

Tamil Nadu

996

Delhi

16,314,838

Andhra Pradesh
993

Kolkata

14,112,536

Manipur

992

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Indian History

ANCIENT HISTORY

SOURCES OF ANCIENT INDIAN

Foreign travellers wrote about the infor-

HISTORY

mation of India. For examples

Megasthenes: He wrote book, INDICA

Pliocene deposits in Siwaliks. It is known as

about the dynasty of Maurya.

Ramapitheus, a type of early hominid.

Inscriptions either on stone or on metal Fahien: He wrote about the Gupta Emperor.

plates are old records of Ancient India. The Hieun-Tsang: He wrote about the Buddhist
study of inscriptions is called epigraphy.

record of the western world during period

Coins: The study of coins is called numis-

of Harshavardhan.

matics.

Albiruni: He wrote Tarikh-ul-Hind.


The Punch Mark Coins (silver & copper) Ibna-Batuta: He wrote about India under are
the earliest coins of India.

the rule of Muhammad Tughlaq.

Monuments: Monuments reflect the mate-

rial prosperity and development of culture PRE-HISTORIC PERIOD

e.g. Taxshila monuments about Kushans Pre - historic period is divided into three and
Stupas, Chaityas and Vihars about Mau-sections- Stone age, Bronze age and Iron

rya.

age.

Vedas: Vedas point out features and develop-

Stone age is divided into three periods, i.e.

ment of different dynasties, e.g. Rigveda deals

with Archery and known as The first testa-

Palaeolithic Age, Mesolithic Age and Neo-

ment of mankind.

lithic Age.

Samveda says about the art of music (i.e. Chalcolithic Age is marked by the use of
melodies)

copper as copper age.

Yajurveda: It is known as ritual Veda.

The Iron age is usually associated with the

Atharvaveda: It is the latest of the four. It

Painted Grey Wares (P.G.W.).

is about beliefs and superstitions.

Upanishad: It is anti-ritualistic in nature. It Indus Valley Civilization deals about the


theories of creation of the uni-
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a

verse and doctrine of action.

unique Bronze Age civilization.

Sutras: Sutras deal about rituals, Sanskaras, The Civilization flourished around the In-
social life, Medical science etc.

dus river basin and its tributaries, consist-

Puranas: Puranas describe the genealogies of

various royal dynasties, i.e. Maurya, Andhra,

ing of modern Pakistan and northwestern

Shishunag, Gupta, etc.

India.

Jatak Kathas: These are the parts of art Lothal, Balakot, Suktagendor and Allahdin and
literature of 3rd century B.C.

(Pakistan) in the cities of the Harappan civi-

Arthashastra: It is the analysis of political

lization were the major ports.

and economic conditions of the Mauryas, In the valley of the Indus people used irri-
composed by Kautilya (Chanakya).

gation-based agriculture.

Mudrarakshasa: It tells about the estab-

Indus Valley Sites Excavators

lishment of the Maurya dynasty, the fall of

Harappa - 1921- Dayaram Sahni

Nanda, Ramgupta, etc.

Rajtarangini: It was written by Kalhana

Mohenjodaro- 1922- R.D.Banerjee


in 12th century A.D. It is about the rulers of

Sutkagendor- 1927- Aurel Stein, George

Kashmir. It is considered the, first histori-

Dalesamri - 1929- M.G.Majumdar

cal book of India.

Chanhudaro- 1931- M.G.Majumdar

34

Indian History

Rangpur - 1931- M.S.Vats

The Rigveda (15001000 BC) consists of

Kot Diji- 1935- Fazal Khan

1028 hymns. These hymns were sung in

honour of various gods and were recited by

Dabarkot- 1935- Maichke

Hotri.

Kili Ghul Mohammad- 1950- Fairservis

The Gaytri Mantra had been discovered

Kalibangan- 1953- A. Ghosh

from the Rig Veda.

Ropar - 1953- Y.D.Sharma

The Sindhu and its tributaries are called

Sapta Sindhu.

Lothal - 1957- S.R.Rao

The Yajur Veda is a book of sacrificial

Surkotada- 1964- Jagatpati Ghosh


prayers. It is written in both verse and

prose.

Dholvira- 1967- J.P. Joshi

The Sama Veda consists of 1549 hymns.

It is a book of chants for singing during sac-

THE VEDIC PERIOD

rifices.

The Vedic Period or the Vedic Age

refers to the period when the Vedic Sanskrit LATER VEDIC PERIOD

texts were composed in India.

(1000-500 BC)

Literally Aryans means - the best or eminent.

The Aryans are supposed to have migrated The later Vedic society came to be divided
from Central Asia into the Indian Subconti-into four varnas called the Brahmanas,

nent in Several stages during 2000 to 1500

rajanyas or kshatriyas, vaisyas and shudras,

B.C.

each varna was assigned with its duty.

Kingdoms of the Later Vedic Period

Kingdom Location

1. Panchal

Bareilly, Badayun & Farrukhabad in U.P.

2. Kushinagar

-
Northern region of Uttar Pradesh

3. Kashi

Modern Varanasi

4. Koshal

Faizabad in Uttar Pradesh

5. Southern Madra

Near Amritsar

6. Uttara Madra

Kashmir

7. Eastern Madra

Near Kangra

8. Kekaya

On the bank of Beas river east of Gandhar kingdom

9. Gandhar

Rawalpindi & Peshawar

Chronology of Foreign Invasion

In 325 B.C. , he began his homeward


518486 B.C.: King Darius or Darus

journey.

invaded India.

In 324 B.C. , he reached Susa in Persia and

326 B.C. : Alexander invaded India.

died the next year, i.e. 323 B.C.

190 B.C. : India-Greeks or Bactrians

The Greek invasion of India opened the

invaded India.

trade route between north-west India

90 B.C. : Sakas invaded India.

and Western Asia.

A.D. 1st Century : Pahlavas invaded India.

A.D. 45 : Kushanas or Yue-chis invaded

RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS

India.

Came into existence around 600 B.C.

Summary of Alexanders Invasion

The main cause being reaction against

Alexander marched to India through the

domination of Brahmins and spread of ag-

Khyber Pass in 326 B.C.

ricultural economy in North-East.


Ambi, the ruler of Taxila, submitted to

Jainism

Alexander.

Founder Rishabhadeva (First Tirthankara).

He was resisted first strongest by Porus

Mahavira was the last of the 24 tirthan-

at Jhelum.

karas.

Indian History 35

Jainism was divided into two sects: Shwet-

Nanda dynasty (344-321 B.C.)

ambaras and Digambaras.

Mahapadmananda established the Nanda

The First Council was held at Pataliputra

dynasty into a powerful empire.

by Sthulabahu and Second at Valabhi.

Last ruler of Nanda dynasty was Dhanan-

Teachings

anda. He was contemporary of Alexander.

Jainism was based on 5 doctrines :

Alexander invasion of India took place in

(i) Ahinsa, i.e. non-violence; (ii) do not

326 B.C. during the reign of Dhanananda.

speak a lie, (iii) do not steal. (iv) do not ac-


The Mauryan empire

quire property, and (v) observe continence

(Brahmacharya) introduced by Mahavira.

(322 185 B.C.)

Three Gems of Jainism (Ratnatrya)

(i) Right faith (Samyak Vishwas)

Founder Chandragupta Maurya

(ii) Right knowledge (Samyak Gyan)

He defeated the king Dhanananda with the

(iii) Right conduct/action (Samyak Karma)

help of Chanakya .

Buddhism

Its capital was Pataliputra.

Megasthene (Greek Ambassador) came to

Gautam Buddha was the founder of Bud-

dhism.

his court.

His real name was Siddhartha.

He embraced Jainism and at Sravanbel-

His father was a king named Suddodana

agola

Tharu and Mother was Mahamaya.

He died at Sravanbelagola

He was born at Lumbini.

The war of Kalinga (BC 261) was the turn-


He discovered enlightenment under the

ing point of Ashokas life. The mass death of

peepal tree (Bodhi Vriksha) in Gaya, Bihar

the war changed his mind and he became a

at the age of 35.

He gave his first sermon at the Deer Park

follower of Buddhism.

in Sarnath.

Ashok Stambh of Sarnath was adopted as

It was divided into three main sects: Hinay-

national emblem of India.

ana, Mahayana and Vajrayana.

Sanchi Stupa was built by Ashoka.

Buddhist Councils

Ashokas Dhamma was a code of conduct

First at Rajgir, Second at Vaishali, Third at

(a set of principles like respect to elders)

Patliputra & Fourth in Kashmir.

mercy to slaves & emphasis on truth, non-

violence & tolerance.

IMPORTANT DYNASTIES IN

Number

Name of

Reign

ANCIENT INDIA
Emperor

The Haryanaka dynasty

Chandragupta 322 BC - 298 BC

Maurya

(544 412 B.C.)

Bindusara

298 BC - 272 BC

Bimbisara was the first ruler and founder

Ashoka

274 BC - 232 BC

of Haryanka dynasty. The capital of the

Dasaratha

232 BC - 224 BC

kingdom was Rajagriha.

Ajatasatru who killed his father and seized

Samprati

224 BC - 215 BC

the throne for himself.

Salisuka
215 BC - 202 BC

He was contemporary to Lord Mahavira

Devavarman

202 BC - 195 BC

and Lord Buddha and a follower of Bud-

Satadhanvan

195 BC - 187 BC

dhism.

Brihadatha

187 BC - 185 BC

Ajatasatru was succeeded by Udayin.

Sunga Dynasty (185 to 73 B.C.)

Shishunaga dynasty

Pushyamitra Sunga was the senapati of last

(412 - 344 B.C.)

king of Mauryan empire Brihadratha. He

The last Haryanka ruler, Nagadasaka, was

killed Brihadratha and founded the Sunga dy-

killed by his courtier Shishunaga in 430

nasty in 187 B.C.

B.C, who became the king and founded the Its capital was Pataliputra but later Vidhisha
Shishunaga dynasty.
was the capital of Sunga rulers.

36

Indian History

Kanva Dynasty (73-28 B.C.)

Source of information: Hatigumpha Pillar

Founder- Vasudeva Kanva.

inscription (Created by Kharavela)

He opposed Demetrius of Bactria and de-

Other Sunga Rulers: Bhumimitra, Narayana,

feated them.

Susarman.

The Indo-Greeks were the first to issue

Satvahana Dynasty

gold coins in India.

The Sakas were a group of nomadic tribes

It ruled in the Deccan and Central India af-

of Iranian origin or Scythian tribes, who

ter Mauryans.

lived in Central Asia.

Kanishka is considered to have conflicted

Founder- Simuka

with the Pataliputra and had taken Asvag-

Most powerful Satavahana king - Gautamipu-

hosa, the Buddhist Monk to Purushpura.

tra Satakarni (A.D. 106-130)


Founder of Pallava Dynasty- Simhavishnu,

Capital Kanchi.

OTHER DYNASTIES

The Sangam Kingdom

Kharavela was the greatest king of Chedi The Tamil Sangam was an academy of poets
Dynasty.

and bards.

Sangam Place of Organisation Chairman

Kingdom

First

Thenmadurai

Agastya

Pandiya

Second

Kapatapuram

Earlier- Agastya

Pandiya

Later- Tolkappiyar (a disciple of Agastaya)

Third

North Madurai

Nakkirar

Pandiya

Founder of Chera Dynasty: Utiyan Cheralatan.

Kalidas the great poet also belonged to this

Founder of Chola Dynasty: Vijayalaya Cap-


period.

ital Kaveripattanam.

Chandragupta (320-335 AD) was the son

Most powerful kings of Chola Dynasty - Ra-

jaraja (985-1014) and his son, Rajendra I.

of Ghatotkacha and grandson of Sri Gupta.

Temples & their location

Sumudragupta (AD 335-375) Harisena

described him as the Hero of a Hundred

The Kailash Temple

Ellora

Battles.

The Hoysala temple

Belur and Halebid

Prayag Prashasti (Written by Harisen) is

The Chennakesava

Belur

the main source of information on his reign.

temple

Samundragupta was succeeded by his son

The Hoysaleswara temple Halebid

Chandragupta Vikramaditya (or II).

The Ratha and Shore

Mahabalipuram,

Kumaragupta (AD 415-455) is the son of


temple

Chandragupta II.

The Brihadeshwara

Tanjavur

temple

Ruler of Gupta Dynasty

The Vithala temple

Harmpi

Srigupta I

270 AD - 290 AD

The Meenakshi Temple

Madurai

Ghatotkacha

290 AD - 319 AD

The Gupta Empire

Chandragupta I

319 AD - 335 AD

(AD 320-467)

Samudragupta

335 AD - 375 AD

Founder - Sri Gupta

Chandragupta II

375 AD - 414 AD

Nalanda University was built by Kumargupt.

Kumaragupta I
415 AD - 455 AD

The great Mathematician Aryabhata lived

during this age. He discovered the number

Skandagupta

455 AD - 467 AD

0 and value of Pi. He wrote Aryabhatiya Gupta Period is also known as the Golden
and Suryasiddhanta.

Age of Ancient India.

Indian History 37

The Post Gupta Period

town of Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram)

(550 AD 647 AD)

and built rock-cut raths or even pagodas.

NORTHERN INDIA

Palas dynasty was founded by Gopala I,

The Pushyabhuti dynasty came in power

who was elected as king of people.

in Thaneswar (Karnal in Haryana) in the

Palas with capital at Monghyr is known

beginning of the 6th century AD.

for Dharmapala, their second king, who

The first important king of this dynasty was

founded Vikramashila University and

Prabhakaravardhan (580-605 AD).

revived Nalanda University.


Harshavardhana (AD 606647) was the

The greatest ruler of Pratiharas was

last Hindu king of North India.

Bhoja (also known as Mihir, Adivraha).

Harsha himself wrote the Ratnavali, Naga-

Khajuraho temples were built during the

nandam and Priyadarshika plays in Sanskrit.

reign of Chandellas of Bundelkhand.

SOUTHERN INDIA

The Cholas (AD 985-1279)

Capital of Chalukyas (AD 543-753)- Bad-

Founder Vijayalaya, Capital Tanjore.

ami (Bagalkot district of North Karnataka)

Aditya I Chola wiped out Pallavas and

Pulakeshin I is generally attributed to be

weakened Pandayas.

the first Chalukyan king.

Purantaka I captured Madurai, but defeat-

Narasimhavarman completed the beautiful

ed by Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna III at the

temples of Mahablipuram.

Battle of Takkolam.

Rashtrakutas (AD 753973)

Ancient Indian Books and Authors

Founded by Dantidurg; Krishna I built


Kailasha temple at Ellora. Amoghavarsha,

Buddhacharita

- Asvaghosha

who is compared to Vikramaditya, wrote

Kirtarjuniya

- Bharavi

the first Kannada poetry Kaviraj Marg.

Gangas

Ravanavadha

- Bhatti

Ruled Orissa; Narsimhadeva constructed Sun

Ratnavali

- Harshavardhana

Temple at Konark; Anantvarman built the

Priyadarshika

- Harshavardhana

Jagannath Temple at Puri; and Kesaris

who used to rule before Gangas built the

Uttar Ramacharita

- Bhavabhuti

Lingaraja Temple at Bhubaneshwar.

Brihat Katha Manjari

- Kshemendra

Pallavas (AD 600-757)

Katha Sarita Sagara


- Somadeva

Founder-Simhavishnu; capital-Kanchi; great-

est king Narsimhavarman who founded the

Charak Samhita

- Charak

38

Indian History

MEDIEVAL HISTORY

EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIOD

MEDIEVAL INDIA

North India

The Delhi Sultanate

(AD 800 1200)

(1206 1526 AD)

After the death of Harshavardhan three dy-

Dynasties of Delhi Sultanate

nasties came into existence in the northern (i) Slave Dynasty : 1206-1290 AD

part of India and Deccan. Palas, Gurjara-

(ii) Khilje

: 1290-1320 AD

Partiharas and Rashtrakutas.

(iii) Tughlaq

: 1320-1414 AD

The Palas (750-1150 AD) ruled in Bihar (iv) Sayyid

: 1414-1451 AD
and Bengal from the 8th to the 12th cen-

(v) Lodhi

: 1451-1526 AD

tury. They supported Buddhism

Sources of Medieval Indian History:

The Gurjara-Pratiharas were Rajputs who

Tarikh i Firoze Shahi (Ziauddin barani);

ruled in Gujarat and Rajasthan and later

Tuzuk-i-Mubarak Shahi (Yahaya bin Ahmed

Kanauj.

Sirhindi); Futuhat-i-Firoze Shahi (Firoze

Bhoja-I (836-885 AD) adopted the title of

Shah Tughluq), etc.

Adivaraha.

Mahmud of Ghazni targeted the North In-

dian temple cities for wealth and iconoclas-

Tripartite Struggle

tic fervour.

Tripartite conflict was fought among the Muhammad Ghori nominated his trusted
Gurjara-Pratiharas, Rashtrkutas and Palas

and prominent slave, Qutubuddin Aibak

for the control over Kannauj.

as his representative to govern the newly

conquered regions in India. It was the be-

The Rajputs
ginning of slave dynasty.

The period between 647 A.D. and 1192 A.D., The Mamluk dynasty or The

i.e. 500 years is known as the Rajput period Slave Dynasty (1206-1290 AD)

in the history of India.

The most powerful Rajputs: Gahadavalas

Ruler

Reign

(Kanauj), the Paramaras(Malwa), and the

Qutbuddin Aibek

(12061210 AD)

Chauhans (Ajmer).

Aram Shah

(12101211 AD)

Prithviraj Chauhans (1178-92 AD) em-

pire included Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan

Shamsuddin Iltutmish (12111236 AD)

and Uttar Pradesh.

Ruknuddin Firuz

(1236 AD)

His courts poet Chand Bardai wrote Prithvi-

Raziyatuddin Sultana (12361240 AD)

raj Chauhans biography Prithviraj Raso.

Muizuddin Bahram

(12401242 AD)

He defeated Shahabuddin Muhammad


Ghori in the first battle of Tarrain in 1191.

Alauddin Masud

(12421246 AD)

In the Second battle of Tarrain (1192)

Nasiruddin Mahmud

(12461266 AD)

Muhammad Ghori won and killed Prithviraj

Ghiyasuddin Balban

(12661286 AD)

Chauhan.

Muizuddin Qaiqabad

(12861290 AD)

Jayachandra was the king of Kannauj.

Muhammad Ghori defeated and killed Jay-

Kayumars

(1290 AD)

achandra in the Battle of Chadawar in 1194. Qutubuddin Aibak also began the con-

Rana Kumbha was the ruler of Mewar, a

struction of Qutub Minar, in the honour

state in western India.

of famous Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutubuddin

Bakhityar Kaki

Dilwara temples at Mount Abu, the Vima-

Shamsuddin Iltutmish was a slave of Qu-


la Vasahi and the Luna Vasahi were built by

tubuddin Aibak.

Solankis of Gujarat.

Iltutmish stopped the Mongol attack in

South India

1221 A.D led by Chenghiz Khan.

Iltutmish nominated his daughter Razia

The founder of Chola Kingdom: Vijayalaya.

as the successor.

Rajaraja Chola (985-1014 AD) was one of She was the first and only Muslim lady that
the imperialistic and greatest Chola rulers.

ever ruled in India.

Indian History 39

She further offended the nobles by her pref-

Bahmani Kingdom

erence for an Abyssian slave Yakut.

The Bahmani Kingdom of Deccans capital

In 1240 A.D, Razia was the victim of a con-

was Gulbarga.

spiracy and was killed near Kaithal (Hary-

It was founded by Hasan Gangu (original

ana).

nameIsmail Mukh).

Jalaluddin Khilji founded Khilji dynasty.

He took the tittle of Alauddin Hasan, Baha-


Alauddin Khilji was the nephew and son-

man Shah.

in-law of Jalaluddin Khilji.

He killed Jalaluddin Khilji and took over the RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS

throne in 1296.

He was the first Turkish Sultan of Delhi who Bhakti Movement

separated religion from politics.

He appointed Diwan-i-Riyasat and Bhakti means personal devotion to God.

Shahna-i-Mandi to regulate the fixed price

It stresses the Union of the individual with

market.

God.

He abolished Iqtas of royal troopers and Bhakti movement originated in South the
payment of their salaries in cash.

India between the 7th and the 12th centuries

He constructed monuments like Alai-Dar-

AD.

waza and Sirifort in Delhi.

Ramananda was disciple of Ramunaja. He

Ghazi Malik with the name of Ghiyasud-

was the first reformer to preach in Hindi.

din Tughluq became the Sultan of Delhi in Kabir was an ardent disciple of Ramanan-
1320.

da. He wanted unity between the Hindus

Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq organised bet-


and the Muslims.

ter postal system.

Namdeva was a waterman by birth. He

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ascended the

composed beautiful hymns in Marathi.

throne in 1325.

Nanak was the founder of the Sikh religion.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq established Diwan-

Nanaks teachings were in the form of vers-

i-Khairat (department for poor and needy

es. They were collected in a book called the

people), and Diwan-l-Bundagan (depart-

Adi Granth.

ment of slaves).

Later Adi Grantham was written in a script

Khizr Khan was the first Sultan of the

called Gurmukhi.

Sayyed Dynasty.

Chaitaniya, a great devotee of Lord Krish-

The other rulers of this dynasty were Mubarak

na, was a saint from Bengal.

Shah (1421-1434), Muhammad Shah Tulsidas composed the famous Ramchari-

(1434-1443), Alam Shah (1443-1451).

tamanas in Hindi, expounding the various

Bahlol Lodhi (1451-88 A.D.) was an Af-


aspects of Hindu dharma.

ghan Sardar who founded the Lodhi dy-

Surdas was a devotee of Lord Krishna and

nasty.

Sikandar Lodhi shifted his capital from

Radha. His works include Sursagar, Sahitya

Ratna

Delhi to Agra and conquered Bihar and

and Sur Sarawali.

Western Bengal.

Dadu Dayal was a disciple of Kabir. His fol-

Ibrahim Lodhi was the last king of Lodhi

lowers were known as Dadu Panthis.

dynasty and the last Sultan of Delhi.

Eknath was a devotee of Vithoba. He wrote

At last Daulat Khan Lodhi, the governor of

commentary on verses of the Bhagavad

Punjab invited Babur to overthrow Ibrahim

Gita.

Lodhi, Babur accepted the offer and inflict-

The Sufi Movement

ed a crushing defeat on Ibrahim Lodhi in

the first battle of Panipat in 1526.

Sufism is basically a religion based on the

truth of life. The mystics of Islam are called


Vijaynagar Empire

Sufis.

(1336-1565 AD)

It emerged in India in 11th & 12th century A.D.

The Vijayanagar Empire was a South In-

It established brotherhood between Hindus

dian dynasty based in the Deccan on the

& Muslims.

South bank of Tungabhadra River.

The founders of the most important Sufi

There were four dynasties ruled over Vi-

lineage Chisti, Suhrawardi, Qadiri, Naqsh-

jaynagar Sangama Dynasty, Saluva Dy-

bandi originally came from central and

nasty, Tuluva Dynasty and Aravidu Dynasty.

west Asia.

40

Indian History

The prominent sufi saints were Khwaja The Mughul era began with the Baburs
Nizamuddin Aulia, Ganj-e-Shakar Faridud-victory over Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle

din, Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki and

Of Panipat in 1526.

Hamuddin Nagori .

Babur was from the princely family of

Hazrat Nizam-ud-Din was the disciple of


mixed Mongol and Turkish blood.

Fariduddin Ganj-i-Shakkar.

He died in 1530.

Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki was the disciple Babur wrote his biography Baburnama
and the spiritual successor of Moinuddin

i.e. Tuzk-e Babri.

Chishti.

Humayun succeeded Babur at the young

Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti (1142-1236 AD)

age of 23 in 1530.

The Chisti order of Sufism was founded in He was defeated in the Battle of Chausa
village Khwaja

(1539) and Battle of Kanauj (1540) by Sher

Chishti near Herat in Per-

Shah Suri who became the ruler of Agra

sia, i.e. Iran.

and Delhi.

In India, Chisti silsila was founded by Kh-

The Humayuns Tomb was built by his wid-

waja Moinuddin Chishti (born 1142 AD).

ow Haji Begum in Delhi.

He came to India around AD 1192.

Humayuns sister Gulbadan Begum wrote

He made Ajmer the main centre for his

Humayunnama.
teachings. He died in Ajmer in 1236.

He died in 1556.

The Mughals

The real name of Sher Shah was Farid.

(1526-1540 and 1555-1857)

During the siege of the fort of Kalinjar one

of the cannons accidentally went off killing

him on 26th of May 1535.

EMPERORS OF MUGHAL DYNASTY He was buried in Sasaram (Bihar).

He built Purana Qila in Delhi.

Ruling Period

Name

Bairam Khan became the Wakil of the king-

1526 - 1530

Zahiruddin Muhammad

dom with the title of Khan-i-Khana.

Babur

Akbar was crowned at Kalanaur at the age

of 13 years in 1556.

1530 - 1540 and

Humayun

Akbar reoccupied Delhi and Agra in the sec-

1555 - 1556

ond battle of Panipat with Hemu, a general

1556 - 1605
Akbar

of Adil Shah in 1556.

1605 - 1627

Jahangir

Akbar built many buildings like Agra Fort

(1565), Lahore Palace (1572), Fatehpur

1628 - 1658

Shah Jahan

Sikri, Buland Darwaza and Allahabad Fort

1658 - 1707

Mohamamed Aurangzeb

(1583).

1707 (Mar 14 - Apr 27) Qutib-ud-din Azam Shah

He died in 1605.

1707 - 1712

Shah Alam Bahadur Shah-I

Nine Jewels or Nav-Ratnas of Akbar

1712 - 1713

Mohammad

Abdul Rahim Hindi Scholar

Abdul Fazal Chief Advisor

1713 - 1719

Furrukhsiyar

Birbal Wittiness

1719 (Mar 1 - Jun 7) Rafi ul Darjat


1719 (Mar 30 -

Mohamamd Shah

Tansen Singer

Aug 13)

Nikusiyar

Todar Mal Finance Minister

Mullah Do Piaza Advisor

1719 (Jun 8 - Sep 6) Mohammad Shah Jahan Sani

Raja Man Singh General (Senapati)

1719 - 1748

Mohammad Shah

Faizi Poet

1720 (Oct 12 - Nov 19) Mohammad Ibrahim

Hamim Humam Physician

1748 - 1754

Ahmad Shah Bahadur

Jahangir (AD 1605-1627)

1754 (Jun 3 - Nov 29) Alamgir II

The real name of Jahangir was Salim.

1759 (Dec 11 - Dec 25) Shah Jahan III

Jahangir married Mehr-un-Nisa who assumed

1759 - 1806

Shah Alam II

the title of Nur Jahan (Light of the world)

His son Khurram (Shah Jahan) rebelled


1806 - 1837

Mohammad Akbar Shah II

against him at the end of his reign.

1837 - 1857

Bahadur Shah Zafar

Shah Jahan became emperor in 1627.

Indian History 41

He was married to the daughter of Asaf

Battles Fought Between

Khan named Arjumand Bano Begum, also

known as Mumtaz Mahal.

1st Battle of Panipat (1526) : Babur and

He built the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Jama

Ibrahim Lodhi

Masjid (sand stone) in Delhi.

Battle of Khanwa (1527) : Babur and Rana

Auranzeb (AD 1658-1707)

Sunga.

Aurangzeb was also called as Zinda Pir

Battle of Chausa (1539) :

(the living saint).

Sher Shah Suri

The Mughul conquest reached a climax

and Humayun

during his reign.


2nd Battle of Panipat (1556) : Akbar and Hemu

The second coronation of Aurangzeb took

Battle of Haldighati (1576) : Raja Maan

place when he defeated Dara (1659).

Singh (Mughal army) and Rana Pratap

He forbade inscription of Kalma on the

coins and banned music in the court.

Battle of Samugarh (1658) : Aurangzeb and

He died in 1707 AD.

Dara Shikoh

The Later Mughals

Battle of Khanwa (1659) : Aurangzeb and

brother Shah Shuja

Muazzam ascended the Mughal throne

with the title of Bahadur Shah.

Battle of Karnal (1739) : Nadir Shah and

Farrukhsiyar ascended the throne with

Muhammad Shah(Mughal)

help of Sayyid brothers, Abdullah Khan and

Hussain Khan.

Foreign Travellers

Reign

Nadir Shah raided India in 1738-39 and

1. Marco Polo Pandya kingdom

took away the peacock throne and Kohi-


noor diamond during the reign of Moham-

2. Ibn Batuta

Muhammad bin Tughlaq

mad Shah (1719-48).

3. Nicolo Conti Deva Raya I

The Battle of Buxar (1764) was fought dur-

4. Abdur Razaq Deva Raya II

ing the reign of Shah Alam II.

5. Nikitin

Bahmani kingdom

Bahadur Shah Zafar was the last Mughal king.

6. Nuniz

Krishna Deva Raya

Mughal Buildings & Builder

Maratha State (1674-1818)

Humayuns Tomb (Delhi) : Bega Begum

Shivaji was born at Shivner, Poona and died

Buland Darwaza (Fatehpur Sikri) : Akbar

on April 3, 1680 in Rajgarh.

He was founder of the Maratha kingdom of

Shalimar Bagh (Srinagar) : Jahangir

India.

Akbars Tomb (Sikandara, Agra) : Began by

Shahji Bhonsle was the father and Jija Bai

Akbar and finished by Jahangir.


was the mother of Shivaji.

Tomb of Itmad ud daula (Agra) : Nur Jahan

In 1659, Shivaji killed Afzal Khan who

was deputed by Adil Shah to suppress him.

Tomb of Jahangir (Shahdara Bagh, Lahore)

: Shah Jahan

Sikh Gurus

Taj Mahal (Agra) : Shah Jahan

Nanak (1469-1539) founded Sikh religion.

Angad (1538-52) invented Gurmukhi.

Red Fort (Delhi) : Shah Jahan

Amardas (1552-74) struggled against sati

system and purdah system and estab-

Name of the Book- Author

lished 22 Gadiyans to propagate religion.

Tuzk-i-Babari : Babar

Ramdas (1574-81) founded Amritsar in

1577. Akbar granted the land.

Humayun Namah : Gulbadan Begum

Arjun (1581-1606) founded Swarn Mandir

Akbarnama, Ain i Akbari : Abul Fazl

(Golden Temple) and composed Adi Granth.

Tuzk i Jahangiri : Jahangir

Hargobind Singh (1606-45) established

Akal Takht and fortified Amritsar.


Shah Jahan Namah : Inayat Khan

Har Rai (l 645-66)

Padshah Namah (about Shah Jahan):

Harkishan (1661-64)

Abdul Hamid Lahori

Tegh Bahadur (1664-75)

Alamgirnama (about Aurangzeb) : Mirza

Gobind Singh (1675-1708) was the

Muhammad Kazim

last Guru who founded the Khalsa.

After him Sikh guruship ended.

42

Indian History

MODERN HISTORY

ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS IN INDIA

Mir Qasim ( May 8, 1777) was the Nawab

of Bengal from 1760 to 1763.

Portuguese

The Battle of Buxar was fought on 23 Oc-

On 17th May 1498, Vasco da Gama, a Portu-

tober 1764 between East India Company

guese navigator, came to Calicut.

led by Hector Munro and the combined

He found new trade route from Europe to

army of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal:


Asia via Cape of Good Hope.

the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal King

His second visit in 1502 established Por-

Shah Alam II.

tuguese Trading Centres at Calicut, Can-

Rule of the British Governors and

nanore and Cochin.

Governor Generals

Cochin was the first capital of the Portu-

guese in India which was shifted to Goa After the victory of the English in Buxar, later on.

Clive was appointed the governor and

commander-in-chief of the English pos-

Dutch

sessions in Bengal.

Dutch arrived in India as a beginning of Warren Hastings was appointed the Gov-
Portuguese decline in 1605.

ernor of Bengal in 1772.

The Dutch East India company of Neth-

In 1773 the Regulating Act was passed

erlands was formed in 1592 to trade with

which provided for the setting up of a su-

East Indies.

preme court to try all British subjects.

Cornelis Houtman was the first Dutch who Lord Wellesley is considered to be one
came to India.
of the most brilliant Governor Generals of

Bengal.

French

He introduced the Subsidiary Alliance

In AD 1664 French came to India as a last

system to undo with the French influence

European Community.

and bring the Indian states within the pur-

The French East India Company was found-

view of the British power of Jurisdiction.

ed by Jean Baptiste Colbert.

Lord Minto-I (AD 1807-13) was followed

In 1667, the first French Factory was estab-

by Lord Hastings who governed from 1813

lished at Surat.

to 1823.

Danes

Marquess of Hastings (AD 1813-1823)

He was the first to appoint Indians to the

In 1616 the Danes came to India.

highest posts of responsibility. The first

They established at Tranquebar (Tamil

vernacular newspaper Samachar Patri-

Nadu) in 1620 and Serampore (Bengal) in

ka published during his time.


1676.

Lord William Bentinck (AD 1828-35)

Charter Act of 1833 was passed and he was

EAST INDIA COMPANY

made the first Governor General of India;

Company rule in India effectively began in

Abolition of sati in 1829.

1757 after the Battle of Plassey.

Lord Dalhousie (AD 1848-56) Doctrine

Company was granted the diwani, or the

of Lapse, The Second Burmese war, The

right to collect revenue, in Bengal and Bihar

Second Anglo Sikh War, Shimla made the

in 1765.

summer capital, First railway line was

Siraj-ud-Daula was the last independent

laid from Bombay to Thane, in 1853.

Nawab of Bengal who succeeded Alivardi Lord Canning (AD 1856-58) - Annexation
Khan to the throne.

of Avadh, enactment of Hindu Widow Re-

Mir Jafar Ali Khan Bahadur, commonly

marriage Bill, 1857, establishment of uni-

known as Mir Jafar, (c. 1691February 5,

versities at Calcutta, Madras and Bom-

1765) was the first Nawab of Bengal under


bay, revolt of 1857.

Company rule in India.

Following the Queens recommendation in

After Siraj decline Mir Jafar was installed as

1858, transferring the Government from

the Nawab in 1757 by the British East India

the company to the British Crown, Lord Can-

Company.

ning was made the first Viceroy of India.

Indian History 43

Lord Mayo (AD 1869-72) Organised first

5. Wazir Ali

1797-98

Awadh

census which was held in 1871.

Lord Lytton (AD 1876-80) The Delhi

6. Nizam-ul-Mulk

1724-48 Hyderabad

Durbar, January 1, 1877 and the Vernacu-

Asaf Jah

lar Press Act, 1878.

7. Nasir Jung

1748-50 Hyderabad

Lord Ripon (AD 1880-84) First Factory

8. Muzaffar Jung
1750-51 Hyderabad

Act of 1881. Local Self-Government was

introduced in 1882. Repeat of Vernacular

9. Salabat Jung

1751-60 Hyderabad

Press act.

10. Nizam Ali

1760- Hyderabad

Lord Curzon (AD 1899-1905) - Famine

1803

Commission, Agriculture Research Institute

11. Sikandar Jah

1803-29 Hyderabad

at Pusa, Partition of Bengal in 1905.

Lord Minto II (AD 1905-10) Minto-Mor-

12. Nasir-ud-daulah 1829-57 Hyderabad

ley Reforms in 1909. Swadeshi movement

13. Afjal-ud-daulah

1857-69 Hyderabad

(1905-08), foundation of Muslim League

14. Mahabat Ali

1869- Hyderabad

(1906), Surat session and split in the con-

Khan

1911
gress (1907).

15. Osman Ali Khan

1911-49 Hyderabad

Capital of country was announced to be

shifted from Calcutta to Delhi.

16. Hyder Ali

1761-82 Mysore

Lord Chelmsford (1916-21) Government

of India Act 1919 (Montague-Chelmsford

17. Tipu Sultan

1782-99 Mysore

Reforms), enactment of Rowlatt Act (1919),

18. Ranjit Singh

1792-1839 Punjab

Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy (1919), begin-

ning of the Non-co-operation Movement.

Some important Nawabs of

Lord Irwin (AD 1926-31) Appointment Bengal (1717-1772)

of Simon commission in 1928. Gandhi-

Irwin Pact in 1931; First Around Table Con-

Nawabs

Period

ference (1930).

1. Murshid Quli Khan

1717-27
Lord Willington (AD 1931-36) The Sec-

2. Suf-ud-din

1727-39

ond Round Table Conference 1931, The

3. Sarfraz Khan

1739-40

communal award, 1932, the Poona pact,

Third Round Table Conference, 1932.

4. Alivardi Khan

1740-56

Lord Wavell (AD 1944-47)- Wavell Plan

5. Siraj-ud-daulah

1756-57

and Shimla Conference, Cabinet Mission

6. Mir Jafar

1757-60

(Lawrence, Cripps and Alexander), Direct

Action Day on August 16, 1946, Attlees

7. Mir Qasim

1760-63

Declaration,

8. Mir Jafar

1763-65

Lord Mountbatten, (March 1947-June

9. Najm-ud daulah
1765-72

1948) Last Viceroy of British India and

first-Governor general of free India. Par-

THE REVOLT OF 1857

tition of India in third week of June, 1947;

Indian Independence Act, Partition of the Political Causes: The policy of Doctrine of
country between two independent states of

Lapse.

Nana Sahib was refused pension, as he was

India and Pakistan. He was succeeded by

C. Rajagopalachari.

the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao I.

Military Discrimination: Discrimination

Some Important rulers in India

between the Indian and the British soldiers.

(1720-1949)

Religious Discrimination: The introduc-

tion of Enfield rifle, the cartridge of which

Ruler

Period

Place

was greased with animal fat, provided the

1. Sadat Khan

1722-39

Awadh
spark.

Burhan-ul-Mulk

On March 29, 1857, a soldier named Man-

gal Pandey attacked and fired at his senior

2. Safdar Jung

1739-54

Awadh

at Barrackpur in Bengal (in 19th and 34th

3. Shuja-ud-daulah 1754-75

Awadh

Native infantry).

4. Asaf-ud-daulah

1775-97

Awadh

Mutiny spread throughout UP along with

some other parts of the country.

44

Indian History

Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II was Henry Vivian Derozio was the founder of
proclaimed the Emperor of India.

the Young Bengal Movement.

Causes of Failure of the Revolt: Lack of The Arya Samaj was founded by planning,
organization and leadership.

Swami Dayanand Saraswati at Bombay in

Some Indians supported the British in sup-


1875.

pressing the revolt as Scindia of Gwalior, The original name of Swami Vivekananda the
Holkar of Indore, the Nizam of Hy-was Narendranath Dutta (1863-1902).

derabad, the Raja of Jodhpur, the Nawab He was famous disciple of Shri Ramkrish-
of Bhopal, the rulers of Patiala, Sindh

na Paramahamsa.

and Kashmir and the Rana of Nepal.

Swami Vivekananda participated at the

Parliament of Religions held in Chicago

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL

(USA) on September 11,1893 and raised the

REFORMS

prestige of India and Hinduism very high.

Raja Rammohan Roy established the Brah-

The Theosophical Society was founded

mo Samaj at Calcutta in 1828 in order to

in New York (USA) in 1875 by Madam H.P.

Blavatsky,

purify Hinduism and to preach monotheism.

a Russian lady, and Henry Steel

Olcott,

He established the Atmiya Sabha in 1815.

an American colonel.

Raja Rammohan Roy is most remembered The Aligarh Movement was started by
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
for helping Lord William Bentinck to de-

(1817-98) for the social

clare the practice of Sati a punishable of-

and educational advancement of the Mus-

fence in 1829.

lims in India.

SOME IMPORTANT ORGANIZATION

Name of the Organization

Founder

Year Place

Atmiya Sabha

Ram Mohan Roy

1815 Calcutta

Brahmo Samaj

Ram Mohan Roy

1828 Calcutta

Dharma Sabha

Radhakanta Dev

1829 Calcutta

Tattvabodhini Sabha

Debendranath Tagore

1839 Calcutta

Nirankaris

Dayal Das, Darbara Singh, Rat- 1840 Punjab

tan Chand etc.


Manav Dharma Sabha

Durgaram Manchharam

1844 Surat

Parmahansa Mandali

Dadoba Panderung

1849 Bombay

Namdharis

Ram Singh

1857 Punjab

Radha Swami Satsang

Tulsi Ram

1861 Agra

Brahom Samaj of India

Keshab Chandra Sen

1866 Calcutta

Dar-ul-Ulum

Maulana Hussain Ahmed

1866 Deoband

Prarthna Samaj

Dr. Atmaram Pandurung

1867 Bombay

Arya Samaj

Swami Dayanand Saraswati

1875 Bombay

Theosophical Society
Madame HP Blavastky and Col 1875 New York (USA)

H. S. Olcott

Sudharam Brahmo Samaj

Anand Mohan Bose

1878 Calcutta

Deccan Education Society

G. G. Agarkar

1884 Pune (Poona)

Muhammadan Educational Con- Sir Syed Ahmad Khan

1886 Aligarh

ference

Indian National Conference

M. G. Ranade

1887 Bombay

Deva Samaj

Shivnarayan Agnihotri

1887 Lahore

Nadwah-ul-Ulma

Maulana Shibli Numani

1894 Lucknow

Ramakrishna Mission

Swami Vivekanand

1897 Belur

Servants of Indian Society

Gopalakrishan Gokhale
1905 Bombay

Indian History 45

Poona Seva Sadan

Mrs Ramabai Ranade and G.K. 1909 Pune (Poona)

Devadhar

Social Service League

N. M. Joshi

1911 Bombay

Seva Samiti

H. N. Kunzru

1914 Allahabad

THE FREEDOM STRUGGLE

On February 5, 1922, in the Chauri Chaura

The Indian National Congress was found-

the police chowki was set on fire by the

ed on 28 December 1885 by Allan Octavian

mob, killing 22 of the police occupants.

Hume.

The Lahore protest was led by Indian na-

Womesh Chandra (W.C.) Bonnerjee was

tionalist Lala Lajpat Rai, was severely beat-

the first President of the INC.

en by local police. He died on November 17,

The first session of the INC was held from

1928.
2831 December 1885, and was attend-

First Round Table Conference

ed by 72 delegates.

(November 1930 January 1931).

Bengal was reunited in 1911.

Second Round Table Conference

Surat Split is mainly known for separation

(Sep-

of Congress partymen into moderates and

tember December 1931)

extremists at the Surat session of Congress

Third Round Table Conference (No-

in 26 December 1907.

vember December 1932)

The All-India Muslim League was found-

ed on 30 December 1906.

The name Pakistan had been proposed

The founding president of Ghadar Party

by Choudhary Rahmat Ali in his Pakistan

was Sohan Singh Bhakna and Lala Hardayal

Declaration.

was the co-founder of this party.

In 1940 at the Lahore Session of the Mus-

In 1916, two Home Rule Movements were


lim League, the demand for a separate

launched in the country: one under the lead-

state of Pakistan was made.

ership of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the other It was based on the two-nation theory.

under Annie Besant.

Gandhiji gave the slogan Do or Die.

August Declaration (1917)

The Indian National Army was an armed

The British aimed at increasing associa-

force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942

tion of Indians in every branch of the ad-

in Southeast Asia during World War II.

ministration for progressive realisation of Cabinet Mission was composed of three


responsible government in India as an inte-Cabinet Ministers of England: Sir Pethick

gral part of the British empire.

Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps, and Alexander.

Summary of Freedom Movement

S. No.

Event

Year

Significance

1.

Sepoy Mutiny

1857 First War of Independence due to dissatisfaction of

the Indian soldiers


2.

Indian National Congress 1880 Initiated by A. O. Hume; first president, W. C.


Bannerjee 3.

Swadeshi Movement

1905 Boycott of foreign goods

4.

Home Rule Movement

1916 Led by Dr (Mrs) Annie Besant

5.

Lucknow Pact

1916 Hindu-Muslim unity which weakened the British

6.

Khilafat Movement

1920 Mohd Ali and Shaukat Ali led the movement for resto-

ration of Khilafat, alienating Muslims from the British

7.

Chauri-Chaura incident 1922 Mob clashed with police, killing 22 policemen.

Gandhiji called off the civil disobedience movement.

8.

Non-cooperation Move- 1920- With Gandhiji's support of the Khilafat movement,


Hindus

ment

1922 and Muslims launched the non-cooperation movement

9.

Swaraj party
1922 Ghandhiji's decision to call off the civil disobedience

movement, led to the formation of the Swaraj party

Initiated by Motilal Nehru.

46

Indian History

10. Dandi March

1930 Gandhiji launched the movement to break the salt law

11. Civil Disobedience

1930 Non-violent non-cooperation movement led by Gandhiji

12. Quit India Movement

1942 Led by Gandhiji; asking the British to leave India

13. Direct Action Campaign 1946 Launched by Muslim league, resulted in heavy riots.

Newspapers and Journals

Newspaper/Journal Name

Founder

Bengal Gazette (1780) (Indias First Newspaper)

James Augustus Hickey.

Kesari

B.G.Tilak

Amrita Bazar Patrika

Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh

Hindu

Vir Raghavacharya and G.S. Aiyar

Hindustan

M.M. Malviya
Mooknayak

B.R. Ambedkar

Comrade

Mohammad Ali

Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan

Al-Hilal

Abul Kalam Azad

Independent

Motilal Nehru

Punjabi

Lala Lajpat Rai

New India (Daily)

Annie Besant

Pratap

Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi

Young India

M.K Ghandhi

Hindustan Times

K.M. Pannikar

World History

WORLD HISTORY

Ancient

Medieval

Modern
Mesopotamian Civilization

Europian Civilization

Renaissance

(5000-900 BC)

African Civilization

Reformation

Egyption Civilization

Arab Civilization

Glorious Revolution

(500-30 BC)

Chinese Civilization

Industrial Revolution

Greek Civilization

American Revolution

(776-388 BC)

French Revolution

Roman Civilization (753 BC-476 AD)

Russian Revolution

WORLD ANCIENT HISTORY

Mesopotamian Civilization

Time Period

Events

5000-3500 BC The first city built by Sumerian people in southern Mesopotamia.

3500 BC

Writing started with pictogram based script and took about a thousand year to
be evolved in full cuneiform script.

2300 BC

The first akkadian ruler Sargon started to conquer Sumerian cities

2112-2095 BC The central city of Ur was built by Ur-Nammu and called as the third
dynasty of Mesopotamian.

1792-49 BC

Development of Babylonian civilization by king Hammurabi along Euphrates

River.

1530 BC

Kassite came into being in Hammurabis rule in 1750 BC and categorized into

minorities of Mesopotamia.

1500 BC

Northern Mesopotamia is conquered by an Indo-European ruler called Mittani.

He has also conquered Syria and Asia Minor.

1200 - 900 BC

Assyria started to lose its importance due to political instability engulfing Anatolia,
Syria, and the Levant coast.

Egyptian Civilization

Time Period

Events

5000 BC

Farming started along the bank of Nile River.

3500-3000 BC Starting of Pre dynastic period which was characterized by permanent


settlement.

2650 BC

Old kingdom began to flourish which was known to be the era of dynamic
development of Egyptian art.

1539 BC

With the expulsion of the Hyksos and reunification of Egypt, it became the

leading power in the Middle East.

48

World History

1344-1328 BC The first ever instance of monotheism had been illustrated by the
religious reforms of pharaoh Akhenaton.

525 BC

Persians started ruling the Egypt.

332 BC

Alexander the great conquered Egypt.

305 BC

A greek-speaking dynasty was established by one of the generals of Alexander

the Great.

30 BC

The last queen of independent Egypt died and Roman empire occupied Egypt.

Greek Civilization

Time Period

Events

776 BC

The first official date of Olympic Games

750BC

Greek started planting colonies on the Mediterranean coast

490-479
Athens and Sparta took lead for defending their land against invasion from

the huge Persian Empire

399

Socrates, the famous philosopher of Athens was sentenced to death as he

was questioning conventional ideas

338

The Greek city-states were defeated by King Phillip II of Macedon

Roman Civilization

Time Period

Events

753 BC

Rome was founded

509BC

Roman republic was built

390BC

Rome was sacked by the Gauls

117AD

Roman Empire became the largest empire of its time

312AD

Constantine the Great got converted to Christianity

410AD

Goths sacked Roman Empire

476AD

The last Roman emperor was thrown out by German Tribes

WORLD MEDIEVAL HISTORY


Medieval Europe Civilization

Time Period

Events

500-600AD

A monastery was built in Italy.

Christianity was introduced in England.

The foundation stone of Roman Catholic Church was laid by Gregory the Great.

650-700AD History of the English Church and People was written by Bede

800AD

Charlemagne, the King of the Franks, was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor.

850-900AD First Russian states founded at Kiev and Novgorod

1150-1200 AD Construction of the cathedral of Nutre Dame

1200-1250 AD

St Francis of Assisi sets up a monastic order, emphasizing austerity and compassion

Rebellion against the king by the Lords of England as he signed the Magna

Carta, accepting to rule according to law.

1250-1300 AD Establishment of the Habsburg dynasty that continued to rule Austria


till 1918

World History 49

AFRICAN CIVILIZATION
Prophet Muhammad died on Mon-

day, 8th June, 623 AD and was buried at

Time

Events

Medhina.

Period

Eid-milad-un-Nabi is celebrated as his birth-

830AD

Ghana Empire was created

day of the prophet.

1050-

Expansion of Almoravid Christianity

1100AD

kingdom from Ghana to It was founded by Jesus Christ (i.e. Mer-

southern Spain

riah).

1100-

Emergence of Zimbabwe as He was born on 25th December to Mother

1150AD

a centre for producing gold

Mary (Marium) in Bethlehem (Nr. Je-

and copper artifacts and long

rusalam)

distance trade.

Bible is the holy book of Christians.


1200-1250

Christian churches

His crucifixion (hanging) on cross was hap-

AD

established in Ethiopia

pened in about AD 33.

Kingdom of Mali was Zoroastrianism (Parsi)

established in West Africa,

with Timbuktu as a centre of

Prophet Zoroaster founded the Parsi reli-

learning

gion.

The holy book of Parsi is Avesta.

ARAB CIVILIZATION

Parsis believe in one God-Ahur.

Time Period

Events

Medieval China

571AD

The great Prophet of

From the early 7th century, China was ruled

Islam, was born in Mecca

by the Tang dynasty.


With the rise of new The rule of Tang dynasty (618 AD 906

religion Islam, the Arab

AD) was followed by the Sung dynasty for

civilization started about 300 years.

expanding its realm

After this, for about 100 years China was

632AD

After the death of Mohammad

ruled by the Mongols.

his successors continued to In 1644, China was conquered by the Man-

spread his teachings and were

chus who continued to rule until 1911 AD.

known as Caliphs or Khalifas

WORLD MODERN HISTORY

13th Century The Islamic Empire came

AD

to an end with the defeat of

Renaissance

Abbasids by Seljuq Turks

The European era between 14th to 17th cen-

Islam in Arab Civilization

turies AD was designated as the Age of Re-

Hazrat Prophet Muhammad Saheb founded naissance generally known for Revival
of the Islam as a religion.
Learning. The Florence city of Italian region

He was born on Monday, April 22nd, 571 A.D. Tuscany was well known as the birth
place (12th Rabi Al Awwal) in Mecca.

of Renaissance.

His father was Abdulsah & mother was Am- Reformation : It was a social movement,
inah.

started by Martin Luther in Wittenburg, Ger-

His grand father was Abdul Mul ahib.

many in 1517 by publically protesting against

His mother died when he was 6 year and the sale of letters of Indulgence (as passport
grandfather died 2 years later.

to heaven).

Hijri Era started on 24th September 622 when It was against Roman Catholic
Church.

he migrated to Medina.

As a result Western Europe was divided

He attained enlightment, i.e. the first revela-

between Catholic & Protestant countries.

tion came to him on Monday, August 10th, Other leader was Caloin of Switzerland.
So 610 AD (21st of Ramadan) at 40 years of age

the movement was a challenge to the au-

at Gaare-Hira (Hira cave).

thority of Pope.

50

World History
Glorious Revolution : It was glorious because American Revolution : It was the
mutiny of of Bloodless Revolution focussed on securing people leaving in 13 colonies
of England in freedom of worship from Catholics and uni-North America in late 18th
century.

French Revolution :

fying whigs and Tories of Anglican church It put an end to French monarchy.

against the Roman Catholic ruler James-II.

It started in 1789 and ended in 1799.

Industrial Revolution : It was the process of It was carried out by Napoleon in later
exchange in earning livelihood by adopting in-

pansion of French Empire.

Russian Revolution :

dustrial processes rather than agriculture in It was based on the Marxism ideology.

18th century in Britain.

It took place in 1917.

World Wars- I & II and other Wars

War

Countries

Duration

Causes

Consequences

Germany, Austria- 28-07-1914 to 1. Murder of

1. End of German,

Hungary, Bulgaria, 11-11-1918

Austrian King A.
Russian, Ottoman, etc.

Turkey (i.e Central

Ferdin and

empires

powers) Vs. France,

2. Militarism ...

2. Formation of

Russia, Britain, US,

league of Nation

Italy (i.e. Allies or

Entente Powers)

II

Britain, France,

01-09-1939 to 1. Conflict between 1. Collapse of Nazi

USSR, US, (i.e. Allies 02-09-1945

German & Poland

Germany

or Entente Powers)

2. Treaty of

2. Fall of Japanese &

vs. Germany, Italy &

Versailles (1919)

Italian Empires

Japan (i.e. Axis or

Central Powers)
Trojan War City of Troy Vs. City 10 years

Kidnapping of Queen Victory of Greek &

of Sparta

Helen

destruction of Troy

Persian

Greek vs. Persia

499 BC to 449 Darius I of Persia

Victory of Greek over

War

BC

attacked Athens

Persia

Hundred

France vs. England 1453 B.C. to

King Edward III &

Victory of France over

Years War

1337 B.C.

England invaded

England

France

Russo-

Russia vs. Japan

1904 to 1905 For imperial


Japanese won the war

Japanese

AD

authority over

War

Manchuria & Korea

Vietnam

Vietnam with Soviet 1955 to 1975

To check spread of Victory of North

War

union vs. China

communism all over Vietnam

South-Asia

American forces

backed out from

China

Iraq-Iran

Iran vs. Iraq

1980 to 1988 Border disputes

Iranian invasion

War

AD

between them

failed

Polity
THE PREAMBLE

The Constitution, in its current form,

consists of a Preamble, 24 Parts

The Preamble to Indian Constitution is

containing 448 articles, 12 schedules.

based on Objective Resolution of It makes India Sovereign, Socialist, Secular,


Nehru. Jawaharlal Nehru introduced an

Democratic Republic.

objective resolution on December 13, India is a union of 29 States and 7 Union


Territories.

1946 and it was adopted by Constituent

Assembly on 22 January, 1947.

It abolishes untouchability in India.

It guarantees Fundamental Rights to all

Initially, the Preamble was drafted by Sh.

citizens of India.

B. N. Rau in his memorandum of May 30, It lays down Directive Principles of State
1947 and was later reproduced in the Draft

Policy for the guidance of Legislature and

of October 7, 1947.

the Executive of the country.

THE PREAMBLE READS

It establishes independence of judiciary

from the executive.

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having

MUST KNOW ARTICLES OF


solemnly resolved to constitute India

INDIAN CONSTITUTION

into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR,

DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure to

Article

Importance

all its citizen:

Specify the Fundamental

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

Article 12 35 Rights available

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief,

Article 36-50

Specify the Directive Prin-

faith and worship;

ciples of State Policy

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;

Article 51A

Specifies the Fundamental

and to promote among them all

Duties of every citizen

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the

Article 80

Specifies the number of

seats for the Rajya Sabha

individual and the unity and integrity of the


Article 81

Specifies the number of

nation:

seats for the Lok Sabha

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY, this 26th

Article 343

Hindi as official language

day of November 1949, do hereby ADOPT,

Article 356

Imposition of Presidents

Rule in states

ENACT and GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS

Article 370

Special status to Kashmir

CONSTITUTION.

Article 395

Repeals India Indepen-

dence Act and Govern-

CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ment of India Act, 1935

Originally our Constitution contained THE UNION & ITS TERRITORY

395 Articles divided in 22 Parts and 8 Article 1 stipulates that India, that is
Schedules.

Bharat, shall be Union of states.

52 Polity
The country is described as Union because it is indestructible.

Under Articles 2 & 3, Parliament has the power to establish new States, form a new
State.

First Linguistic State Andhra Pradesh.

States Reorganisation Act 1956 was adopted by the Govt. of India that resulted in
the formation of new states & UTs.

FUNDAMENTAL

Indian

Citizenship

Single

3 Categories Citizenship Act (1955) Provides for

Dual Citizenship

Citizenship

entitled to

acquisition & loss of Citizenship

for PIOs

citizenship

after commencement of the

Constitution.

Person

Refugees who migrated to

Indians living in other

domiciled

India from Pakistan

Countries.
in India

Acquisition of Citizenship

By Birth

By Descent

By Registration

By Naturalisation By Incorporation of

Territory

Loss of Citizenship

By Renunciation

By Termination

By Deprivation

Fundamental Rights

Part-III of the Constitution

Article (12-35)

Justiciable in nature (i.e. they are legally enforceable by the court of law).

It promotes political democracy.

Not absolute in nature & have some restrictions.

Parliament can amend them but not those provisions that form the basic
structure of the Constitution.

Suspended during National Emergency (Except Article 20 & 21).

Polity 53

t. 15,

pus

us

ranto
y to citizens

ticles

32

ar

emediesR

Ar

tiorari

oreigners- Ar

16, 19, 29, 30

Right to Constitutional

Includes writs:

(1) Habeas Cor

(2) Mandam

(3) Prohibition

(4) Cer

(5) Quow

vailable onl

FRs a

& Not to F

minorities
ency

ticles

tural and

Ar

29-30

t. 20 & 21

Cur

Protection of

interests of

minorities

Right of

to establish

& administer

educational

institutions

Educational Rights

pt Ar

(29)

(30)

Can be Suspended

during Emerg

exce
.

any

yment of

tain

religion.

uction

conscience &

reedom of

ticles

eligion

25-28

Ar

e religious affairs

orship in cer

rance

es for promotion of

ed from

Right to F

reedom of

reedom from pa

reedom from attending

F
free profession, practice &

propagation of

Manag

tax

religion.

religious instr

or w

educational institutions

ro

(25)

(26 )

(27)

(28)

Bor

USA & F

Fundamental Rights

traffic
.

ticles

yment of

Ar

23-24

ticle

Prohibition of

in human beings &

forced labour

Prohibition of

emplo

children in factories

etc

Right Against Exploitation

(23)

(24)

t III (Ar

12 to 35)

rest
arP

tain

esidence

life &

ty

reedom

reedom of

xpression,

ticles

y, Association,

Ar

19-22

vement, R

viction for offences

Right to F

6 Rights: F

speech & e

Assembl

Mo

& Profession.

Protection in respect of

con

Protection of
personal liber

Protection against ar

& detention in cer

cases

(19)

(20)

(21)

(22)

ta

yment

India

titles

religion,

of
Magna Car

ticles

x etc

tunity in

Ar

14-18

, se

la

Right to Equality

Equality before La

& Equal protection

of

Prohibition of

discrimination on

grounds of

race

Equality of

oppor

public emplo

Abolition of

untouchability

Abolition of
(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

54 Polity

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF

states, the Chairman and the members of the

STATE POLICY

Finance Commissions, etc.

The Legislative Powers

PART IV ARTICLE (36 51):

The President can summon or end a session

These Principles are in the nature of

of the Parliament and dissolve the Lok

instruments of instruction and guidelines

Sabha.

to the govt.

National Emergency:

Directives are not enforceable in the Courts


and do not create any justiciable rights in National emergency is caused by war,
favour of the individuals.

external aggression or armed rebellion

In case of a conflict between Directive

in the whole of India or a part of its territory.

Principles and Fundamental Rights of the President can declare national


emergency Constitution, the latter shall prevail.

only on a written request by the Cabinet

Ministers headed by the Prime Minister and

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

the proclamation must be approved by the

Parliament within one month.

Part IV-AArticle 51-A, added by 42nd

Amendment, 1976

State Emergency or Presidents Rule

It says that it shall be the duty of every citizen

of India (there are eleven such duties, after A State Emergency can be imposed via
the the 86th Constitution Amendment Act, 2002):

following:

1. If that State failed to run Constitutionally,

THE UNION (ARTICLE 51-151)

i.e. constitutional machinery has failed -

Article 356

The President of India

2. If that State is not working according to the

Article 52 says that There shall be a


given direction of the Union Government

President of India.

Article 365

Article 53 says that the executive power of 3. Such an emergency must be approved
the Union shall be vested in the President.

by the Parliament within a period of two

Election :

months.

The Electoral College consists of:

Veto Powers

(a) elected members of both Houses of The President of India is vested with three

Parliament, and

absolute veto, suspensive veto and pocket veto.

(b) elected members of Legislative Assembly

In 1986, President Zail Singh exercised

of States.

the pocket veto with respect to the Indian

Article 57: The President is eligible

for re-Election to that office

Post Office (Amendment) Bill.

Tenure (Article 56):

THE VICE-PRESIDENT (ART. 66-73)


The President shall hold office for a term Article 63 says that there should be a
Vice-of 5 years. The President can resign from

President of India.

his office any time by addressing the The Vice-President shall be the ex-officio
resignation letter to the Vice-President

Chairman of Rajya Sabha (Article 64).

of India.

The Vice-President can be removed from

Executive Powers - Article 53

office by a resolution of the Council of

States (Rajya Sabha), passed by a majority

All executive powers of the Union are

of its members at that time and agreed to

vested in him.

by the House of the People (Lok Sabha).

President appoints the Prime Minister and

(Article 67)

other ministers; and they hold office during Council of Ministers

his pleasure.

Art 74 (1): It provides that, There shall

He appoints the Attorney General of India,

be a Council of Ministers with the Prime

Comptroller and Auditor General of India,

Minister as its head to aid and advise the

the Chief Election Commissioner and other


President who shall in exercise of his/

Election Commissioners, the Chairman and

her functions act in accordance with such

Members of the UPSC, the Governors of the

advice.

Polity 55

If the Lok Sabha passes a no-confidence

2 nominated from the Anglo-Indian

motion, the entire Council of Ministers

community.

including PM has to resign.

Under the current laws, the strength of

Lok Sabha is 545, including the two seats

THE PRIME MINISTER

reserved for members of the Anglo-Indian

Prime Minister is the real executive authority.

community.

Art 75 (1) : The Prime Minister shall be BILLS

appointed by the President and other The bill can broadly be categorised as:

Ministers shall be appointed by the (a) Ordinary bills

President on the advice of the Prime (b) Money bills

Minister.

Ordinary Bills

He allocates & reshuffles various portfolios All the Bills other than Financial Bills among
the Ministers.
Money Bills and the Constitutional

Prime Minister is the key link between the

Amendment Bills are Ordinary Bills.

Cabinet and the Parliament and keystone of Such Bills can be introduced in either
Cabinet architecture.

House of the Parliament (in Lok

Sabha or the Rajya Sabha) without the

UNION LEGISLATURE

recommendation of the President,

Part V of the Constitution deals with

except those Bills under Article 3 (i.e., Bills

Parliament. According to Article 79, there

related to reorganisation of the territory of

shall be a Parliament for the Union, which

a State).

Money Bills

shall consists of:

President of India.

Money Bill is defined in Art. 110 of the

Two houses consists of Council of States

Constitution.

As per the Article, any Bill dealing with all

(Rajya Sabha or Upper House) and Lok

or any of the matters enumerated from (a)

Sabha or Lower House.


to (g) of the same Article shall be a Money

Bill.

RAJYA SABHA (COUNCIL OF

Money Bills are: imposition, abolition,

STATES)

remission, alteration or regulation of any

tax.

Its first sitting was held on April 3, 1952.

Financial Bills

Article 80 of the Constitution lays down the A Financial Bill cannot be introduced
maximum strength

without the Presidents recommendation,

of Rajya Sabha as 250,

and it can only be introduced in the Lok

out of which 12 members are nominated by

Sabha.

the President, 238 are representatives of

Constitutional Amendment Bills

the States and of the two Union Territories.

Art. 368 deals with the power of the

The present strength of Rajya Sabha,

Parliament to amend the Constitution,

however, is 245, out of which 233 are

and the procedure thereof.

representatives of the States and Union


A Bill for this can be introduced in either

Territories of Delhi and Puducherry and 12

House (the Lok Sabha or the Rajya

are nominated by the President.

Sabha) of the Parliament.

The Rajya Sabha is not subject to

dissolution. The members of the Rajya SPEAKER OF THE LOK SABHA

Sabha are elected for 6 years. One-third After formation of a new Lok Sabha the of the
members retire every two years.

President appoints a Speaker pro-tem

who is the senior most member of the

LOK SABHA (PEOPLES HOUSE)

House.

A Deputy Speaker is also elected to officiate

Its first sitting took place on May 13, 1952

in the absence of the Speaker.

All the members of the Parliament are The Speaker is the Chief Presiding popularly
elected, except not more than two

Officer of the Lok Sabha.

members of the Anglo-Indian community, The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker who are
nominated by the President.

may be removed from their offices by a

In the Constitution, the strength of the

resolution passed by the House with an

Lok Sabha was provisioned to be not

effective majority of the House after a


more than 552 : 530 from the States,

prior notice of 14 days to them.

20 from the Union Territories and


56 Polity

Meira Kumar is the first woman Speaker of

M A Ayangar was the first Deputy Speaker

the Lok Sabha (2009-2014)

(1952-1956)

GMC Balyogi is the first speaker to die in

GV Mavlankar was the first Speaker of the

the office (1998-2002)

Lok Sabha (1952-1956)

Dr Balram Jakhar was the longest serving

Sumitra Mahajan is the present Speaker of

Speaker (1980-1989)

16th Lok Sabha since June, 2014.

Polity 57

THE SUPREME COURT

THE STATES (ARTICLE 152-237)

The Supreme Court of India is the highest The Governor (Article 153-162)

judicial forum and final court of appeal The Governor of a State is appointed by under
the Constitution of India with the

the President of India (Article 155).

power of constitutional review.

The same Governor can act as Governor of

It comprises the Chief Justice of India

and 30 other judges.

more than one State (Article 153-162).


Tenure and Qualification and Salary

Legislative Assembly (Vidhan

Judges of Supreme Court are appointed by Sabha)

the President of India, and service till the It is the lower and popular house of the age of
65 years.

State. Members are chosen by direct

Impeachment

election

A judge of the Supreme Court can be According to Article 172, duration of removed
under the Constitution only

Assembly is normally 5 years. But it may

on grounds of proven misconduct or

be dissolved earlier by the Governor.

incapacity and by an order of the President

of India, after a notice signed by at least 100 Legislative Council (Article 169) members
of the Lok Sabha or 50 members It is the upper house.

of the Rajya Sabha is passed by a two-third Parliament may by law create or abolish
majority in each House of the Parliament.

Legislative Council.

The first woman judge of the Supreme

It can be created, if the Legislative Assembly

Court was Justice Fatima Beebi in 1987.

of the State passes a resolution to the effect

The second woman justice was Gyan

by special majority.

Sudha Mishra in 2010


High Courts (Article 214-232)

The first Chief Justice of India was

There shall be a High Court for each State

HJ Kania (1950-50)

Article-214.

The shortest tenure so far is of

The Judiciary in the states consist of a High

KN Singh (Nov.25-1991-Dec. 12, 1991.

Court and subordinate courts.

Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG)

There are 24 High Courts in India

(Article 148-151)

The Calcutta High Court is the

CAG is appointed by the President of

oldest of all which was established in

India under Article 148 of the Constitution

1862. The Bombay and Madras High

and shall only be removed from the office in

Courts were established in the same

the like manner as a Judge of the Supreme

year.

Court.

The first CAG of India was V Narahari Rao

Chhatisgarh, Uttarakhand (Nainital) and

Jharkhand (Ranchi) High Courts were


Attorney General of India

established in the year 2000.

According to Article 76 the Attorney

The Panchayati Raj (Article 243-O)

General of India is the Governments chief

Rajasthan is the first state in India, where

legal advisor, and its primary lawyer in

Panchayati Raj was implemented in the 73rd

the Supreme Court of India.

Amendment Act, 1992.

The First Attorney General was

It gave Constitutional status to Panchayati

M.C. Setalvad.

Raj system.

Mukul Rohatgi is the incumbent Attorney

After Amendment Panchayati Raj added to

General of India.

the 11th Schedule of the Constitution

58 Polity

The Three Tire System of Local vested in the Election Commission.

Governance

Article 325 provides for a single electoral roll

Gram Panchayat at Village Level

for every constituency.

Panchayat Samiti at Block Level


Article 326 stipulates that elections shall be

Zila Parishad at District Level

held on the basis of adult suffrage.

The Municipalities (Article 243P-243 Political Parties

ZG)

As per the provisions of the Peoples Rep-

PART IX A added by 74th Amendment

resentation Act, 1951 political parties are

Act 1992, gives a constitutional foundation

registered with the Election Commission of

to the local self government units in urban

India.

area.

The Anti-defection law, passed in 1985, pre-

Nagar Panchayat, is for an area being

transformed from a rural area to an urban.

vents the MPs or the MLAs elected as candidates

Municipal Council is for a smaller urban

from one party forming or joining a new party,

area.

unless they comprise more than one-third of

Municipal Corporation is for a larger

the original party, in the Legislature.

urban area. The Municipal Corporation is Recognition and Reservation of

the topmost urban local government.


Symbols

ELECTION COMMISSION

A party registered with the Election

(ARTICLE 324-329)

Commission may be granted recognition as

Article 324 says that the superintendence,

a National or a State party on the basis of its

direction and control of elections shall be

performance in polls.

National Parties

S.

Name

Symbol

Year of Foun-

Current

Current

No.

dation

leader(s)

Lok Sabha

Seats

1. Bharatiya Janata

Lotus

1980

Amit Shah
282 / 543

Party

2. Indian National

Hand

1885

Sonia Gan-

44 / 543

Congress

dhi

3. Communist Party of Hammer, Sickle and Star

1964

Sitaram

9 / 543

India (Marxist)

Yechury

4. Communist Party of Ears of Corn and Sickle

1925

Suravaram 1 / 543

India

Sudhakar

Reddy

5. Bahujan Samaj Party Elephant (In all

1984

Mayawati

0 / 543
States/U.T.s except in the

State of Assam, where its

candidates will have to

choose a symbol.

6. Nationalist Congress Clock

1999

Sharad

Party

Pawar

7. All India Trunamue Jora Ghas Phul

1998

Mamta

32/545

Congress

Banerjee

Polity 59

IMPORTANT PARLIAMENTARY UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COM-

TERMS

MISSION

Calling Attention: Moved to call the The Union Public Service Commission attention
of a Minister to matters of public

consists of a Chairman and other

importance.

members appointed by the President and

Interim Government: This Government is


they hold office for a period of 6 years

formed during the transitional phase of the

from the date of their appointment.

history of the country.

It conducts examinations for appointment

Ordinance: An ordinance is a law

to the Services of the Union.

promulgated by the head of the State in a Age of retirement for a member of UPSC

situation of urgency when the Legislature

cannot frame the law because either it is

is 65 years and for a member of PSC of a

not in session or it is dissolved.

State or a Joint Commission is 62 years.

Question Hour: The first one hour period NITI AAYOG

(usually 11: 00 a. m. to 12: 00 a. m.) each

day during the meetings of the Parliament NITI Aayog or National Institution for is
allotted for asking the questions by the

Transforming India Aayog is a policy

members to be replied by the Ministers, is

think-tank of Government of India that

called the Question Hour.

replaces Planning Commission and aims

Quorum: It refers to the required presence

to involve the States in economic policy-

of the minimum member of members of a


making in India.

body to hold its meetings and conduct its It will be providing strategic and technical
business.

advice to the Central and the State

Whip: This is an official appointed by a

Governments. The Prime Minister heads

the Aayog as its chairperson.

political party to regulate and monitor the

behaviour of its members in the Legislature. NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

Zero Hour: It is a period which follows COUNCIL (NDC)

after the Question Hour when the members The National Development Council was raise
any issue of public importance on

formed in 1952, to associate the States in

very short or even without any notice.

the formulation of the plans.

All members of the Union Cabinet, Chief

Adjournment

To draw attention of

Minister of States, the Administrators of

motion

Parliament to a matter of

the Union Territories and members of NITI

urgent public importance.

Ayog are members of the NDC.


Motion needs the support

of 50 members for admission.

FINANCE COMMISSION

Rajya Sabha cannot move

As per Article 280 of the Constitution

this motion.

of India the Finance Commission is

No Confidence

Moved to prove the

established.

Motion

confidence of Lok Sabha in

It is a quasi-judicial body.

the Council of Ministers.

It consists of a chairman and four other

If No Confidence Motion

members.

is passed, Council of

Ministers has to resign.

LOKPAL

No Confidence Motion needs

In India, the institution of Ombudsman


the support of 50 members

(Swedish word meaning Commissioner) has

to be admitted.

given the name of Lokpal & use it as an anti-

Can be moved only in Lok

corruption institution.

Sabha.

60 Polity

LOKAYUKTA

Important Amendments

The first Amendment Act to the Indian

The anti-corruption institution of Lokayukta

Constitution was made in the year 1951.

is set up at the state level. He is appointed by

Ninth Schedule was added.

the Governor of the State. In most of the States, The Constitution (24th Amendment)
the term of office fixed for Lokayukta is of 5

Act, 1971: It affirmed the power of the

years duration or 65 years of age, whichever

Parliament to amend any part of the

is earlier.

Constitution.

ADVOCATE GENERAL

The Constitution (39th Amendment)


Act, 1975: The Act places beyond challenge

Each State shall have an Advocate General.

in courts the election to Parliament of a

He has the right to address & take part in

person holding the office of Prime Minister

the proceedings of the House of the State

or Speaker and the election of President and

Legislature. But he has no right to vote. His

Vice-President.

functions are similar to those of the Attorney The Constitution (42nd Amendment)

General.

Act, 1976: It was enacted during the period

of National Emergency.

ARTICLE 370

The Constitution (43rd Amendment)

Under Article 370 of the Indian Constitution,

Act, 1978: It restores civil liberties by

Jammu & Kashmir is granted autonomy. It is

deleting Article 3ID which gave powers to

a temporary provision that accords special

Parliament to curtail even legitimate trade

status to the State.

union activity under the guise of legislation

for the prevention of anti-national activities.

How J & K Different from Other


The Constitution (44th Amendment)

States?

Act, 1978: Fundamental Rights guaranteed

Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

by Articles 20 and 21 cannot be suspended

are not applied to J&K but applied to other

during a national emergency.

States.

The Constitution (61st Amendment)

Act, 1989:

President cant declare financial emergency

It lowered the voting age from

(salaries and allowances reduction, etc.) in

21 to 18.

The Constitution (73rd Amendment)

relation to J&K.

Act, 1992: To ensure direct election to all

High Court of J&K can issue writs only for

seats in Panchayats.

enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

The Constitution (74th Amendment)

Right to property is still guaranteed in J&K.

Act, 1992: was made to ensure direct

Permanent residents of J&K have some

election to all seats in Nagarpalikas and


special fundamental rights.

Municipalities.

Although Supreme Court, EC and CAG

are applicable to J&K along with all other E-Governance

States.

E-governance means technology drive

operation. The 11th report of the Second

AMENDMENTS OF THE CONSTI-

Administrative Reforms Commission, entitled

TUTION (ARTICLE 368)

to promoting e-Governance.

Five models of e-Governance

There are three types of bills that seek to G2C (Government to citizen)

amend the Constitution:

G2B (Government to business)

1. Bills that are passed by Parliament by G2E (Government to Employees)

Simple Majority.

G2G (Government to Governments)

C2G (Citizens to Government)

2. Bills that have to be passed by Parliament National e-Governance Plan

by Special Majority.

National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) is a

3. Bills that have to be passed by Special plan of the Government of India to make all
Majority and also to be ratified by not less government services available to the citizens
than one-half of the State Legislatures.
of India via electronic media.

PB <folio>

Geography

UNIVERSE AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Universe, the vast and infinite space having million of galaxies is believed to be at least 10
billion light years in diameter it has been expanding since its creation in the Big Bang

The Big Bang Theory is the leading explanation about how the universe began.

Solar system consist of 8 planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and
Neptune. It also consist of stars.

Planets

Planet

Rolational Time

Orbital Time

No. of Moons

Mercury

59 Days

88 Days

Venus

243 Days

255 Days

Earth

1 Day

365 Days
1

Mars

1.03 Days

687 Days

Jupiter

9 hrs 56 min

11 yrs 11 months

16

Saturn

10 hrs 40 min

29 yrs 5 months

18

Uranus

17 hrs 14 min

84 yrs

17

Neptune

16 hrs 7 min

164 yrs

Pluto

6 Days 9 hrs

248 yrs

1
Some facts about planets

17. Nearest Planet to Earth is Venus

1. Biggest Planet is Jupiter

18. Nearest Planet to Sun is Mercury

2. Biggest Satellite is Ganymede

19. Red Planet is Mars

3. Blue Planet is Earth

20. Slowest Revolution in Solar System is by

4. Green Planet is Uranus

Neptune

5. Brightest Planet is Venus

21. Slowest Rotation in Solar System is by

6. Brightest Planet outside Solar System is

Venus

Sirus

22. Smallest Planet is Mercury

7. Closest Star of Solar System is Proxima 23. Smallest Satellite is Deimos Centauri

24. Earths Twin-is Venus

8. Coldest Planet is Neptune

25. Atmosphere like Earth is on Titan

9. Evening Star is Venus

Keywords in Universe

10. Farthest Planet from Sun is Neptune

11. Planet with maximum number of Celestial body : Heavenly body.

satellites is Saturn
Stars : The celestial body with their own

12. Fastest revolution in solar system is by

light and heat given out by burning of gases.

Mercury

Constellation : A group of stars forming

13. Hottest Planet is Venus

some recognised shape.

14. Densest Planet is Earth

Saptarishi Mandal : The constellation of

15. Fastest Rotation in Solar System by

Great Bear or Ursa Major.

Jupiter

Ursa Major : One of the most prominent

16. Morning Star is Venus

and largest northern constellation also

called the Great Bear.

62 Geography

Galaxy : A system of millions or billions of Earths Facts

stars found in clusters.

Globe : A model of the earth.

Milky Way Galaxy : Our solar system Latitudes : The angular distance of a place
belongs to this galaxy.

north or south of the equator.

Orbits : The elongated path on which the Longitudes : The angular distance of a planets
revolve round the sun.
place east or west of the Prime Meridian.

Planets : The bodies made up of rocks or Pole : Either of the two poles north or south
gases and liquids with no light of their own

of the equator having 0 latitude.

going round the sun.

Equator : The latitude line with 0 value

Moon : Refers to the earths Moon. Generally

dividing the earth into two equal halves.

all satellites going round their respective Hemispheres : Any of the two halves of planets
are also termed as the moons.

the earth north or south of the equator

Asteroids : Planetoids found located in a

called northern and southern hemispheres

gap between Mars and Jupiter.

respectively.

Shooting stars : The rapidly moving meteors Tropic of Cancer : The latitude line that
burn upon entering the earths

measuring 2330 N.

atmosphere.

Tropic of Capricorn : The latitude line

Meteorites : The fragments of meteors falling

measuring 2330 S.

on the ground or in the oceans.

Arctic Circle : The latitude line measuring

Comets : A mass of ice and dust with a long

6630 N.
tail moving around the solar system.

Antarctic Circle : The latitude line measur-

Earth

ing 6630 S.

Tropical Zone : Also called the Torrid Zone

between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of

Capricorn.

Temperate Zone : Any of the two zones

between 23 & 66N & S.

Frigid Zone : Any of the two zones beyond

Arctic & Antarctic Circles.

Rotation : The movement of the planets on

their axis.

Revolution : The movement of the planets

around the sun.

Solstice : Any of the two occasions, Summer

Solstice (21 June) and Winter Solstice (22

December) When the sun is at its highest or

lowest point respecitvely in the sky. These

occasions are marked by the longest and

the shortest days.

Equinox : Any of the two occasions in a year

(23 September and 21 March) when days

and nights are of equal length throughout

Facts about Latitude


the world.

Lattitudes

Major Continents

Major Countries

Tropic of

North America,

Bahamas, Mexico, Mauritania, Mali, Western Sahara,

Cancer

Africa and Asia

Algeria, Niger, Libya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, India, China,

Abudhabi, Oman, Bangladesh, Burma, and Taiwan.

Equator

South America,

Equador, Colombia Brazil, Sao Tome & Prince, Gobon

Africa, Asia

Republic of Congo Democratic Republic of Congo,

Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia.

Tropics of

South America,

Chile, Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Namibia, Botswana,

Capricorn

Africa, Asia

South Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar, Australia,

French Polinesia, Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga and Coolis

Island, etc.
62 Geography

Geography 63

Atmosphere

Types of Rocks

Atmosphere is a mixture of gases. Divide into On the basis of modes of formation there 4
layers

are three types of rocks.

Gaseous Composition of Atmosphere

Igneous Rocks: Igneous rock is formed

through the cooling and solidification of

Component

Per cent by Volume

magma or lava such as granite and diorite.

Nitrogen

78.08%

Sedimentary Rocks: Sedimentary rocks

are derived from the process of deposition

Oxygen

20.94%

and solidification of sediments after the

Argon

0.93%

process of denudation. For instance;

Sandstone, limestone and chalk rock salts,

Carbon dioxide
0.03%

gypsum or calcium sulphate, etc.

Neon

0.0018%

Metamorphic Rocks: Metamorphic rocks

arise from the transformation of

Helium

0.0005%

existing rock types, in a process called

Ozone

0.00006%

metamorphism, which means change in

form. Gneiss phyllite, slate, schist, marble,

Hydrogen

0.00005%

quartzite, etc belongs to the category of

metamorphic rocks.

Geographical Phenomena

Earthquake waves: Earthquakes generate INDIAN GEOGRAPHY

pulses of energy called Seismic waves that India is the seventh largest country in the
can pass through the entire Earth.

world.

Cyclone

It covers an area of 32,87,2631 sq. km.

India is situated North of the Equator


The system of wind rotating inward to an area

between 84 and 37C North latitude

of low pressure zone from its surrounding

and 687 and 9725 east longitude and

high pressure area.

is surrounded by the Bay of Bengal in the

Cyclones

Region

East, the Arabian sea in the West and the

Typhoons

China

Indian Ocean to the South.

Tropical

Indian Ocean

List of Indian State Sharing Border

Hurricanes

Caribbean sea

with Neighbour Country

Tornadoes

USA

Countries

Indian States

Willy-Willy

Australia

Pakistan
Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab,

Taifu

Japan

Rajasthan and Gujrat

Tides

China

Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal

The periodic phenomenon of alternate rise

Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim

and fall in the sea levels is known as Tide.

and Arunachal Pradesh

It is produced due to gravitational

interaction of the Earth, the Moon and the

Nepal

Bihar, Uttarakhand, Uttar

Sun.

Pradesh, Sikkim and West

Spring tides: On the full moon and the new

Bengal

moon, tides are highest which are called

Bangladesh

West Bengal, Mizoram,

Spring tides.

Meghalaya, Tripura and Asom

Neap tides: A tide just after the first or


third quarters of the moon when there

Bhutan

West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal

is least difference between high and low

Pradesh and Asom

water is called Neap tides.

Myanmar

Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland,

Waves

Manipur and Mizoram

Waves are the oscillatory movements

in water mainly produced by winds,

Afghanistan Jammu and Kashmir

manifested by an alternate rise and fall in

(Pakistan occupied area)

the entire sea surface.

64 Geography

Mountain Ranges in India

Uttarakhand to Kashmir and Himachal

The Himalayan Range is the worlds highest

Pradesh. Jammu, Kangra and Vaishno Devi

mountain range.

are a part of this range.

The tallest peak of the world, Mt. Everest,

Vindhya Range spreads across central


is also a part of it.

India and extends across 1,050 km.

Karakoram Range lies in Jammu and

Aravalli Range is Indias oldest mountain

Kashmir and comprises more than 60

range and spreads across the parts of

peaks.

Rajasthan, Delhi and Haryana. Guru

K2 (Mount Godwin Austen) is the second

Shikhar in Mount Abu is the highest peak

highest peak of the world, also a part of this

of this range.

range. Its height is 8611m or 28,251 fit.

Satpura Range stretches from Gujarat and

Shivalik Hills extend from the Arunachal

runs to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and

Pradesh to West Bengal and from

Chhattisgarh.

Mountain passes of India

Himalayan passes

Banihal pass between Doda and Anantnag (Jawahar Tunnel), J & K.

Shipki La River Sutlej enters India from Tibet, Himachal Pradesh.

Bara Lachan La between Kyelang and Leh, Himachal Pradesh.

Rohtang pass between Kullu and Kyelang, Himachal Pradesh.

Bomdila pass between Tezpur and Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh.

Himalayan passes between India and China

Shipki La Himachal Pradesh.

Thaga La and Niti La Uttarakhand .

Lipu Lekh La Tri-junction, India-Nepal-China, Uttarakhand.

Jelep La Between India and China (Gangtok-Lhasa Road) Sikkim.

Nathu La Between India and China (Entry to Chumbi Valley) Sikkim.

Trans Himalayan passes

Karakoram pass and Aghil pass Jammu & Kashmir.

Passes in Western Ghats

Palghat between Palakkad and Coimbatore.

Shenkota between Kollam and Madurai.

Thalghat between Mumbai and Pune.

Bhorghat between Mumbai and Nasik.

Some important facts about peaks

Highest Mt. Peak in India: K 2 or Godwin Austin

Highest peak in Aravalli: Gurushikhar (in Mt. Abu)

Highest peak in Satpura: Dhupgarh (Mahadeo Hills)

Highest peak in E. Ghats: Mahendragiri (Orissa)

Highest peak in W. Ghats: Anaimudi (Annamalai Hills - Kerala)

Highest peak in Nilgiris: Doda Betta

Hills in Southern Hill complex : Nilgiri, Annamalai, Cardamom & Palani

Hills in Eastern Ghats: Shevaroy, Javadi, Palkonda, Nallamalai, Northern Circars

Oblique ranges to Western Ghats in

Maharashtra: Ajanta, Satmala, Harishchandra, Balaghat

Satpura range from East to West:


Amarkantak - Maikal- Mahadeo - Gawilgarh - Rajpipala

Highest peak in Andaman and Nicobar islands : Saddle Peak

The highest peak of Naga hills is Saramati peak.

64 Geography

Geography 65

Important lakes in India

Dal Lake, Pangong Tso,

Jammu &

Lakes Name

State

Sheshnag Lake

Kashmir

Kolleru Lake, Pulicat Lake

Andhra Pradesh

Bellandur Lake, Ulsoor Lake, Karnataka

Deepor Beel, Chandubi Lake, Assam

Sankey Lake, Agara Lake,

Haflong Lake, Son Beel

Karanji lake, Kukkarahalli

lake, Lingambudhi Lake,

Kanwar Lake

Bihar

Pampa Sarovar
Hamirsar Lake, Kankaria Lake, Gujarat

Ashtamudi Lake,

Kerala

Nal Sarovar, Sursagar Lake

Maanaanchira Lake

Brighu Lake, Dashir Lake,

Himachal

Upper Lake, Lower Lake

Madhya

Dhankar Lake, Kareri

Pradesh

Pradesh

(Kumarwah) Lake, Khajjiar

Lake, Macchial Lake, Maharana

Moti Jheel

Uttar Pradesh

Pratap Sagar, Manimahesh

Gorewada Lake, Lonar Lake Maharashtra

Lake, Nako Lake, Pandoh Lake,

Umiam Lake

Meghalaya

Prashar Lake, Renuka Lake, Himachal

Loktak Lake

Manipur

Suraj Taal, Chandra Taal


Pradesh

Palak Dil Lake, Tam Dil Lake Mizoram

Badkhal Lake, Brahma Sarovar, Haryana

Anshupa Lake, Chilka Lake, Odisha

Karna Lake, Sannihit Sarovar,

Kanjia Lake

Surajkund Lake, Tilyar Lake,

Kanjli Wetland, Harike Wet- Punjab

Blue Bird Lake

land, Ropar Wetland

Important rivers of India

Name

Origin From

Fall into

Length (km)

Ganges

Combined Sources

Bay of Bengal

2525

Satluj

Mansarovar Rakas Lakes

Chenab

1050

Indus

Near Mansarovar Lake


Arabian Sea

2880

Ravi

Kullu Hills near Rohtang Pass

Chenab

720

Beas

Near Rohtang Pass

Satluj

470

Jhelum

Verinag in Kashmir

Chenab

725

Yamuna

Yamunotri

Ganga

1375

Chambal

M.P.

Yamuna

1050

Ghagra

Matsatung Glacier

Ganga
1080

Kosi

Near Gosain Dham Park

Ganga

730

Betwa

Vindhyanchal

Yamuna

480

Son

Amarkantak

Ganga

780

Brahmaputra

Near Mansarovar Lake

Bay of Bengal

2900

Narmada

Amarkantak

Gulf of Khambat

1057

Tapti

Betul Distt. of M.P.

Gulf of Khambat

724
Mahanadi

Raipur Distt. in Chattisgarh

Bay of Bengal

858

Luni

Aravallis

Rann of Kuchchh

450

Ghaggar

Himalayas

Near Fatehabad

494

Sabarmati

Aravallis

Gulf of Khambat

416

Krishna

Western ghats

Bay of Bengal

1327

Godavari

Nasik distt. in Maharashtra

Bay of Bengal

1465

Cauvery
Brahmagir Range of Western Ghats

Bay of Bengal

805

Tungabhadra

Western Ghats

Krishna River

640

66 Geography

Port

Name of the Port

State

Kandla

Gujarat

Mumbai

Maharashtra

Jawaharlal Nehru

Maharashtra

Marmugoa

Goa

Manglore

Karnataka

Kochi

Kerala

Haldia

West Bengal
Paradip

Odisha

Vishakapatnam

Andhra Pradesh

Chennai

Tamil Nadu

Ennore

Tamil Nadu

Tutikorin

Tamil Nadu

Mineral resources

Aluminium

- Kerala.

Antimony

- Antimony deposits are found in Punjab and Karnataka.

Asbestos

- Karnataka and Rajasthan.

Bauxite

- Ranchi and Palamau districts of Jharkhand, Belgaum, Jharia and

Thana districts of Maharashtra, Balaghat, Jabalpur, Mandya and

Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh.

Cement

- Katni (M.P.), Lakheri (Rajasthan), Jabalpur (M.P.), Guntur (Andhra

Pradesh), Jhinikapani (Singhbhum district of Jharkhand), Suraj-

pur (Haryana).
China Clay

- Rajmahal Hills, Singhbhum (district of Jharkhand), Kerala.

Chromite

- Singhbhum and Bhagalpur (Jharkhand), Ratnagiri.

Coal

- Raniganj (West Bengal), Jharia, Bokaro (Jharkhand), Giridih,

Karanpur, Panch Valley and Chanda (M.P.), Singareni (Andhra

Pradesh) and Mukum (Assam).

Cobalt

- Rajasthan and Kerala.

Copper

- Jharkhand (Singhbhum and Barajamda), Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan

(Khetri).

Diamond

- Diamond mines are found in Panna district of Madhya Pradesh,

Raipur district of Chhattisgarh.

Gold

- Kolar gold-fields (Karnataka).

Graphite

- Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karna-

taka, Odisha and Kerala.

Gypsum

- Bikaner and Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Tiruchirapalli (Tamil Nadu),

Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh.

Iron Ore
- Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Chhattisgarh, Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj

(Odisha).

66 Geography

Geography 67

Lac

- West Bengal.

Lead

- Zawar in Udaipur and at the Banjavi mines in Jaipur.

Lignite

- Neyveli in South Arcot district (Tamil Nadu).

Limestone

- Singareni and Singhbhum (Jharkhand), Panchmahals (Gujarat),

Balaghat, Bhandara, Chhindwara, Nagpur.

Manganese

- Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.

Marble

- Jaipur (Rajasthan).

Mica

Koderma in Hazaribagh district, Jharkhand, Monghyr.

Petroleum

Digboi, Badarpur, Musimpur and Patharia fields of Assam.

Red Stone

- Jodhpur (Rajasthan).

Salt

- Sambhar Lake (Rajasthan), and ocean water in Rann of Kutch.


Silver

- Goldfields (Karnataka), Singhbhum.

Tungsten

- Bihar, Nagpur (Maharashtra) and Marwar.

Uranium

- Bihar.

Zinc

- Zawar mines in Udaipur (Rajasthan).

Important National Highways

Climate of India

NH

Connects

India has Tropical Monsoon type of

NH 1

New Delhi-Ambala-Jalandhar-Amritsar.

climate.

The country holds the first position in

NH 2

Delhi-Mathura-Agra-Kanpur-

the world for the production of Papaya,

Allahabad-Varanasi-Kolkata.

Mangoes and Banana etc.

NH 3

Agra-Gwalior-Nasik-Mumbai.

India ranks sixth in the world in the


NH 4

Thane and Chennai via Pune and

production of coffee.

Belgaum.

India has the biggest number of livestock

NH 5

in the world.

Kolkata-Chennai.

NH 6

Kolkata-Dhule.

WORLD GEOGRAPHY

NH 7

Varanasi-Kanyakumari (2369 km).

Asia

NH 8

Delhi-Mumbai (via Jaipur, Baroda &

Ahmedabad).

(43,820,000 sq km) includes 50 countries,

NH 9

Mumbai-Vijaywada.

and it is the most populated continent, the

60% of the total population of the Earth live

NH 10 Delhi-Fazilka.

here.

NH 24 Delhi-Lucknow.
Africa

NH 26 Lucknow-Varanasi.

(30, 370, 000 sq km) comprises 54

Water ways

countries. It is the hottest continent and

National

home of the worlds largest desert, the

- Allahabad to Haldia.

waterways-1

Sahara, occupying the 25% of the total area

of Africa.

National

- Sadiya to Dhubri

waterways-2

North America

National

- Kollam to

(24, 490,000 sq km) includes 23 countries.

waterways-3

Kottapuram.

Led by the USA as the largest economy in

National

- Kakinada to Pondicherry.

the world.

waterways-4
South America

National

- Talcher to Dhamra.

(17,840,000 sq km) comprises 12

waterways-5

countries. Here is located the largest forest,

National

- Lakhipur to Bhanga,

the Amazon rainforest, which covers 30%

waterways6

(Proposed).

of the South America total area.

68 Geography

Antarctica

3.

Indian

Known as the sea

(13,720,000 sq km) is the coldest continent

south of India containing

in the world, completely covered with

the water of Arabian and


ice. There are no permanent inhabitants,

Laccadive Seas

except of scientists maintaining research 4.

Southern Extension of the Pacific,

stations in Antarctica.

Atlantic and Indian Oceans

5.

Arctic

The sea around North

Europe

pole containing the water

(10,180,000 sq km) comprises 51 countries.

of Greenland sea.

It is the most developed economically Important Grassland in the World

continent with the European Union as the Grass lands

biggest economic and political union in the

world.
Regions

Grassland

Australia

Australia

Dawns

(9,008,500 sq km) includes 14 countries.

South America

Pampas

It is the least populated continent after

(Argentina & Uruguay)

Antarctica, only 0.3% of the total Earth

population live here.

North America

Prairies

List of Ocean in the World

Africa and Australia

Savannah

RANK OCEAN NOTES

South America

Selvas

Pacific

Separated into north

Europe and Northern Asia Steppes


and South pacific.

Europe and Asia

Taiga

2.

Atlantic Separated into north

and south Atlantic

South Africa

Velds

Highest Mountains on each Continent of the Earth

Mountain name

Metres

Feet

Country

Continent

Mount Everest

8848

29029

Nepal, China

Asia

Aconcagua

6962

22841
Argentina

South America

Mount McKinley

6194

20320

USA

North America

Mount Kilimanjaro

5892

19340

Tanzania

Africa

Mount Elbrus

5642

18310

Russia

Europe

Vinson Massif

4892

16050

NA

Antarctica

Puncak Jaya

4884

16024
Indonesia

Australasia

List of Important Boundary Lines

Boundary Line

Countries

Radcliffe Line

Between India and Pakistan

Mac Mohan Line

Between India and China

Durand Line

Between Pakistan and Afghanistan

49th Parallel

Between USA and Canada

38th parallel

Between North and South Korea

Hindenberg Line

Between Germany and Poland

Maginot Line

Between France and Germany

Order Neisse Line


Between Germany and Poland

68 Geography

Geography 69

Longest Rivers

Name, Nation/Continent

Length in kms

Basin Area m2km

Nile Africa

6695

3.25

Amazon, South America

6516

6.14

Yangtze Kiang, China

6380

1.72

Mississippi Missouri, USA

5959

3.20

Ob Irtysh, Russia

5568

2.97

Yenisey Angari a Selenga, Asia

5550

2.55
Yellow (Hwang Ho), China

5464

Congo (Zaire), Africa

4667

Parana Rio de la Plata, S. Am

4500

2.58

Lakes

Deepest Lakes

Baikal, Russian Fedn

1620 m

Tanganyika, Africa

1463 m

Caspian Sea, Asia-Europe

1025 m

Malawi of Nyasa, Africa

706 m

Issyk-Kul, Kyrgyzstan

702 m

Deserts

Largest Deserts of the World

Subtropical

Sahara, North Africa


8,600,650 sq. km

Arabian, Middle East

2,300,000 sq. km

Great Victoria, Australia

647,475 sq. km

Kalahari, Southern Africa

582,727 sq. km

Chihuahuan, Mexico

453,232 sq. km

Thar, India/Pakistan

453,232 sq. km

Great Sandy, Australia

388,485 sq. km

Gibson, Australia

310,788 sq. km

Sonoran, S.W. USA

310,788 sq. km

Simpson/Stony, N Africa

145,034 sq. km

Mohave, S.W. USA

139,854 sq. km

Cool Coastal

Atacama, Chile SA

139,854 sq. km

Namib, S.W. Africa


33,668 sq. km

Cold Winter

Gobi, China

1,166,450 sq km

Patagonian, Argentina

673,374 sq km

Great Basin, S.W. USA

492,081 sq. km

Kara-kum, West Asia

349,636 sq. km

Colorado, Western USA, also called the Painted Desert

336,687 sq. km

Kyzyl-kum, West Asia

297,838 sq. km

Taklamakan, China

271,939 sq. km

Iranian, Iran

258,990 sq. km

Economy

INTRODUCTION

Second Plan (1956 - 61)

Its a developing economy with agriculture Also called Mahalanobis Plan.

being its backbone.

Focus - rapid industrialization

The growth rate is estimated to be around Third Plan (1961 - 66)


7.6% per cent in the year 2015-16.

Target Growth: 5.6% ; Actual Growth: 2.4%

Worlds fourth largest in terms of real GDP Agriculture was given to priority to support
after USA, China and Japan.

the exports and industry.

HISTORY OF PLANNING IN INDIA Aimed to make India a self-reliant and

self-generating economy.

1934: First attempt to initiate eco-

Three Annual Plans (1966-69) Plan

nomic planning in India was made by

Sir M.Visvesvarayya, through his book holiday for 3 years

Planned Economy For India.

The main reasons for plan holidays were

1938: National Planning Commission was

the war, lack of resources, and increase in

set up under the chairmanship of J.L. Ne-

inflation.

hru first time.

Policy of Green Revolution was adopted.

1944: Bombay Plan was presented by 8 Fourth Plan (1969 - 74)

leading industrialists of Bombay.

Target growth rate was 5.6%, actual growth

1944: Gandhian Plan was given by

rate was 3.3%.

S. N. Agarwal.
Main emphasis was on growth rate of ag-

1945: Peoples Plan was given by

riculture to enable other sectors to move

M. N. Roy.

forward

1950: Sarvodaya Plan was given by J. P. Fifth Plan (1974 - 79)

Narayan.

The fifth plan was prepared and launched

The Planning Commission

by D.D. Dhar.

It was set up on March 15, 1950 under the Target growth rate was 4.4% and the actual
chairmanship J.L. Nehru, by a resolution of

growth rate was 5.0%.

Union Cabinet.

It proposed to achieve two main objectives:

It is an extra-constitutional, non-statutory

removal of poverty (Garibi Hatao) and at-

body.

tainment of self reliance.

Prime Minister is the ex-officio Chairman, Rolling Plan (1978 - 80)

one deputy-Chair appointed by the PM and There were two Sixth Plans. Janta Govern-
some full time members.

ment put forward a plan for 1978-1983.

In January 2015, Cabinet resolution

However, the government lasted for only 2


replaced the Planning Commission by

years. Congress Govt. returned to power in

NITI Aayog.

1980 and launched a different plan.

PLANS

Sixth Plan (1980 - 85)

Target growth rate was 5.2% and the actual

First Plan (1951 - 56)

growth rate was 5.4%.

Based on Harrod-Domar Model.

It was a great success and marked the be-

ginning of economic liberalisation.

Community

Development

Program

launched in 1952

Seventh Plan (1985 - 90)

Focus on agriculture, price stability, pow-

Target growth rate was 5.0% and the actual

er and transport.

growth rate was 6.01%.

Economy 71

Eighth Plan (1992 - 97)

Q = Total quantity of final goods & services.

It was postponed by two years because of P = Price of final goods & services.
political uncertainty at the Centre.

2. Gross National Product (GNP): GNP is the

Modernization of industries was a major

money value of total output or production

highlight.

of final goods & services produced by the

Target growth rate: 5.6%; Average growth

nationals of a country during a given period

rate: 6.78%

of time, generally a year. In this case, the

Ninth Plan (1997- 2002)

income of all the resident & non-resident

citizens of a country is included whereas

Target growth was 7.1% and the actual

the income of foreign nationals who reside

growth was 6.8%.

within the geographical boundary of the

Tenth Plan (2002 - 2007)

country is excluded.

Target growth: 8.1%

GNP = GDP + (X M)

Growth achieved: 7.7%

X = Export of goods & services

20 point program was introduced.

M = Import of goods & services


It targetted a GDP growth of 8% per an-

X M = Net Factor Income from Abroad

num.

(NFIA)

Eleventh Plan (2007 - 2012)

So,

GNP = GDP + NFIA

Accelerate GDP growth from 8% to 10%.

Reduce Total Fertility Rate to 2.1

3. Net National Product (NNP): can be cal-

Increase agriculture growth to 4%.

culated in 2 ways:-

(i) NNP at market price:

Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-2017)

Major objective:

= GNP Depreciation

Faster, Sustainable and

NNP

More Inclusive Growth.

Depreciation means wear & tear of

The main points of the Twelfth Plan are:

goods produced.

NNP at market price includes Indirect


Resource Allocation Priorities in

taxes and excludes subsidies.

12th plan

(ii) NNP at factor cost: NNP at factor cost

Health and Education received less than

calculates National Income only on

projected in Eleventh Plan.

the basis of cost incurred to produce

Infrastructure, including irrigation and wa-

the goods & services. This cost is the

tershed management and urban infrastruc-

payment made to the factors of pro-

ture, will need additional 0.7 percentage

duction.

point of GDP over the next 5 years.

NNP = NNP Indirect Taxes + Subsidy

National Income of India

fc

mp

National Income is the money value of all When NNP is obtained at factor cost, it is the
final goods & services which produced known as National Income.

by a country during one year.

Likewise, GDP at factor cost also can be

India is now the worlds 3rd largest econ-


calculated.

omy in terms of real prices and purchasing

power.

GDP = GDP Indirect Taxes + Subsidy

fc

mp

Measures/Concepts of National

4. Personal Income : It is that income which

Income

is actually obtained by nationals in one year.

1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP):

P.I. = National Income Undistributed

GDP is the total money value of all final

Profits of Corporation Payments for

goods & services produced within the geo-

Social Security Provisions Corporate

graphical boundaries of the country (pro-

Taxes + Government Transfer payments +

duced by resident citizens + foreign nation-

Business Transfer payments + Net Interest

als) during a given period of time, generally

paid by government.

one year.
SOCIAL SECURITY PROVISIONS = Payments

made by employees towards pension &

GDP = Q P,

provident fund

72 Economy

TRANSFER PAYMENTS = Payments made

Base year of National Income accounts

not against any productive activity. eg. old

is the year chosen to enable inter year

age pension, unemployment compensation,

comparisons. The new series changes the

disaster relief payment, etc.

base to 201112 from 200405

5. Disposal Personal Income (DPI): Income

that is available to individuals that can be

NI CURRENT PRICE = Total quantity

disposed at their will.

of all final goods & services produced in a

particular year Price of goods & services

DPI = Personal Income Direct Taxes.

in that particular year.

6. National Income at constant price &

current price

BUDGET
NI CONSTANT PRICE = Total quantity of

Budget is an annual financial statement. The

all final goods & services produced in a

Budget in India is divided into 2 parts Revenue

particular year Price of base year.

Account & Capital Account.

Budget

Revenue A/C

Capital A/C

Receipts

Expenditure

Expenditure

Tax

Non Tax

loans to Economic,

Defence

Economic Services

General Services

states & Social &

& Others

(Agriculture Industries,

(Police, Judiciary,

UTs

Community

Transportation, Trade)
Defence)

development

Income &

Commodities

Expenditure

& Services

Currency

Social & Community

Coinage

Others

Services (Education,

Receipts

& Mint

Property

Medical, Employment)

& Capital

Interest

Receipts &

Dividends

Net Recoveries

Net Market Net Small Others

of Loans &

Borrowing Savings

Advances

Collections
Indian Tax Structure

Tax Structure present in India is very strong and follows the financial year.

Direct taxes are those which are imposed on a person either on his income or wealth and
the tax liability cannot be escaped. It is governed by Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT).

Indirect tax is col ected by middle men in the channels of distribution of goods and it is
remitted to the Government treasury. It is governed by Central Board of Excise and
Customs (CBEC).

India Tax Structure Taxes/imposed by

Central Government

State Government

Local Government

Direct taxes

Indirect taxes

Direct taxes

Indirect taxes

Property tax

Income tax

Custom duty Professional tax Entertainment

Water tax

Wealth tax

Central excise Agricultural tax V.A.T


Sewerage tax

Service tax

State excise duty

Central sales

Economy 73

Goods and Services Tax (GST)

rate of 1.2%, as per the fourth Annual

Employment & Unemployment Survey

Features

report for 2013-14, released by Labour

Uniform regim of taxes across India.

Bureau, under Union Ministry of Labour

Common market of goods and services

and Employment.

across India.

States will collect services taxes.

Schemes for Women and Child

Centre will collect Integrated Goods and Development

Service Tax (IGST) or inter-state supplies.

1. Ahimsa Messengers

IGST rate will be equal to Central GST

Scheme of Ministry of women and child

(CGST) + State GST (SGST).

development launched by UPA in 2013.

It will subsume 16 central or states taxes.


Includes Women Panchayati Raj Mem-

GST Replaces

bers, Youth, NGOs etc.

States Taxes

Central Taxes

These people work for prevention of vio-

VAT/Sales Tax

Central Excise

lence against women, dowry etc.

2. CSWB

Duty

Entry Tax/Octroi Excise Duty on

Central social welfare board (CSWB).

Medicines and

To implement welfare programs for women

Toilet

and children via NGOs, family counselling,

Local Tax

Additional Cus-

awareness generation etc.

tom Duty

3. Poorna Shakti Kendra


Entertainment Sp. Add. Custom

Created under National Mission for em-

Tax

Duty

powerment of women in 2013.

Purchase Tax

Countervailing

One stop information centres.

Duty

Help women get benefit from various

Mandi Tax/Local Service Tax

govt. schemes.

Levis

4. SABLA

Luxury Tax

Cesses and sur-

Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment

charges

of Adolescent Girls launched in 2011.

Tax on Lottery

To provide nutrition for growing adoles-

and Betting

cent girls by provision of food grains.

Inter-state Tax

All girls will be given a kishori card


Poverty in India

which will be updated with details of the

girls growth and provision of the food

One third of the worlds poor live in India.

grains.

The number of poor in India is now

SABLA is created by merging earlier

estimated at 148 million in 2014 as

two schemes: Nutrition program for

compared to 396 million in 2004-05.

adolescent girls + Kishori Shakti Yojana.

Goa ranks best with least poverty of 5.09%

Target: girls aged 11-18.

and Chattisgarh has the most poverty with

39.93%.

100 gms of foodgrain per day per girl for

Poverty is concentrated among agricultural

300 days in a year.

5. Saksham

labourers, casual workers, scheduled castes

and scheduled tribes.

This is a scheme by Ministry of Women

According to Economic Survey 2013-14,


and Child Development launched in

poverty ratio declines to 21.9%.

2012.

Made due to rising demand for gender

Unemployment in India

sensitisation among boys after the Delhi

The countrys overall unemployment rate

gang-rape incident.

was estimated to be 4.9% in 2013-14.

Itll give training/moral education to

In case of women living in urban areas, the

adolescent boys (11-18 age) to respect

unemployment rate was 12.4%, while in ru-

women.

ral areas, it was 6.4%.

6. STEP

The overall unemployment among women

Support to Training and Employment

was 7.7% across the country.

program for Women.

Gujarat has the lowest unemployment

Provides skill training.

74 Economy

Policies

by opening crches and development ser-


vices

1974

National Policy for Children

Requirement: combined monthly income of

2001

National Policy for Women

both the parents should not exceed `12,000

2004

National Charter for Children

for availing of the facilities.

2014

National Youth Policy

INDUSTRIES:

Child labour v/s Right to Education

(RTE)

Public Sector Enterprises (PSE) is a govern-

RTE = Every child between the ages of 6

ment-owned corporation owned by Union

and 14 has right to free (and compulsory)

Government of India, or one of the many

elementary education

state or territorial governments, or both.

Child Labour (Prohibition and Regula-

They are under the Department of Public

tion) Act of 1986 makes a distinction


Enterprises of Ministry of Heavy Industries

between hazardous and non-hazard-

ous categories of work for children

and Public Enterprises.

under 14 years.

There are 298 PSU companies on 31-03-2015

in India.

National Rural Health Mission

Focus will be post-menopausal problems,

Maharatna

osteoporosis and breast and cervical Navratna

cancer.

Dovetailing of NRHM with IGMSY [Indra Miniratna

Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana] (condi-

CPSEs (itself divided into Category I &

tional cash transfer for maternity benefit)

Category II)

and National Food Security Bill (NFSB) will As on 26 October, 2014 there are 7 Maharatna,
be undertaken.

Training Anganwadi and ASHA workers

17 Navratna and 73 Miniratna CPSEs.

There are 7 Maharatnas :

(Accredeted Social Health Activist) on is-


sues relating to nutrition, counselling, child (i) Bharat Heavy Electricals (BHEL) rights and
gender discrimination

(ii) Coal India

Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram

(iii) Indian Oil Corporation (IOC)

(iv) GAIL

This scheme was launched in 2013.

(v) NTPC

To provide comprehensive healthcare and (vi) Oil & Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)
improve the quality of life of children focus (vii) Steel Authority of India (SAIL) on 4D.

Defects at birth (cleft lip, downs syndrome,

There are 17 Navratna CPSEs in the country,

Talipes etc.).

these are:

Diseases (dental, heart, asthama etc.).

1.

Bharat Electronics Limited

ICDS

2.

Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited

Integrated Child Development Service

3.

Container Corporation of India Limited

(ICDS) started in 1975.

4.
Engineers India Limited

Beneficiary-children below the age of six,

lactating mothers, pregnant mothers.

5.

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

Dhanlakshmi

6.

Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Lim-

ited

Conditional cash transfer for girl child,

launched in 2008, for fulfilling following con-

7.

Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited

ditions:

8.

National Aluminium Company Limited

birth and registration of birth

9.

Nation al Buildings Construction Cor-

immunization

poration Limited

enrolment and retention in school

10. NMDC Limited

Rajiv Gandhi National Creche

11. Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited


Scheme provides for day-care facilities to

0-6 year-old children of working mothers

12. Oil India Limited

Economy 75

13. Power Finance Corporation Limited

Private sector undertaking

14. Power Grid Corporation of India Lim-

(TISCO, Mahindra and Mahindra, Birla

ited

Cement)

15.

Joint sector undertaking

Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited

(Oil India Limited)

16. Rural Electrification Corporation Lim-

Co-operative industries

ited

(Sugar Industry in Maharashtra)

17. Shipping Corporation of India Limited

E. Based on the bulk of raw materials

Industrial Policy 1991

and finished products

(A) Objectives

Heavy industries
to maintain a sustained growth in produc-

Light industries

tivity.

to enhance gainful employment.

In India, industries are concentrated in four

to achieve optimum utilisation of human re-

main regions:

sources.

1. West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chhatisgarh

(B) Main Focus on

2. Maharashtra and Gujarat region

deregulating Indian industry.

3. Gangetic Plains

allowing the industry freedom and flexibil-

4. South India

ity in responding to market forces, and

First Time in India

(C) Policy Measures

Cotton Industry

1818 Fort Gloster

Liberalisation of Industrial Licensing

(Kolkata)

Policy.

Introduction of Industrial Entrepreneurs Iron and Steel

1870 Kulti (West

Memorandum ( i. e. no industrial approval

Industry

Bengal)

is required for industries not requiring

compulsory licensing).

Sugar Industry

1900 Bihar

Non-Resident Indians Scheme (NRIs are

Jute Industry

1855 Rishara (West

allowed to invest upto 100% equity on

Bengal)

non-repatriation basis in all activities

except for a small negative list).

Paper Industry

1812 Serampur

Classification of Industries:

(W. Bengal)

A. On the basis of source of raw Petroleum Industry 1956 Digboi

materials

(Assam)

Agro based industry (cotton textile,


Cement Industry

1904 Chennai (Tamil

jute textile and sugar).

Nadu)

Mineral based industry (iron and steel,

machine tools and aluminium).

BANKING IN INDIA

B. On the basis of main role played

by the industry

The State Bank of India is the largest commer-

cial bank in India.

Basic industries: these are the indus-

tries whose finished products are used Reserve Bank of India

as the raw materials for other industries.

Central bank of India.

Consumer goods industries: these are Established on April 1, 1935 with a capi-the
industries whose finished products

tal of ` 5 crore.

are directly used for consumption by

consumers.

Nationalised on January 1, 1949 as Gov-

ernment acquired the private share hold-

C. On the basis of capital investment

ings.

Small scale industry


Administration: 14 Directors in Central

Large scale industry

Board of Directors besides the Governor,

D. On the basis of ownership

4 Deputy Governors and 1 Government of-

Public sector undertaking

ficial. The Governor is the Chairman of the

(SAIL, HAL, BEML)

Board and Chief Executive of the Bank.

76 Economy

Scheduled Banks

Scheduled Commercial

Scheduled

Non-Scheduled

Banks (163)

Cooperative

Commercial Banks (4)

(Mentioned in II Schedule

Banks (69)

of RBIACT, 1934)

Scheduled

Scheduled

Urban

State

Public Sector
Private Sector

RRBs(82)

Cooperative

Cooperative

Banks (26)

Banks (21)

Bank (53)

Bank (16)

Nationalised

Bank (20)

Old PrivateBanks (14)

SBI & Asso (6)

New Private Banks (7)

Governors: 1st Governor Sir Smith

Market Operations (OMO), Statutory Li-

(1935-37); 1st Indian Governor- CD

quidity Ratio (SLR), Repo/Reserve Repo.

Deshmukh (1948-49).

2. Qualitative Credit Control:

RBI follows Minimum Reserve System Rationing of Credit, Regulation of Credit for worth
200 crore (` 115 crore gold &

Consumption Purpose, Variation of margin

` 85 crore bond).

requirements, Moral Control, Direct action.

All notes except one rupee are issued by the


RBI & bear the signature of RBI Governor.

Printing of Securities and Minting in India

Where as the one rupee note bears

India Security Press (Nashik Road): Postal

signature of Secretary of Finance (GOI).

Material, Postal Stamps, Non-postal Stamps,

No personal accounts are maintained &

Judicial and Non-judicial Stamps, Cheques,

operated in RBI.

Bonds, NSC, Kisan Vikas Patra, Securities of

Functions of RBI

State Governments, Public Sector Enterprise

Issuance of note.

Banker to the Government.

and Financial Corporations.

Bankers Bank.

Currency Notes Press (Nashik Road): Since

Controller of Credit

1991, this press prints currency notes of ` 1, `

Custodian of Foreign Reserves

2, ` 5, ` 10, ` 50, and ` 100.

Formulates and administers the monetary

Bank Notes Press (Dewas): Currency notes

policy in India.

of `20, `50, `100 and `500 are printed here.


Acts as the agent of the Government of In-

dia in respect to Indias membership of the

Modernized Currency Notes Press: Two

IMF and the World Bank.

new modernized currency notes press are un-

RBI acts as the central clearing house for

der establishment at Mysore (Karnataka) and

the inter bank transactions.

Salboni (West Bengal).

Credit control means control over the

Security Paper: Hoshangabad (established

quantity and value of credit in the country.

in 1967-68) makes production of Bank and

Among the functions of Central Bank, one

main function is to control and regulate the

Currency notes paper.

credit in the country.

Coins are minted at four places: Mumbai,

1. Quantitative Credit Control:

Kolkata, Hyderabad and Noida.

Bank Rate, Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), Open

Economy 77

STOCK EXCHANGE OF INDIA

Green Revolution in India


The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act The term green revolution was given by of
1956 established for the purpose of as-American scientist- Dr. William Gande.

sisting, regulating and controlling, business The credit of Green Revolution goes to Dr.

in buying, selling and dealing in securities.

Norman Borlaug (Mexico) and Dr. M.S.

There are 24 stock exchanges in India.

Swaminathan in India.

Bombay Stock Exchange 1875- one of the

Second Green Revolution in India

oldest in the world and oldest in Asia.

Strategy adopted in Eleventh Plan.

It aimed at efficient use of resources and

Madras Stock Exchange- 1920

conservation of soil, water and ecology on

Ahmedabad Stock Exchange- 1894

a sustainable basis and in a holistic frame-

work.

Calcutta Stock Exchange- 1908

Other Revolutions

Securities and Exchange Board of India

Revolution

Area

(SEBI): April 1988

Yellow Revolution

Oil Seeds
SEBI

White Revolution

Milk

It was given statutory status and powers

Blue Revolution

Fish

through an ordinance promulgated on Jan-

Pink Revolution

Shrimp

uary 30, 1992.

Its office is situated in Mumbai with re-

Grey Revolution

Fertiliser

gional offices at Delhi, Chennai and Calcut-

Golden Revolution

Horticulture

ta.

White Revolution and Operation Flood in

Functions of SEBI:

India

Check insider trading of securities.

India stands first in the world in the milk

Encourage self-regulatory organisations.

production.

Eliminate malpractice of security market.


Dr. Varghese Kurien is the pioneer of op-

Safeguard interests of investors.

eration flood in India.

AGRICULTURE

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

The agriculture sector of India occupies al-

(FDI)

most 43% of Indias geographical area.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is an

Importance

investment in a business by an investor from

It is the largest contributor to Indias GDP.

another country for which the foreign investor

Provides livelihood to 65-70% of total pop-

has control over the company purchased.

ulation and employment to 58.4% of total A Multi National Enterprise (MNE) may work
force.

create a new foreign enterprise by making

Importance source of raw materials to large

a direct investment, which is called a

greenfield investment

and small scale industries.

Agriculture accounts for 14.7% of total ex-

A MNE may make a direct investment by the


acquisition of a foreign firm, which is called

port earnings.

an acquisition or prownfield investment .

Agriculture and related products contrib-

The Government has allowed 100% FDI in

ute to 38% in total exports of the country.

all the sectors except Space (74%), Defence

Food grains procurement and

(49%), and News Media (26%).

Stocks in India

FDI restrictions in tea plantation has been

removed.

Food grains procurement by government

serves two purposes- providing support price

FDI In India

FDI during 2015

to the farmers and building up public stocks of

$ 39.32 billion

Highest FDI attracted sectors Computers

food grains. It is carried by Food Corporation

Hardware & Software, Services, Trading

of India (FCI).

business, Automobiles & Chemicals.

Market intervention to augment supply so

Biggest FDI source Singapore, Mauritius,


as to help moderate the open market prices.

US, Netherlands and Japan

78 Economy

FINANCIAL INCLUSION

Commercial Banks: Financial institutions

The objective of Financial Inclusion is to ex-

that create credit, accept deposits, give

tend financial services to the large hitherto

loans and perform other financial func-

un-served population of the country to unlock

tions.

its growth potential. Following are the

Deferred Payment: Payments put off to

1. Expansion of Bank Branch Network.

a future date or extended over a period of

2. Swabhimaan Scheme

3. Direct Benefit Transfer

time. Interest will usually still accumulates

4. PAHAL Scheme

during deferment.

5. Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)

Deflation: Deflation is a reduction in the

PMJDY was formally launched on 28th Au-

level of national income and output, usually

gust, 2014.
accompanied by a fall in the general price

New Pension System

level.

The National Pension System (NPS) was

Depreciation: Reduction in the value of

fixed assets due to wear and tear.

launched on 1st January, 2004 with the

Devaluation: Official reduction in the for-

objective of providing retirement income

eign value of domestic currency. It is done

to all the citizens. It is a co-contributory

to encourage the countrys exports and dis-

pension scheme, Swavalamban Scheme

courage imports.

in the Union Budget of 2010-11, under

Dividend: Earning of stock paid to share-

which the Government will contribute a sum

holders.

of ` 1,000 to each eligible NPS subscriber

Dumping: Sale of a commodity at different

who contributes a minimum of ` 1,000 &

prices in different markets, lower price be-

maximum ` 12,000 per annum.

ing charged in the market where demand is

relatively elastic.
GLOSSARY

Double Taxation: Corporate earnings

Ante date: To give a date prior to that on

taxed at both the corporate level and again

which it is written, to any cheque, bill or any

as a stock holder dividend.

other document.

Fiscal policy: Governments expenditure

Ad valorem tax- a tax based on the value of

property.

and tax policy.

Balance of trade (or payment): The dif-

Free-trade Area: A form of economic inte-

ference between the visible exports and

gration in which there exists free internal

visible imports of two countries in trade

trade among member countries but each

with each other is called balance of pay-

member is free to levy different external

ment.

Basis Point: A unit of measurement which

tariffs against non-member nations.

is equal to 1/100th of 1%. This is used to Payee (Drawee): The person who receives
measure changes in interest rates, stock-a payment. This often applies to cheque.

market indices or yield on fixed income se-


Payer (Drawer): The person who makes a

curities.

payment. This often applies to cheque.

Balance Sheet: It is a statement of ac-

Repo Rate: The rate at which banks bor-

counts, generally of a business concern,

row from RBI. It injects liquidity into the

prepared at the end of a year.

market.

Bank Rate: It is the rate of interest charged Reverse Repo Rate: The rate at which RBI
by the Reserve Bank of India for lending

borrows from banks for a short-term. It

money to Commercial Banks.

Bear: A speculator in the stock market who

withdraws liquidity from the market.

believes that prices will go down.

Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR): SLR is

Bull: Speculators in the stock markets who

the portion that banks need to invest in the

buy goods, in some cases without money to

form of cash, gold or government approved

pay with, anticipating that prices will go up.

securities.

Cartel: It is a combination of business, gen-

VAT(Value Added Tax): A form of indi-


erally in the same trade formed with a view

rect sales tax paid on products and services

to controlling prices and enjoy monopoly.

at each stage of production or distribution,

Call money: Loan made for a very short pe-

based on the value added at that stage and

riod. It carries a very low rate of interest.

included in the cost to the ultimate customer.

GENERAL SCIENCE

Physics

Physics is the branch of science which deals with the study of matter, energy, and the
interaction between them.

A scalar is a physical quantity that has only a magnitude (size) E.g. : Distance, speed, time,
power, energy, etc.

A vector is a physical quantity that has both a magnitude and a direction. E.g. Velocity,
displacement, acceleration, force etc.

Some physical quantities like moment of inertia, stress, etc. are neither scalar nor vector.
They are tensor.

Seven Fundamental Physical Quantities and their Units

Physical Quantity

SI Unit

Symbol

Length

meter

Mass
kilogram

Kg

Time

second

Electric Current

ampere

Temperature

kelvin

Luminous intensity

candela

Cd

Amount of substance

mole

mol

Some Derived Physical Quantities and their Units

S. No

Physical Quantity

cgs unit

SI unit

Relation

1.

Force
dyne

newton

1 newton = 105 dyne

2.

Work

erg

joule

1 joule = 107 erg

NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTION

to the centripetal force is called centrifugal

First law of Motion - An object at rest

force.

will remain at rest or in uniform motion Cream separator, centrifugal dryer, etc, remains
in uniform motion unless acted on

work on the principle of centrifugal force.

by an external unbalanced force.

FRICTION

This law is often called the law of inertia.

i.e., resistance to change.

Friction is a force that is created whenever

Second law of Motion - The rate of two surfaces move or try to move across each change
of momentum of a body is directly other.

proportional to the unbalanced external Friction always opposes the motion or at-

force applied on it.

tempted motion of one surface across another


Third law of Motion - For every action surface.

Instances where friction is important

there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Walking , Driving ,Picking something up, Car

CIRCULAR MOTION

brakes,

Motion of a body along a circular path is WORK, ENERGY & POWERS

called circular motion.

Centripetal force - while a body is moving Work

along a circular path an external force Work refers to an activity involving a force
required to act radially inward.

and movement in the direction of the force.

A pseudo force that is equal and opposite The SI unit of work is the joule (J),

80 Physics

Energy

The value of g decreases with altitude,

Capacity of doing work is called energy.

depth from the earths surface.

It may exist in potential, kinetic, thermal, g decreases due to rotation of earth.

electrical, chemical, nuclear, or other vari-

Escape speed (ve) is the minimum speed

ous forms.

with which an object just crosses the earths

Energy cannot be created or destroyed. It


gravitational field and never comes back.

can only be transferred to other objects or The escape velocity of Earth is about 11.2

converted into different forms. This is Law

kilometres per second and on moon it is 2.4

of Conservation of energy.

km/sec.

The SI unit of energy is joule.

The energy associated with motion is called SATELLITES

kinetic energy (K).

A satellite is a smaller object in space

The energy associated with position is

which orbits around a larger object Planet

called potential energy (U).

in space.

Conversion of Energy

It can be either artificial, like the commu-

nication or weather satellites that orbit the

Dynamo-

Mechanical Energy into

Earth, or they can be natural, like our Moon.

Electrical Energy.

A geostationary satellite is an earth-

Electric Motor- Electrical Energy into -

orbiting satellite, placed at an altitude of

Mechanical Energy.
approximately 35,800 kilometres (22,300

Microphone-

Sound Energy into Elec-

miles) directly over the equator.

trical Energy.

Loud Speaker-

Electrical Energy into

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF

Sound Energy.

SOLIDS AND FLUIDS

Electric Bulb-

Electrical Energy into

Elasticity and plasticity: The property by

Light and Heat Energy.

virtue of which the body regains its original

Solar Cell

Solar energy into electri-

shape after the removal of deforming force

cal energy.

is called elasticity. And if the body retains

Power

its deformed shape after the removal of de-

Power is the rate of doing work.

forming force is called plasticity.

Power = Work / time


Rubber is less elastic than steel.

The SI unit of power is joule/second.

Pressure is defined as force acting normal-

One horse power = 746 watt.

ly on an unit area of the surface.

Its unit is N/m2. It is a scalar quantity.

GRAVITATION

Atmospheric pressure is measured by

Gravitation is a natural phenomenon by Sudden fall in barometric reading is the which


all physical bodies attract each other.

indication of storm.

On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical Slow fall in barometric reading is the indi-
objects employing a downward force to

cation of rain.

keep them grounded.

Slow rise in the barometric reading is the

According to Newtons theory, the gravita-

indication of clear weather.

tional attraction between the planets and

the sun holds the planets in elliptical orbits Atmospheric pressure decreases

around the sun.

with altitude.

The force of gravity depends upon the objects It is difficult to cook on the mountain.

mass or the amount of matter in the object.

The fountain pen of a passenger leaks in


The weight (w) of an object is equal to the

aeroplane.

mass of the object multiplied by the accel-

Bleeding occurs from the nose of the man.

eration due to gravity(g).

It is difficult to breath on higher altitude

W = mg

due to less amount of air.

gmaximum at poles and gminimum at

Water starts to boil below 100C.

equator.

Archimedes Principle :

When a body is immersed partly or wholly in a

moon =

gearth

liquid, there is an apparent loss in the weight of

Physics 81

the body, which is equal to the weight of liquid Latent Heat

displaced by the body.

The amount of heat required to change

All objects placed in a liquid experience an

phase (liquid to gas or liquid to solid etc.)


upward force called the buoyant force and

without change in temperature is called la-

the law is called the law of buoyancy.

tent heat.

The weight of water displaced by an iron Specific Heat

ball is less than its own weight. Whereas

water displaced by the immersed portion of The amount of heat that is required to raise
the temperature of a unit mass of a sub-a ship is equal to its weight. So, small ball of

stance by one degree (14.5C to 15.5C) is

iron ball sink in water, but large ship float.

known as Specific heat.

Density of water is maximum at 4C.

Sublimation :

HEAT

It is the process of conversion of a solid direct-

Heat is a form of energy which causes sen-

ly into vapour, eg., Iodine (dark solid), Dry ice

sation of hotness or coldness.

(solid CO2), etc.

Its unit is joule or calorie.

Hoar Frost: It is just the reverse process of

1 cal = 4.2 joule

sublimation. e.g. Frost and snowflakes.

It always flows from a substance at a higher

temperature to the substance at a lower WAVES


temperature.

A wave is a kind of oscillation (disturbance)

Temperature : It indicates the degree of hot-

that travels through space and matter.

ness or coldness of a body.

Wave motions transfer energy, not matter

Temperature is measured by thermometer.

from one place to another.

Temperature measuring units are Kelvin, C Transverse wave- In it the vibrations of or


F.

particles are perpendicular to the direc-

Relation between Temperature on differ-

tion of travel of the wave. It has crests and

ent scales.

troughs.

Longitudinal wave:- In it the vibrations

C F 32 R

K 273 Ra 492

of particles are parallel to the direction of

travel of wave. It has compressions and rar-

5
9

efactions.

The normal temperature of a human body Echo: The repetition of sound due to reflec-is
37C or 98.6F.

tion of sound waves, is called an echo.

At 40 temperature, celsius and fahrenheit Sonar: It stands for sound navigation and
ranging. It is used to measure the depth of

thermometers read the same.

a sea to locate the enemy submarines and

Conduction: It is that mode of transmission of

shipwrecks.

heat in solid where heat is transferred from Anatomy of an Electromagnetic Wave

a region of higher temperature to a region of Charged particles, such as electrons and


lower temperature by the aid of particles of

protons create electromagnetic fields when

the body without their actual migration.

they move, and these fields transport the

Convection: It requires a medium and is the

type of energy we call electromagnetic ra-

process in which heat is transferred from one

diation, or light.

place to other by actual movement of heated Mechanical waves and electro-magnetic


substance (usually molecule of fluid).
waves are two important ways through

Radiation:

which energy is transported in the world

has the following properties:

around us.

(a) Radiant energy travels in straight lines Waves in water and sound waves in air are and
when some object is placed in the path,

two examples of mechanical waves.

its shadow is formed at the detector.

Mechanical waves are caused by a distur-

(b) It is reflected and refracted or can be

bance or vibration in matter, whether solid,

made to interfere.

gas, liquid or plasma.

(c) It can travel through vacuum.

82 Physics

Electromagnetic waves differ from me-

Speed of Sound in Different Mediums

chanical waves in that they do not require

Medium

Speed of sound (In m/s)

a medium to propagate.

Examples of electromagnetic waves are

Air(0C)

332
light, radio waves, X-rays etc.

Air (20C) 343

Sound waves cannot travel in the vacuum

because there is no medium to transmit

Iron

5130

these mechanical waves.

Glass

5640

Sound is transmitted through gases, plas-

ma, and liquids as longitudinal waves, also LIGHT

called compression waves.

It requires a medium to propagate.

Light is a form of energy which produces

Audible sound for human is from 20 Hz to

sensation of vision on our eyes.

about 20000 Hz.

Light is made of discrete packets of energy

Pitch is the property of sound that we per-

called photons.

ceive as higher and lower tones.

Photons carry momentum, have no mass,

Sounds higher than 20000 Hz are called

and travel at the speed of light, i.e. 300,000

ultrasonics.
km/sec.

Sounds less than 20 Hz are called infrasonics.

Suns light reaches to earth in 8 minutes 19

When temperature is increased the speed

seconds (i.e. 499 seconds).

of sound is increased.

The light reflected from moon reaches to

Speed of sound in air is 330 m/s.

earth in 1.28 second.

Transparent, translucent and opaque matter

Matter

Nature

Example

Transparent

It allows most of light to pass through.

glass, water, etc

Translucent

It allows a part of light falling on it to pass through. oiled paper

Opaque

It does not allow the incident light to pass through. mirror, metal,

wood, etc.

Ultraviolet radiation is an electromag-

Microwaves are short, high frequency

netic radiation that has wavelength from

waves lying roughly between very high fre-


400 nm to 10 nm, shorter than that of vis-

quency (infrared) waves and conventional

ible light but longer than X-rays. It is used in

radio waves.

water purification.

Reflection of light

Infrared radiation is emission of energy as

electromagnetic waves in the portion of the Reflection by Plane Mirror The image
spectrum just beyond the limit of the red formed by the plane mirror is always erect, of
portion of visible radiation.

the same size and at the same distance as the

X-rays are electromagnetic radiation hav-

object is.

ing a shorter wavelength and produced Spherical mirror

by bombarding a target made of tungsten, Spherical mirrors are of two types

with high speed electrons. Uses in medical (i) Concave mirror

diagonosis.

(ii) Convex mirror

Position & nature of image formed by a spherical mirror

Position of object

Position of image

Size of image in com- Nature of image

parison to object

Concave mirror

At infinity
At focus

Highly diminished

Real, inverted

Physics 83

Between infinity and Between focus and Diminished

Real, inverted

centre of curvature

centre of curvature

At centre of curva- At centre of curva- Of same size

Real, inverted

ture

ture

Between focus and Between centre of Enlarged

Real, inverted

centre of curvature

curvature and infin-

ity

At focus

At infinity

Highly enlarged

Real, inverted

Between focus and Behind the mirror

Enlarged

Virtual, erect

pole
Convex mirror

At infinity

At Focus

Highly diminished

Virtual, erect

Infront of mirror

Between pole and Diminished

Virtual, erect

focus

Uses of concave mirror

Total Internal Reflection

(i) As a shaving mirror.

When the angle of incidence, for a ray of light

(ii) As a reflector for the head lights of a ve-

passing from a denser medium to a rarer

hicle, search light.

medium, exceeds a particular value (called

(iii) In opthalmoscope to examine eye, ear, critical angle for which angle of refraction nose
by doctors.

90), the ray reflects back in the same medium

(iv) In solar cookers,

from the boundary. This phenomena is called

Uses of convex mirror

total internal reflection.

Some Phenomena of total Internal Reflec-


(i) As a rear view mirror in vehicle because tion

it provides the maximum rear field of (i) Endoscopy using optical fibre.

view and image formed is always erect.

(ii) Sparkling of diamond.

(ii) In sodium reflector lamp.

(iii) Mirage in desert

Refraction of Light

(iv) Increase in duration of suns visibility.

The bending of the light ray from its path in (v) Appearance of air bubbles in glass paper
passing from one medium to the other medi-weight.

um is called refraction of light.

(vi) Shining of air bubbles in water.

If the refracted ray bends towards the nor-

Scattering of Light: Sunlight gets scattered

mal relative to the incident ray, then the by small particles present in the atmosphere.

second medium is said to be denser than Red colour scatters least and violet most. Some
the first medium. But if the refracted ray phenomena like reddish appearance of the sun
bends away from the normal, then the sec-at sunrise and sunset, blue colour of sky, white

ond medium is said to be rarer than the colour of clouds etc. based on scattering of light.

first medium.

Some Phenomena based on Refraction

Human Eye

(i) Twinkling of stars

The normal range of vision for a healthy

(ii) Oval Shape of sun in the morning and human eye is from 25 cm (least distance of
evening.
distinct vision to infinity (far point).

(iii) Rivers appear shallow

(iv) Coins appear raised in glass filled with Defects of Vision & Remedies water.

(v) Pencils appear broken in the beaker Myopia or Near(short) sightedness:

filled with water.

A person suffering from Myopia cant see

(vi) Sun appears above horizon at sunset

the far (distant) object clearly but can see

and sunrise.

nearby object clearly.

84 Physics

Causes:

Electric charge is a property of some sub-

The eye ball is too long (i.e. elongated) so

atomic particles, which determines their

image is formed before retina.

electromagnetic interactions.

Lens being too curved for the length of the The

SI unit of charge is coulomb (c).

eye ball.

Electric current (I) is a movement or flow

Remedy: Concave lens is used to diverge the

of electrically charged particle per unit

rays at retina.

time.
Hyperopia or Hypermetropia (long (far) Electrical currents generate magnetic
sightedness)

fields, and changing magnetic fields gener-

ate electrical currents.

A person suffering from it cant see near Conductors

are the substances which allow

object clearly but can see distant object

the passage of electric charge with low resis-

clearly.

tance. E.g., silver, copper etc.

Causes:

Silver is the best conductor of electricity

The eye ball is too short so image is formed

followed by copper.

beyond the retina.

Insulators

are substances which do not

Cornea is not curved enough,

allow passage of electric charge, rubber,

Eye lens is farther back in the eye.

wood, mica, glass, ebonite etc.

Remedy: Convex lens is used to converge the The resistance is the obstruction offered to
rays at retina.

the flow of electric current.

Target group: It can affects both children and Electric cell : It is the device used to convert
adults.
chemical energy into electrical energy.

Astigmatism: Astigmatism is the most Ammeter- Measures current

common refractive problem responsible for Voltmeter- Measures the potential


difference between two points in a circuit.

blurry vision. Cylindrical lens is used to Fuse is a safety device that protects an correct
astigmatism.

electric circuit from becoming overloaded.

Cataract

Transformer

It is the clouding of the lens of the eye that Transformer is a device which converts low
prevent a person to see.

voltage AC into high voltage Ac and vice-

Causes: Protein builds up in the eye lens &

versa.

make it cloudy.

Application /uses: As voltage regulators for

Remedy:

(i) T.V, refrigerator, computer, air conditioner,

It can be corrected with suitable eye glasses

etc.

(lenses).

(ii) Induction furnaces.

Cataract surgery is performed when eye (iii)for welding purposes.

glass does not suit.

AC Generator/Dynamo/Alternator

Dispersion of light :
It is an electric device used to convert me-

The splitting of white ray of light into its seven

chanical energy into electrical energy.

constituents colours (VIBGYOR) is called dis-

D.C. Motor

persion of light.

It converts direct current energy from a

The band of seven constituents colours is

battery into mechanical energy of rotation.

called spectrum.

Its uses

Microscope It is used to see magnified image (i) In D.C. fans, exhaust, ceiling, table fans,
etc.

of a tiny objects.

(ii) In pumping water.

Telescope It is used to increase the visual (iii)In running tram-cars, trains, etc.

angle of distant object. It is used to see far off

objects clearly.

MAGNETISM

ELECTRICITY

Magnets : The material or body which attract

magnetic substance like iron, cobalt, nickel,

Electricity is the set of physical phenom-

etc.
ena associated with the presence and flow The force of attraction of a magnet is great-of
electric charge.

er at its poles than in the middle.

Physics 85

Similar poles of two magnets repel each MODERN PHYSICS

other.

The nucleus of an atom consists of protons

Opposite poles of two magnets attract each

and neutrons together called nucleons.

other.

If a bar magnet is suspended by a thread X-Rays

and free to rotate, its South Pole will move X-rays are electromagnetic radiations of
very towards the North Pole of the earth and short wavelength (0.1 to 100 ) and
high vice versa.

energy which are emitted when fast moving

Uses /Applications

electrons or cathode rays strike a target of

Magnets are used in making magnetic com-

high atomic mass.

passes which help sailors and navigators Properties of X-Rays :

to know the directions.

(i) These are highly penetrating rays and

Electromagnets are used in generators,

can pass through several materials which

motors, loud speakers, telephones, TV sets,


are opaque to ordinary light.

fans, mixers, electric bells, Maglev etc.

(ii) They affect photographic plates.

Properties of a, b and g particles

Properties

a-ray

b-ray

g-ray

Origin

Nucleus

Nucleus

Nucleus

Nature

Positively charged

Negatively

Neutral

charged

Composition

2He4

1e0

Photon

Mass

6.410-31 kg

9.110-31kg

zero
Charge

+2 e

zero

Penetrating power

Minimum

In between the

Maximum

other two

Ionising power

Maximum

In between the

Minimum

other two

Velocity

Between 1.4107 m/s

1% to 99% of

3108 m/s

to 2.2 10 7 m/s

velocity of light

Nuclear Fission: The process of splitting of a heavy nucleus into two nuclei of
comparable size and release of large energy is called fission, eg. atom bomb.

Nuclear Fusion : The process in which two or more lighter nuclei combine to form a
heavy nucleus is known as nuclear fusion, e.g. hydrogen bomb.

Important Discoveries in Physics


Discovery

Scientist

Year

Atom

John Dalton

1808

Law of floatation

Archemedes

1827

Photography (On paper)

W.Fox Talbot

1835

Dynamite

Alfred Nobel

1867

X-Rays

Roentgen

1895

Radioactivity

Henry Becquerel

1896

Electron

J.J. Thomson

1897

Radium
Madam Curie

1898

Wireless telegram

Marconi

1901

86 Physics

Diode

Sir J.S. Fleming

1904

Principle of relativity

Albert Einstein

1905

Proton

Goldstein

1886

Raman effect

C.V. Raman

1928

Neutron

James Chadwick

1932

Some more Inventions

Invention

Inventor

Country
Year

Aeroplane

Wright brothers

USA

1903

Ball-point pen

C. Biro

Hungary

1938

Barometer

E. Torricelli

Italy

1644

Bicycle

K. Macmillan

Scotland

1839

Calculating machine

Pascal

France

1642

Centrigrade scale

A. Celsius

France

1742
Diesel engine

Rudolf Diesel

Germany

1892

Dynamo

Michael Faraday

England

1831

Electric lamp

Thomas Alva Edison

USA

1879

Film (with sound)

Dr lee do forest

USA

1923

Fountain Pen

L.E. Waterman

USA

1884

Jet Engine

Sir Frank Whittle

England

1937

Lift
E.G. Otis

USA

1852

Match (safety)

J.E. Lundstrom

Sweden

1855

Microphone

David Hughes

USA

1878

Motor car(petrol)

Karl Benz

Germany

1885

Motorcycle

Edward Butler

England

1884

Printing Press

J. Gutenberg

Germany

1455

Radio

G.Marconi
England

1901

Razor (safety)

K.G. Gillette USA

USA

1895

Refrigerator

J. Harrison and A.

Britain

1834

Catlin

Sewing machine

B. Thimmonnier

France

1830

Steam engine (condenser)

James Watt

Scotland

1765

Stainless Steel

Harry Brearley

England

1913

Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell USA


1876

Television

John Logie Bared

Scotland

1926

Thermometer

Galileo Galilei

Italy

1593

Chemistry

Chemistry is the branch of science which deals with study of matter and various
changes it undergoes.

STATES OF MATTER

Matter

Chemical classification of matter

Physical classification of matter

Pure Substances

Mixtures

Solid

Liquid

Gas

Homogeneous

Heterogeneous

Elements

Compounds
Organic

Inorganic

Metalic

Metalloids

Non-metallic

Classification of Matter

Melting point of a substance is the

Matter

temperature at which its solid form changes

It is defined as anything that occupies

to a liquid.

space and has mass.

Boiling point is the temperature at which the

At a given temperature, an element is in one

liquid form of a substance changes to a gas.

of the three states of matter- Solid, Liquid A physical change is a change in matter
or Vapour (Gas).

that involves no chemical reaction.

Solids

The three types of physical changes are-

Solids possess definite shape and volume,

melting, evaporation and freezing.

eg. metals, brick, etc.

Chemical Change A change in which the

Liquids
identify of the original substance is changed

They possess definite volume but no

and new substances are formed is called

definite shape.

a chemical change for example souring of

They can flow, so they are called fluids, e.g.

milk, burning of paper, rusting of iron etc.

water, milk, mercury, oil,etc.

Gases

ATOM

Gases have neither a definite volume nor An atom is the smallest unit of an
element.

definite shape.

An atom has a central nucleus.

They takes the volume and shape of the The nucleus carries a positive charge.

container. E.g. air, oxygen, hydrogen, etc.

Electrons revolves around the nucleus.

88 Chemistry

Protons have a positive charge.

AIR AND WATER

Electrons have a negative charge.

Neutrons have no charge.

Air is colorless, odorless, tasteless,

Element

gaseous mixture, mainly contains nitro-


gen (approximately 78%) and oxygen

Everything in the universe is made of a

combination of a few basic substances (approximately 21%) with lesser

called elements.

amounts of argon, carbon dioxide, hydro-

The element is the simplest form of matter gen, neon, helium, and other gases.

composed of atoms having identical Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen in


number of protons in each nucleus.

the ratio of 2:1 by volume and 1:8 by mass.

Compound

eg. (H2O)

Hard water has bicarbonates, chlorides

A compound is a pure substance that

contains atoms of two or more chemical

sulphates of Ca and Mg. This water is unfit

elements in definite proportions that

for washing and use in industrial boilers.

cannot be separated by physical means and Heavy water is deuterium oxide (D2O),
are held together by chemical bonds.

molecular mass = 20).

Substances & Chemical Compositions

Common Name

Chemical Name

Composition

Formula
Alum

Potash

Potassium, Sulphur,

K2SO4Al2(SO4)3

Aluminium, Hydrogen

and Oxygen

Bleaching Powder Calcium

Calcium, Chlorine and CaCl(OCl)

hypochlorite

Oxygen

Blue Vitriol

Copper sulphate

Copper, Sulphur and

CuSO4.5H2O

Oxygen

Caustic Potash

Potassium

Potassium Hydrogen, KOH

hydroxide

and Oxygen

Chalk

Calcium

Calcium, Carbon and

CaCO3

carbonate
Oxygen

Caustic Soda

Sodium hydroxide Sodium, Hydrogen and NaOH

Oxygen

Baking Soda

Sodium bicarbon- Sodium, Hydrogen,

NaHCO3

ate

Carbon and Oxygen

Common Salt

Sodium chloride

Sodium and Chlorine

NaCl

Epsom Salt

Magnesium sul-

Magnesium, Sulphur, MgSO4. 7H2O

phate

and Oxygen

Galena

Lead sulphide

Lead and Sulphur

PbS

Green Vitriol

Iron sulphate

Iron, Sulphur and


FeSO4. 7H2O

Oxygen

Glauber's salt

Sodium sulphate Sodium, Sulphur, Oxy- Na2SO4.10H2O

Gypsum

Calcium Sulphate gen and hydrogen

CaSO4.2H2O

dihydrate

Laughing gas

Nitrous oxide

Nitrogen and Oxygen

N2O

Lime water

Calcium hydroxide Calcium, Hydrogen,

Ca(OH)2

and Oxygen

Chemistry 89

Litharge

Lead monoxide

Lead and Oxygen

PbO

Plaster of Paris

Calcium sulphate Calcium, Sulphur, Hy- 2CaSO4.H2O

hemihydrate

drogen and Oxygen


Quartz

Sodium silicate

Sodium, Silica and

Na2SiO3

Oxygen

Quick lime

Calcium oxide

Calcium and Oxygen

CaO

Red lead

Triplumbic

Lead and Oxygen

Pb3O4

Sal ammoniac

Ammonium Chlo- Nitrogen, Hydrogen

NH4CI

ride

and chlorine

Soda ash or wash- Sodium carbonate Sodium, Carbon, Hy-

Na2CO3.10H2O

ing soda

drogen and Oxygen

Soda bicar bonate Sodium bicarbon- Sodium hydrogen,

NaHCO3

ate
Carbon and Oxygen

White vitriol

Zinc sulphate

Zinc, Sulphur, Hydro-

ZnSO4.7H2O

gen and Oxygen

Metals and Non-Metals

Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3) is used in jeweller's rouge.

There are two types of elements- metals Silver Iodide (AgI) is used for artificial
rain.

and non- metals.

FUELS

Metals

The substance, which produce heat and

Elements which are hard, ductile, brittle,

light on combustion are called fuels.

and malleable, possess lustre and conduct LPG (Liquified petroleum gas) is a
mixture of heat and electricity are termed metals.

hydrocarbons containing three or four carbon

Except Mercury and gallium, all metals

atoms, such as propane, butane and pentane.

are solid.

Coal

Non-Metals

Coal is made up of carbon.


Non metals are electronegative elements The common varieties of coal are which
have a tendency to gain one or more

anthracite, bitumen; lignite and peat.

electrons to form negative ions called

anions.

ACIDS, BASES AND PH SCALE

Non metals are non lustrous and bad Acids are chemical compounds that taste
conductors of heat and electricity.

sour, turn blue litmus red, and often react

Occurrence of Metals

with some metals to produce hydrogen gas.

Acids- HNO3, HNO2, H2SO4, H3PO4, H3PO3,

Minerals are naturally occurring chemical

H2CO3, etc.

compounds of fixed composition and Bases are chemical compounds that


characteristics. egs. silicates, oxides,

taste bitter, turn red litmus blue and feel

sulphides, and carbonates, etc.

slippery. Base: (NaOH), (Ca(OH)2), (KOH),

Uses of Some Metals and Non-

(RbOH), etc.

Metals Compounds

When aqueous (water) solutions of an acid

and a base are combined, a neutralization

Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) is called lunar

reaction occurs.
caustic and is used to prepare the ink used The pH of a solution measures the
hydrogen during voting.

ion concentration in that solution.

Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is used as Anything above pH 7 is alkaline, anything


an oxidishing agent, bleaching agent, as

below pH 7 is considered acidic.

an insecticide and for washing old oil Human blood pH should be slightly alkaline
paintings.

(7.35-7.45).

90 Chemistry

Sources of Some Naturally

PLASTICS AND POLYMERS

Occurring Acids

Plastics consist of very long molecules, each

Acid

Source

composed of carbon atoms linked into chains.

Polythene is composed of over 200000

Citric acid

Lemon, orange, grapes

carbon atoms.

Maleic acid

Unripe apple

Polymers are large long chain like

molecules formed by the chemical linking

Tartaric acid
Tamarind

of many smaller molecules.

Acetic acid

Vinegar

Some common man-made

Lactic acid

Milk

polymers and their uses

Hydrochloric acid

Stomach

Polymer

Use

Oxalic acid

Tomato

Polythene

Packaging material,

Acidic & basic nature of some

carry bags, bottles etc.

household substances

Polypropene

Bottles, Crates etc.

Acidic

Basic (Alkaline)

Polyvinyl chloride Pipes insulation

(PVC)
1. Bathroom acid

1. Milk of magnesia

(Antacids)

Nylon (Polyester)

Fibres, ropes etc.

2. Vitamin C tablets

Teflon

Nonstick kitchen wares

(Ascorbic acid)

2. Toothpaste

Vinyl rubber

Rubber erasers

3. Lemon juice

3. Soap solution or

detergent solution.

Polystyrene

Foam Thermocole

Poly (Styrene buta- Rubber bubble gum

4. Orange juice

4. Solution of washing

soda.

diene)

5. Tomato juice

5. Slaked lime & white

Bakelite
Electrical insulation

wash

buttons

6. Vinegar

Lexan

Bullet proof glass

Fizzy drinks

7. (Colas &

Melamine

Crockery

Sodawater)

RADIOACTIVITY

pH Value of some important

Radioactivity is discovered by French

substances

physicist Henry de Becquerel in 1896,

Sodium Hydroxide: Alkaline

14. 0

who observed that uranium mineral gave

Ammonia

11. 0

off invisible radiation.

Baking Soda

8. 3

Radiations are of three kinds: Alpha, Beta


Human Blood

7. 35 to 7.45

and Gamma

Pure Water: Neutral

7. 0

Alpha (a) Particle is positively charged

Milk: Acid

6. 6

helium atom

Tomatoes

4. 5

that has very little

Wine and Beer

4. 0

penetrating power.

Apples

3. 0

Beta (b) Particles These are negatively

Vinegar

2. 2

charged light particles.

Lemon Juice

2. 0

Gamma (g) Particles These are

Battery Acid
1. 0

electromagnetic radiations of low

Urine(Human)

5. 5 to 7. 5

wavelength, high frequency, and high energy.

Tears

7. 4

Electroplating

Sea water

8. 5

Milk (Cow)

6. 3 to 6. 6

It is a process of plating one metal onto

Coffee

5.0

another by electrolysis, most commonly

for decorative purposes or to prevent

Tooth paste

9.0

corrosion of a metal.

Chemistry 91

Types of electroplating capsopper plating, It is non-metal.

silver plating, and chromium plating, etc.

Its atomic number is 6 & mass is 12.

Carbon and Its Compounds


Allotropes

Allotropes are substances which have same

All organic compounds contain carbon, and

chemical properties but different physical

the vast majority also contains hydrogen

bonded to carbon.

properties.

Allotropes of Carbon

Diamond

Graphite

Amorphous Carbons

It is purest form of

It is called black lead

They are product of

carbon.

It is soft, dark grey

pyrolysis.

It is hardest natural

It is good conductor of

Pyrolysis is

substance.

electricity & heat.

the process of

It is highly

It is used in making pencils,


decomposing a

transparent

moderator in nuclear reactor,

substance on heating

It is bad conductor

Coal & Soot (carbon

of electricity & heat.

black) are the

It is used in jewellry

examples.

& industries.

GLASS

or preventing the growth of bacteria in

Glass is a mixture of an alkali silicate with the animal systems. For example
penicillin, silicate of a base, that is, silica, sodium silicate chloramphenicol etc.

and calcium or lead silicate.

Antibody : Kinds of substances formed in the

Type & Uses

blood, tending to inhibit or destroy harmful

(i) Milky Glass is used to the melt glass.

pathogens, etc.

(ii) Flint Glass, used in lenses, prisms.

Antigen : Substance capable of stimulating

(iii) Soda or Soft Glass is used for making formation of antibodies in a host. For
example bottles, window panes, etc.
bacteria, virus etc.

(iv) Potash Glass or Hard Glass is used for Antipyretic : A substance used to lower
body making beakers, flasks, funnel, etc.

temperature.

(v) Crown Glass is used for optical apparatus.

Sulphadrugs : Alternatives of antibiotics,

(vi) Crook's Glass is used for spectacles as sulphanilamide, sulphadiazine, Sulpha it


absorbs UV rays.

gunamidine.

(vii) Glass Laminates is used to make Antacids : Substances which neutralise the
windows and screens of cars, trains and

aircraft.

excess acid and raise the pH to appropriate

(viii) Jena Glass is used for making laboratory level in stomach are called antacids.

bottles, for keeping acids and alkalies.

Chloroform : A sweetish, colourless liquid. It is

used as a solvent and anaesthetic.

SOME CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Saccharin : A white crystalline solid which

AND THEIR USES

is 550 times sweeter than sugar, but does

Soaps and Detergents : Soaps are the sodium not have any food value. It is used by
diabetic or potassium salts of fatty acids.

patients.

Antibiotic : Medicinal compounds produced DDT : Dichloro diphenyl tricholoro


ethane, a by moulds and bacteria, capable of destroying white powder used as an
insecticide.

92 Chemistry
Branches of Science

Laryngology

study of larynx

Adenology

study of glands

Mastology

study of mammals or

mammary glands or

Angiology

study of blood flow and

breast diseases

lymphatic system

Meteorology

study of weather

Arthrology

study of joints

Myology

study of muscles

Barology

study of gravitation

Neonatology

study of newborn babies

Bromatology

study of food

Nephrology

study of the kidneys

Carpology

study of fruits and

seeds

Obstetrics

study of midwifery

Cetology

study of whales and

Odontology

study of teeth

dolphins

Oncology

study of tumours
Cosmology

study of the universe

Pathology

study of disease

Craniology

study of the skull

Dactylography

the study of fingerprints

Pharmacology

study of drugs

Demology

study of human

Physiology

study of processes of life

behaviour

Pyretology

study of fevers

Ecology

study of environment

Radiology

study of X-rays

Endocrinology

study of ductless glands

and their medical

Entomology

study of insects

applications.

Geology

study of earth's crust

Seismology

study of earthquakes

Hematology

study of blood

Hepatology

study of liver

Toxicology

study of poisons

Herpetology

study of reptiles and

Urology

study of urine; urinary

amphibians

tract

Hypnology

study of sleep; study of

Virology

study of viruses

hypnosis

Ichthyology

study of fish

Xylology

study of wood

Irenology

the study of peace


Zoiatrics

veterinary surgery

Kalology

study of beauty

Zoology

study of animals

Biology

INTRODUCTION

Cell wall is present in plants cell.

Cell membrane is composed of lipids.

Biology is the study of life and living organism, The function of plasma membrane is
the including their structure, function, evolution,

transport of the molecules across it.

distribution, identification and Taxonomy

Aristotle is often called the father of Ribosomes were first observed by Palade.

biology.

Ribosomes are present only in grandular

Leeuwenhoek invented a simple microscope

endoplasmic reticulum.

and studied living cells.

Except mammalian RBC all living cells have

Alexander Flemming discovered Penicillin.


ribosomes.

Gregor Johann Mendel discovered principles Nucleus is centrally located


spherical and of inheritance.

largest component of all eukaryotic cell.

Louis Pasteur proposed Germ theory of

Nucleolus is present in nucleus.

disease. He also proposed pasteurization Mitochondria are also called Powerhouse


for sterilization.

of cells. They are involved in energy

Robert Hooke assembled a compound

microscope and discovered cells in cork.

generation.

Charles Darwin is famous for the theory of Classification of Organism

Natural selection.

Most acceptable classification was given by

Hippocrates is considered to be the father

R. H. Whittaker (1969). These are Monera,

of western medicine .

protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia.

Edward Jenner is famous for creating the Study of genes is known as genetics.

first effective vaccine for smallpox- ( father

of immunology)

Gene is a segment of DNA and basic

William Watson (1909) introduced the

unit of heredity. These are located on


term Genetics.

chromosomes.

Watson and Crick gave the model of DNA.

DNA is found in nucleus, and also found in

In 1866 Ernst Haeckel coined word

mitochondria and chloroplast.

ecology

It stands for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

Camillo golgi discovered golgi body.

It is double stranded.

Salim Ali known as the birdman of India

It consists of Nitrogenous bases-Adenine,

Har Gobind Khorana is a biochemist

Thymine, Cytosine or Guanine, 5-carbon

who won the Nobel Prize in 1968 for

sugar and a phosphate molecule.

demonstrating how the nucleotides in RNA is single stranded. It consists of nucleic


acids control the synthesis of

phosphate, ribose sugar, nitrogenous bases-

proteins.

Adinine, Uracil, Cytosine, and Guanine.

CELLS

Mendel conducted cross hybridization

experiments on green pea plant ( Pisum

All living organism are constituted of


sativum).

structural and functional units called cells.

Mutation

Robert Hook coined the term cell in 1665.

Sudden change in the sequence of DNA is

Cells are grouped into tissues, tissues into

organ and organs into organ system.

known as mutation.

Sex Determination

Smallest cells- Mycoplasmas.

Largest isolated single cell- egg of an ostrich X and Y are the sex chromosomes
which

Prokaryotic is without nucleus.

are responsible for the determination of

It is found in bacteria, blue green algae,

sex. 46 chromosomes are present in human

mycoplasma.

body cell. In which 22 pairs of these are

The eukaryotic cells with nucleus occur in

autosomes & 23rd is sex chromosomes, ie.

all protists, fungi, plants and the animals.

x & y.

94 Biology

Digestion of Food

Name of the
Name of the enzymes

Substrate

End product

Digestive

juice

Saliva

Ptyalin (Salivary

Starch

Maltose

amylase)

Pancreatic

Amylopsin (pancreatic Starch,

Maltose and Glucose

juice

amylase)

Glycogen

Intestinal

Sucrase (invertase),

Sucrose; Maltose, Glucose and fructose,

juice

Maltase, Lactase

Lactose

Glucose, and galactose

Gastric Juice

Pepsin, Rennin
Proteins,

Proteoses and peptones,

Casein

Calcium caseinate

Pancreatic

Trypsin, Chymotrypsin, Proteins,

Proteoses and Peptides

Juice

Carboxyl peptidases

Peptides

Amino acid.

Intestinal

Amino peptidase,

Peptides

Amino acids

juice

Dipeptidase

Vitamin Required by the Body

Vitamin

Chemical

Function in Body

Deficiency Disease

Sources

Name

B1
Thiamine

Part of coenzyme for Beri-beri: nerve and Found in whole

pyrophosphate respiration

heart disorders

grain cereals, etc.

B2

Riboflavin

Part of coenzyme FAD Ariboflavinosis: skin Milk, yogurt, etc.

needed for respiration and eye disorders

B12

Cyanoco-

Coenzyme needed

Pernicious anaemia Animal products

balamin

for making red blood

etc.

cells, etc.

B5

Nicotinic

Part of coenzymes

Pellagra: skin, gut and Widespread in

acid (niacin) NAD, NADP used in

nerve disorders

foods.

respiration
C

Ascorbic acid Not precisely known Scurvy: degeneration Lemon, orange, etc.

of skin teeth and blood

vessels.

Retinol

Visual pigment,

Xeropthalmia: dry Milk, eggs, etc.

rhodopsin

eyes

Cholecalciferol Stimulates calcium

Rickets: bone

Found in dairy

absorption by small deformity

products, etc.

intestine, needed for

proper bone growth

Tocopherol

Not precisely known Infertility

Found primarily in

plant oils, green,

leafy vegetables, etc.

K
Phylloquinone Involved in blood

Possible haemorrage Green, leafy

clotting

vegetables, etc.

Biology 95

Minerals Required by the Body

Minerals

Source

Function

Sodium (Na) Table salt large amounts is present in for proper fluid balance, etc.

processed foods, etc.

Chloride

Table salt, large amounts is present for proper fluid balance, etc.

in processed foods, etc.

Potassium

Meats, milk, etc.

for proper fluid balance, etc.

Calcium

Milk and milk products, etc.

Important for healthy bones and teeth, etc.

Phosphorus

Meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, Important for healthy bones and teeth,

processed foods.

etc.

Magnesium
Nuts and seeds; etc.

Found in bones, etc.

Sulfur

Occurs in foods as part of protein, Found in protein molecules.

meats, etc.

Iron

Organ meats; etc.

found in red blood cells.

Iodine

Seafood, foods grown in iodine-rich Found in thyroid hormone.

soil, etc.

Protein Deficiency Diseases

Human Respiratory System

Marasmus is produced by a simultaneous

Human respiratory system consists of

deficiency of proteins and calories.

external nostrils, nasal cavity, nasopharynx,

Kwashiorkar is produced by protein

larynx, trachea, bronchiole and lungs.


deficiency.

Circulatory System

Respiratory System

These are of two types open circulatory

system and closed circulatory system.

The organ system which aids in the process of Generally present in arthopods and
respiration is called the Respiratory system.

molluscs.

Organs of Respiration in Animals

Annelids and chordates have a closed

circulatory.

Respiratory

Animals

The human heart beats at the rate of about

Organ

72-80 per minute in the resting condition.

Lungs

Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and

ECG stands for Electrocardiogram. It is

the graphic record of electronic current

Amphibians
produced by the excitation of cardiac

Gills

Fish, Crabs, Tadpole larva of Frog

muscles.

It is process of removal of undigested

Skin

Earthworm, Leech, Amphibians

wastes from the body.

Kidney plays a major role in the elimination

Trachea

Insects

of water waste in the form of urine.

Urine contains ammonia, urea, uric acid, etc.

Skeletal System

Human Skeleton (comprising 206 bones)

Axial Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

Skull

Vertebral Sternum

Ribs

column

Girdles

Limbs
96 Biology

Endocrine System : Hormones and their Action

S. No. Endocrine

Hormone

Action

gland

Pituitary Growth hormones, Regulates the growth of bone and tissue. Controls
(Master

Anti-diuretic

the amount of water reabsorbed by the water.

gland)

hormone Defending the body against physiological stress Adeno

e.g. exposure to cold. Follicle stimulating hormone

Corticotrophic

stimulates ovary to produce female hormone.

hormone

Pineal

Melatonin

Regulates, circadian and sexual cycle

Thyroid

Thyroxine

Regulates rate of growth and metabolism. Too lit-


tle-over weight and sluggishness. Too much-thin

and over active.

Thymus

Thymosin

Helps in production of lymphocytes

Adrenal

Cortisone

Aids in conversion of proteins to sugar, cortex of

this gland produces the hormone.

Pancreas

Insulin

Regulates sugar metabolism. Too little insulin leads

to high sugar level in blood and weakness (a condi-

tion called diabetes)

Ovary

Estrogen

Development of secondary sexual characters e.g.

development of breasts in female.

Testis

Testosterone
Development of many masculine features such as

growth of moustaches and beard

DISEASE AND DEFENCE

Common Lung Diseases

MECHANISM

Asthma

Bronchitis (Inflammation of the Bronchi)

Common Heart Diseases

Coronary artery disease or Arthro-

Common Brain Diseases

sclerosis :

Epilepsy: Epilepsy is a condition where a

Angina (angina pectoris)

person has recurrent seizures, abnormal

discharge of electrical activity in the brain

Heart Failure (congestive heart failure)

cells

Bacteria Diseases

Disease

Pathogen

Affected Organ

Symptom

Anthrax

Bacillus

Skin and intestine

Skinulcer, sore throat, nausea,

anthracis

fever, breathlessness

Cholera

Vibrio cholerae

Intestine

Vomiting, acute diarrhoea,

muscular cramps, dehydration etc.

Diphtheria

Corynebacterium Respiratory tract

Difficulty in respiration

diphtheriae

(mainly in child of age 2-5 yrs).

Leprosy or

Mycobacterium Chronic infection of


Ulcers, nodules, scaly scabs

Hansens disease leprae

skin and nerve

(the infected part of the body

becomes senseless).

Plague

Pasteurella,

Blood disease

High fever, weakness and

(i) Bubonic plague Yersinia pestis

haemorrhage which turn black.

Biology 97

(ii) Pneumonic

Lungs

Haemorrhage of bronchi, lungs.

plaque

Tetanus (lock jaw) Clostridium

Central nervous

Painful contraction of neck

tetani

system

and jaw muscles followed by

paralysis of thoracic muscles.

Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium Lungs
Repeated coughing, high fever.

tuberculosis

Whooping cough Bacillus pertussis Respiratory system

Continuous coughing.

or Pertussis

Pneumonia

Diplococcus

Lungs

Sudden chill, chest pain, cough,

pneumoniae

high fever.

Typhoid

Salmonella typhi intestine

High fever, diarrhoea and

headache.

Viral Diseases

Disease

Pathogen

Affected Part

Symptom

AIDS (Acquired HIV (Human Immuno White blood cells

Weak immune system.

Immuno

Deficiency Virus)

Deficiency
Syndrome)

Chicken pox

Vericella virus

Whole body

High fever, reddish eruption on

body

Small pox

Variola virus

Whole body

Light fever, eruption of blood

on body

Dengue fever

RNA containing

Whole body,

High fever, backache, headache,

dengue virus

particularly head, retro-orbital pain behind the

eyes and joints

eye ball.

Hepatitis

Hepatitis virus

Liver

Loss of appetite, nausea, whitish

(Epidemic

stool and jaundice.


Jaundice)

Not fatal

(i) Hepatitis - A Hepatitis - A virus

Fatal

(ii) Hepatitis - B Hepatitis - B virus

Herpes

Herpes virus

Skin

Swelling of skin.

Influenza (flu) Influenza virus

Whole body

Inflammation of upper

respiratory tract, nose throat

and eyes.

Measles

Rubella virus

Whole body

Loss of appetite, reddish

German

eruption on the body.

Polio or

Polio virus

Throat, backbone Fever, backbone and intestine

poliomyelitis

and nerve
wall cells are destroyed. It leads

to paralysis.

Rabies

RNA virus called

Nervous system

Encephalitis, fear of water, high

(hydrophobia) rabies virus

fever, headache, spasm of throat

and chest leading to death

Swine

H1N1 flu virus

Whole body

Headache, tiredness, sore throat,

influenza (flu)

(muscles)

vomiting, breathing problems.

98 Biology

Protozoan Diseases

Disease

Pathogen

Vector

Parts Affected and

(Causative

Symptoms

agent)
African trypano-

Trypanosoma

Tsetse fly (Glossina

Blood and nervous tissue.

somiasis

gambienes

palpalis)

Man feels sleepy, may cause

death.

Amoebic dysen-

Entamoeba

None, Infection by

Colon (intestine). Develop

tery (Amoebiasis)

histolytica

contamination

loose motion with blood,

pain in abdomen

Diarrhoea

Giardia

None, infection by

Digestive system causes

contamination

loose motions, vomitting

Filaria or el-
Wuchereria

Culex mosquito

Swelling of legs, testes and

ephantiasis

bancrofti

other body parts.

Kala azar or dum- Leishmania

Sand flies (Phlebo-

Spleen and liver enlarge and

dum fever

donovani

tomus)

high fever develops.

Malaria

Plasmodium sp.

Female Anopheles

Periodical attacks of high

mosquito

fever, pain in joints ac-

companied by chill, heavy

perspiration and fast pulse.

Fungal Diseases in Human Beings

Disease

Pathogen (fungi)

Symptoms
Asthma or aspergillosis Aspergillus fumigatus

Obstruction in the functioning of lungs.

Baldness

Tinea capitis

Hair fall

Athletes foot

Tinea pedis

Skin disease, cracking of feet.

Ringworm

Tricophyton Verrucosum

Round red spot on skin

Scabies

Acarus scabiei

Skin itching and white spot on the skin.

Blood

Neutrophils and monocytes are phagocytic

Blood is a liquid connective tissue.

cells (destroy foreign bodies)

Blood has a fluid matrix called plasma.

Basophils are involved in inflammatory

Plasma is a pale coloured fluid which

reactions.

contributes 55% of blood volume. Plasma Eosinophils are associated with allergic
contains 90 to 92 % of water.

reactions.
Blood corpuscles are of three types: Red Lymphocytes are responsible for
immune blood corpuscles (RBCs) ,white blood

response.

corpuscles(WBCs) and Blood platelets.

Platelets (thrombocytes) are responsible

RBCs are formed in the red bone-marrow,

for clotting of blood during accidents.

and lack nucleus.

For a healthy adult person the average

Life span of RBCs (Erythrocytes) is about

systolic/diastolic pressure is 120/80 mm

120 days.

of Hg in arteries near heart.

WBCs (Leueocytes) are responsible for The Rh factor is a type of protein on the
immunity.

surface of red blood cells. Most people who

WBCs are manufactured in bone marrow.

have the Rh factor are Rh-positive. Those

Biology 99

who do not have the Rh factor are Rh-

Universal Donor : O blood group person

negative.

can give blood to all the four blood groups

Karl Landsteiner (1900) discovered the

(O, A, B, and AB).


blood group in human.

Universal Recipient : AB blood group

There are four groups of blood A, B, AB

person can take blood from all the four

and O.

groups (AB, A, B, O).

Vaccines and their Doses

Age

Vaccination

Dose

Birth to 12

DPT (triple vaccine, against diptheria, Three doses (commonly oral) months

whooping cough/pertussis and tetanus)

at intervals of 4-6 weeks.

Polio (Sabins oral, previously Salks Three doses at intervals of 4-6

injectible)

weeks.

BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin)

Intradermal and one vaccine

8-24 months DPT

Booster dose

Polio (oral)

Booster dose

Cholera vaccine (can be repeated every One

year before summer)


9-15 months Measles vaccine (MMR or Measles, one dose

Mumps and Rubella)

5-6 years

DT (Bivalent vaccine against diphtheria Booster dose

and tetanus)

TAB (vaccine against Salmonella typhi,

S. paratyphi A and S paratyphi B) or Two doses at intervals of 1-2

Typhoid Paratyphoid vaccine

months

10 years

Tetanus, TAB (typhoid)

Booster dose

16 years

Tetanus, TAB

Booster dose

Vaccines and Inventors

Vaccine

Developed by

Country

Year

Small Pox

Edward Jenner

England

1796

Cholera
Louis Pasteur

France

1880

Diphtheria and

Emil Adolf Von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato Germany/

1891

Tetanus

Japan

TB Vaccine

Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin

France

1922

Polio Vaccine

Jonas E. Salk

US

1952

Oral Polio Vaccine Albert Bruce Sabin

US

1955

Measles Vaccine

John F. Enders, Thomas peeble

US

1953

Rabies Vaccine

Louis Pasteur
France

1885

Typhus Vaccine

Charles Nicolle

France

1909

Rubella Vaccine

Paul D.Parkman & Harry M. Meyer jr

1966

Scurvy vaccine

James Lind

1753

100 Biology

Medical Science Discoveries

Invention

Inventor

Year

Penicillin

Alexander Fleming (scotland)

1928

Anesthetic

William Morton

1846

Anthrax vaccine

Louis Pasteur
1881

Antiseptic

Joseph Lister (Scotland)

1867

Artificial heart

Denton Cooley

1969

Bacteria (discovered)

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

1674

Cholera and T.B. Germs

Robert Koch (Germany)

1883

Cholera vaccine

Louis Pasteur

1880

Contact lenses (glass)

Adolf Fick

1887

Corneal transplants

Eduard Zirm

1905

Cough drops

James Smith and sons

1847
Dental drill

George Fellows Harrington

1864

(motor-driven)

Disposable syringe

Colin Murdoch

1956

DNA (structure

Frances Crick, James Watson and Rosa- 1953

discovered)

lind Franklin

Electrocardiograph

Willem Einthoven

1903

Gas mask

Garrett Augustus Morgan

1912

Genetics

Johann Gregor Mendel

1865

Insulin (discovery)

Frederick Banting and Charles Best

1921

Iron lung

Philip Drinker
1929

Microscope

Hans Janssen

1590

(compound)

Morphine

Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner

1803

Pacemaker (human)

Wilson Greatbatch

1960 (first use)

Pasteurisation

Louis Pasteur

1864

Pathology

Giovanni Battista Morgagni

1761

Penicillin

Alexander Fleming

1928

Stethoscope

Ren Lannec

1819

Thermometer (medical)

Thomas Allbutt
1866

X-rays

Wilhelm Roentgen

1895

Ecology

& Environment

Ecology is the branch of biology deals with the The IUCN Red List of Threatened
Species

relations and interactions between organisms

provides taxonomic, conservation status

and their environment, including other

and distribution information on plants,

organisms.

fungi and animals.

Ecosystem

Red Data Book

A Red Data Book contains lists of species

An ecosystem is a functional unit of nature whose continued existence is threatened.

consisting of abiotic and biotic factors, By the end of 2014 India had 988 threatened
where the living organisms interact among species on the list, which lists.

themselves and also with their physical Indian elephant, Bengal tiger, Indian lion,

environment (abiotic factors).

Indian Rhino, Gaur, lion tailed macaque,

Tibetan Antelope, Ganga river dolphin, the

Biodiversity & Wildlife of India


Nilgiri Tahr, snow leopard, dhole, black buck,

Biodiversity mean diversity of heterogeneity at great Indian bustard, forest owlet,


white

all levels of biological organisation, i.e from Micro winged duck and many more are
the most molecules of the cells to the Biomass. The word endangered animals in
India.

Biodiversity was popularized by the sociologist CITES

Edward Wilson.

Convention on International Trade in

As per available data, the varieties of species

Endangered species (CITES) was signed in

living on the earth are 1753739. Out of the

1975 in Washington.

above species, 134781 are residing in India. Roughly 5,600 species of animals and
Wild life Institute of India has divided it into

30,000 species of plants are protected by

ten biogeographical regions and twenty five

CITES against over-exploitation through

biotic provinces.

international trade.

IUCN at a Glance

National Biodiversity Authority

It was founded in 1948 as the worlds first The NBA is a body corporate established
in global environmental organisation.

accordance with the provisions of Sec.8 of

The IUCN stands for The International the Biological Diversity Act, 2002, at
Chennai w.e.f. 1st October 2003. It is an autonomous,
Union for Conservation of Nature and statutory and regulatory organization which

Natural Resources. Now known as World is intended to implement the provisions of

Conservation Union (WCU).

Biological Diversity Act, 2002.

Biodiversity Conservtion

Biodiversity conservation

In-situ conservation

Ex-situ conservation

National Parks

Biosphere

Sacred

Zoos,

Seed Bank/

Sacred

and Sancturies

reserves

lakes and

Botanical Gardens, Gene bank

plants

forests

Arboreta and

(Cryopres

Aquaria

ervation)

Terrestrial
Marine

102

Ecology & Environment

Biosphere Reserves in India Area-wise

Name

State

Key Fauna

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Nilgiri tahr, lion-tailed macaque

Karnataka

Nanda Devi National Park &

Uttarakhand

Biosphere Reserve

Gulf of Mannar

Tamil Nadu

Dugong or sea cow

Nokrek

Meghalaya

Red panda

Sundarbans

West Bengal

Royal Bengal tiger

Manas

Assam

Golden langur, red panda


Simlipal

Odisha

Gaur, royal Bengal tiger, elephant

Dihang-Dibang

Arunachal Pradesh

Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve

Madhya Pradesh

Giant squirrel, flying squirrel

Achanakmar-Amarkantak

Madhya Pradesh,

Four horned antelope, Indian wild

Biosphere Reserve

Chhattisgarh

dog, Saras crane)

Great Rann of Kutch

Gujarat

Indian wild ass

Cold Desert

Himachal Pradesh

Snow leopard

Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve Sikkim

Snow leopard, red panda

AgasthyamalI Biosphere Reserve

Kerala, Tamil Nadu

Nilgiri tahr, elephants


Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve Andaman and Nicobar Saltwater crocodile

Islands

Dibru-Saikhowa

Assam

Golden langur

Seshachalam Hills

Andhra Pradesh

Panna

Madhya Pradesh

Tiger, chital, chinkara, sambhar

and sloth bear

National Parks

They are reserved for the betterment of wild life, both fauna and flora. In national
parks private ownership is not allowed. The grazing, cultivation, forestry, etc. is also
not permitted. The first national park of the world, Yellow stone, in U.S.A., was
founded in 1872.

Important state wise national parks of India

Jammu and Kashmir

- Dachigam, Salim Ali

Assam -

Kaziranga, Manas*

Meghalaya -

Nokrek

West Bengal

- Sunderbans

Bihar
- Hazaribagh, Palamau*

Uttaranchal

- Corbett* ( Hailey ), Nanda Devi, Valley of flowers, Rajaji

U. P.

- Dudhwa*

Gujarat

- Gir, Marine

Rajasthan -

Sariska*, Ranthambore*, Desert

Madhya Pradesh

- Kanha* , Sanjay, Madhav, Panna, Bandhavgarh*, Van Vihar, Fossil

Orissa -

Simlipal

Karnataka -

Bandipur*

Kerala -

Silent Valley, Periyar*

*These national parks are running Tiger Project also. (The maximum national parks
are present in Madhya Pradesh).

Ecology & Environment 103

Sanctuaries

In sanctuaries the protection is given to fauna only. The activity like harvesting of
timber, collection of forest products and private ownership rights are permitted so
long as they do not interfere with the well being of the animals. The important wild
life sanctuaries are: Chilka wild life sanctuary (Orissa), Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary
(Rajasthan), Sultanpur Bird sanctuary (Haryana) and Jalpara sanctuary (West
Bengal). Gir wild life sanctuary (Gujarat), Maximum sanctuaries belong to Andaman
and Nicobar.
Pollutants and their Effects

Sr.

No.

Pollutant

Origin

Effect

1.

Arsenic (As)

Coal, oil furnaces, glass Lung and skin cancer

factories

2. Cadmium (Cd)

Smelters, coals, oil furnaces Damage to lung, kidney, bones

3. Chlorine (Cl)

Chemical Industries, volcanic Causes irritation

activities

4. Carbon monoxide (CO) Motor vehicles, smelters, Starves body of oxygen, damages

coal steel plants

heart

5.

Fluoride (F)

Smelters, steel plants

Mottled teeth in children

6. Formaldehyde (HCHO)

Chemical plants

Allergenic, carcinogenic,
headaches, burning sensation

in the throat, and can aggravate

asthma symptoms

7. HCl (Hydrogen chloride)

Incinerators

Irritates eyes and lungs

8. Mercury (Hg)

Coal, smelters oil furnaces

Tremors, nerve troubles

9. Nitric acid (HNO3)

Formed from NO2 causes Respiratory diseases

acid rain

10. Nitrous acid (HNO3)

Formed from NO2 and Respiratory disease

water vapour

11. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) Refineries, Pulp mills

Nausea, irritates eyes

12. Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) Formed from SO2 in Respiratory diseases hydroxyl

sunlight with

ions

13. Nitric Oxide (NO)

Motor Vehicles, coal, oil Oxidizes to NO2

furnaces

14. Ozone (O3)

Ground level ozone formed Asthma, irritates eyes sunlight


from nitrogen oxides

from nitrogen oxides and

(NOx) and volatile organic hydrocarbons

compounds (VOCs)

15. Lead (Pb)

Motor vehicles, high smelters Brain damage

16. Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

Smelters Coal, Oil furnaces Irritates eyes, breathing problems

UNFCCC

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) entered


into force on 21 March 1994. Today, it has near-universal membership. The 195
countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention.

104

Ecology & Environment

Sustainable Development

India signed the International Convention

Initiatives of India

for the prevention of pollution of the sea by

the oil, 1954(London).

Constitution of the forest conservation act

1980.

Global Warming and Climate

Water (prevention and control of pollution) Change

Act 1974.

Greenhouse Effect- A greenhouse is an


Air(prevention and control of pollution

enclosure of glasses in which tropical plants

(Act 1981).

are grown during winters in areas of colder

Environment (protection) Act 1986.

climate. Heat trapped by the glass keeps the

The Wildlife Protection Act ,1972.

temperature inside the greenhouse much

India acceded to the Vienna convention

higher than the surrounding atmosphere. A

for the protection of the ozone layer, March

similar heating phenomenon occurs in the

1985.

atmosphere.

India signed the convention on the Greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon


Conservation of Migratory Species of

which keeps the earth warm at normal

wild animals (The Bonn Convention) in

level.

1979.

Greenhouse Gas

Chemical Formula

Anthropogenic Sources

Carbon dioxide

CO2
Fossil-fuel combustion, Land-use conversion,

Cement Production.

Methane

CH4

Fossil fuels, Rice paddies, Waste dumps.

Nitrous oxide

N2O

Fertilizer, Industrial processes, Combustion.

Tropospheric Ozone

O3

Fossil fuel combustion, Industrial emissions,

Chemical solvents.

CFC-12

CCL2F2

Liquid coolants, Foams.

HCFC-22

CCl2F2

Refrigerants.

Sulfur Hexaflouride

SF6

Dielectric fluid.

World Wide Fund for Nature

Promoting Indias ecological security,

It was set up in India in 1969


Conserving biological diversity,

Ensuring sustainable use of the natural

Its coordinating body the WWF international

resource base,

is located in Gland in Switzerland.

Minimum pollution,

It has five broad programme components.

Promoting sustainable lifestyle.

Art, Culture & Tourism

Culture plays an important role in the development of any nation. A country as


diverse as India is symbolized by the plurality of its culture.

India has one of the worlds largest collections of songs, music, dance, theatre, folk
traditions, performing arts, rites and rituals, paintings and writings that are known,
as the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) of humanity.

FAMOUS ART FORMS

Names

State of Origin

Materials Used

Patachitra

Raghurajpur Village in Puri district of Cloth fortified with tamarind paste, chalk

painting

Odisha

powder and gum and natural dyes.

Bengal pat

Bengal

Dye that are made of spices, earth, soot, etc.


painting

Madhubani

Madhubani (Bihar)

Mud coated wall, cloth paper

painting

Miniature

Developed during Mughal Period i.e. precious stones conch shells, gold and

painting

16th 19th century

silver

Tanjore art

Tanjore (Southern Tamil Nadu)

Semi-precious stones, glass and gold

Kalamkari

Golkonda and Chennai and

pens made of bamboo and natural

Masulipatnam area of Hyderabad

colours extracted from vegetables

Warli Painting North Sahyadri Range in India.

Rice paste, mix with Gum and Water Red

clay (Geru), cow dung, mud

Gond art

Gond Tribes of Central India.

Made on walls, ceilings and floors of

village houses
Famous indian painters

Rabindranath Tagore

7 May 1861 7 Aug 1941

Abanindranath Tagore

7 Aug 1871 5 Dec 1951

Amrita Sher-Gil

30 Jan 1913 5 Dec 1941

Jamini Roy

1 Apr 1887 24 Apr 1972

Francis Newton Souza

12 Apr 1924 -28 Mar 2002

S.H. Raza

22 Feb 1922 - 23 june 2016

Tyeb Mehta

25 Jul 1925 2 Jul 2009

Satish Gujral

25 Dec 1925 - Till date

Nandalal Bose

3 Dec 1882 16 Apr 1966

Manjit Bawa

1941-29 Dec 2008

M. F. Husain

17 Sep 1915 9 Jun 2011

Indian Music
The music of India includes multiple varieties of folk music, pop and classical music.
Indias classical music tradition, including Hindustani music and Carnatic, has a
history spanning millennia and developed over several eras. Music in India began as
an integral part of socio-religious life.

106

Art, Culture & Tourism

Legends of Indian music

Legends

Life Span

Forte

Awards

Pandit Ravi

7 April 1920 11 Sitar

Magsaysay award, Padma Vibhushan,

Shankar

Dec 2012

UNESCO International Music,

Pandit Hariprasad 1st July 1938

Bansuri

Sangeet Natak Academy, Padma Bhushan,

Chaurasia

Konark Samman, Yash,

Pandit Shivkumar 13-1-1938

Santoor

Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, Padma

Sharma
Vibhushan, Padma Shri

Ustad Amjad Ali

9-10-1945

Sarod

UNESCO Award, Padma Vibhusha,

Khan

Unicefs National Ambassadorship,

Ustad Bismillah

21-3-1913 to

Shehnai

Bharat Ratna, Fellow of Sangeet Natak

Khan

21-8-2006

Akademi, Padma Vibhushan

Ustad Zakir

9-3-1951

Tabla

P. Bhushan, Grammy, Sangeet Natak

Hussain

Akademi.

Pandit Bhimsen

4-2-1922 to 24- Indian classical Sangeet Natak Akademi P. Vibhushan,

Gururaj Joshi

1-2011

vocalist
Pandit Jasraj

28-1-1930

Indian classical P. Vibhushan, Sangeet Natak Akademi

vocalist

M. S. Subbulakshmi 16-7-1916 to

Classical

Sangeet Natak Akademi Ramon

11-12-2004

vocalist

Magsaysay, P. Vibhushan

Dr.

23 July 1947-

Classical,

Lifetime Achievement GiMA ISKCON,

Lakshminarayana

Carnatic,

Subramaniam

M.Balamurali

6 July 1930-

Carnatic music Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan,

Krishna

Bade Ghulam Ali

2 April 1902 Sarangi,

NA

Khan
25 April 1968

Indian dance

Odissi of Odisha, Kathak of Uttar Pradesh,

There are many types of dance forms in India Kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh and
Manipuri which are deeply religious in content to those of Manipur.

which are performed on small occasions. The THEATRES AND FILMS

Indian dances are broadly divided into Classical

dances and folk dances.

The rich Indian theater culture has its origin

The most popular classical dance styles of dates back in first century, CE, and started
and nurtured by the society as means of

India are Bharatnatyam of Tamil Nadu, expressing, communicating and sharing the
Kathakali and Mohiniattam of Kerala, ideas-opinions-emotions-believe of mankind.

Some of the Important Theatres of Modern India

Name

Founder

Year and Place of

People Associated with it

Establishment

National School of Ministry

Naseeruddin Shah, Irfan Khan,

Drama

of Culture,

1959, New Delhi

Anupam Kher, Nawazuddin

(Deemed University) Government of


Siddiqui, Pankaj Kapur, Himani

India.

Shivpuri and many more

Art, Culture & Tourism 107

Bhartendu Academy Padma Shri Raj

of Dramatic Arts

Bisaria.

1975, Lucknow,

Rajiv Jain, Raajpal Yadav,

Anupam Shyam

Theatre Arts

Workshop (TAW)

Raj Bisaria

1966, Lucknow

Hindi Films

Dal Lake:

Bollywood is the Hindi Language film industry The enchanting lake of Jammu and
Kasmir which is based in Mumbai, Maharashtra. bordered by ice covered mountains
from three

They are one of the largest film producers in sides is famous for its gardens, shikara
rides India and one of the largest centres of film and house boat stay.

production in the world. Raja Harishchandra Golden Temple:

(1913), by Dadasaheb Phalke, is known as Harmandir Sahib Gurudwara, is


commonly called the first silent feature film made in India.

The first Indian sound

as Golden Temple in Amritsar Punjab.


(talkie) film, Ardeshir Gateway of India:

Iranis Alam Ara (14 March 1931), was a

major commercial success. In 1937, Ardeshir It is made by British in 1914 in


Mumbai.

Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first colour Haji Ali Dargah: The very famous film
in Hindi, Kisan Kanya.

dargah (tomb) is located on an islet of the

coast of Worli in the Southern part of Mumbai

TOURISM

built in 1431 in the memory of a wealthy

merchant Sayyed Peer Haji Ali Shah Bukhari.

India has become a popular tourist destination Khajuraho Group of Monuments:

with thousands of people visiting different parts

It is a

of World each year. Major tourist destinations group of Hindu and Jain temples
situated in in India are the Himalayas, Agra, Jaipur,Goa, Madhya Pradesh.

Kerala, Delhi, Odisha and Maharshtra.

Mahabaleshwar: It is a vast magnificent

Famous Tourist Destination in India

plateau located at a distance of 120 km south

Akshardham Temple:

west of Pune with an average height of 1353

The 108 feet tall temple was built on 2nd, meters.

November 1992 in memory of Pramukh Taj Mahal: It is a white marble mausoleum


Swami in Gandhinagar district of Gujarat.

located on the southern bank of the Yamuna


Ajmer Sharif:

river inAgra, Uttar Pradesh. It was built by

It is sufi shrine dedicated to the sufi saint Shah Jahan in 1632 in the memory of his
Moinuddin Chishti. It is situated in Ajmer, loving wife Mumtaz Mahal.

Rajasthan.

Vaishno Devi Temple, Jammu Kashmir: The

Amarnath Cave:

temple is recognized as one of the Shakti Peeths

It is situated in Jammu and Kashmir

of goddess Durga. The holy shrine is situated in

Ajanta and Ellora Caves:

the folds of mighty Tirkuta Hills which attracts

They contain a cluster of Hindu and Jain lakhs of devotees from all parts of India and
temples along with cave monuments in.

abroad

TOURISM

Famous Tourist places of India

Site

Location

Founder

Aram Bagh

Agra (Uttar Pradesh)

Babur

Anand Bhawan

Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh)


Moti Lal Nahru

Adhai Din Ka Jhopra

Ajmer (Rajasthan)

Qutub-ud-din-Aibak

Ajanta Caves

Aurangabad

Gupta Rulers

Akbars Tomb

Sikandera (Uttar Pradesh)

Jahangir

Bibi ka Maqbara

Aurangabad (Maharashtra

Aurangzeb

Bharatpur Fort

Bharatpur (Rajasthan)

Raja Surajmal Singh

108

Art, Culture & Tourism

Bundi Fort

Bundi (Rajasthan)

Qutub-ud-din-Aibak

Bada Imambada

Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh)

Nawab Asaf-ud-daulah

Belur Math
Kolkata

Swami Vivekanand

Botanical Garden

Shilbpur (West Bengal)

Chhatra Mahal

Bundi Fort

Rani Chhatrasal

Chenna Keshab Temple

Belur (Karnataka)

Vishnu Vardhan

Char Temple

Konark (Odisha)

Narasing Dev I

Chasma-Shahi

Jammu and Kashmir

Ali Mardan Khan

Charar-e-Sarif

Srinagar (Kashmir)

Jainul Abedin

Chhota Immbada

Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh)

Mohammad Ali Shan

Cochin Fort

Kerala
Portuguese

Dewan-e-khas

Agra Fort (Uttar Pradesh)

Shah Jahan

Dilwara Jain Temple

Mount Abu (Rajasthan)

Vastu Pal Tejpal

Deeg Palace

Deeg (Rajasthan)

Raja Badan Singh

Dhar Fort

Dhar (Madhya Pradesh)

Mohammad Bin Tughlaq

Etamad-ud-daulahs Tomb Agra (Uttar Pradesh)

Noor Jahan

Ellora Caves

Aurangabad

Rashtrakuta Dynasty

Elephanta Caves

Mumbai

Rashtrakutas

Fatehpur Sikri

Agra (Uttar Pradesh)

Akbar

Firoz Shah Kotla


Delhi

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

Fort William

Kolkata

Lord Clive

Fateh Sagar

Udaipur (Rajasthan)

Maharana Fateh Singh

Gateway of India

Mumbai

British Government

Golconda Fort

Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh)

Qutubshahi Dynasty

Gol Ghar

Patna (Bihar)

British Government

Humayuns Tomb

Delhi

Hameeda Bano Beghum

Hauz Khas

Delhi

Ala-ud-din-khilji

Hajratbal Masjid

Srinagar (Kashmir)
-

Harmandir Sahib

Patna (Bihar)

Maharaja Ranjit Singh

Junagarh

Bikaner (Rajasthan)

Raja Jai Singh

Jama Masjid

Delhi

Shah Jahan

Jantar-Mantar

Delhi and Jaipur

Sawai Jai Singh

Jodhpur Fort

Jodhpur (Rajasthan)

Rao Jodha Ji

Jaku Temple

Kolkata

Rani Ras Moni

Jagannath Temple

Pur (Odisha)

Chola Gang Dev

Jama Masjid

Agra (Uttar Pradesh)

Shah Jahan
Khas Mahal

Agra (Uttar Pradesh)

Shah Jahan

Kankaria Lake

Ahmedabad

Sultan Qutub-ud-din

Khirki Masjid

Delhi

Ghiyas-ud-din-Tughlaq

Kandaria Mahadev

Khajuraho (Madhya Pradesh)

Chandela Kings

Kanheri Caves

Mumbai

Buddhists

Laxman Temple

Chhatarpur (Madhya Pradesh) Chandela Rulers

Laxmi Narayan Temple

Delhi

Birla Family

Art, Culture & Tourism 109

Laxman Jhula

Rishikesh (Uttarakhand)

Moti Masjid
Agra Fort (Uttar Pradesh)

Shah Jahan

Moti Masjid

Delhi Fort

Aurangzab

Mrignayani Palace

Gwalior (Madhya Pradesh)

Raja Man Singh Tomar

Madan Palace

Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh)

Raja Madan Shah

Mecca Masjid

Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) Kuli Kutab Shah

Nahargarh Fort

Jaipur (Rajasthan)

Raja Jai Singh

Nishaat Bagh

Jammu and Kashmir

Asaf Ali

Nakhuda Masjid

Kolkata

Old Forst (Purana Quila)

Delhi

Sher Shah Suri


President House

Delhi

British Government

Pichhola Lake

Udaipur (Rajasthan)

Pathar ki Masjid

Patna (Bihar)

Parvez Shah

Padari Ki Haveli

Patna (Bihar)

Father Capuchin

Patthar Ki Masjid

Jammu and Kashmir

Noor Jahan

Prince of Wales Museum

Mumbai

George V

Rani Ki Badi

Bundi (Rajasthan)

Rani Nathvati

Red Fort

Delhi

Shah Jahan

Sheesh Mahal
Agra (Uttar Pradesh)

Shah Jahan

Safdarjung ka Maqbara

Delhi

Shuja-ud-daulah

Sabarmati Ashram

Ahmedabad

Mahatma Gandhi

St Geogre Fort

Chennai (Tamil Nadu)

East India Company

Shalimar Bagh (Garden)

Srinagar (Kashmir)

Jahangir

Sunset Point

Mount Abu (Rajasthan)

Sher Shani Masjid

Patna (Bihar)

Parvez Shah

Sher Shahs Tomb

Sasaram (Bihar)

Islam Shah Suri, Son of Sher Shah

Taj Mahal

Agra (Uttar Pradesh)


Shah Jahan

Tughlakabad

Delhi

Ghiyas-ud-din-Tughlaq

Umaid Palace

Jodhpur (Rajasthan)

Maharaj Ummed Singh

Vijay Stambh

Chittorgarh (Rajasthan)

Rana Kumbha

Victoria Memorial

Kolkata

Vishnupad Temple

Gaya (Bihar)

Rani Ahilya Bai

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE

SITES IN INDIA

1985

Manas Wildlife Sanctuary,

Bharatpur (Rajasthan)

Year of

Sites

1985

Kaziranga National Park


Inclusion

(Aassm)

1983

Ajanta Caves (Maharashtra)

1985

Keoladeo National Park

Bharatpur (Rajasthan)

1983

Ellora Caves (Maharashtra)

1986

Churches in Goa (Goa)

1983

Taj Mahal (Uttar Pradesh)

1986

Khajuraho Temples (Madhya

1983

Agra Fort (Uttar Pradesh)

Pradesh)

1984

Sun Temple Konark (Odisha

1986

Fatehpur Sikri (Utter

1985

Mahabalipuram Temples

Pradesh
(Tamil Nadu)

1986

Hampi Temple (Karnataka)

110

Art, Culture & Tourism

1987

Sunderbans National Park

2004

Airavatesvara Temple,

(West Bengal)

Darasuram

1987

Elephants Caves

2004

Champaner-Pavagadh

(Maharashtra)

Archaeologicatl Park

1987

Pattadakal Temples

(Gujarat)

(Karnataka)

2005

Valley of Flowers

1988

Nanda Devi National Park


(Uttarakhand)

(Uttarakhand)

2005

Nilgiri Mountain Railway

1989

Sanchi Stupa (Madhya

(Tamil Nadu)

Pardesh)

2007

Red Fort (Delhi)

1993

Humayuns Tomb (Delhi)

2008

Kalka-Shimla Railway

1993

Qutub Minar (Delhi)

(Himachal Pradesh)

1999

Darjeeling Himalayan

2010

Jantar Mantar, Jaipur

Railway (West Bengal)

(Rajasthan)

2002

Mahabodhi Temple (Bodh


2012

Western Ghat

Gaya) (Bihar)

2013

Hill forts of Rajasthan

2003

Rock Shelters of Bhimbetaka

(Madhya Pradesh

2014

Rani ki Vav (Gujarat)

2004

Brihadeshwara Temple

2014

Great Himalayan National

(Gangaikondacholapuram,

Tamil Nadu)

Park (Himachal Pradesh)

HANDICRAFTS

India has got international acclamation in terms of its beautiful and creative
handicrafts. Given below are the states with diversified crafts.

State

Handicrafts

Odisha

Weaving craft, palm leaf writing, patachitra- the chitrakars foray, applique, stone

carving, metal craft,


Delhi

Zardozi, lacquer work, clay and paper made dolls

Maharastra Paithani saris, sawantwadi crafts, warli paintings, kolhapuri chappals,


narayan peth West Bengal Leather craft, brass & bell metal, pottery, mat making,
dhokra metal casting, cane

& bamboo, fine arts, clay dolls, horn work, jute products.

Gujrat

Bead-work, jewellery, inlay work, embroidery, wood carving,

Rajasthan

Tie-and-dye textiles, hand block printing, quilting, jewellery,

Himachal

Jewelry, leather craft, woodcarving, architecture, kangra paintings

Pradesh

Goa

Pottery & Terracotta, Brass metal ware, Crochet & Embroidery, Fiber Craft, Jute
Macrame Craft, carving, sea shell craft

Andhra

Priceless Pearls

Pradesh

Karnataka

Woodcarving, Ivory carving

Jharkhand

Wood craft, paitkar paintings, metal work, stone carving, ornaments, toy making

Manipur

Wood carving, textile weaving, stone-carving, block printing, kauna (water reed)

mat, hand-embroidery
Jammu &

Carpets, Basket Weaving, Namdas, pashmina shawls, Papier-Mchie, Leather and

Kashmir

fur, wood carvings

Art, Culture & Tourism 111

Top Ten Monuments With Highest foreign visitors in india

Monuments

No. of Foreign Visitors

% age share

1. Taj Mahal, Agra

695702

23.2

2. Agra Fort, Agra

363823

12.1

3. Qutub Minar, Delhi

307043

10.2

4. Humayuns Tomb, Delhi

276641

9.2

5. Fatehpur Sikri, Agra

255129

8.5

6. Red Fort, Delhi


141498

4.7

7. Mattancherry place Museum, Kochi

104717

3.5

8. Western Group of Temple, Khajuraho

89511

3.0

9. Excavated site, Sarnath

85991

2.9

10. Group of Monuments, Mamallapuram

70840

2.4

INDIAN FILM INDUSTRY

Irani was the father of the talkie. The first talkie

India is the largest producer of films in the films in Bengali (Jumai Shasthi), Telugu
(Bhakta world and second oldest film industry in the Prahlad) and Tamil (Kalidass)
were released in world which originated around about 103 the same year.

years ago. It was in early 1913 that an Indian Largest film industry in India is the
Hindi film received a public screening. The film was film industry mostly
concentrated in Mumbai Raja Harischandra. Its director, Dadasaheb (Bombay), and
is commonly referred to Phalke. By the mid 1920s, Madras had become as Bol
ywood. Kochi and Kolkata are

the epicentre for all film related activities. commonly referred to as


Tollywood(Telugu), Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu, SS Vasan, AV Kollywood(Tamil),
Sandalwood(Kannada),

Meiyappan set up production houses in Madras Mollywood(Malayalam),


Tollywood(Bangla).
to shoot Telugu and Tamil films.

The largest film studio complex in the world

is Ramoji Film City is located at Hyderabad ,

The silent era came to an end when Ardeshir India, which was opened in 1996 and
measures Irani produced his first talkie, Alam Ara in 674 ha (1,666 acres).
Comprising 47 sound 1931. If Phalke was the father of Indian cinema, stages.

Communication,

Transport, News & Media

COMMUNICATION

Post Office

The Department of Posts was founded in India on 1st April, 1774.

This department serves as an agent of Govt.

Quick Facts

Founder of Telegraph and Postal

: Governor General Lord

System in India

Dalhousie

First General Post Office opened in India

: 1774 (Kolkata)
First postage stamp of India

: Sinde Dawk (1852)

Pin system started in India

: 1972

The First Indian Post Office Outside India

: Dakshin Gangotri in Antarctica (1983), Indian

Territory

Speed Post started in India

: 1986

Money Order System

: 1880

Postal Life Insurance started

: 1884

Postal Staff College situated at

: Ghaziabad (UP)

World Postal Day is observed on

: 9th October

Indian Postal Day is observed on

: 10th October

TELECOMMUNICATION

it creates a communication channel between

Communication technology uses channels to


a source transmitter and a receiver(s) at

transmit information (as electrical signals),

different locations on Earth.

either over a physical medium (such as signal

Communications satellites are used for

cables), or in the form of electromagnetic

television, telephone, radio, internet, and

waves.

military applications.

The Telecommunications system in India is

TRANSPORT

the 2nd largest in the world. The construction

of 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of telegraph lines Indian Road Network

was started in November 1853.

Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a

India has a road network of over approx.

channel access method used by various radio


4,689,842 kilometers.

The Central Government is responsible for

communication technologies.

development and maintenance of the National

4G, is the fourth generation of mobile

Highways system.

telecommunications technology, succeeding

The Ministry carries out development and

3G.

maintenance work of National Highways

COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE

through three agencies. viz. National

Highways Authority of India (NHAI), State

A communications satellite is an artificial

Public Works Department (PWDs) and Border

satellite that relays and amplifies radio

Road Organization (BRO).

telecommunications signals via a transponder;

Quick Facts
Categories

Dimensions in Kms

Responsible Authority

(up to 2011)

National Highways

92,851

Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (Central

government)

Communication, Transport, News & Media 113

State Highways

1,63,898

State governments (States public works department)

Major and Other

District Roads

17,05,706

Local governments, Panchayats and Municipalities

Rural Roads

27,49,805

Local governments, Panchayats and Municipalities

National Highways Development

Central (CR)

3905 Mumbai

Projects

Western (WR)

6182 Mumbai
Golden Quadrilateral : It comprises construction

of 5,846 km long 4/6 lane, high density traffic

Eastern (ER)

2414 Kolkata

corridor, to connect Indias four big metro cities

Northern (NR)

6968 Delhi

of Delhi-Mumbai-Chennai and Kolkata.

North-South and East-West Corridors: North-

North Eastern (NER) 3667 Gorakhpur

South corridor aims at connecting Srinagar in

South Eastern (SER) 2631 Kolkata

Jammu and Kashmir with Kaniyakumari in Tamil

Nadu (including Kochchi-Salem Spur) with 4,076

Northeast Frontier

km long road. The East-West Corridor has been

(NFR)

3907 Maligaon

planned to connect Silchar in Assam with the

South Central (SCR) 5951 Secunderabad

port town of Porbandar in Gujarat with 3,640

East Central (ECR)

3628 Hajipur

km of road length.

North Western
Important National Highways

(NWR)

5459 Jaipur

NH

Connects

East Coast (ECoR)

2677 Bhubaneswar

NH 1

New Delhi-Ambala-Jalandhar-

Amritsar

North Central (NCR) 3151 Allahabad

NH 2

Delhi-Mathura-Agra-Kanpur-

Allahabad-Varanasi-Kolkata

South East

NH 3

Agra-Gwalior-Nasik-Mumbai

Central(SECR)

2447 Bilaspur

NH 4

Thane and Chennai via Pune and

South

Belgaum

Western(SWR)

3177 Hubli
NH 5

Kolkata-Chennai

NH 6

Kolkata-Dhule

West Central (WCR) 2965 Jabalpur

NH 7

Varanasi-Kanyakumari

NH 8

Delhi-Mumbai (via Jaipur, Boroda

TOP TEN COUNTRIES WITH

& Ahmedabad)

NH 9

Mumbai-Vijaywada

LONGEST RAIL NETWORK IN

NH 10 Delhi-Fazilka

THE WORLD

NH 24 Delhi - Lucknow

Rank

Country

Route Km.

NH 26 Lucknow-Varanasi

1. USA

250000

Indian Railways

2. China
100000

Indian Railways is a state-owned enterprise

3. Russia

85500

and one of the worlds largest railway

networks comprising 115,000 km of track

4. India

65000

over a route of 65,808 km and 7,112 stations.

5. Canada

48000

It was founded on April 16, 1853.

6. Germany

41000

Indian Railways Zones and their

7. Australia

40000

Headquarters

8. Argentina

36000

Route

Name

Headquarters

9. France

29000
(km)

10. Brazil

28000

Southern (SR)

5098 Chennai

114

Communication, Transport, News & Media

Bangaluru Metro: Bengaluru Metro also JRD Tata was the first licensed pilot of
known as Namma Metro is recently started

Federation aeronautique International

rapid transit rail system in the Bengaluru city

on behalf of the Aero Club of India and

of Karnataka.

Burma.

Jaipur Metro: The pink city of Rajasthan is got Prem Mathur became the first female
its first metro line of 9.2 km from Mansarovar

commercial pilot to start flying for

to Chandpole Bazaar in November 2010.

Deccan Airways, as she obtained her

AVIATION INDUSTRY

commercial pilots licence in 1947.

Air transport in India made a beginning in

5/20 rule : The rule allows an Indian

1911 when airmail operation commenced

carrier to fly abroad only after it has com-


over a distance of 10 km between Allahabad

pleted five years of domestic operations and

and Naini. The Airport Authority of India was

maintains a fleet of 20 aircrafts.

constituted in 1972.

BUSIEST AIRPORTS IN INDIA

Rank

Name

City

State

IATA Code

1.

Indira Gandhi International Airpot

Delhi

Delhi

DEL

2.

Chhatrapati Shivaji International

Mumbai

Maharashtra

BOM

Airport

3.

Kempegowda International Airport

Bangalore Karnataka
BLR

4.

Chennai International Airport

Chennai

Tamil Nadu

MAA

5.

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

Kolkata

West Bengal

CCU

International Airport

6.

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

Hyderabad Telangana

HYD

7.

Cochin International Airport

8.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Ahmedabad Gujarat

AMD

Airport

9.

Pune International Airport

Pune
Maharashtra

PNQ

10. Goa International Airport

Dabolim

Goa

GOI

WATER WAYS

India has 14,500 km of navigable waterways. At present, 5,685 km of major rivers


are navigable. The Inland Waterways Authority was set up in 1986.

NATIONAL WATERWAYS OF INDIA

Waterways

Stretch

Specification

NW 1

Allahabad-Haldia

It is divided into three parts for

stretch (1,620 km)

developmental purposes (i) Haldia- Farakka

(560 km), (ii) Farakka-Patna (460 km), (iii)

Patna- Allahabad (600 km).

NW 2

Sadiya-Dhubri stretch

Brahmaputra is navigable by steamers up

(891 km)

to Dibrugarh (1,384 km) which is shared by


India

and Bangladesh.

NW 3

Kottapuram-Kollam

It includes 168 km of west coast canal

stretch (205 km).

along with Champakara canal (23 km) and

Udyogmandal canal (14 km).

Communication, Transport, News & Media 115

NW 4

Specified streches of Godavari and

Krishna rivers along with Kakinada

Puducherry stretch of canals (1078 km)

NW 5

Specified

stretches

of

river

Brahmani along with Matai river,

delta channels

of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers

and East Coast canals (588km).

PORTS

Maharashtra (48) has the maximum and

Gujarat (42) and Andaman & Nicobar Islands


Indian coastline is about 7516.6 kilometers (23).

and it is one of the biggest peninsulas in The Coastal States in India are Andhra
Pradesh, the world. It is serviced by 12 major ports, Odisha, West Bengal, Tamil
Nadu, Kerala, 200 notified minor and intermediate ports. Karnataka, Goa,
Maharashtra and Gujarat.

Name of the Port

Coast

State

Kandla

Western Coast

Gujarat

Mumbai

Western Coast

Maharashtra

Jawaharlal Nehru

Western Coast

Maharashtra

Mormugao

Western Coast

Goa

Manglore

Western Coast

Karnataka

Kochi

Western Coast

Kerala
Haldia

Eastern Coast

West Bengal

Paradip

Eastern Coast

Odisha

Vishakapatnam

Eastern Coast

Andhra Pradesh

Chennai

Eastern Coast

Tamil Nadu

Ennore

Eastern Coast

Tamil Nadu

Tutikorin

Eastern Coast

Tamil Nadu

Facts about Ports of

Tuticorin Port is an artificial deep-sea

Kandla Port is located on the Gulf of Kutch.


harbour of India.

Mumbai Port is the biggest port in our

country.

NEWS & MEDIA

Mormugao Port is the leading iron ore

exporting port of India.

Newspaper

New Mangalore Port is an all weather port.

Newspaper is the print media which prints

Paradip Port is an artificial and deep-water information, activities and daily


occurrences port.

around us. It was introduced in 1780.

Jawaharlal Nehru Port is the largest

container port in India.

Quick facts
Event

Publishing

Name of the Publication

Year

Bengal Gazette (also Calcutta General

Advertiser), weekly

1780, Calcutta Started by James Augustus Hicky (Irishman)

India Gazette

1787, Calcutta Henry Louis Vivian Derozio associated with it

116

Communication, Transport, News & Media

Madras Courier (First paper from

Madras)

1784, Madras

Bombay Herald (First paper from

Bombay)

1789, Bombay

Indian Herald (in English

1795, Madras Started by R. Williams (Englishman and

published by Humphreys

Digdarshana (First Bengali monthly 1818, Calcutta

Calcutta Journal

1818

Started by J.S. Buckingham


Bengal Gazette (First Bengali

newspaper)

1818, Calcutta Harishchandra Ray

Sambad Kaumudi (Weekly in

Bengali)

1821

Raja Rammohan Roy

Mirat-ul-Akbar (First journal in

Persian

1822, Calcutta Raja Rammohan Roy

Jam-i-Jahan Numah (First paper in

Urdu)

1822, Calcutta An English firm

Banga-Duta (a weekly in four

languages-English, Bengali, Persian, 1822 Calcutta Rammohan Roy, Dwarkanath


Tagore and Hindi)

others

Bombay Samachar (First paper in

Gujarati)

1822 Bombay

East Indian (daily)

19th century Henry Vivian Derozio

Bombay Times (from 1861 onwards,

The Times of India)

1838, Bombay Foundation laid by Robert Knight, started


by Thomas Bennett.

Rast Goftar (A Gujarati fortnightly) 1851

Dadabhai Naoroji

Hindu Patriot

1853, Calcutta Girishchandra Ghosh (later, Harishchandra

Mukerji became owner-cum-editor)

Somaprakasha (First Bengali political

paper)

1858, Calcutta Dwarkanath Vidyabhushan

Indian Mirror (fortnightly-first Early

1862,

Indian daily paper in English

Calcutta

Devendranath Tagore

Bengalee (this, and Amrita Bazar

Patrikathe

first

vernacular 1862, Calcutta Girishchandra Ghosh (taken over by S.N.

papers)

Banerjea in 1879)

National Paper

1862, Calcutta Devendranath Tagore

Madras Mail (First evening paper

in India

1868 Madras
Amrita Bazar Patrika (Bengali in the 1868, Jessore

beginning, later English, a daily)

District

Sisirkumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh

Bangadarshana (in Bengali)

1873 Calcutta Bankimchandra Chatterji

Indian Statesman (later, The

Statesman)

1875, Calcutta Started by Robert Knight

The Hindu (In English) started as

weekly

1878, Madras G.S. Aiyar Viraraghavachari and Subba Rao

Pandit (among the founders)

Tribune (daily)

1881, Lahore Dayal Singh Majeetia

Kesari (Marathi daily) and Maharatta

Tilak, Chiplunkar, Agarkar (before Tilak

(English weekly)

1881, Bombay Agarkar and Prof Kelkar were the editors

respectively)

Communication, Transport, News & Media 117

Swadeshamitram (A Tamil Paper)

Madras

G.S. Aiyar

Paridasak (A weekly)
1886

Bipin Chandra Pal (Publisher)

Yugantar

1906, Bengal Barindra Kumar Ghosh and

Bhupendranath Dutta

Sandhya

1906 Bengal

Brahmabandhab Upadhyay

Kal

1906,

Maharashtra

Indian Sociologist

London

Shyamji Krishnavarma

Bande Mataram

Paris

Madam Bhikaji Cama

Talvar

Berlin

Virendranath Chattopadhyay

Free Hindustan

Vancouver

Taraknath Das

Ghadr

San Francisco Ghadr Party


Reshwa

Before 1908

Ajit Singh

Bombay Chronicle (a daily)

1913, Bombay Started by Pherozeshah Mehta, Editor-B.G.

Horniman (Englishman)

The Hindustan Times

1920, Delhi

Founded by K.M. Panikkar as part of the

Akali Dal Movement

The Milap (Urdu daily)

1923 Lahore Founded by M.K. Chand

Leader (in English

Madan Mohan Malaviya

Kirti

1926, Punjab Santosh Singh

Bahishkrit Bharat (Marathi

fortnightly)

1927

B.R. Ambedkar

Kudi Arasu (Tamil)

1910

E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker (Periyar)

Kranti
1927,

Maharashtra S.S. Mirajkar, K.N. Joglekar, S.V. Ghate

Langal and Ganabani

1927, Bengal Gopu Chakravarti and Dharani Goswami

Bandi Jivan

Bengal

Sachindranath Sanyal

National Herald (daily)

1938

Started by Jawaharlal Nehru

Registrar of Newspapers is a statutory body Prasar Bharti is an autonomous body set


up of Government of India which is popularly by an Act of Parliament on 23 Nov,
1997.

known as RNI. It was established on 1st July All India Radio (AIR) or Akashwani was
1956.

formed in 1930 as a part of Prasar Bharti.

Press Trust of India (PTI) was incorporated Doordarshan was launched on 15


September, in Madras on, 27th August, 1947.

United News of India (UNI)

1959 as a part of Prasar Bharti with the motto

was founded

on December 1961under the company acts. Satyam Shivam Sundaram.

However its commercial application started

on 21st March 1961.

Healthcare

HEALTHCARE IN INDIA
National TB Control Programme

The expenditure on healthcare is very less, i.e. Launched in 1962 with an objective of
4% of the GDP and private parties have the eradication of the disease but till 1992
only dominance over the sector.

30% of the country had been covered.

National Tobacco

Health Sector In India

Control Programme

Launched in 2007 by the

Public

Private

Indigenous system

Voluntary health

Ministry of Health and

of Medicine

agencies

Family.

Rural

Private Hospital

Ayurveda and

Indian Red Cross

Sub Centers

Polyclinic

Siddha

Society
(SCs)

Nursing Homes

Unani

Hind Kusht

NATIONAL RURAL

Primary Health Dispensaries

Homeopath

Nivaran Sangh

Centres (PHCs)

General

Un-registered

Indian council for

HEALTH MISSION

Community

Practitioners and

Practitioners

child Welfare

(NRHM)

Health Centres

clinics

Tuberculosis

(CHCs)

Association of

Launched on 5th April,2005.

Urban
India, etc

District

Bharat Sevak

Creation of cadre of

Hospitals

Samaj

Accredited Social Health

Teaching

Activist (ASHA)

Hospitals

Mainstreaming AYUSH

(Indian System of Medicine)

NATIONAL HEALTH

Swachh Bharat Abhiyan

PROGRAMMES

It was launched by Prime Minister Narendra

AIDS Control Programme

Modi on 2nd October 2014, covering 4041

statutory towns with the purpose to clean

A division of Ministry of Health and Family


the streets, roads and infrastructure of the

Welfare,was established in 1992 to prevent

and control HIV/AIDS.

nation.

National Bal Swachhta Mission

Cancer Control

It was launched by the Union Government

Launched in 1975 for equipping the premier

on 14th November 2014, on the 125th birth

cancer hospital/institutions.

anniversary of Indias first prime minister

Pulse Polio Campaign (Do

Jawahar Lal Nehru.

Boond Zindegi Ke)

Its themes

1. Clean Anganwadis, Playgrounds, Clean

Initiated in 1978 the programme aimed at

Self, Food, Drinking Water, Toilets

preventing polio by vaccinating against the

disease. As a result India was declared Polio

YOGA and its Health Benefit

free in 2014.
YOGA is just a master stroke. Its an ascetic

National Leprosy Eradication

Hindu discipline which involves practices

Programme (NLEP)

like controlling breath with prescribed body

Launched in 1955 with an objective of position and meditation with an objective

eliminating leprosy with the use of Multidrug

to attain a state of deep spiritual insight

therapy (MDT) in phases.

and tranquility. These practices in turn

Eliminate Kala-azar

promote good health, fitness and control of

mind. Sage Patanjali was known to be the

A part of National Health Policy envisaged in

founder of this practice and the knowledge

2010 to eradicate the dreaded disease Kala-

he had given was known as Yoga Sutra. The

azar or Visceral Leishmaniasis, also known as

United Nations has declared June 21 as the

Black Fever and Dumdum Fever from India

International Day of Yoga.

by 2015.

Computers, IT &

Technological Innovation

COMPUTER
A computer is a device that accepts information (in the form of digitalized data)
and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions
on how the data is to be processed.

Father of computer : Charles Babbage

Classification of Computer

Size

Characteristics

Uses

Super

Largest, fastest, powerful and most Used for advanced scientific research

computers

expensive they also generate a lot such as nuclear physics.

heat.

Main

Less powerful and less expensive Used to handle all kinds of problems

frames

than super computers. They also whether scientific or commercial. I.e.

have a large storage capacity.

performing

complex

mathematical

calculations they are mostly found in

banks, hospitals, airports etc.

Mini

Smaller and less powerful than the Used in scientific laboratories, research
computers

main frame.

institutions, engineering plants and

places where processing automation is

required.

Micro

Smallest, cheapest and relatively Used to perform a variety of tasks

computers least powerful. Uses a micro including research, communication,


processor to process data. Examples banking, learning institutions, libraries

desktop, laptop and personal digital etc.

assistant (PDA).

PARAM is a series of supercomputers de-

length, pressure etc (all physical quantities) and

converts it into numerical values. These are used

signed and assembled by the Centre for De-

in scientific and engineering works.

velopment of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)

Hybrid computers: In hybrid computers digi-

in Pune, India. The latest machine in the se-

tal and analogue both types of computers are

ries is the PARAM Yuva II.

utilized. These are used in automatic operat-

Chinas vast Tianhe-2 is the fastest

ing devices like a versatile robot, in factories

supercomputer in the world.


and machines etc.

Facts Related to Computers

Digital computers : These computers do calcula-

tions digitally by allgebric addition. The special December 2 is observed as


Computer Lit-feature of these computers is accurate numerical

eracy Day.

First computer (made in India) is Sid-

calculations. These are used mainly in banking.

Analog computers:

dharth, which was manufactured by Elec-

It measures temperature,

tronics Corporation of India.

120

Computers, IT & Technological Innovation

First computer in India was installed in the (a) Random Access Memory: All active
pro-Main post office of Bangalore on August

grams and data are stored in RAM so that

16, 1986.

they may be available immediately and

First Computer University (in Private

readily accessed by CPU.

Sector) in India is Rajeev Gandhi Computer DRAM Dynamic Random Access University.

Memory

Bengaluru is also known as the Silicon Val-

ley of India.
SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic Access

First Indian News Paper to be available on

Memory

Internet is The Hindu.

(b) Read only memory (ROM): The data

First Indian magazine to be available on In-

stored in ROM cannot be changed. It keeps

ternet is India Today.

its contents even in the absence of power.

First Super Computer of the world is CRAY

K-1-S, developed by Cray K Company of

PROM Programmable Read Only

U.S.A.

Memory.

Deep Blue is a Super Computer which had

EPROM Erasable Programmable

defeated World Chess Champion Garry

Read Only Memory.

Kasparov.

First Electronic Digital Computer of the

EEPROM Electrically Erasable Pro-

world is ENIAC.

grammable Read Only Memory.

FORTRAN is the first Programming Lan-


Cache Memory is temporary Memory

guage.

which can be accessed much faster than

A computer error is known as Bug.

RAM. It is used to hold temporary data in

C-DAC (Centre for Development and Ad-

files.

vanced Computing) was established in

Pune in 1988.

Unit

Size

Components of a Computer

Bit

One binary digit

Input unit

Byte

Eight bits

It receives data and instructions from the

Word

16-64 bits

user.

It converts the instructions into machine

Nibble

4 bits

language.
Output unit

It sends converted instructions to CPU for

processing

It receives processed data from CPU.

It converts the output into simple

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

language. It displays results.

It performs processing works of computer.

It is considered as Brain of the computer.

Languages of Computer

It controls all the parts of computer.

There are various languages of the computer

The CPU consists of three components:

which are classified in three categories:

ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit)

(i) Machine language: In this language in-

It performs all arithmetic and logic operations.

structions have two parts operation code

It has two parts

and location code. Both are represented

(a) Arithmetic section It performs all

by binary codes i.e. 0 and 1.

complex arithmetic process.

(ii) Assembly language: The code used in

(b) Logic section It performs all logic op-


this language were easy to remember

erations like selecting and comparing of

like add for addition, sub for subtrac-

data etc.

tion etc. Both machine languages and

Control Unit- It controls the transfer of data

assembly languages are called low level

from the input device to memory and from

languages.

memory to ALU. It also transfers the results

from memory to output unit.

(iii) High level language: High level lan-

Memory- It holds the received data from in-

guages are very similar to other ordinary

put device temporarily/permanently it is of

languages which are spoken and written

two types:-

by people.
Computers, IT & Technological Innovation 121

Hardware

Software

Cloud Computing It is a new technology

Software, or program, enables a computer to

for internet services, under which the user

perform specific tasks, as opposed to the phys-

need not to have fall softwares and operat-

ical components of the system (hardware).

ing system installed on his machine, rather


System software helps run the computer

could be provided the same as and when

hardware and computer system. It includes

required by the internet e.g., Google.

operating systems, device drivers, diagnos-

Computer Virus A virus is a computer

tic tools, servers, windowing systems, utili-

ties and more.

programme which attaches itself to and

Application software allows end users to

becomes part of another executable pro-

accomplish one or more specific (non-com-

gramme and thus halts the system by pend-

puter related) tasks.

ing to same undesired result.

Programming software usually provides Internet It is the worldwide, publically tools


to assist a programmer in writing

accessible system of interconnected com-

computer programs and software using dif-

puter networks that transmit data by using

ferent programming languages in a more

the internet protocol.

convenient way.

Multimedia It is the use of several media

Terms
(example, text, audio, graphics, animation,

Assembler A programme, which converts

video etc.) to convey the information.

assembly language programme into ma-

Microprocessor It is a single chip based

chine language programme. It is a system

device which is a complete processor in it-

software.

self and is capable of performing arithmatic

Bit It is the basic units of computer. It can

and logical operations.

have two values 1 and 0 only.

Modem A modem is a device that allows

BIOS It stands for Basic Input Output Sys-

a computer to communicate through tele-

tem. This program is stored in ROM.

phone lines.

Byte One byte is a collection of 8 bits.

Secondary Memory It is the permanent

Compiler It is a computer programme

memory of the computer.

that transforms human readable source


Tag It is part of HTML. It determines the

code of another computer programme into

way, the browser displays text in Web Page.

the Machine readable code that a CPU can

execute.

122

Computers, IT & Technological Innovation

Wide Area Networks (WAN) WAN is a conferencing, 3D television and cloud


computing.

computer Network that is distinguished It is faster and has better features than its from a
Local Area Network because of its successor 3G.

longer-distance communications. The net-

work may cover a whole country or may

Project Loon: Project Loon is a research

include the sites of a large multinational

and development project. It is developed

organization.

by Google X with the mission of providing

IT TRENDS

Internet access to rural and remote areas.

The project uses high-altitude balloons

Windows 10

placed in the stratosphere at an altitude

of about 18 km (11 mi) to create an aerial

Windows 10 is a personal computer operating


wireless network with up to 4G-LTE speeds.

system developed by Microsoft. It has launched

new features to facilitate the users. Cortana is

a feature that acts as personal assistant for TECHNOLOGICAL INOVATION

the user by aiding in the easy management

of calendar, file finding, chatting, telling jokes Smart Contact Lens

and tracking packages. It gives a complete Contact lenses developed at the University of
personalized experience to the user. Office California-Davis contain conductive wires that
app is of two types for desktop and mobile. continuously monitor pressure and fluid flow
The desktop office app enables the users to within the eyes of at-risk people. The lenses
enjoy advanced features of the traditional then relay information to a small device worn
programmes. Office mobile app are deigned by the patient; the device wirelessly transmits
to work in both mobiles and tablets. Microsoft it to a computer.

Edge on Windows 10 allows users to surf the

web. Xbox offers games streaming from Xbox.

4G

Absorbable Heart Stent

Fourth generation, also called as 4G, is Absorbable Heart Stent: The bio- absorbable the
succeeding generation of 3G in mobile version made by Abbott Laboratories in Illinois
telecommunications. It is an advanced system does its job and disappears. After six months
the with advanced capabilities of telephony, mobile stent begins to dissolve, and after two
years its web, gaming services, high definition TV, video completely gone, leaving behind a
healthy artery.

Sports

OLYMPICS

18th will be held in Jakarta (Indonesia) in

The first Modern Olympics Games were

2018.

started in Athens on 6th April 1896. The SOUTH ASIAN GAMES

Olympics games originated in the City of


Olympia of Greece.

South Asian Games (SAG) was first held

The Olympic flag was created in 1914

in 1984 at Kathmandu, Nepal. The eight

at the suggestion of Baron Pierre de

participating Countries are Afghanistan,

Coubertin and was hoisted first time in

Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives,

the Antwerp Olympic Games in 1920.

Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.

It is made up of white silk and contains The next SAG is scheduled to be held in five
intertwined rings as the Olympics

2016 at Hambantota, Sri Lanka.

emblem.

CRICKET WORLD CUP

The Colour of rings represents different It is organised by the international Cricket


continents as given below:

Council (ICC) after every 4 years.

Blue

Europe

The first World Cup was organized in

England in June 1975.

Yellow
-

Asia

Australia is the Champion of ICC Cricket

Black

Africa

World Cup 2015.

The next World Cup is scheduled in 2019 in

Red

America

England.

Green

Australia

&

Oceania

FIFA WORLD CUP

The Olympic motto is Citius Altius Germany was The Champion of 20th FIFA
Fortius (Faster, higher, Stronger)

world cup held in 2014 in Brazil.

Mary Leela Rao was the 1st Indian Brazil has won five times and they are woman
participant in The Olympic Games

the only team to have played in every

tournament.
COMMONWEALTH GAMES

The next two World Cups will be hosted by

It is held every 4th year in between the

Russia in 2018 and Qatar in 2022.

Olympic years.

The first Commonwealth Games was held HOCKEY WORLD CUP

in 1930 at Hamilton, Canada.

It was started in 1971.

India, for the first time, participated in the Indian has won the tournament only once
2nd Commonwealth Games held in 1934

in 1975.

in London.

The last Hockey World Cup was held in

2014 in Hague, Netherlands whose winner

ASIAN GAMES

was Australia.

The idea of the Asian Games was first The next tournament is scheduled in 2018

conceived by Prof. G.D. Sondhi. The first

to be held in Bhubaneswar, India.

Asian Games were held at New Delhi on 4

March 1951.

IPL 2016

The motto of the Asian Games Play the

game in Spirit of the game was given by It is a professional Twenty 20 Cricket Pt. J.L
Nehru.
league in India (BCCI).

Its emblem is a bright full rising Sun with The ninth and the latest IPL was held in 2016.

interlocking rings.

The Sun risers Hyderabad were crowned as

17th Asian Games was held in Incheon

the champion after they won against Royal

(South Korea) in 2014.

Challengers Bangalore in the Finals.

124 Sports

TROPHIES ASSOCIATED WITH

Australian Open

Lawn Tennis

SPORTS

Wimbledon

Lawn Tennis

National

Masters

Hockey

Champions Trophy

Name of the Trophy

Related game

British Open

Golf

Aga Khan Cup

Hockey
Malaysian Open

Badminton

Barna Bellack Cup

Table Tennis

Tata Open

Lawn Tennis

Beighton Cup

Hockey

Number of players on each side

Bombay Gold Cup

Hockey

Burdwan Trophy

Weight Lifting

Badminton 1 or 2 Polo

D.C.M. Trophy

Football

Baseball

Rugby Football

15

Dhyan chand Trophy

Hockey

Basketball

5
Tennis and Table 1 or 2

tennis

Dr. B.C. Roy Trophy

Football

Cricket

11

Water Polo

Duleep Trophy

Cricket

Football

11

Volleyball

Durand Cup

Football

Hockey

11

Kabaddi

Ezra Cup

Polo

Chess

I.F.A Shield
Football

Terms used in Sports and

Lady Ratan Tata Trophy Hockey

Games

Moin ud daula Gold Cup Cricket

Badminton

Deuce, Double, Drop, Fault, Game,

Rangaswami Cup

Hockey

Let, Love, Smash.

Ranji Trophy

Cricket

Baseball

Bunt, Diamond, Home,

Pitcher, Put out, Strike.

Santosh Trophy

Football

Billiards

Break, Cannons, Cue, In off, Jigger,

Scratch,

Scindia Gold Cup

Hockey

Boat Race

Cox

Subroto Mukherjee Cup Football


Boxing

Hook, Jab, Knock-out, Punch,

(Inter-School)

Upper cut.

Chess

Check, Checkmate, Gambit,

Wellington Trophy

Rowing

Stalemate

International

Cricket

Bowling, Bouncer, Crease, Cover

point, Drive, Duck, Follow on,

Googly, Gulley, Hat Trick, Hit

Name of the

Related game

wicket, L.B.W. (Leg Before

Trophy

Wicket), Leg Break, Leg spinner,

Nehru Trophy

Hockey

Leg bye Maiden over, No ball,

Pitch, Run, Silly point, Stumped,

American Cup

Yatch Racing
Wicket keeper.

Ashes Cup

Cricket (Australia-

Football

Dribble, Drop Kick, Foul, Hattrick,

Off-side, Penalty, Throw in,

England)

Touch Down.

Azlan Shah

Hockey

Golf

Bogey, Caddie, Hole, Links, Put,

Putting the green, Stymie, Tee.

US Masters

Golf

Hockey

Bull, Carry, Centre Forward,

Hopman Cup

Lawn Tennis

Carried, Dribble, Goal, Hat trick,

Penalty corner, Scoop, Short

Colombo Cup Trophy Football

corner, Sticks, Striking circle,

Davis Cup

Lawn Tennis
Under cutting.

Horse Racing Jockey, Place, Protest, Punter,

Kings Cup Race

Air Races (England)

Win.

Merdeka Cup

Football (Asia)

Lawn Tennis Back-hand-drive, Service, Smash,

Volley, Deuce, Game, Set, Love.

Thomas Cup

World Badminton (Men)

Polo

Bunder, Chuckker, Mallet.

Uber Cup

World Badminton

Rifle Shooting Bulls eye.

(women)

Swimming

Stroke.

US-Open

Lawn Tennis

Volley ball

Booster, Deuce, Love, Service,

Spikers.

French-Open
Lawn Tennis

Wrestling

Half Nelson, Heave.


Document Outline
Contents

General Budget 2016

GST 2016

Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code 2016

Union Civil Code

BREXIT

Rio Olympics 2016 Update

Indias Political Journey 70 years

Indias Economic Journey 70 years

Update : Political, Economic, Industries, Art & Culture 2016

Top Events 2016

Top Ideas 2016

Top Issues 2016

Top People 2016

Top Emerging Trend in 2016

Top 20 Companies of India/World

Top 20 Economies of the World

Top 20 Industries of India

Top 20 Sports Personalities of India

Major E-Commerce Acquisition in 2016

Important Appointments 2016

Awards & Honours 2016

Bills & Acts in 2016


Policies & Schemes in 2016

Book & Authors 2016

General Knowledge

o Indian Panorama

o World Panorama

o People Forever

o INDIAN HISTORY

o Ancient History

o Medieval History

o Modern History

o World History

o Polity

o Geography

o Economy

o GENERAL SCIENCE

o Physics

o Chemistry

o Biology

o Ecology & Environment

o Art, Culture & Tourism

o OctoberCommunication, Transport, News & Media

o Healthcare

o Computers, IT & Technological Innovation

o Sports