Power point slides for electromagnetics vector calculus part 1

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Power point slides for electromagnetics vector calculus part 1

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FEE-Slides-1

Sunil Bhooshan

OUP

Chapter 1

Sunil Bhooshan

Oxford University Press

Outline

1 Introdu tory

2 History

3 S alars, Ve tors

4 Ve tor Manipulation

Introdu tory

Find the topi in the book. Suppose the topi is not there, then

Find other su h text-books in the library with the topi .

Read them (the books).

Do the solved problems.

Do the problems at the ba k of the books.

Introdu tory

Ele
tromagneti
s is a subje
t whi
h is today being redis
overed and applied

in an interdis
iplinary sense to many areas of engineering whi
h in
lude

wireless and wire-line transmission and
ommuni
ation,
ir
uits,
omputer

inter
onne
ts, opti
al bre links and
omponents, antennas, plasmas, wave

propagation in the ionosphere, lasers and many others.

History

Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836),

Mi hael Faraday (1791-1867),

James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879),

Heinri h Hertz (1857-1894), and many others.

History

Mi hael Faraday

Mi
hael Faraday Faraday, who was the son of a bla
ksmith, was

edu
ated only up to the s
hool level. Even though he had this limited

a
ademi
ba
kground, he was
onsidered one of the greatest

experimentalist of his time due to his path-breaking work: his far

rea
hing
ontributions to ele
tromagnetism and ele
tro
hemistry.

Unit of
harge (faraday) and a unit of
apa
itan
e (farad) have been

named after him.

History

2 Whenever any new equation or on ept is studied, it should be

immediately applied to some 'thought situation'. Any simple problem

may be ' onjured' up and the equation or on ept should then be

applied to it.

3 Problems at the end of ea h hapter must be solved.

History

Basi SI Units

length metre m

mass kilogramme kg

time se ond s

ele tri urrent ampere A

thermodynami temperature kelvin K

luminous intensity andela d

S alars, Ve tors

S alars

A s
alar is a real number (and sometimes a
omplex one) whi
h des
ribes a

physi
al quantity. 10.2 kg des
ribes the mass of something: it
ould be

sand, steel or liquid gas. 32.4 million metri
tonnes may des
ribe the mass

of ri
e produ
ed by some
ountry, and 22.4 litres of gas at STP des
ribes

the volume o
upied by one mole of a gas at STP. 10.2 kg, 32.4 million

metri
tonnes and 22.4 litres, are s
alars.

S alars, Ve tors

S alar manipulation

paid to the fa t that all those s alars must be of the same type: that

is all masses or all volumes et . and, furthermore, all the s alars must

be quantied in the same system of units, for example (g) or (kg) or

(l), et .

S alar multipli ation

= ab (1)

An important point to be noted is that not only the two s alars get

(litres) gives litres.

a = 9.8 m/s b = 10 s, then (metres/se ) (se ) is metres.

S alars, Ve tors

S alar manipulation

and if a = 10 litres and b = 20 litres then what is the meaning of

= =10 litres?

metres/se ond.

(Let the students do Examples 1.1 to 1.4 or do them on the board if time

permits)

S alars, Ve tors

Ve tors

Head

Tail

Figure: A ve
tor

S alars, Ve tors

y

1

2

the three distan es ut o by perpendi ulars from the point in question to

the three axes: x, y and z. The position ve tor of the point (1, 2, 2) is

notationally the ve tor

Sunil Bhooshan (OUP) FEE OUP India, 2012 14 / 39

S alars, Ve tors

p

r = 12 + 22 + 22 = 3 (3)

and it is the distan e of the point (1, 2, 2) from the origin.

Before we pro eed any further it is important to point out the nature

of the unit ve tors in the re tangular oordinate system: (i) The unit

ve tors are onstants. i.e. their dire tions are onstant, no matter

whi h point in 3-spa e is hosen. (ii) The unit ve tors are orthonormal

(A set of orthonormal ve tors have the property that they are

perpendi ular to ea h other, and ea h of the ve tors of the

orthonormal set has unit magnitude.)

S alars, Ve tors

A = Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az (4)

Where Ax , Ay and Az are real or
omplex numbers. With this notation, a

for
e, F is,

F = ax + 2ay + 2az (N)

. Thus we
an see that Ax Fx = 1 N, Ay Fy = 2 N and Az Fz = 2 N.

That is, the unit ve
tor ax is multiplied by 1, ay is multiplied by 2 and az is

multiplied by 2. Or in other words the
omponent of the for
e in the ax

dire
tion is 1, that in the ay dire
tion is 2 and so on.

S alars, Ve tors

A = A/|A| (5)

Where the 'hat' notation is used to denote a general unit ve
tor, and

|A| A is themagnitude or 'length' of A.

q

|A| = Ax

2 + A2

y + A2z (6)

Ve tor Manipulation

Ve tor Manipulation

more a urately, magnitude) is multiplied by 5, but its dire tion is

un hanged. In re tangular oordinates if

A [Ax , Ay , Az ] then 5A [5Ax , 5Ay , 5Az ] (7)

form A + B, The ve tor B is translated parallel to itself and the tail of

B is atta hed to the head of A as shown in the next slide . The ve tor

equation reads:

C = A+B (8)

Ve tor Manipulation

Ve tor Addition

b c

o

a

Ve tor Manipulation

Commutative Property

We
an perform the operation the other way, atta
hing the tail of A to the

head of B and get the same result. Therefore

| {z } | {z }

A B

and

B + A = (5ax + 6ay + 7az ) + (2ax + 3ay + 4az ) = 7ax + 9ay + 11az

Ve tor Manipulation

Examples

(a) (b)

shown in the Fig. and let the result be denoted as C. Find the magnitude

and dire tion of C.

Ve tor Manipulation

(First method): From the Fig. we
an see that ve
tors A,B and C

form a triangle. We
al
ulate the length of the third side based on the

law of
osines. The third side gives us the magnitude of C:

q

|C| = |A|2 + |B|2 2 |A| |B|
os(180 30 ) = 24.18 N

and similarly we
an nd the angle from the law of sines. C = 18.01 .

(Se
ond method) We
an de
ompose B into Bx = B
os30 and

By = B sin30 and then Cx = A + Bx ; Cy = By to get the same answer.

Ve tor Manipulation

A = 1ax + 3ay + 5az N and B = 5ay N in re tangular oordinates.

C = AB

= (1 0)ax + (3 5)ay + (5 0)az

= ax 2ay + 5ax

and B = 20 N. Ans. Magnitude 29.09; 22.32 with A.

Ve tor Manipulation

Dot Produ t

The 'dot' produ
t (or s
alar produ
t between two ve
tors) results in a

s
alar. The dot or s
alar produ
t is given by denition to be:

A B = |A||B|
os (10)

Where is the operator representative of the s
alar produ
t and is the

angle between A and B. Noti
e that though two ve
tors are involved in the

produ
t, the result is a s
alar. From the denition it is
lear that the dot

produ
t is
ommutative

From the denition,

|A| = AA (since os = 1) (12)

Ve tor Manipulation

Work done

Fd

2 A innitesimal amount of work dW is equal to F d l where F is the

for e and dl is the innitesimal displa ement. So

Z

W = F dl

Ve tor Manipulation

ax ay = ax az = 0;

ay ax = ay az = 0

az ax = az ay = 0

and

ax ax = ay ay = az az = 1

Ve tor Manipulation

A B = (Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az ) (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )

Sin e all dot produ ts of the unit ve tors with other unit ve tors are zero

and dot produ ts of the unit ve tors with themselves are 1 then

A B = Ax ax (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )

+ Ay ay (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )

+ Az az (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )

= Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz

Ve tor Manipulation

Ax = A ax

Similarly

Ay = A ay

Az = A az

Ve tor Manipulation

Cross Produ t

Ve tor Manipulation

The ve
tor produ
t (or
ross produ
t) involves two ve
tors and the result is

a third ve
tor. Thus in symboli
notation:

C = AB (13)

where the magnitude of C is given by:

|A B| = |A||B|sin (14)

The dire
tion of C is given by the well-known 'right hand thumb rule'. The

right hand thumb rule states that the dire
tion of the ve
tor produ
t is

perpendi
ular to both A and B and is given by the dire
tion of the thumb

when the right hand is held in a position as it were holding an imaginary

sti
k with the thumb along the dire
tion of the sti
k. The hand is held in

su
h a way that the ngers are
urled from A to B.

Ve tor Manipulation

C = A B = B A

Sunil Bhooshan (OUP) FEE OUP India, 2012 31 / 39

Ve
tor Manipulation

ax ax = ay ay = az az = 0 (15)

In all these
ases sin = 0 ( = 0.) Furthermore, ax ay is in the dire
tion

of az sin
e the magnitudes of both ax and ay are both 1,

therefore,|ax ay | = |ax | |ay | sin = 1. Therefore

ax ay = az

And sin
e the
ross produ
t is anti-
ommutative

ay ax = az (16)

Similarly by this type of reasoning we
an easily obtain the other produ
ts.

Ve tor Manipulation

the dire tion of the arrow, ax ay = az or az ax = ay . But if we go

against the dire tion of the arrow, a negative sign is required:

ay ax = az or ax az = ay

Ve tor Manipulation

Example

Let A = 2ax + 4ay and B = ax + 7ay whi
h lie on the x-y plane. Find

A B. Corroborate that |A B| = AB sin and perpendi
ular to both A

and B. Solution:

= 2ax ax + 2ax 7ay + 4ay ax + 4ay 7ay

= 0 + 14az + (4az ) + 0 = 10az

and has a magnitude of 10. To al ulate the value of , the angle between

A and B we pro eed as follows, using the dot produ t.

Ve tor Manipulation

p

A = 22 + 42 = 20

p

B = 12 + 72 = 50

We
al
ulate next using the dot produ
t formula

= AB =
os1 [(A B)/AB ] =
os1 (30/ 1000) = 18.41

We now use the
ross produ
t formula. sin(18.41 ) = 0.3159 with A and B

al
ulated earlier

|A B| = AB sin = 50 20 0.3159

= 31.62 0.3159

= 10

Ve tor Manipulation

A B = (Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az ) (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )

= Ax ax (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )

+Ay ay (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )

+Az az (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )

= (Ax By az Ax Bz ay ) + (Ay Bx az + Ay Bz ax )

+(Az Bx ay Az By ax )

Finally
olle
ting terms

A B = (Ay Bz By Az )ax

+(Az Bx Bz Ax )ay

+(Ax By Bx Ay )az

Ve tor Manipulation

Ay Az Az Ax Ax Ay

A B = ax + ay

+ az

By Bz Bz Bx Bx By

ax ay az

A B = Ax Ay Az

Bx By Bz

Ve tor Manipulation

ross produ t is not asso iative. for example

(ax ax ) az = 0 az = 0

and

ax (ax az ) = ax (ay ) = az

So
learly

(ax ax ) az 6= ax (ax az )

Or, in general:

(A B) C 6= A (B C)

Ve tor Manipulation

Ax Ay Az

A B C = Bx By Bz

Cx Cy Cz

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