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FEE OUP India, 2012

FEE-Slides-1

Sunil Bhooshan
OUP

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Chapter 1

Fundamentals Of Ele tromagneti Fields,


Sunil Bhooshan
Oxford University Press

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Outline

1 Introdu tory

2 History

3 S alars, Ve tors

4 Ve tor Manipulation

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Introdu tory

How to use these slides?

Find out the topi of the slide.


Find the topi in the book. Suppose the topi is not there, then
Find other su h text-books in the library with the topi .
Read them (the books).
Do the solved problems.
Do the problems at the ba k of the books.

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Introdu tory

Why study EMT?

Ele tromagneti s is a subje t whi h is today being redis overed and applied
in an interdis iplinary sense to many areas of engineering whi h in lude
wireless and wire-line transmission and ommuni ation, ir uits, omputer
inter onne ts, opti al bre links and omponents, antennas, plasmas, wave
propagation in the ionosphere, lasers and many others.

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History

Some Histori al Figures

Count Alessandro Giuseppe Volta (1745-1827),


Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836),
Mi hael Faraday (1791-1867),
James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879),
Heinri h Hertz (1857-1894), and many others.

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History

Mi hael Faraday

Mi hael Faraday Faraday, who was the son of a bla ksmith, was
edu ated only up to the s hool level. Even though he had this limited
a ademi ba kground, he was onsidered one of the greatest
experimentalist of his time due to his path-breaking work: his far
rea hing ontributions to ele tromagnetism and ele tro hemistry.
Unit of harge (faraday) and a unit of apa itan e (farad) have been
named after him.

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History

How to study the subje t

1 Attention must be paid to the mathemati al basi s;


2 Whenever any new equation or on ept is studied, it should be
immediately applied to some 'thought situation'. Any simple problem
may be ' onjured' up and the equation or on ept should then be
applied to it.
3 Problems at the end of ea h hapter must be solved.

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History

Basi SI Units

Table: The basi SI units

Base quantity Name Symbol


length metre m
mass kilogramme kg
time se ond s
ele tri urrent ampere A
thermodynami temperature kelvin K

amount of substan e mole mole


luminous intensity andela d

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S alars, Ve tors

S alars

A s alar is a real number (and sometimes a omplex one) whi h des ribes a
physi al quantity. 10.2 kg des ribes the mass of something: it ould be
sand, steel or liquid gas. 32.4 million metri tonnes may des ribe the mass
of ri e produ ed by some ountry, and 22.4 litres of gas at STP des ribes
the volume o upied by one mole of a gas at STP. 10.2 kg, 32.4 million
metri tonnes and 22.4 litres, are s alars.

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S alars, Ve tors

S alar manipulation

The rule is that when adding s alars a, b, , . . . attention must be


paid to the fa t that all those s alars must be of the same type: that
is all masses or all volumes et . and, furthermore, all the s alars must
be quantied in the same system of units, for example (g) or (kg) or
(l), et .
S alar multipli ation
= ab (1)
An important point to be noted is that not only the two s alars get

multiplied, but also the two units do.

If = 22.4 l, has the dimensions of litres sin e: 22.4 (no units) 1


(litres) gives litres.
a = 9.8 m/s b = 10 s, then (metres/se ) (se ) is metres.

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S alars, Ve tors

S alar manipulation

Subtra tion an be tri ky be ause of negative numbers. If = a b


and if a = 10 litres and b = 20 litres then what is the meaning of
= =10 litres?

Division. If = a/b with a = 10 metres and b is 2 se onds then is 5


metres/se ond.
(Let the students do Examples 1.1 to 1.4 or do them on the board if time
permits)

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S alars, Ve tors

Ve tors

Head

Tail
Figure: A ve tor

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S alars, Ve tors

Re tangular Coordinate System

y
1
2

Figure: Re tangular oordinate system

A point in 3D-spa e onsists of three numbers (x , y , z ) whi h orrespond to


the three distan es ut o by perpendi ulars from the point in question to
the three axes: x, y and z. The position ve tor of the point (1, 2, 2) is
notationally the ve tor

r(1, 2, 2) (ax + 2ay + 2az ) (2)


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S alars, Ve tors

The magnitude of r r is given by the well-known distan e formula:


p
r = 12 + 22 + 22 = 3 (3)
and it is the distan e of the point (1, 2, 2) from the origin.
Before we pro eed any further it is important to point out the nature
of the unit ve tors in the re tangular oordinate system: (i) The unit
ve tors are onstants. i.e. their dire tions are onstant, no matter
whi h point in 3-spa e is hosen. (ii) The unit ve tors are orthonormal
(A set of orthonormal ve tors have the property that they are
perpendi ular to ea h other, and ea h of the ve tors of the
orthonormal set has unit magnitude.)

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S alars, Ve tors

Any ve tor, spe ied in re tangular oordinates, has the representation:

A = Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az (4)
Where Ax , Ay and Az are real or omplex numbers. With this notation, a
for e, F is,
F = ax + 2ay + 2az (N)
. Thus we an see that Ax Fx = 1 N, Ay Fy = 2 N and Az Fz = 2 N.
That is, the unit ve tor ax is multiplied by 1, ay is multiplied by 2 and az is
multiplied by 2. Or in other words the omponent of the for e in the ax
dire tion is 1, that in the ay dire tion is 2 and so on.

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S alars, Ve tors

The Unit Ve tor

If a ve tor A is given, then the unit ve tor in the dire tion of A is

A = A/|A| (5)
Where the 'hat' notation is used to denote a general unit ve tor, and
|A| A is themagnitude or 'length' of A.

q
|A| = Ax
2 + A2
y + A2z (6)

A may often be written instead of |A| when there is no ambiguity.

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Ve tor Manipulation

Ve tor Manipulation

Thus if A is a ve tor, then 5A is another ve tor, whose length (or


more a urately, magnitude) is multiplied by 5, but its dire tion is
un hanged. In re tangular oordinates if
A [Ax , Ay , Az ] then 5A [5Ax , 5Ay , 5Az ] (7)

Ve tors an be 'added'. Here the on ept of '+' (ve tor addition). To


form A + B, The ve tor B is translated parallel to itself and the tail of
B is atta hed to the head of A as shown in the next slide . The ve tor
equation reads:
C = A+B (8)

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Ve tor Manipulation

Ve tor Addition

b c

o
a

Figure: Ve tor addition and subtra tion

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Ve tor Manipulation

Commutative Property

We an perform the operation the other way, atta hing the tail of A to the
head of B and get the same result. Therefore

C = A+B = B+A (9)

A + B = (2ax + 3ay + 4az ) + (5ax + 6ay + 7az ) = 7ax + 9ay + 11az


| {z } | {z }
A B
and
B + A = (5ax + 6ay + 7az ) + (2ax + 3ay + 4az ) = 7ax + 9ay + 11az

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Ve tor Manipulation

Examples

(a) (b)

Figure: Addition of two ve tors

Let us add two ve tors A of 10 N to B of 15 N at an angle of 30 to A as


shown in the Fig. and let the result be denoted as C. Find the magnitude
and dire tion of C.

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Ve tor Manipulation

(First method): From the Fig. we an see that ve tors A,B and C
form a triangle. We al ulate the length of the third side based on the
law of osines. The third side gives us the magnitude of C:
q
|C| = |A|2 + |B|2 2 |A| |B| os(180 30 ) = 24.18 N

and similarly we an nd the angle from the law of sines. C = 18.01 .
(Se ond method) We an de ompose B into Bx = B os30 and
By = B sin30 and then Cx = A + Bx ; Cy = By to get the same answer.

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Ve tor Manipulation

Find the dieren e of the two ve tors: A B given that


A = 1ax + 3ay + 5az N and B = 5ay N in re tangular oordinates.

C = AB
= (1 0)ax + (3 5)ay + (5 0)az
= ax 2ay + 5ax

Exer ise: Subtra t B from A. The angle from A to B is 150 , A = 10 N


and B = 20 N. Ans. Magnitude 29.09; 22.32 with A.

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Ve tor Manipulation

Dot Produ t

The 'dot' produ t (or s alar produ t between two ve tors) results in a
s alar. The dot or s alar produ t is given by denition to be:

A B = |A||B| os (10)
Where is the operator representative of the s alar produ t and is the
angle between A and B. Noti e that though two ve tors are involved in the
produ t, the result is a s alar. From the denition it is lear that the dot
produ t is ommutative

A B = |A| |B| os( ) = B A (11)


From the denition,

|A| = AA (since os = 1) (12)

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Ve tor Manipulation

Work done

1 We know that the work done by a for e is a dot produ t:


Fd

where F is the for e and d is the displa ement ve tor.


2 A innitesimal amount of work dW is equal to F d l where F is the
for e and dl is the innitesimal displa ement. So
Z
W = F dl

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Ve tor Manipulation

Dot produ ts of unit ve tors

ax ay = ax az = 0;
ay ax = ay az = 0
az ax = az ay = 0

and
ax ax = ay ay = az az = 1

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Ve tor Manipulation

Dot Produ t ( ontd)

If A = (Ax , Ay , Az ) and B = (Bx , By , Bz ) then


A B = (Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az ) (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )
Sin e all dot produ ts of the unit ve tors with other unit ve tors are zero
and dot produ ts of the unit ve tors with themselves are 1 then

A B = Ax ax (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )
+ Ay ay (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )
+ Az az (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )
= Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz

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Ve tor Manipulation

Therefore if we substitute ax for B then

Ax = A ax
Similarly

Ay = A ay

Az = A az

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Ve tor Manipulation

Cross Produ t

Figure: Ve tors resulting from the ross produ t

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Ve tor Manipulation

The ve tor produ t (or ross produ t) involves two ve tors and the result is
a third ve tor. Thus in symboli notation:
C = AB (13)
where the magnitude of C is given by:

|A B| = |A||B|sin (14)

The dire tion of C is given by the well-known 'right hand thumb rule'. The
right hand thumb rule states that the dire tion of the ve tor produ t is
perpendi ular to both A and B and is given by the dire tion of the thumb
when the right hand is held in a position as it were holding an imaginary
sti k with the thumb along the dire tion of the sti k. The hand is held in
su h a way that the ngers are urled from A to B.

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Ve tor Manipulation

It is important to note that the ross produ t is anti- ommutative.

Figure: Right hand thumb rule and the ross produ t

C = A B = B A
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Ve tor Manipulation

Cross produ t and unit ve tors

ax ax = ay ay = az az = 0 (15)
In all these ases sin = 0 ( = 0.) Furthermore, ax ay is in the dire tion
of az sin e the magnitudes of both ax and ay are both 1,
therefore,|ax ay | = |ax | |ay | sin = 1. Therefore

ax ay = az
And sin e the ross produ t is anti- ommutative

ay ax = az (16)
Similarly by this type of reasoning we an easily obtain the other produ ts.

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Ve tor Manipulation

We an also memorise these relations by using the gure. If we go along


the dire tion of the arrow, ax ay = az or az ax = ay . But if we go
against the dire tion of the arrow, a negative sign is required:

ay ax = az or ax az = ay

Figure: Figure to al ulate the ross produ ts between unit ve tors

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Ve tor Manipulation

Example

Let A = 2ax + 4ay and B = ax + 7ay whi h lie on the x-y plane. Find
A B. Corroborate that |A B| = AB sin and perpendi ular to both A
and B. Solution:

A B = (2ax + 4ay ) (ax + 7ay )


= 2ax ax + 2ax 7ay + 4ay ax + 4ay 7ay
= 0 + 14az + (4az ) + 0 = 10az

It is lear from this example that A B is perpendi ular to both A and B


and has a magnitude of 10. To al ulate the value of , the angle between
A and B we pro eed as follows, using the dot produ t.

A B = (2ax + 4ay ) (ax + 7ay ) = 30 = AB os

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Ve tor Manipulation

p
A = 22 + 42 = 20
p
B = 12 + 72 = 50
We al ulate next using the dot produ t formula

= AB = os1 [(A B)/AB ] = os1 (30/ 1000) = 18.41
We now use the ross produ t formula. sin(18.41 ) = 0.3159 with A and B
al ulated earlier


|A B| = AB sin = 50 20 0.3159
= 31.62 0.3159
= 10

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Ve tor Manipulation

Cross produ t in re tangular oordinates

A B = (Ax ax + Ay ay + Az az ) (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )
= Ax ax (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )
+Ay ay (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )
+Az az (Bx ax + By ay + Bz az )
= (Ax By az Ax Bz ay ) + (Ay Bx az + Ay Bz ax )
+(Az Bx ay Az By ax )
Finally olle ting terms

A B = (Ay Bz By Az )ax
+(Az Bx Bz Ax )ay
+(Ax By Bx Ay )az

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Ve tor Manipulation

The ross produ t may be written as



Ay Az Az Ax Ax Ay
A B = ax + ay

+ az



By Bz Bz Bx Bx By

simplifying this be omes



ax ay az

A B = Ax Ay Az

Bx By Bz

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Ve tor Manipulation

Non-Asso iativity of the ross produ t

Another aspe t of ve tors whi h we must be sure to remember is that the


ross produ t is not asso iative. for example

(ax ax ) az = 0 az = 0
and

ax (ax az ) = ax (ay ) = az
So learly

(ax ax ) az 6= ax (ax az )
Or, in general:

(A B) C 6= A (B C)

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Ve tor Manipulation

S alar triple produ t


Ax Ay Az

A B C = Bx By Bz

Cx Cy Cz

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