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Specific optimal control of an aluminum casting furnace

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furnace

R. T. Bui, A. Meghlaoui and R. Ouellet

Canada

A general structure of the spectjic optimal control has been previously formulated and used to solve the fuel

optimal problem of an aluminum casting furnace. Proportional, integral, and derivative (P, I, D) closed-loop

control were applied to a IO-order nonlinear model of the furnace. This paper analyzes the resulting control

actions and the dynamic response to a step change in the target temperature of the liquid metal. It is shown

that P and PD schemes are stable but bring about a steady-state error, whereas PI and PID schemes cause

no steady-state error but involve considerable oscillations in the transient response and longer settling times.

In view ofthe systems high thermal inertia and the need to impose limits on fuelfrow rate, it is found that a

PD scheme is the most appropriate due to the absence of overshoot and a short settling time. The method is

also applied to another optimization criteria, the minimization of temperature oscillations. This shows the

applicability of the scheme to practical industrial problems.

In a previous paper, the authors formulated the specific (Figure I) by the equations of conservation of mass and

optimal control of nonlinear systems with a general energy and treating each component of the furnace as a

structure, and adapted it to the software COMMIN, one-dimensional heat conduction medium. The set of

developed recently for the purpose of solving continuous equations representing the chamber, the metal, the floor,

systems optimization problems using Pontryagins and the roof was nonlinear mainly due to the expressions

maximum principle. In the present work, the scheme thus describing the combustion of fuel (natural gas) and the

developed is used in a closed-loop optimal control of the radiative heat transfer. Due to the nonlinearities and the

aluminum casting furnace, and the dynamic performance fine discretizations in the conducting media (the metal,

of the furnace under such control is analyzed. The the refractories) required to ensure good representativity,

purpose is to show, through a case study, the the analytic model turned out to be too complex for

applicability of the scheme to industrial problems. control studies. A simplified nonlinear control model in

The aluminum casting furnace plays a central role in the generic form j(t) = f[y(t), u(t), t] was then derived

primary aluminum fabrication. It receives liquid from the analytic model, and an open-loop optimization

aluminum tapped from the electrolytic cells, brings it to of the fuel flow was performed on the control model using

a specified temperature while metal cleaning operation variational calculus and Pontryagins maximum princi-

and alloy preparation are carried out prior to casting. ple.3 In the simplified control model the chamber was

Solid aluminum may also be added and melted into the considered as filled with one well stirred body of gas,

liquid metal; in this case the furnace is known as a while the roof refractories were discretized into six

melter-holder. These are great energy consumers, one-dimensional slices and the metal into three slices

requiring 4.5-6 MJ/kg of metal melted, of which only (Figure 2), thus resulting in a lOth-order nonlinear model.

about 20% actually reach the metal either for melting or Minimum fuel was sought by solving the open-loop

holding. This was the motivation behind past and present optimal control problem, with the time-dependent fuel

work aimed at modelling the furnace and studying its flow, u(t), as the input and a specified value of the

control with a view of minimizing fuel cost. An analytic mid-depth liquid metal temperature, y(c), as the targeted

output. The problem consisted in bringing a given mass

of liquid metal from a known initial temperature to a

Address reprint requests to Dr. R. T. Bui at the Departement des

specified final temperature in a given time with minimum

Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi,

Quebec, Canada G7H 2Bl. total fuel cost. The open-loop optima1 control problem

involved an inequality constraint imposed on the control

Received 29 November 1993; revised 18 October, 1994; accepted 1 variable, u(t), in the form of an upper and a lower limit

December 1994 of the fuel flowrate (50 5 u(t) 5 500 m3/hr). Problem

Appl. Math. Modelling 1995, Vol. 19, May

0 1995 by Elsevier Science Inc. 0307-904x/95/$10.00

655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010 SSDI 0307-904X(94)00035-5

Specific optimal control of an aluminum casting furnace: R. T. Bui et al.

(TPBVP) with known initial and final conditions and

specified final time. It yielded an optimal solution I,_,,

that gave 10.9% fuel economy over the conventional

practice of constant fuel flowrate. The point was thus

made that variational calculus could be used to solve the

optimal control problems applied to industrial furnaces

or similar thermal systems.

To handle this kind of TPBVP that contains not only

differential but also algebraic equations, an algorithm

was developed and embodied in a computer program

named COMMIN, an acronym for continuous optimiza-

tion using the maximum principle with minimum

programming.4 The TPBVP was discretized with a Euler

central differentiation scheme and solved by the

Newton-Raphson method. Richardson extrapolation

was used to increase accuracy and automatically refine

the mesh as needed.

2. Previous work

In the truly (i.e., open-loop) optimal control problem, the

optimal solution, u(t), is to be found as an open-loop

control variable. The drawback of open-loop control is

W that if a perturbation occurs, the behavior of the process

will deviate from its intended optimal trajectory. In

Figure 1. Longitudinal and transversal sections of the casting

furnace: (1, 2) refractory roof, (3) stack, (4) burner, (5) loading practice a closed-loop scheme is often preferred.

doors, (6, 7,8) floor, (9, 10) metal, (11) syphon, (12) spout, and With the exception of the special case of linear

(13) thermocouples. Metal, roof, and floor are each treated as a quadratic control, the explicit implementation of an

one-dimensional heat conducting medium optimal control in closed-loop form is a difficult problem

due to the large number of parameters to be determined.

A viable alternative is a suboptimal scheme, in which a

specified structure is chosen prior to implementation as

the control law.5 In this sense it cannot be seen as truly

optimal, this is why it is referred to as specific optimal

CVll control or S.O.C.

A general structure for the specific optimal control

was formulated recently. Solved by COMMIN, it de-

termined the optimal parameter values for a closed-loop

cvv ROOF

(zon. 18) scheme. The formulation was applied to the closed-loop

lx6 control of an aluminum casting furnace.6 Various s.0.c.

____________________~~~~~ laws were studied and the corresponding solutions were

CV?

obtained and compared. The control laws used were

t-*_______-k-XY!-_--__ based on a combination of the three basic actions,

* Tcm - 1,s PI CV6

l_a!!!fL__ -- ____r ____ _ __----- namely proportional (P), integral (I), and derivative (D)

A CH =a,T,, (l)*P,l,, (2 i. cvs

actions. In other words, the control variable, u(t), had the

a,-q(1) 1, (O- 76

general form:

GAS

-Qh Q,Q,.O, l L, - 11 CVl

(x011* 7)

(4 dAy(r)

I G(O-JJ Q, .

u(t) = k,Ay(t) + ki r *A,,(t)dt + k, ~ (1)

Jo (CL

cvz

where Ay(t) is the difference between the target value and

cv3 the actual value of the mid-depth liquid metal

____--_______________ temperature.

Tcw = 0, &PI + 6,T.W CV4

The problem was solved with and without inequality

+ o,- O.(4) lW-Tc constraint imposed on u(t). For the problem without

constraint, the control laws P, PD, PI, and PID were

Figure 2. Discretization into 10 control volumes (CV) used in the applied. For the problem with constraint, the control

10th.order simplified model. T are temperatures (state variables);

laws PD, PI, and PID were considered. In both cases

Q are heat flow rates between control volumes; and subscripts C,

D, E, and F indicate interfaces between zones or with the environ- the results were compared with those of the truly

ment (open-loop) optimal scheme.

Specific optimal control of an aluminum casting furnace: R. T. Bui et al.

600, . , , , , ,

Results showed that when solved without constraint 1 ,

_, 5oo ~~-*~_..

---------------------

of fuel flow (726 m3/hr) above the upper limit of

+-----

.

500 m3/hr. In the solution with constraint (Figure 4), a

.3 @DC l-i&L -~~.._

_

!

much smaller violation of the limit occurred with the PD

and PI laws, while the PID law caused no violation. XC, -

....

Further analysis showed that in the presence of .:.y-

constraint, the control law used must be simple but must Q.$_.

contain at least two adjustable parameters to allow the -..

required parameter adjustments without serious con-

straint violation. The higher the number of parameters p--------------------------------q

to be adjusted, the more easily a convergence can be 01 . . . 1

reached. That previous work was intented to prove that 0 10 20 40 50 60

thermal systems with different forms of feedback

Figure 4. Fuel flow rates for the optimal (open-loop) and the

imposed; it stopped at those promising results, and no three specific optimal (closed-loop) control schemes, with con-

analysis of the dynamic performance of the furnace under straint on the control variable

the various closed-loop control schemes was undertaken.

Such an analysis is important to show the practical value also consult Refs. 1 and 6. Let the system be represented

of the algorithm and of the resulting control schemes, by the following n state equations, accompanied by the

and this is the motivation behind the present work. initial (t = a) and final (t = 6) conditions:

3. Review of S.O.C.formulation

W)

~ = fry(t), W), tl

dt

In this article the formulation of the S.O.C. problem,

adapted to solution by COMMIN, is applied to the WY(a), al = 0 (3)

control and dynamic performance analysis of the NCy(b), bl = 0 (4)

aluminum casting furnace under closed-loop control.

Relevance of the work comes from the fact that due to The system is subject to m inequality constraints on the

the complexity and the nonlinearity of the process, there control variables:

is no way for process engineers to know a priori which g[u(t), t] 2 0 for a I t I b (5)

control law would be best suited to their problem, both

in terms of fuel optimal control and in terms of dynamic In closed-loop s.o.c., the control law has the general

response (response time, overshoot, steady-state error, form:

oscillations). In the following, the control law and the u(t) = hCx(Q, kl (6)

dynamic behavior of the casting furnace in response to

a change in target temperature will be studied for each where x(t) is a subvector of y(t), and k is a constant

form of feedback, then results are compared and choices vector.

suggested. We wish to find k to minimize the cost function:

To begin with, this section gives a brief review of the

problem formulation, focusing on the S.O.C. part as J(k) = 0b dQ(t), u(t), tl dt (7)

opposed to the truly (open-loop) optimal alternative. For s

a more detailed presentation, the interested reader may Substituting equation (6) into equations (2), (5), and

(7) and noting that x(t) is a subvector of y(t) we obtain:

dy(Q

_ 700 y..............,....

~ = k, 4

f-L-y(t),

'...._

........

!T!!!%! dt

3 m- S.0.C.P

g i ___-__J..,,

e.o.c.Pcl

----__

k tl 2 0

gCy@), for a 5 t < b (9)

9 ? *-.. ..- 8.O.C.Pl b

_.-_-.

tl dt (10)

.,.....,, II

E 400- S.O.C.PID

-,.- ..-.._

J(k) = 4Cy(t), k,

s (1

.. A.-,

5 -_ 5..

x.., .

0 m- ..

6: Y.,

....

.

-we

Another equation must be added to ensure that k is

z 200- ,.

.....,,

_=. a constant vector:

g loo- ....__

% dk

I .I.,.,.,,%

.... ..._._. -_= 0 (11)

0

0 10 23 40 Xl 60

dt

Tiie;Pmin) The constraint in equation (9) now involves the state

Figure 3. Fuel flow rates for the optimal (open-loop) and for the

variable instead of the control variables as was the case

four specific optimal (closed-loop) control schemes, without con- in equation (5). We use the penalty method7 to take care

straint on the control variable of equation (9). A new variable z(t) is defined as the

Specific optimal control of an aluminum casting furnace: R. T. Bui et al.

integral from a to b of dz(t)/dt. The latter term, dz(t)/dt, We then use COMMIN4 to solve the minimum fuel

is taken as a weighted average of the squares of the scalar problem taking as cost function the following expression:

components of equation (9) and thus, with the integrals f

initial condition set to be z(a) = 0, z(b) gives a direct J(k) = 1 U(t) dt (18)

measure of the extent of violation of inequality constraint s0

(9). where u(t) is taken from equation (1).

This new variable, z(t), is added to the cost function

J to obtain the modified cost function which we call Jmod,

and the problem now is to find k that minimizes Jmod. 4. Closed-loop control and dynamic analysis

This is done through the usual formulation using the The modelling of the aluminum casting furnace and the

technique of Lagrange multipliers in which a function development of its simplified control model have been

called Hamiltonian is defined as published previously.3 Figures I and 2 describe the

furnace and the discretization used in developing the

dz(t)

H=4+LT.f+-- (12) lOth-order simplified control model. Specific optimal

dt control was applied to the furnace and optimal fuel flow

and a nonlinear operator called the Lagrangian is rate, u(t), was determined.j Figures 3 and 4 present the

defined as fuel flow rates obtained by solving the problems without

dk(t) and with constraint on u(t), respectively, and for different

@,=H-~T.f-flT~ (13) optimal (open-loop) and specific optimal (closed-loop)

dt

control schemes. The limits imposed on fuel flow rate

where h and q are time functions called Lagrange (50 I u(t) I 500 m3/hr) exclude the P control law from

multipliers, associated with equality constraints (8) and the solution with constraint, because at the end of the

(1 l), respectively. After substituting the integrand of Jmod batch, when metal temperature tends toward its target

into equation (12), the Euler-Lagrange equations can be value, as shown by equation (1) a P control law would

applied to obtain the conditions of optimality. These require zero fuel flow rate, which violates the lower limit.

conditions are: The results of Figures 3 and 4 have been briefly reviewed

at the end of Section 2 of this article.

&_H To show the benefits of S.O.C. and the resulting

(14)

ay closed-loop structure, we now study the dynamic

behavior of the furnace under the various control laws,

aH

il= -x3 db) - W = 0 (15) in respons to a step change in the target metal

temperature. Starting from a steady state with a metal

The mixed boundary conditions of equation (15) temperature of 704C a 10% step change is imposed on

complicate the solution, and to avoid this we replace it the target metal temperature. In practice, this happens

with the following reformulation to make the problem with a batch of liquid metal must be brought from an

amenable to COMMIN: initial to a final temperature then maintained there while

awaiting the next operation.

The closed-loop systems that are about to be analyzed

o(t) = - g , w(a) = o(b) = 0 (16) are the ones obtained by solving the S.O.C. problems

where: without and with constraints on u(t), the results of which

were discussed previously6 and again presented here for

f aH

o(t) = q(t) - q(a) = - ~ dt (17) reference in Table 1. An improvement has been

s (1 ak introduced in Table 1, however. In the previous work,j

Table 1. Solutions of the minimum fuel problem, solved using optimal (open-loop) and specific optimal (closed-loop) control schemes

without and with constraint imposed on the control variable

cost

u(t) Optimal parameters function

constraint Total fuel calculated

Constraint Control violation required kd as per

on u(t) law (%) (m3) ( x k-3, ( x 1%7, equation (20)

P 45.3 383.67 0.4724 - - 0.0559

PD 5.96 403.85 0.3073 - 0.3265 0.0494

PI 7.34 406.02 0.3451 0.5365 - 0.0496

PID 6.26 404.88 0.3207 0.2030 0.2048 0.0495

With constraint optimal 0 397.24 - 0.0489

P - - -

PD 4.36 406.23 0.2974 - 0.3497 0.0495

PI 3.56 410.75 0.3285 0.6165 0.0499

PID 0.08 415.18 0.2944 0.4597 0.1502 0.0501

Specific optimal control of an aluminum casting furnace: R. T. Bui et al.

2x5

(19)

@= (1 _ [).

tures are represented in normalized form where 0

corresponds to the initial temperature (704C) and 1 is

the final (target) temperature, corresponding to a 10%

step change. The first overshoot results from the

application of the step change in the target input. This

sudden change brings about a sudden increase in fuel

flow (see equation [ 11) before the closed-loop control can

react to pull down the temperature curve. This adjusting

time is long and understandably so due to the high

0 10 20 40 50 60 thermal inertia of the furnace. This overshoot is more

Timymin) important in the case of integral actions (70.5% for PI

Figure 5. Transient responses for each of the four specific optimal control and 39.1% for PID). It can be concluded that

controls, solved without constraint imposed on u(f) integral actions are not recommended in this case due

to the systems high thermal interia, to avoid costly and

useless overshoots.

The shorter settling times are given by the P and PD

in determining the PID scheme without constraint on controls, at 3.77 and 4.11 hr, respectively. They give an

u(t), convergence was obtained with a negative value for indication on the time required for the metal temperature

ki (see Table 1 of Ref. 6). Since Ay(t) is always positive to react to a step change in the target. These settling

between time 0 and final time, for robustness a constraint times are appreciably shorter than those offered by the

of non-negativity was imposed on ki using the penalty PI control (26.77 hr) or the PID control (11.44 hr), which

method.7 The new results appear in the fifth row of Table are long due to the high temperature overshoots.

1, where all three coefficients, k,, ki, k,, are now A small steady-state error persists in the case of P

positive. control (-2.7%) and PD control (-4.1%), but is

Figure 5 shows the transient responses of each eliminated in the case of integral action. Thus, the price

of the four S.O.C. laws without constraint on u(t). To for better precision is a longer settling time and more

facilitate a comparison, the upper part of Table 2 temperature oscillations. This fact is reminiscent of the

summarizes the results in terms of: dilemma between precision and stability (if one improves,

the other worsens) that is well known to prevail in simple

overshoot, ol, in percent (the first overshoot), linear systems, although we are dealing here with a

settling time, zs, in hours. Settling time is defined as lOth-order, distributed-parameter, nonlinear system with

the time required for the transient response to enter inequality constraint. This makes the results all the more

and remain within a f 5% zone about the final interesting.

value, Figure 6 shows the transient responses of each

steady-state error, E, in percent, and, of the three S.O.C. laws obtained with the constraint

damping ratio, 5, calculated whenever applicable. imposed on u(t). The P control law is not applicable in

This ratio is evaluated by assuming these transients the problem with constraint imposed on u(t), for the

to be close to that of an underdamped linear reason already mentioned earlier at the beginning of this

second-order system. The damping ratio can then section. To facilitate a comparison, the lower part of

be deduced from II/ = In ((TJ~J where c3 is the Table 2 summarizes the results. Again, the integral action

percent amplitude of the third overshoot, if it exists. causes high overshoots: 75.5% for PI and 68.9% for PID,

Table 2. Characteristics of transient response to a 10% input step change for the various specific optimal

control laws without and with constraint on the control variable u(t)

on u(t) law 416) time, r,(h) error, E(%) r

PD 0 4.11 -4.1

PI 70.5 26.77 0

PID 39.1 11.44 0

With constraint PD 0 4.22 -4.1 -

PI 75.5 28.4 0 0.8

PID 68.9 26.4 0 -

Specific optimal control of an aluminum casting furnace: R. T. Bui et al.

It will show that by properly choosing the cost function,

various criteria can be assigned to optimization. In

parallel with minimum fuel, let us include a minimization

of the temperature oscillations. The cost function J,

which for the minimum fuel problem was given by

equation (18), is now modified to become:

s0

where r is a weighting factor. To study a minimization

of oscillations, it is reasonable to choose as a starting

point a control scheme with large oscillations. The base

case chosen is therefore the PID scheme obtained with

a constraint on u(t), which is the last line of Table 2.

ov

0 10 20 40 so

I

60

For different numerical values assigned to r, Table 3

Time~rnin) gives the results of optimization in terms of percent

overshoot and corresponding maximum value of fuel

Figure 6. Transient responses for each of the three specific flow urnaX( It is noted that the higher the weighting

optimal controls, solved with constraint imposed on u(t)

factor, the smaller the resulting overshoot; but we must

also accept a higher constraint violation by u(t). On the

other hand, if we reduce that weighting factor toward 0,

we go back to the base case with 71% overshoot and no

as compared with 0% for PD control. Also, settling times

constraint violation by u(t).

are considerably longer in the presence of integral action

controls. On the other hand PD control causes no

overshoot, but gives a steady-state error while the 5. Conclusions

integral action controls do not. Here again the

A study of the specific optimal control and the resulting

precision-stability dilemma is evident.

dynamic response of the aluminum casting furnace has

To conclude this dynamic performance study, it can

been made. The article is based on the authors previous

be said that when the problem is solved without

work where the minimum fuel control problem was

constraint imposed on the control variable, u(t), P

formulated in its general form using variational calculus

control causes a very high excursion of initial fuel flow

and Pontryagins maximum principle. The resulting

above the 500 m3/hr limit. To avoid this, the problem

two-point boundary value problem was then solved by

followed closely by PD control. The drawback is that P

COMMIN, an algorithm that the authors built for the

control causes a very high excursiion of initial fuel flow

solution of this category of industrial process control.

above the 500 m3/hr limit. To avoid this, the problem

Various schemes of specific optimal control (closed-loop)

must be solved with a constraint imposed on u(t). Then

have been developed: P, PD, PI, and PID, and in this

the PD scheme becomes the best again, in view of the

article their dynamic performances are studied. It is

absence of overshoot and short settling time, if the

found that the P and PD schemes show more stability

steady-state error of 4.1% can be tolerated. Therefore for

(small or no temperature overshoot) but cause a

practical reasons, the PD control solution obtained with

steady-state error between the desired target temperature

constraint on u(t) is likely to be the most suitable for an

and the actual final temperature.

industrial application.

However, the integral actions in the PI and the PID

It is interesting to note from Table 1 that for the

schemes lead to a less stable system (higher overshoot,

minimum fuel problem solved and published previously,

longer settling time) while causing no steady-state error.

the two solutions using PD control (one obtained by

In view of practical considerations (limits on fuel flow,

solving the problem without constraint on u(t) and the

need for a short settling time, and preferably no

other with constraint) were in fact very close to each

overshoot), the PD control is found to be the most

other in terms of numerical values found for k, and k,.

The only notable difference was in the violation by u(t),

which was 5.96% in the solution without constraint, and

4.36% in the solution with constraint. Thus when a Table 3. PID control with constraint on u(f).

using cost function (20) to minimize fuel cost and

constraint was imposed, the extent of violation was temperature overshoot for different values of

reduced, but the total fuel required was increased (to weighting factor r

406.23 m3 from 403.85 m31. It can therefore be said that

PD control is most suiiable and that there is little Weighting Overshoot Fuel flow rate,

difference whether the PD control solution is obtained factor r (%) u,,Am3/hr)

by solving the problem with or without a constraint

1o-4 65 518

imposed on u(t).

10-s 69 504.7

Finally the following is another illustration of further lo-* 71 500

use of the proposed optimal control solution algorithm.

Specific optimal control of an aluminum casting furnace: R. T. Bui et al.

appropriate solution for a closed-loop control of the w = variable (used in reformulating boundary

casting furnace. In spite of the complex nature of the conditions)

process and consequently of its mathematical model, the Gi = overshoot

method proposed for the determination of the specific = settling time

optimal control schemes and for the dynamic analysis of 2 = damping ratio

furnace behavior proves to be efficient and practical for E = steady-state error

the resolution of optimal control problems involving

Subscripts

casting furnaces or other similar industrial thermal

d = derivative control

processes.

f = final

i = integral control

Acknowledgments P = proportional control

max = maximum

This work is part of the research program funded by an

mod = modified

Industry Oriented Research (IOR) grant of the Natural

opt = optimal

Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of

Canada. The analytic mode1 of the aluminum casting Superscripts

furnace, from which the simplified model was later T = transpose

derived, was the result of a joint research project between = time derivative

the Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi and Alcan

International Limited, Jonquiere, Quebec, Canada.

Thanks are also due to La Fondation de IUQAC for its

financial support of the first authors research activities.

References

Meghlaoui, A., Ouellet, R. and Bui, R. T. A general structure of

Nomenclature soecific ontimal control. ADDI. Math. Model&a 1993, 17, 5555560

Bui, R. T. and Perron, J.Performance anlay& of the aluminum

a,b = time limits (min, hr)

casting furnace. Metall. Tram B 1988, 19B, 171-180

f = functional (state equation)

Bui, R. T. and Ouellet, R. Optimal control of an aluminum casting

9 = functional (inequality constraints) furnace. Part one: the control model. Part two: fuel optimization.

h functional (control law) Metall. Trans. B 1990, ZlB, 487-500

H = Hamiltonian Ouellet, R. and Bui, R. T. COMMIN: New numerical method for

= cost function optimal control of thermal systems, ProFeedings of the 7th

J

International Conference on Numeral Methods Thermal Problems.

k parameters of optimization R. Lewis, J. Chin, G. Homsy, eds. Pineridge Press, Swansea 1991,

M,N 1 functionals (boundary conditions) VII, 2, 833-842

I = weighting factor Barathan, P., Natarajan, T. and Seshadri, V. On proportional plus

t time (min, hr) proportional-integral sub-optimal control IEEE Trans. Automat.

Control 1975, AC-20, 561-563

u = control variable (fuel flow rate) (m3/hr)

Ouellet, R., Bui, R. T. and Meghlaoui, A. Specific optimal control

x,y = state variables (temperatures) (C) of industrial thermal systems, Proceedings of the 8th International

variables (used in penalty method) Conference Numerical Methods for Thermal Problems. R. Lewis ed.

: = difference (of temperatures) Pineridge Press, Swansea 1993, VIII, 2, 1287-1297

4 = integrand of the cost function Sage, P. S. and White, C. C. Optimal Systems Control, 2nd ed.,

Prentice-Hall, Englewood Clitfs, NJ, 1977

m = Lagrangian Shearer, J. L., Murphy, A. T. and Richardson, H. H. Introduction

Aq = Lagrange multipliers to System Dynamics. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1971

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