THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING

WALTER DILL SCOTT

www.longlostmarketingsecrets.com

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THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING

www.longlostmarketingsecrets.com

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www.longlostmarketingsecrets.com

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com 4 .longlostmarketingsecrets.Contents Page I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI Introduction Memory: Remembering and Forgetting The Feelings and the Emotions Appeals to the customer’s sympathy Human Instincts Suggestion The Will: An Analysis The Will: Variety of Action Habit The Habit of Reading Advertisements The Laws of Progressive Thinking Attention Value of Small and of Large Spaces Mortality Rate of Advertising The Psychology of Food Advertising The Unconscious Influence in Street Railway Advertising The Questionnaire Method Illustrated by an Investigation Upon Newspapers 5 8 17 26 34 49 56 63 75 79 86 91 103 108 124 129 www.

For him the future is full of possibilities that never have been realized in the past. For. His power of execution often surpasses that of his imagination. like the teacher. Advertisements were keyed. Business system was used in ascertaining the amount of circulation. however diverse their occupation may at first sight appear. the advertisement writer. This fact was seen by wise advertisers and such conceptions began to appear in print and to be heard in conventions of advertising men some ten years ago. however. and other means were employed to discover the exact value of each style of advertisements and of each medium in which advertisements were inserted. At a time when advertisements were poorly constructed and given limited circulation. but in and of themselves they were not sufficient to place advertising upon a scientific basis. and he is frequently surprised to see his vision realized in less time than he had even dared to hope. As it is the human mind that advertising is dealing with. and although each expects to see advertising established on psychological principles. Unless it does this it is useless and destructive to the firms attempting it. The advertiser may well be regarded as typical of the class of American business men.” Printers’ Ink seemed to assume that it would be many years before we were “more enlightened”. when we are a little more enlightened.” www. These improvements have been as beneficial as the most sanguine could have hoped for. a day-dreamer. One such prophecy appeared in Printers’ Ink for October 1895: “Probably.com 5 . Artists were employed to construct appropriate illustrations and skilled typographers vied with each other in setting up the text in the most artistic and legible manner possible. In Publicity. and hence did not look to see advertisers actually turning to psychology in the immediate future. but one who uses his imagination in formulating purposes which lead to immediate action. which is simply a systematic study of those same minds which the advertiser is seeking to influence. we have a more hope prophet.I Introduction The typical business man is an optimist. will study psychology. its only scientific basis is psychology. certain enterprising men saw the possibilities of advertising ad began systematically to improve the whole profession of advertising. the author in Publicity hopes to see that day in the near future: “The time is not far away when the advertising writer will find the inestimable value of a knowledge of psychology. Occasionally one who was especially optimistic prophesied that at some time – perhaps in the distant future – advertisers would turn to psychology for guidance. for March 1901. Advertising has as its one function the influencing of human minds.longlostmarketingsecrets. He is not. the advertising writer and the teacher have one great object in common – to influence the human mind.

Elaborate investigations were undertaken and carried through to a successful issue. one article has this significant heading. must carefully study psychology. and as the manufacturer’s vocabulary is composed of many terms which were but recently technical terms used only by scientists.Previous to the appearance of this article (March. These efforts on the part of the advertisers were successful in stimulating several professional psychologists to attempt such a presentation. and he must know the laws of the human mind. either personally or through his advertising department. so the advertising world has turned its attention to the subject of psychology. The leading advertising journals in America and Europe sought and published articles on the subject. The successful advertiser.longlostmarketingsecrets. They contained a vast amount of technical material devoid of interest to the layman who struggled through the pages. Investigators in the various parts of the country and among different classes of society united in their efforts to solve some of the knotty problems which are ever before the business man who desires publicity for his commodity.com 6 . “Scientific advertising follows the laws of psychology. intelligent and successful advertisers began to devote attention to a systematic study of psychology. . In a recent issue of Printers’ Ink (July 24. Psychologists turned to the study of advertising in all its phases while. The changed attitude of the advertising world can be judged by reference to current advertising literature. He must know what will create an interest and what will fall flat. 1907). He must be a student of human nature. As a result of all these various efforts more has actually been accomplished during the last five years than the typical optimist even imagined. and many words formerly used only by professional psychologists are today commonplace with advertisers. This condition made it quite difficult for the business man to extract that part of the subject which was of value to him. Psychological laboratories were fitted up to make various tests upon advertisements. on the other hand. Soon addresses were made before advertising clubs upon the specific topic of the psychology of advertising. 1901) there had been no attempt to present psychology to the business world in a usable form. As far as the advertiser could see all psychologies were written with a purely theoretical end in view. Another article by a leading advertiser contains the following sentences. “PSYCHOLOGICAL”. . Several of the leading advertising magazines and advertising agencies sought to father a movement which would result in such a presentation of the subject of psychology that it would be of use to the intelligent and practical advertiser. He must understand how the human mind acts. Several of the recent books on advertising and general business promotion deal more or less extensively with the subject.” www. . He must know what repels and what attracts. Just as the manufacturing word has been compelled to turn its attention to physics and chemistry.

all persons had spoken of the study of psychology as something which might be brought about in the future. The psychology of advertising has reached a stage in its development where all that has thus far been accomplished should be reconsidered. Incidentally it is hoped that the present volume will be welcomed by many who have no especial interest in business promotion.com 7 . while others are so important that they should be collected in a place and form such that they would be available to the largest possible number of readers. The general reader will derive benefit from the reading of the book. The professional psychologist will be interested in the contribution made to his science from a study of mind in a particular field of activity. for he will be able to grasp some of the most fundamental psychological principles because they are here presented in concrete and comprehensible form. In articles appearing on the subject before the last few years. Contributions are scattered through the files of a score of American and European publications.Although italics were not used in the original. www. Some articles appearing under this head are of minor significance. In view of this condition of affairs the author has assumed the pleasing task of systematizing the subject of the psychology of advertising and of presenting it in such a form that it will be of distinct practical value to all who are interested in business promotion. the work of the psychologist is not yet available to the business world because the material has not been presented in any one accessible place. The worthless should be discarded and the valuable brought out into due prominence in systematic arrangement. the word “must” is here put in italics to draw attention to the actual emphasis used by the author. Although the attitude of the advertising world has changed and even though much has been done to present psychology in a helpful form to the advertisers. At the present time the writers are asserting that the successful advertiser must study psychology and that he must do it at once.longlostmarketingsecrets.

neither does it contain all the details of the actual experience. but it is the part which persists. and his and their results are fairly well established and definite. Our memories gradually fade with time.com 8 . I saw the people. This knowledge of former impressions. the rattle of passing vehicles. After two seconds the memory fades very rapidly. A year hence I shall probably have forgotten all about it. in imagination. They have found that our memories are at their best two seconds after the experience has taken place. Since he published his thesis many others have taken up the work. or states of mind. We forget rapidly during the first few seconds. I heard the shouts of teamsters. in my imagination. we can live over the same experiences and can recognize them as related to our past. in imagination. live over the same experience and. so that in twenty minutes we have forgotten more of an experience than we shall forget in the next thirty days. To-day I can. so that. minutes and hours. Yesterday I was on the corner of Fifth avenue and Lake street in Chicago. of Germany. for it is what we and they remember for longer times also. and the cards. I remember that there were teamsters and that they were shouting at their horses. I cannot remember how the teamsters looked nor what sort of cries they were uttering. As I try to recall the street scene yesterday I find that many of the details have escaped me. What we remember for twenty minutes and what we can get others to remember for that time is of great concern. I am therefore remembering my past experience. as I do so I recognize the experience as belonging to my past. and the roar of elevated trains. is that is known as memory. see their faces or hear their voices as I did yesterday. was the first to try to find out exactly how fast our memories do fade. www. This is an act of productive imagination. In short. as the memory fades very slowly after the first day. It is not likely that any memory is so vivid as the original experience. the wagons. my memory has faded. Immediately after crossing the street I could have described the scene much better than I could now. What we remember a day is a very small part of our experiences. I can imagine how the jungles of Africa must look. Professor Ebbinghouse. but I cannot.II Memory Impressions once received leave traces of themselves. and has faded rapidly. which have already once dropped from consciousness.longlostmarketingsecrets.

pay the strictest possible attention to it. how can I improve my own memory? Second. Durer. and are not soon forgotten. Repeat it One’s Own in all the ways possible – say it over aloud. At a later time I was compelled to learn the approximate date of the fall of Constantinople. the invention of printing. First. If you apply the first principle and repeat the name. At that time this was to me an entirely disconnected fact. I connected them all with the date of the discovery of America. and still the name may be retained for a long period of time. Such a list of unconnected dates would have cost me much unprofitable effort if I had been compelled to learn them separately. classify and systematize. As it was. In this way the process of learning will be so reduced that a single repetition may be enough. The things which we think over. the time of the activity of Copernicus. The details of a business or professional life which are connected in a series are not hard to learn. As a boy at school I learned by repetition that Columbus discovered America in 1642. The second principle is intensity. The first Four Principles principle is repetition. are the things we commit most easily and retain the longest. look at Memory it after it is written. Titian. the application of the compass to navigation. but every one can improve his memory by the observance of a few wellknown and thoroughly established principles. and saw that these men and these events were all contemporaneous and together made what is known as the Renaissance. then you should pay the maximum amount of attention to every repetition.longlostmarketingsecrets. and so cost me great effort of attention and frequent repetition before I had it thoroughly memorized.etc. It was not associated with anything else. recall it at frequent periods and until it has become thoroughly fixed in your mind. think how it sounded when you heard the name. how can I so present my advertisements that they will be remembered by the public? It is not possible for a person for a poor memory to develop a good one. www. If you want to remember a name. Holbein.com 9 . A man may have no trouble from forgetting the details of his business or profession. Michelangelo. If you want to make sure that you of Improving will remember a name. write it. The third principle is that of association.What the practical business man wants to know about memory can be put in two questions. say it over to yourself. and thus get associated with our previous experience. yet may have a poor memory for all events not thus associated.

figures and similar data. which is 1391.1) is frequently repeated in identical form. indeed if an attempt is made to apply it too frequently. One who has an unretentive memory cannot possibly change it my any method of training. It is fairly well established now that one’s native retentiveness is unchangeable. When the question arises. There is probably no one who does not make frequent use of it in attempting to remember names. All he can do is to improve on his method of acquiring and recording knowledge. The third principle given above – association – is the one by far of the most importance. It is. yet it is the principle used by most persons who have “memory training” to sell. Thus the reproduced advertisement of Vitalized Phosphites (No.how to construct an advertisement so that the reader cannot forget it. It may be a crude and an Remembered? expensive method. Which The advertisement that is repeated over and over Advertisements again at frequent intervals gradually becomes fixed in are the memory of the reader. by thinking how unfortunate it is to have such a number to remember – 13 is supposed to be an unlucky number.com 10 . . We cannot forget this advertisement. We appreciate the value of a good memory. a method which was used by the Roman orators and has been used more or less ever since. but it has taken too many repetitions to secure the desired results.The fourth principle is that of ingenuity. dates. we find that the question is answered by the proper application of the principles enunciated above. This method gains added effect by repeating one or more characteristic features. however. This method is applicable only to disconnected facts which we find difficulty in remembering by the methods given before.longlostmarketingsecrets. The fourth principle is the one of least general application. for she is a short woman. it becomes worse than useless. I remember the name of Miss Low. I remember a friend’s telephone. and 91 is seven times 13. but it seems to be effective. This condition of affairs has made “memory training” a profitable business for the fakir. and by changing some of the features at each appearance of the advertisement. www. and are willing to pay any one who will tell us how to train ours.

and hence the effect of repetition is secured. www.longlostmarketingsecrets. This characteristic feature causes us to associate all of the series. there is sufficient diversity. Similar statements could be made of a host of other excellent advertisements. At the same time.2) is but one of a series of advertisements in all of which the colored chef appears prominently.The reproduced advertisement of Cream of What (No. because the colored chef is never represented in the same way in any two of the advertisements as they appear from month to month.com 11 .

The second cover-page is valuable because it is so likely to be seen first. and even to be seen by those who do not look at the advertisements in the back of the magazine – if such persons still exist! The intensity of the impression which an advertisement makes is dependent upon the response which it secures from the readers. The back cover-page is valuable because when the magazine is lying on a table the back cover-page is likely to be turned up. Such action is vital in assisting the memory of the readers. In any experience it is the first and the last parts of it that impress us most and that get fixed most firmly in our memories. The bright-colored inserts and advertisements run in colors are remembered better than others. Likewise the first and the last parts of any particular advertisement (unless very short) are the parts that we remember best.The advertisement which makes an intense impression is one which the advertiser does not easily forget. else they make the whole attempt seem ridiculous. but a few examples will serve to Principle make the method plain. The first and the last advertisements in a magazine are the most effective. The advertisement of Ponpeian Massage Cream (No. because they make a greater impression on us. even though it were nothing more than the writing of a postal card.3) will not soon be forgotten by those who are induced to send the name of their dealer to the Pompeian Manufacturing Company Rhymes and alliterations are rhetorical forms which seem to be of great assistance when we attempt to commit verses. and even when we do not want to remember them the rhythm may make such an impression that we can’t forget them. The pedagogue would call this action the “motor response”. and the advertisement falls flat.com 12 . but in addition to that it is a valuable page because it is likely to be the first or the last seen by most readers. www. The methods for securing The Second this intensity are many. The “Spotless Town” is an illustration of a successful application of this psychological fact. Bright colors impress us more Applied than dull ones. There is much poor advertising being done at the present time in a futile attempt to produce a successful imitation of the “Spotless Town”.longlostmarketingsecrets. An advertisement which secures a response sufficient to lead to the writing of a postal card has a chance of being remembered which is incomparably greater than that of other advertisements. The rhythm and the alliteration must be excellent.

5) impresses some persons as silly.com 13 . it is unwise to attempt to present the humorous side of life. www. the result is ludicrous and futile. Furthermore. but does not to others. and unless the advertisement is extremely clever. although it is highly valuable when well done. The reproduced advertisement of Rough on Rats (no. that which impresses one person as funny may seem silly to another. The reproduced advertisement of Gold Dust (No.4) seems funny to some. Advertising is a serious business. while others think it funny. But unless the attempt is successful.longlostmarketingsecrets.Anything humorous or ridiculous – even a pun – is hard to forget.

I find that both advertisements have made such an intense impression on me that they have stuck in my memory.com 14 . even if he does it unconsciously. whether it causes us to smile or to sympathize with the sorrows of others. whether the thing be ugly or beautiful. The advertisement of Gold Dust (No. Personally. The writer of advertisements must consider the principle of association. and ordinarily does so. for he immediately associated the bond of which this statement is made with the group of similar bonds. The statement that the bond bears four per cent. but as a modification or addition of something already in his mind. and so that statement is remembered.4) pleases me and convinces me that the product is good. and hence is a good form of advertising. I should forget a recipe for a cake before I had finished reading it. That which excites an emotion is not easily forgotten. The arguments of an advertisement should be such as are easily associated with the personal interests and with the former experience of the majority of the readers. This is best done by appealing to those interests and motives which are the ruling principles of the reader’s thinking. not as an isolated fact. does not convince me of the desirability of the goods. if it can convince the reason at the same time that it stimulates the feelings.Anything will be remembered which awakens our emotions. and I see no prospect of being able to forget them soon. Interest is not forgotten by capitalist. The Third He should present his argument in such a form that it will Principle naturally and easily be associated by the reader with his Applied own former experience. and does not stand out as an isolated fact. but in connection with a whole series of facts which are constantly before his mind. It does not please me. but to cook it is full of interest. www.longlostmarketingsecrets. The advertisement of Rough on Rats amuses me because it is so excessively silly.

although most of Applied the attempts in this direction have been futile. and if they were the purchasers of boys’ stockings. (No. it would be an excellent advertisement. “Give your boy a lesson in the value of money and the growth of interest”. In reality the men do not buy the stockings. Thus “Uwanta” is recognised as an imitation and is neither impressive nor pleasing. etc.longlostmarketingsecrets.6) is in direct violation of this principle. and allows you the use of the principal.The reproduced advertisement of the Buster Brown Stocking Co.com 15 . gold bonds”. more than any bank pays. “Syrup of Figs” is a name for a patent medicine which is easily remembered. It pleases by its very ingenuity. but not to a mother: “Five per cent. although the product contains no figs. “Keen Kutter” is a name for tools which is not easily forgotten. The following expressions appeal powerfully to a manufacturer. “Clip your coupons and make money”. The advertisement was evidently written by a man. The principle of ingenuity can have but an occasion application but there are instances when it has been employed with great The Fourth effectiveness. It would be remembered by men. and appears to men as being a good advertisement. and so the advertisement appeals to those who have nothing to do with the business – except those who pay for the advertisement. “This is one per cent. Thus “Uneeda” is a name which cannot be Principle forgotten. www. allowing you a share of our profits”.

His street number was 33. and the cost of his suits. and at the same time fixed in their minds his name and address.A tailor in Chicago advertised himself and his shop in such an ingenious way that no one could read his advertisement and forget the essential features of it.longlostmarketingsecrets. www. his telephone number was the same. for they are the laws which have been found to govern the minds of all persons as far as their memories are concerned.com 16 . The number 33 stood out prominently as the striking feature of his advertisement and impressed many as being unique. There were 33 letters in his name and address. The four principles enunciated above for impressing advertisements on the minds of possible customers are capable of unlimited application. and will not disappoint any. He sold a business suit for $33.

antipathy. the shoulders are thrown back and the head elevated. we www. on the other hand. are not directly Pain detected without the use of delicate recording instruments. but also to express such pleasurable emotions as joy. We open up and become subject to the influences in our environment. etc. love. and gives a feeling of being stifled. These effects are not sufficiently recognized and yet they are of special significance to the advertiser. interferes with the rhythm of breathing. With pain the limbs shrivel in size and this is accompanied by a feeling of depression. Being pleased with what we are receiving. by joy and grief. which greatly enhances the already pleasing experience. Under the influence of pleasure the efficiency of the heart-action is greatly enhanced. hindered and checked in carrying out our purposes. accompanying the physical change. such as fear. but they affect directly the action of all the voluntary and involuntary muscles of the body. etc. Some of Pleasure and these changes. We feel more like undertaking great tasks and have more faith in our ability to accomplish them. makes the lung action less deep. Effects of These effects are widespread and important. pride. This increase of blood supply gives us a feeling of buoyancy and increased vitality. Pleasures not only give greater strength to the voluntary muscles. The word pain or displeasure will likewise be used to express simple painful sensations and also emotions which involve pain. For the sake of brevity we shall use the word pleasure not merely to express such simple pleasures as tasting an appetizing morsel. Displeasure. Pain decreases muscular strength and gives us a feeling of weakness and lack of confidence. Pleasures actually cause the limbs to increase in size. and we are all familiar with them. is a feeling of expansiveness which services to heighten the pleasure. jealousy.III The Feelings and the Emotions We all know that is meant by pleasure and pain. Pleasing experiences increase our muscular strength and cause us to feel like men. In pleasure the hands go out from the body. benevolence. and. Every pleasurable and every painful experience has a direct reflex effect on the bodily functions and also on the action of the mind. They are known only by experience. hate.com 17 . These feelings and emotions are not better understood after we have attempted to define them.longlostmarketingsecrets. even though significant. In the present chapter we are interested in the effect which pleasure and pain and the different emotions have upon the mind and the body of the person experiencing them. gratitude.

contented. In the present chapter the importance of pleasing the advertiser by appealing to his esthetic sense will be emphasized. but that his thinking is influenced by his present state of feelings. There are. are not easily influenced and are in a suspicious attitude toward everything which is proposed. means the pleasing by flattery of the one from whom it is desired to obtain a favor.become receptive and expand that we may take in more of the same sort. speaking Customers from the view-point of the defendant. We are prompt to act and confident of success. If the juryman were discontented and hungry. The American slang expression. It is true that the artistic judgement is not possessed equally by all. and suggestions will be given of concrete methods which are available to the advertiser in appealing to the sense of the beautiful. Dickens says: “A Through Their good. The methods are open to the advertiser are relatively few and hence all available means should be employed most assiduously. or at least it is not equally developed in all. These actions of the body are reflected in the mental attitude. When in pain we question the motives of even our friends and only suspicious thoughts are called up in our minds. certain combinations of sounds which are Appreciated universally called harmonies and others which are Though Not called discords. The modern business man does his utmost to minister to the pleasure of the customers in his store. “jolly up”.longlostmarketingsecrets. To be beautiful a thing must possess certain characteristics which awaken a feeling of appreciation in the normal person. and are likely to see everything in a favourable light. We refuse to receive suggestions. There are certain combinations of Understood colors which are regarded as pleasing and others which www. In “Pickwick Papers”. In pain the hands are drawn in towards the chest and the whole body draws in within itself as if to protect itself against outside influences. well-breakfasted juryman is a capital Feelings thing to get hold of. by courteous treatment and by every other possible method. We become extremely suggestible.” Here Dickens expresses the fact that man is not pre-eminently logical. Keen observers of men have not been slow in Appealing to profiting by these facts. In pain we are displeased with the present experiences and so withdraw within ourselves to keep from being acted upon. The same pains must be taken by the advertiser in his attempts to please those to whom his appeals are made. The merchant attempts to please the customer by the appearance of the store. Beauty however.com 18 . Discontented or hungry jurymen always find for the plaintiff. He knows that they will place a larger order if they are feeling happy than if they are feeling otherwise. he would be feeling pessimistic and suspicious and would believe in the guilt of the defendant. These brief statements of facts serve to call to the reader’s attention the mental attitude in which the person is placed by the influence of pleasure and pain. In pleasure our minds expand.

It seems almost absurd to suppose that the position of the point of division in a straight line would have anything to do with a feeling of pleasure. The colorist knows how to produce pleasing effects with colors.1. look at No. you prefer to have the division come above the middle.are displeasing. Perhaps the simplest thing that could be suggested which would have an element of esthetic feeling connected with it is the bisection of a straight line. but. Look at the lines carefully and you will probably feel that the lines A.com 19 . He has acquired this knowledge which others do not possess. For this reason the line E. The uninitiated does not possess such knowledge or ability. appears to be divided into two slightly unequal parts and the lower section seems to be the smaller. and others which are displeasing. as might be expected. In judging of vertical distances. Such. but he appreciates the harmony of tones when he hears it. The man without a musical education does not possess such knowledge. The musician knows what tones will harmonize and which ones will not. The line D is divided at a point slightly above the middle. but it appears to be divided into two exactly equal parts. which is divided into two equal parts. however. the esthetic feeling is not very pronounced. B and C are divided in a more pleasing manner than F. G and H.longlostmarketingsecrets. As an illustration. There are likewise certain geometrical forms or space arrangements which are beautiful. if a straight vertical line is to be divided into two unequal parts. This is not an altogether unimportant discovery. Many persons would say that the line D www. although he is able to appreciate the work of the artist and can distinguish it from the work of the novice. we over-estimate the upper half. although they are able to appreciate his work. In other words. is certainly the case. Here we have a series of straight lines divided by short cross lines. The artist knows how to produce pleasing effects with symmetry and proportion of space forms.

Any division of a line which approximates this golden section is pleasing. E now seems to be divided symmetrically and is more pleasing than D. B and C cease to be more pleasing than those of F. The ratio of the smaller section of the line to the larger section in C and F is approximately that of 3 to 5. The two parts of the lines A. is most pleasing. or unity. The most pleasing division of a horizontal line is that of perfect symmetry and the next most pleasing is that of the “golden section”. the result is pleasing of the line is divided into two sections which are respectively 3 and 5 inches long. The symmetry about this division pleases us. In vertical lines we seem to prefer the emphasis on the diversity. in the divisions according to the ration of the golden section diversity is secured. which is divided symmetrically.is more pleasing than E. A line is pleasing if its two parts are not too much alike and not too different. which are divided according to the ratio of the “golden section”. Line D seems to be perfectly symmetrical – its two parts appear equal. They have divisions which do not seem to be too much alike. If you hold No. the lines will all be changed from vertical to horizontal. C and H appear too unequal and the two parts of Line E appear too nearly equal. Unity and diversity are essential elements in all esthetic pleasures. The exact ratio is that of 1 to 1. Although this fraction seems very formidable. G and H. B. Lines C and F are very pleasing.longlostmarketingsecrets. which is approximately that of 3 to 5. That is to say. while E appears as if an unsuccessful attempt has been made to divide the line into two equal parts. for most persons the symmetrical divisions of E seem to be more pleasing than those of even C and F. The parts are not so different that they destroy the feeling of unity in the line. it is the arithmetical expression of a simple proportion which is this : the short section is to the longer section as the longer section is to the sum of both sections. The divisions will now assume a new relation. www. while in horizontal lines the exact symmetry. In these divisions of straight lines into two equal parts unity is secured. In fact. and the unity is not entirely lost. so the divisions give diversity. The divisions of lines A.618 times as great as the upper. which is known as the “golden section”. and most persons would say that this line. is more pleasing than A or H. if the lower section is 1.1 sideways. which are not divided symmetrically. if a vertical line is eight inches long. but a division which approximates the symmetrical division (and is not quite symmetrical) is displeasing. Exact experimentation and measurements of artistic productions show that there is a remarkable preference for this ratio. for D appears to be divided into two equal pats.618. A line is divided most artistically.com 20 .

The rectangle possesses both unity and diversity. some have a preference for the square.com 21 . or else the height is to the width approximately as 3 is to 5. Most persons say that the rectangle is the most pleasing. In most of these objects we find a very decided tendency to make the height equal the width. Careful measurement of such structures has revealed a striking tendence to approximately what we have learned as the “golden section”. In the square we have a very decided symmetry. Think of the shape of the flags of all nations. if window panes. The architect is called upon to decide this question every time he constructs a building in which the artistic effect plays any part – and it always should. In fact. it was originally called the “golden section of architecture”. playing cards. cathedrals. Is a rectangle more pleasing than a square? (For Divisions of the sake of brevity of expression we disregard the fact that a Forms square is a particular form of a rectangle.2 The height of the rectangle is to its base as 3 to 5. A straight line drawn through the centre of the figure from any angle divides the figure into two equivalent parts. The individual rooms not infrequently bear the same ratios as the height and width of the entire building. museums and all other structures in which the artistic element plays a large part. The square seems to possess much symmetry but little diversity. sheets of paper. envelopes. In the rectangle the height is not equal to the length. Think of the temples. because it was discovered to uniformly in architecture. of all the picture frames which you have ever seen. By investigating a very large number of such decisions we may be able to discover something of value. Each line is equal to every other line. books.) Men have been called on to decide this question times without number.The discovery of the most pleasing proportion between the parts of straight lines would be of decidedly more importance of we should find that the same ratio holds for the parts of more complicated Artistic figures. Look at the square and the rectangle in No. but a line drawn through the centre of the figure divides it into two equivalent parts. cottages.longlostmarketingsecrets. periodicals and all other objects in which the shape is determined to a greater or less extent by artistic demands. In a great proportion of these the height is not equal to the width. mirrors. palaces. www.

the result is not satisfactory. greater than its height appears to be a perfect square and so is more pleasing than the perfect square. Next in the approximation to the standard is the division into upper and lower halves. lower right and lower left) approximates most nearly the “golden section”. the figure is displeasing because it looks like an imperfect square.com 22 . If one dimension of a rectangle exceeds the other by more than two hundred and fifty per cent. In choosing this space. Thus. greater or less than its base. a rectangle whose base is three per cent. Advertisements although he may be entirely unconscious of any such intention. This is accounted for because we overestimate the height of a square about three per cent. we call the buildings skyscrapers and regard them as eyesores to the American cities. greater than the height is more pleasing than the perfect square. A building whose width is many times its height is usually ugly and is designated as a shed. When we consider that the ratio of one dimension to the other is but a minor element in the total esthetic effect. The fact that a right or left half-page may be next to reading www. If the height of a rectangle is approximately eighteen per cent. and the last division into right and left halves.. The same holds true of a triangle also.A very careful investigator of the esthetic value of the different space forms gives some interesting results as the fruits of his labours. An ellipse that is too much like a circle is much less pleasing than an ellipse in which the smaller diameter is to the greater one as 3 is to 5. Thus in an ordinary magazine the full page and the ordinary quarter-page (the upper right. the effect is pleasing because the difference is great enough to make it evident that the figure was not meant for a square. That which has been said of the square and the rectangle holds equally true for the circle and the ellipse. Thus the rectangle whose base is three per cent. This order of esthetic effect is also the order of frequency of choice of space. The difference between the two dimensions seems to become too great and the unity of the figure is weakened.longlostmarketingsecrets. does the advertiser take into consideration the relation of the height and width which will produce the most pleasing effect? Artistic Form He certainly does and the space he chooses meets the For conditions of esthetic pleasure as given above. but the surprising this is the lack of more exceptions. The space used by an advertiser is usually a rectangle. we are not surprised that we find exceptions to the conclusions reached in the foregoing. next comes the horizontal quarter. upper left. and the result is more pleasing than it is for any other ratio of base to height.. If the difference in the two dimensions of the rectangle becomes as great as forty per cent. and if the disproportion becomes great because of the excessive height. A circle is a pleasing form which pleases because of its symmetry and regularity.. Buildings that exceed in height the ratio as given here do not look beautiful. we have the ratio of the “golden section”. If one dimension of the rectangle exceeds the other approximately sixty per cent.

3). and you will probably chose the spaces in the order as indicated above. Such an arrangement of the vertical subdivisions is certainly more pleasing than equal subdivisions would be. The artistic subdivisions of spaces follow the laws of symmetry and the proportion as given above.) Some advertisers have used narrow spaces which extend entirely across the page. As a typical example of Of bilateral symmetry as well as pleasing proportion in an Advertisements advertisement we reproduce herewith the advertisement of the Butler Paper Company (No.com 23 . and diversity is secured. The line drawn vertically through this advertisement divides it into two symmetrical parts. Dotted liens are drawn to indicate the vertical divisions. although such shapes might be striking. www. Such symmetry as this is Subdivisions called bilateral symmetry. Almost every artist production can be subdivided into two equivalent parts by drawing a vertical line Artistic through the middle of it. Turn over the pages of advertisements in any magazine and look at the different spaces to see which class of spaces pleases you most and which least. The horizontal divisions are strictly bilateral symmetry. because of their oddity. (No mention has been made of small advertisements. Every subdivision of the display and of the text is centred. It is to be hoped that no publisher will allow the pages of his magazine to be chopped up into vertical quarters. but increase from the bottom upward in a pleasing proportion. In this we see that the sub-divisions are not equal.longlostmarketingsecrets.matter makes this division more popular than it otherwise would be. By such subdivisions as we have here the unity of the page is not destroyed. but what has been said of the larger spaces holds true of the smaller also. A marked display is found in the words “Snow Flake”. The effect has not been pleasing. which serve to divide the text into two unequal divisions which are related to each other in a pleasing proportion. for the effect would be most inartistic.

but these rectangles are as near to the ration of the golden section as could be produced in such a complicated figure as this. www. and the results would be recognized by the ordinary observer as less satisfactory. It is not necessary to exaggerate the importance of these laws of symmetry and proportion.com 24 . There are enough starts to give diversity. pleasing unity and diversity are both secured. while the darker border is too wide to meet the condition. but each star has since main subdivisions and six minor subdivisions. i. its proportions would vary from that of the “golden section”.It should be observed that this advertisement of the Butler Paper Company has employed an unusually large number of figures which are symmetrical and many more which are arranged on the ratio of the “golden section”. that of the golden section. and the starts are sufficiently alike to give unity to the border as a whole. If this advertisement were either lengthened or shortened. It is no accident that the conventional ellipse at the top of the advertisement is in the same ratio as the rectangles. The symmetry is pronounced in the twenty-four crystals or starts which are used as a decoration in the border. The while rectangle on which the text is found is slightly too long to be in the exact ratio of the golden section. They contribute an appreciable amount to the beautification of the advertising page and hence to the production of pleasure in the mind of every possible customer who sees the advertisement. There are twelve different kinds of stars. As a result.longlostmarketingsecrets.e.

There are other laws which are of importance in giving a pleasing effect to a page.longlostmarketingsecrets. Among such laws might be mentioned ease of comprehension. www. ease of eye-movement.Inasmuch as the pleasure of the customer is of such fundamental importance the advertiser cannot afford to neglect any element which contributes to the total pleasurable effect. These laws are of universal application in laying out advertisements and in choosing spaces. Space will not admit of a presentation of these principles but the purpose of this chapter has been attained if the reader has become impressed with the importance of pleasing the possible customer and with the significance of such simple laws as that of proportion and symmetry in accomplishing the desired result. appropriate point of orientation and utility.com 25 . and an appreciation of their importance by the advertisers of the land would lead to a beautification of the advertising pages of our publications and hence to an increase in their value to the advertiser.

If I desire to be prosperous. that of sympathy. I feel keen sympathy with the man who appears to be prosperous. If I am ambitious to be a well-dressed man. Their pleasure is not contagious so far as I am concerned. I seem to be immune from all their pleasures. After those of this inner circle of acquaintances.IV Appeals to the Customer’s Sympathy In the last chapter we saw the significance of pleasure and pain in inducting the proper attitude in the minds of the customers. www. They are not my ideals and I therefore have comparatively little sympathy with them. I feel sympathetically towards those who are well dressed. I feel no sympathy with the tree that is struck by the woodman’s axe nor for the stone that is crushed under the wheels of Sympathy a traction engine. Illustrations They are enjoying themselves immensely and probably From never had a better time in all their lives than they are Advertisements having as members of this touring party.com 26 . laughing and all the ordinary forms of expressing the emotions. namely. Thus I laugh and feel happy because those about me are rejoicing. If I desire to attain a certain station in life. with those who think the same thoughts that I think and who are in every way most like myself. We also saw how a pleasing effect could be produced by the judicious use of the laws of symmetry and proportion in constructing advertisements. (No. In the present chapter we shall continue the general discussion of the benefit of awakening the feelings and emotions and will confine the discussion to a single emotion. By sympathy we mean in general a particular mental attitude which is induced by the realization of the fact that some one else is going through that particular form of experience.1) I do not think of the old lady and gentleman as being of my class. I may feel sympathy for the mouse For Our whose nest is destroyed or for the horse that is cruelly Ideal Selves treated. I feel more sympathy for the higher animals (dogs and horses) than I do for the lower animals. In the advertisement of Thomas Cook & Co. and I weep because I see my friends weep. but as I look at them I am not pleased at all. The feelings awakened sympathetically are intense enough to cause weeping.longlostmarketingsecrets. for I believe their feelings are more like mine. We are not indifferent as to the objects upon which we bestow our sympathy. I sympathize with animals because I believe that they have feelings similar to mine. I feel sympathetically with those who appear to have attained my ambition. To a certain extent we seem to imagine ourselves as in the condition actually experienced by those about us and hence feel as we assume they must feel. my sympathy is greatest for those whom I might call my ideals. I have a certain amount of sympathy for all humanity. but I sympathize most with those of my own set or clique.

I have no desire to imitate their actions and become a member of Cook’s touring party.com 27 . www.longlostmarketingsecrets.

www. They seem to be enjoying the train immensely.In contract with this Thomas Cook advertisement that of the Santa Fe Railroad (No.com 28 . In every case of sympathy we imitate to a certain degree the objects of our sympathy. The two persons here represented approximate my ideals. I believe that they have good taste and if they choose the California Limited for their wedding trip that train would certainly be desirable for my trips too. to get aboard the train and enjoy its luxuries.longlostmarketingsecrets.e.2) may well be considered. These passengers on the Santa Fe stimulate me to imitate their action i.

com 29 .longlostmarketingsecrets.4 is a reproduction of an advertisement of a fat-reducing tablet. There are probably more great tragedies than comedies. www. and that the same holds true for their attendance upon dramatic representations.3 is a reproduced advertisement of a fat-reducing compound. but frequently there are comedies without any element of the tragic. but to me it is ridiculous. but it is true that the ordinary men and women read more comedy (including the comic in a so-called tragedy) than tragedy.No. The material advertised might be good for such persons as the illustration depicts. She certainly feels about the matter just as I should. which. and the illustration is that of a lady who at once begets my sympathy. and consequently it is easy for me to imagine myself in her stead and to feel the need for relief from obesity and to take the necessary steps to secure such relief. The fat lady in the illustration does not seem to make the best of a bad situation. it certainly must be worth considering. The tragedy and the comedy are forms of literature and of dramatic representations which have always been popular. The illustration is supposed to be ludicrous. as every corpulent person knows. She dressed in plaids. There is scarcely a tragedy without its comic parts. Both the lady and the gentleman are the kind of people who we do not admire. No. who are far from our ideals and who present but few elements of likeness to ourselves. but that is no reason for me to imitate their actions and become one with them in any line of action. serve but to increase the apparent size. I feel sorry for her and sympathize with her in her affliction. She is apparently making the best of a bad condition. If she is going to use the Howard Obesity Ointment.

In a political campaign the politician may relate the instances of wrong and oppression for which the opposing party is responsible. In raising money to found a charitable institution the philanthropist may tell of the squalor and misery of the persons in the district in which the institution is located. or else he may tell of the joys which the institution will bring into the lives of the persons concerned. and appeal for the funds to continue the already successful work. should follow. The hero (if it be the hero who suffers) is first introduced.In a comedy the rollicking fun may be introduced immediately. we are called upon to enter into his sorrows and to feel with him. it seems to me that when sympathy for sorrow is successfully awakened. or else he may tell of the prosperity and good cheer brought about by his own party. It certainly is questionable which method the politician. or else he may tell of the wonderful successes of the missionaries already on the field. and then after we feel acquainted with him and have an interest in him. it is more effective in bringing about the desired action than is sympathy for the joys of the persons concerned. It must www. the philanthropist.. etc. As far as my personal observations go.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 30 . In appealing for funds to carry on the missionary work in Africa the minister may describe the deplorable and almost hopeless condition of the natives. and the reader or the spectator may be brought into the spirit of the whole at once without danger of any shock to the sensibilities because of the suddenness of the introduction of the emotional element. the minister. In tragedy the reader or the spectator is usually introduced gradually into the emotional tone of the whole.

for allowing us to be insulted by such an audacious attack upon our sensibilities. but retrain it. We weep more readily with those who seem to have great cause for weeping. and in general loud or boisterous expressions of pleasure are not regarded as in good taste. Thus in No. This attitude towards he manifestations of sorrow often causes us to be offended by manifestations of suffering. and the creating of this interest may be the product of a long process of education. than for those who give way to their feelings. This attitude towards expressions of grief seems to be quite universal. that the persons for whom the appeal is being made in all cases are those for whom the hearers have more than a passing interest. it is not in good form to express grief at all. however. but the depiction of the rosier hues is more attractive to most people.com 31 . In fact. Culture and good breeding have decreed that we shall not express our griefs in the sight or hearing of others. We are not allowed to parade our sorrows before the gaze of the public. It seems to be assumed that everyone has sorrows enough of his own and therefore should not be called upon to share the sorrows of others. www.be remembered. It may also be true that these most successful pathetic appeals would be avoided in the future by the very persons who had been moved most effectively. The depiction of the darker sides of life may be very effective.longlostmarketingsecrets. if not with the publisher. Even in dramatic representations the expressions which accompany sorrow or pain are largely subordinated to apparent attempts to stifle such manifestations.5 there is an appeal made to our sympathy in such a ruse manner that we feel angered with the advertiser. and is taken so much as a matter of course that we feel offended when persons seeks to awaken our sympathy by any form of external manifestation. It is said that savages laugh more loudly than persons in civilized countries.

equally good results may be secured by representations of sorrow.6 is one of the most attractive Appeals to advertisements in the current issue of our magazines.7 sorrow is depicted in such a way that it succeeds in attracting the attention of the most visual reader of advertisements.longlostmarketingsecrets.One function of representations of feelings and emotions is to attract attention. Thus No.com 32 . Thus in No. As far as the attention value is concerned. Sympathy The smile is very contagious and the whole effect is so Attract clear and so pleasing that I can scarcely turn the page Attention without stopping to look at it. www.

it is the duty of advertising managers to see to it that the advertising pages of their publications are rendered attractive. The effect which would be produced on adjoining spaces by such advertisements as are shown in No. but he should refuse all objectionable advertisements.Bull. It may be attractive to such persons as need the cough syrup. It might be a very profitable advertisement for Dr. but there is certainly no question as to the advisability of appeals to the sympathies. by accepting it. but the advertising manager. www. I enter into the pleasure of the smiling young man more fully than I enter into the sorrow of the grief-stricken one. These Examples are sufficient to show that appeals to the sympathy. If you knew that one magazine carried advertisements which were pathetic in their illustrations and descriptions and that another magazine carried only bright and cheerful advertisements. It is quite possible that an advertisement which might be good for the individual advertiser would be injurious to the many who are occupying space in the same publication. but we are all human beings. The advertisement reproduced in No. but it may be so disgusting to all other persons that it renders them antagonistic and unsympathetic to all the advertisements seen for minutes after they have looked at this one. The time is coming.1. and each awakens its appropriate kind of sympathy.Nos.longlostmarketingsecrets. has reduced the value of all other advertising spaces. If such is the case. which one would you pick up and look through? I believe that most persons would choose the magazine advertisements that present only the more cheerful aspects of life.5 may be good for the firm placing it. Whether the dark or the bright side of life offers the most material for the advertiser may be questionable. We are not cold. 3 and 7 might also be questionable. and we enjoy the depictions of real life with all its joys and sorrows. may be used with great profit by the advertiser. The advertising manager should not only refuse objectionable advertisers. and yet it is difficult to tell which advertisement has the greater attentive value. with hearts in our breasts and blood in our veins. Personally. when the advertising pages of our publications must be edited as carefully as the pages of the literary department. either for pleasure or for pain. logical machines.6 and 7 are reproductions of advertisements which represent the opposite sorts of feelings. and indeed has come.com 33 .

and that every creature likes its own ways. the animal displays a stupidity which is most astounding. instead of revering you as a philosopher. The animal has but few instincts. If you ask him why he should want to eat more of what tastes like that. but in the presence of environments unusual to his species he is at a loss as to his actions. when they can. on soft beds rather than on hard floors? Why do they sit around the stove on a cold day? Why do they prefer saddle of mutton and champagne to hard-tack and ditchwater? Why does the maiden interest the youth so that every thing about her seems more important and significant than anything else in the world? Nothing more can be said that that these are human ways. Man possesses many more instincts than the animal and in addition has reason. An instinct is usually defined as the faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends. and these few are sufficient for his ordinary environment. when taking his dinner. It is in this sense that the term is used throughout this discussion. ever thinks of utility. and without previous education in the performance. No one can carefully observe the actions of animals without being impressed with both the similarities and the differences between human and animal actions. Why do men always lie down. unless she has some sort of a prophetic inkling of the results? We can only interpret the instincts of brutes by what we know of instincts in ourselves. but we are inclined to object to the application to human actions of anything which would obliterate the distinctions between human and animal actions. for example. and takes to following them as a matter of course. He eats because the food tastes good and makes him want more. Not one man in a billion. But it is not for the sake of their utility that they are followed but because at the moment of following them we feel that that is the only appropriate and natural thing to do. why do the various animals do what seem to us strange things. in the presence of such outlandish stimuli?” Why does the hen.com 34 . The following quotation from Professor James will undoubtedly prove of interest: “Now. which can control his instinctive actions and thus obliterate their instinctive appearance. subject herself to the tedium of incubating such a fearfully uninteresting set of objects as a nestful of eggs. without foresight of the ends. although such actions are fundamentally instinctive. In a new environment and in the presence of unfamiliar objects.longlostmarketingsecrets. on the other hand. and find that most of them are useful. Science may come and consider these ways. and we do not usually speak of the actions of man as being instinctive. In his native and ordinary environment the animal shows a cleverness of action which is hardly to be distinguished from that of a man. he would www.V Human Instincts We are all accustomed to think of the actions of animals as instinctive.

when pleased. however mysterious some animals’ instincts may appear to us. for others of his species. every instinctive action is directed toward some object. and any method is justifiable if it is true and if it is helpful in making clear the nature of instincts. that beautiful soul clad in that perfect form. the she-bear. to the bear. so far as to ask for the why of any instinctive human act. www. perhaps. To the metaphysician alone can occur such questions as: Why do we smile. which are preserved and furthered. in short. every impulse and every step of every instinct shines with its own sufficient light. rather than upon the manner of the preservation and furtherance. or is of service in any way. our instincts will appear no less mysterious to them. but the effect of the action is to bring the object into a relation which will make it helpful toward the preservation or furtherance of the interests of the individual or of the species. and that it groups these actions in such a way that they may be better understood. The connection between the savory sensation and the act it awakens is for him absolute and needs no proof but its own evidence.” “Thus we may be sure that. Thus when an animal acts according to his “hunting instinct” he acts toward his victim in such a way that he makes the victim service his interests in providing food for himself and. To the broody hen the notion would probably seem monstrous that there should be a creature in the world to whom a nestful of eggs was not the utterly fascinating and precious and never-to-be-too-much-sat-upon object which it is to her. And we may conclude that. As was said above.probably laugh at you as a fool. ‘Of course we smile. and not scowl? Why are we unable to talk to a crowd as we talk to a single friend? Why does a particular maiden turn our wits so upside-down? The common man can only say. The classification we propose is justified in that it is true to the facts. our classification will be based upon the interests of the individual. of course we love the maiden. what Berkeley calls a mind debauched by learning to carry the process of making the natural seem strange. of course our heart palpitates at the sight of the crowd. does each animal feel about the particular things it tends to do in the presence of particular objects. There is a great diversity in the methods of classifying instincts.com 35 . so palpably and flagrantly made from all eternity to be loved!’ “And so. to the animal which obeys it. probably. It is done for its own sake exclusively. and is the response of an individual directed toward some object. and that the knowledge thus secured may be utilized. and seems at the moment the only eternally right and proper thing to do. If instincts may be classified according as they tend toward the preservation and furtherance of the interests of the individual.longlostmarketingsecrets. It takes. To the lion it is the lioness which is made to be loved.” Every instinctive action is concrete and specific.

This is so intimately mine that the distinction The Material between it and myself or me cannot be definitely drawn. not because I think that thus I can preserve and further the development of the body. the right drink. etc. They choose the right food. I do not stop to consider whether it would be good for me or not. and that under normal conditions the choice would be such as would certainly Food conduce to the highest preservation and development of the Instincts body. To Preserve there is nothing to which the term seems so applicable as And Further to my body. choose it and make the appropriate effort to secure it.” and also this: ” … gives a relish you can’t resist.. when not perverted. because these things seem pleasant to them.” www. I find that my instinct is stronger than my reason in choosing what I shall eat. irrespective of their tastes.. rest. and.longlostmarketingsecrets. I Possessions avoid extremes of temperature. and decayed vegetables and seek beefsteak.The first interest of the individual which is instinctively preserved and further is his material possessions. He would hold that if that which is good for the body be presented in the proper light. that is sufficient. and that the bodily interests will best be furthered by passively following such instincts. drink. we shall. ripe fruit and fresh vegetables merely or principally because the former are injurious and the latter beneficial to my bodily health. The individual acts instinctively toward every material thing which he may call “my” or “mine”. He believed that our instincts are so strong and so true that. green fruit. they will act wisely in the presence of the appropriate stimuli. I cannot keep from desiring it. but because it is pleasant for me to act that way. exercise. such an instinct works wholly good. in general. temperature. I am a reasoning creature. I do not refuse to drink stagnant water and seek running water because I think it is best for my bodily health to do so. etc. I do not refuse grass.com 36 . the right companions. I decide on what I shall eat and drink according as it pleases or displeases me in the eating. but because I like the taste of running water and not of stagnant water. etc. but their instincts guide them so accurately that it seems to us they must do some of these things with that in view. The lower animals probably never do anything for the sake of the preservation and furtherance of their bodies. Nature has provided me with an instinctive desire to eat any and everything that tastes good. Of The Instinct all the material things to which I apply the term my or mine. Herbert Spencer was of the opinion that mankind could follow instinct in the choice of food. and it might be supposed that I would select from the different foods those which were best for my health..1) is this sentence: “ … it makes you eat. If I think anything would taste good. In the advertisement of Karo (no. If it tastes good. of necessity.

and it has been discovered that all forms of clothing can be advertised with profit by means of the printed page. and they seem good to us. but most persons have not yet been thus afflicted. temperature and touch) are the guardians of the body and whatever appears good to these sentinels is instantly desired. smell. The close personal attachment which we have for our clothing is beautifully brought out by Professor James: “We so appropriate our clothes and identify ourselves with them that there are few of us who. and are making health qualities secondary. clad in raiment perpetually shabby and having an ugly form always spotlessly attired. The sense organs (the organs of sight. We come to think of them almost as of our very bodies. would not hesitate a moment. www. and I feel confident that foot advertisements have greatly improved during recent years. but such are our human ways.I should buy Karo at once if I believed it would be so enticing that it would make me go contrary to my reason and east it even if my better judgement told me I should not. and ordinarily such things tend to the preservation and furtherance of the welfare of the body. but we choose them simply because they appear pleasing and not for ulterior ends. taste. The amount of time which most women and some men spend on the subject of dress might seem absurd to a critic. advertisements of clothing – all these have an unending attraction for us.longlostmarketingsecrets. Magazines devoted to fashions. while price is being emphasized less. sound. shopwindows decorated with beautiful garments.com 37 . if asked to choose between having a beautiful body. If I had been afflicted for years with indigestion I might do otherwise.” We are all greatly attracted by the protection and ornamentation supplied by clothing. My clothes are in a special sense mine. for they are emphasizing more and more the taste of the food. How a small child will cry if his hat blows off or is taken! In our modern forms of civilization this instinct is Clothing weakened by the fact that we have so many clothes and Instinct change them so often that we hardly have time to become attached to any article of raiment before it is discarded. Clothing advertisements are read with avidity.

so as to present the points of the nails outward. and the works in still another. Professor Silliman thus describes the hoardings of a wood-rat in California made in an empty stove of an unoccupied house: “I found the outside to be composed entirely of spikes.” There are very few persons who at some time in their lives have not made a collection of some sort. as they were originally stored in different parts of the house. Likewise the squirrel is said to collect nuts and store them away simply because that is the very action which is in itself more delightful than any other possible action. but they are instructive rather than ludicrous. but when the winter comes on and nothing better is at hand of course he will eat them. There are many species of animals which thus collect and store away articles. If he had not stored them he would have starved during the winter. all laid with symmetry. an old purse containing some silver. and. The little girls who make collections of buttons become exceedingly enthusiastic in their endeavors to make large collections.The most careful observers of the actions of bees assure us that the little industrious bee gathers and stores away the honey simply because she enjoys the process. it was purely accidental that his storing the nuts provided against starvation. several large plugs of tobacco. all of which must have been transported some distance. a large carving-knife. three in number. the interest is greatly heightened.com 38 . all the butcher’s knives. but is common to all adults. and not because she Hoarding foresees the necessity for the honey which will come upon And Proprietary her during the wintry months. If all the girls of the neighborhood are making collections too. matches and tobacco. the glass of the same watch in another. and in some cases – in an unusual environment – the results are very peculiar. It is rather remarkable how all the children of a neighborhood may become interested in collecting such things as cancelled postagestamps. Interlaced with the spikes were the following: about two dozen knives. to secure the most beautiful. Making collections and hoarding is not confined to children. Occasionally some individual becomes absorbed in the process more than others and the results seem to us to be ludicrous. The squirrel does not store the nuts so that he will have them to eat during the winter. forks and spoons. fork and steel. The following is a description of the www. composed of finely divided fibers of hemp-packing. with several large augers. if possible. but he did not store them in order that he might not be reduced to starvation. The outside casing of a silver watch was disposed of in one part of the pile. Such a thing would hardly be possible if the children did not have an instinctive desire to make collections. In the center of this mass was the next. of course.longlostmarketingsecrets. To say that the young bee has a prophetic insight of the coming winter is to attribute to Instinct it wisdom which is far above human wisdom. As far as the individual squirrel is concerned. nearly all the tools from the tool-closets.

”. battered tinware. There was nothing one could think of that wasn’t in that room. it certainly is not a complete explanation. We all seem inclined to keep bits of useless finery and pieces of useless apparatus. fractured pots. We all like to collect money. silk and straw. He does not desire that which money will secure. He imagines that he collects these things because of their usefulness.longlostmarketingsecrets. for. All persons everywhere are tempted by a possibility of gain. The man who could make such a collection as this is a miser. He had too great a zeal for collecting and hoarding. shelves were filled. as is so frequently done in the cheaper forms of advertising media. The octogenarian continues to collect money with unabated zeal. and he is despised for being such. cast-off clothing. but the ends were carefully saved and stored away.com 39 . pieces of common wire. and the objects are thrown away because their presence becomes a nuisance. although it may increase the tendency. The desire to gain seems to overcome the better judgement of the more ignorant public and they www. He may think that each thing he collects will come handy in some emergency. patched up with canvas and rope-yarns in the store room. Our proprietary instincts may be made use of by the advertiser in many ways. As a wood-sawyer. No miser is aware of the fact that he collects for the pleasure he gets out of the collecting and the keeping. although he may be childless. and bushels of such miscellany as is to be found only at the city ‘dump’. Indeed. and hung the ropes as full as they could hold of his curious collections. As a coal-heaver. ‘the hermit’ covered his store-room with a network of ropes. although the proprietary instinct may play a part. and in order to make more storage-room. empty barrels. There were at least two dozen old hats. and the fact that it is useful and that others are making collections too merely tends to increase the instinctive desire to collect. and the saw-blades were worn down to almost nothing in the middle. The bucks were rheumatic and could stand up. cloth. wrapping-paper. the old man had never thrown away a saw-blade or a wood-buck. etc. the old man had never cast off a won-out basket. and also make it seem reasonable to himself. and the chief dread of his life is that his despised relatives may secure his money when he is gone. but that it not the ground of his collecting. The irresponsible advertiser has been able to play upon this instinct of the public by offering something for nothings. Some had been actually worn in two. canes. The desire is often not yielded to. The remarkable thing about this is that the public should be deluded by such a pretense. pieces of iron.hoardings of a miser’s den which was emptied by the Boston City Board of Health: “He gathered old newspapers. It might be insulting to a business man to tell him that he was labouring for money merely because of the pleasure he receives in the gathering and keeping of it. every hole and corner was filled. incapacitated umbrellas. The empty barrels were filled. even if every acquired dollar makes his difficulties greater by adding new responsibilities. fur. old bones. and he allowed this zeal to obliterate the other possible interests of life. and there were dozens of the remains of the old things. but the obtaining and holding the money is sufficient stimulus to him. such a statement would ordinarily be but partially true.

merely for the chance of a shot at a poor inoffensive deer? It certainly is not because of the value of the venison or of the The hide. Why will a man wade in streams from morning till night. endanger his life. The following advertisement of the American Reserve Bond Co. or hold a baited hook for hours in the burning sun? It certainly is not because fish are valuable.2) is an attempt to appeal to this instinct. What he wanted was the Instinct pleasure of killing the game. both to himself and to the public. www.longlostmarketingsecrets. We like to hunt and to fish because we have inherited the hunting instinct from remote ancestors. and incur great expense. and might often make it possible to minister to it with great profit. (No. which he might thus interest in what he has to offer.become the victims of all sorts of treachery. Why will a man ensure hardship for days. but to our ancestors it was necessary for the preservation of life. neither does he do it because he believes that it is good for his health. It is not uncommon for a sportsman to give away his Hunting game as soon as he has killed it. and such a thought would be incongruous to the whole situation. While engaged in the act he is perfectly indifferent to his health. The reputable advertiser should not disregard this instinct. For the civilized man such an instinct is often worthless.com 40 .

meets with a ready response from the youth because he appeals directly to his powerful instincts. The accounts of atrocious crimes are read by those who are ashamed to confess it. and in our maturity the instinct is held in check by lack of exercise. The women have all sorts of fancy-work with which they may amuse themselves. revolvers. and are not allowed to “make a muss” by our attempts at construction.com 41 . The more ferocious the animal and the “gamier” the fish. As soon as the possibility of improving a home has passed it seems that both the hose and hostess seek excuses for going north or south or travelling abroad. etc. A street-brawl never fails to attract a crowd. The same instinct is common to man. Manual-training. the greater is our delight. fishing tackle. If we had some opportunity to make things with our hands we should secure the best possible form of recreation and diversion from the anxieties of business life. fishing tackle.The charm which a gun or a fishing tackle has for a civilized man is a most remarkable thing. The annual sale of rifles. if they are The already constructed then we want to remodel or improve Constructing them. and then the fiercer the struggle the better we like it. Indeed. revolvers.. The conflict may be with a man. fishing boats. The following advertisement of Stevens Rifles (No.longlostmarketingsecrets. if he has built it himself he may make improvements upon it annually. We all like to construct things. We are shut in as children. www. is beyond anything which could be attributed to their practical need.3) is a good illustration of an appeal to the hunting instinct: The constructive instinct shows itself in a well-known manner in the bee and the beaver. but the results are not so uniform. and domestic science are offering an opportunity to school-children to use their hands and give expression to this instinctive desire to construct things. In our urban civilization the men are deprived of one of the great pleasures of life. There is hardly a man who at least once has not Instinct been conscious of a strong desire to build a house. The advertiser of guns. and is likely to be abandoned. If he purchases one already constructed. The prize-fighter is always accompanied by the admiring glances of the populace. etc. then he is not content till he has remodelled it in some way. The hunting instinct shows itself in our fiendish desire for conflict. If it is not so that we can make more changes the home loses interest.

com 42 . She does not think of her own hunger. The mother of one of the higher animals or of the The human infant is willing to sacrifice all for her infant. the center of the world is no longer herself. and as far as possible fulfil her wishes. naturally bred mothers. It is nothing to her that she herself is tired and needs rest. The following advertisement of Golden Fleece yarn is such that it makes a woman’s fingers tingle with a desire to crochet.The advertiser can appeal in many ways to this instinct. She has. however. but her child. but is an excellent description of the facts: “As soon as a wife becomes a mother her whole thought and feeling. Until then she has had only thought of her own wellbeing. of the satisfaction of her vanity.” www. her whole being. is altered. in one word.longlostmarketingsecrets. it is in all unspoiled. she asked of everyone that he should appear interested in her. the whole world appeared made only for her. pay her the requisite attention. at least. The Parental description which a German by the name of Schneider wrote of Instinct this instinct is clearly German. Now. and thus it is with all the higher animal mothers. the moment it stirs she awakes. One of the most striking instincts in the entire animal kingdom is that of maternal love. though far stronger noises fail to arouse her now. so long as she sees that the child’s sleep is disturbed. transformed her entire egotism to the child. Thus. everything that went on about her was only noticed so far as it had personal reference to her. and is sure to find ready attention and a willingness to pay for the opportunity to exercise this much-neglected instinct. she must first be sure that the child is fed. and lives only in it.

Few mothers.longlostmarketingsecrets. and why the look of the child and the care of it are so agreeable. Advertisers are very successful in appealing to this instinct. to wash it. An article which in any way administers to the appearance or comfort of children needs but to be brought to the attention of mothers and it is sure to be desired by them with a desire which is much more than a passing fancy.” (Condensed from James’ Psychology. think of the proper purpose of maternal love for the preservation of the species. so the mothers look upon expense as of secondary importance when supplying the needs of their children. to rock it to sleep. The advertisement of Cream of Wheat (No. to dress it. Such a thought may arise in the father’s mind.5) is but one of many advertisements which thus appeal most forcibly to all mothers. www. in caring for their children. and is so happy when she is near. for it is enforced by the maternal instinct as inherited from countless generations. The latter feels only that it is an ever-lasting delight to hold the being which she has brought forth protectingly in her arms. or to still its hunger. seldom in that of the mother. The matter of expense has to be considered by many mothers.com 43 .“She does not herself know why she is so happy.) Anything that will administer to the needs of the child is a necessity in the eyes of the mother. any more than the young man can give an account of why he loves the maiden. but as men think lightly of expense when satisfying their hunting instincts.

com 44 . but we want to be seen and noticed by them. the effect produced is distinctly harmful. We seem compelled to strive for those things which will make us rise in the estimation of others. if an individual should become wholly oblivious to the opinion of others. and in choosing our friends and our professions. If a particular style of clothing is preferred by the class of society whose esteem we court. We are gregarious and want to be able to see other human beings. on the contrary. It is often ridiculous that he should do so. When. but it would hardly have been possible for the race to have developed without such a preference. it is doubtful whether he would be able to survive for any considerable period of time. and in purchasing and choosing we select those things which are approved by those whose esteem we most covet. but in the absence of the best we accept the best available. When he comes into the presence of the young girl he seems compelled to undertake something bizarre which is sure to attract her attention. We are all afflicted as the young man and the boy. there are many classes of goods which are being presented as the preferred of the “veritable swells”. The young boy always tries to “show off” in the presence of young girls. and he does not know why he is doing it. Why should I care for myself as I appear in the minds of other people? It is not necessary for me to explain the origin of such a regard for the opinion of others. Indeed. that is a great argument in favor of such goods. Solitary confinement is a severer form Affecting the of punishment than any other employed by civilized “Social Self” nations. at the present time. It is possible for the advertiser of all classes of clothing to take advantage of this characteristic of human nature and to present his garments as if they were being worn by this preferred set.No one chooses solitude for a long period of time. We consult not only our preference but also the opinion of others in purchasing our clothes and our homes. We prefer the best of companionship. The young man seems compelled to attempt to be at his best before the young lady. Robinson Crusoe took great comfort in the companionship The Instincts of his man Friday. Not only do we want to see others. but he does not know why.longlostmarketingsecrets. www. Indeed. an advertiser represents his goods as that preferred by a despised class of individuals.

into the class of persons here represented. The advertisements of Regal Shoes (No.6) makes us believe that by selecting a Gage hat we should be brought. in the eyes of our acquaintances.8) make us avoid them.The reproduced advertisement of Gage Millinery (No. for we do not want to be considered as in the class with frogs and peasants.longlostmarketingsecrets. www.7) and of White Star Coffee (No.com 45 .

com 46 . Along with our bodies we have inherited a psychical nature with all its diversified possibilities. by using them. it is quite certain that there would never be a fully developed adult again. of the nation’s leaders. but little more than a possibility which needs vigorous exercise for its realization. however. If the child exercised only when it realized that such exercise was necessary for the development of the body. they are intensely interesting to all classes of persons. the advertisement is of little or no value. nevertheless. is in the crudest possible form. If an advertiser’s argument. This is especially true in regard to the actions of others.longlostmarketingsecrets. With every organ we Affecting the inherit a desire to exercise it in a way which makes for its Psychical development. Socrates believed that all persons would prefer the right whenever they saw it. The psychical nature is. Our limbs would be useless unless with them we inherited a desire to exercise them. but we have an inherited liking for the consideration of moral questions. but. illustration and condition of purchase are such that they offend the moral sense of the reader. It Nature must be exercised in order that it may develop.The Coffee and shoes may be all right. We have a moral nature which. I will have none of them. We are disgusted and repulsed by what we regard as wrong in others. It may be difficult to appeal especially to the moral judgement of the possible customer in presenting most goods. The child’s mind is but a potential affair. This consideration may be of the actions of the hero in a story. but we certainly do prefer what we regard to be the right and reject what we regard to be the wrong. the chief value of such exercise The Instincts may be the development of the limbs. Such a view is evidently an exaggeration. Such consideration of actions of others is most beneficial in the development of the moral sense. and that all evil actions were from ignorance. but www. but if. of a seller of merchandise. in the beginning. I am to be thought less of by my acquaintances. or of a personal friend. We do not exercise our limbs in order that we may develop them. and when moral questions are presented in a true light.

www.com 47 . is sufficient to indicate the presence of that which may be developed into a great light. Things beautiful have a fascinating effect upon the unperverted individual. it has been able to arouse the curiosity of many readers.longlostmarketingsecrets. but it is the one which will be most effective in impressing the possible customer. One reason why so much attention is given to the advertising pages of our magazines is that they are so artistic. but may not be aware that it is the beauty that attracts us at all. We stop and look at a beautiful advertisement. however. it certainly is true that the two are very closely connected. The advertisement which is most artistic may be one which never affects the public as being artistic at all. Furthermore. and it is quite possible that it has been a successful advertisement. but the sales were disappointing. As an illustration. the Architecture of God”. and the sales were immediately increased and a second edition was necessary. and that they must both be regarded with care by the advertiser. esthetic nature. periodicals and schools. The child is prompted by curiosity to examine everything that comes into its environment. Whether the religious nature be developed from the moral or not. observe the reproduced advertisement of “What did the woggle bug say?” (No. 1904.any offense to such a moral judgement must be scrupulously avoided. At a later age the youth takes delight in the acquisition of knowledge independent of the utility of such knowledge. and the advertiser must not have the most uninteresting one if he expects to take advantage of this instinctive desire of the individual to become acquainted with all novel objects and to learn all he can concerning new aspects of familiar ones. The title was changed to “The Wonders of Nature. the beautiful affects us without our knowledge of the fact. and at the same time makes a convenient point of attach for the advertiser. There are other stories to hear. and yet.9). It wants to hear the story which the advertiser has to tell. A book was offered to the public with the title. The curiosity of the human race is the salvation of its intellect. This advertisement seems to be extremely absurd. in some way. The avidity with which we seek things which appeal to our religious nature is illustrated by a circumstance related in the September. The public wants to know what is offered for sale. whether they be appealed to directly by the advertisement or not. The best works of art are such that the attention is drawn wholly to what is represented. but in the case of the child the intellect is little more than a spark which. and not to the manner of the representation. the moral judgment can safely be counted on. issue of the Atlantic Monthly. We have an intellectual nature. “The Wonders of Nature”. and yet the results be good. We need but to have objects of beauty brought to our attention and we desire them without being taught their desirability. It tears its toys to pieces that it may learn of their construction. In the advertisements of books. Occasionally this characteristic of curiosity may be made use of by the advertiser in what might seem to be an absurd manner. We have even as children an embryonic.

We have seen above that we have instinctive responses to act for the preservation and furtherance of (1) our bodies. (3) our mental faculties. personal property and family (also the hunting and constructing instincts which are more complex than others of this class). If he can find a method whereby his efforts are seconded by some of the most powerful of the human instincts. The discovery of such a method is a task for the leaders of the profession of advertising.longlostmarketingsecrets. homes. clothes. and the action is forthcoming immediately. www. but merely to present the proper stimulus. He desires to produce the maximum of action along a certain line with the minimum of effort and expense to himself.com 48 . The advertiser should study human nature to discover these hidden springs of action. his task will be simplified to the extreme. We have seen that to secure action along these lines it is not necessary to show the value of such action or the necessity of it. (2) ourselves as we exist in the minds of others.

etc. There is no uniformity in the meanings that are attached to the term suggestion even among the most careful writers. and every thought of an action which enters our minds is likely to result in Universality such action. I do not think first of walking and then of Suggestion make up my mind to walk.longlostmarketingsecrets. it would not be suggestion. A scientific definition would not allow this use of the term but would substitute the expression “called up” for “suggested”.com 49 . while if the same act followed too abruptly or with too little consideration it might be a true case of suggestion. Suggestion is thus a relative term.VI Suggestion The mental process known as “Suggestion” is in bad repute because. www. I might say that one idea “suggested” a second and this second a third. Every normal individual is subject to the influence of suggestion. I should then call it suggestion – if it met the second essential condition of suggestion. If I were sitting in my office and considering the advisability of beginning a certain enterprise. The very thought of walking will inevitably lead to the act unless I stop the process by the thought of standing still. conclusion or action must follow with less than the normal amount of deliberation. If I think of an object to the east of me my whole body sways slightly in that direction. it has too often been associated on the one hand with hypnotism and on the other with indelicacy and vulgarity. Suggestion must be brought about by a second person or an object. What is Hypnotism in the hands of the scientist or of the fakir is well Suggestion known to be a form of suggestion. but if the same idea were called forth at the instigation of a second person or upon the presentation of an object. Such action is so slight that we ordinarily do not discover it without the aid of accurate recording instruments. A story which does not specifically depart from that which conforms to the standards of propriety but which is so constructed that it leads the hearers to conceptions that are “off color” is said to be suggestive. etc. If the act followed a normal amount of consideration after a normal time for deliberation. Every idea of which we thin is all too liable to be held for truth. In my musings and deliberations I should not say that one idea suggested another. Almost all so-called mind-reading exhibitions are nothing but demonstrations of the fact that every thought which we think expresses itself in some outward action. in the popular mind. Thought is dynamic in its very nature and every idea of an action tends to produce that action. Thus I should say that one idea “called up” the second. and in many instances it might be difficult to say whether or not a particular act was suggestion. In this way it has come to pass that the whole subject of suggestion has been passed by with less consideration than is due it. This second condition is that the resulting conception.

This agitation has had some value.The most perfect working of suggestion is to be seen under hypnosis and in crows. In hypnosis the subject holds every idea presented as true. There has been a great agitation of late among advertisers for “reason why” copy. while reason is a process which is exceptional. The individual is affected by every member of the crowd and the influence becomes so overpowering that it can hardly be resisted. and everywhere is suggested the idea of “lynch the culprit”. being dynamic. but more frequently they make their purchases because the act is suggested at the psychological moment. Thereupon I tried to recall who the friend was and finally came to the conclusion that this shop www. The idea is suggested by the advertisement. and the impulsiveness of human nature enforces the suggested idea. in advertising. In the same way we think that we are performing a deliberate act when we purchase an advertised commodity. but act under suggestion constantly. as presented. I replied that such was the case. Here the mind is so narrowed by the artificial sleep that no contradictory or inhibiting idea arises. It can be read from the faces and actions of the individuals and is heard in their cries. I did not suppose that his advertising was having any influence upon me. while in fact we may never have deliberated upon the subject at all. is not criticised at all and no contradictory or inhibiting idea has any possibility of arising in his mind. leads to its natural consequences. Some time ago a tailor in Chicago was conducting a vigorous advertising campaign. although the idea. Occasionally customers are persuaded and convinced.com 50 . Some months after the advertising had begun I went into the tailor’s shop and ordered a suit. The effect of a crowd upon an individual approaches that of the hyptnotizer. It was once supposed that suggestion was something abnormal and that reason was the common attribute of men. The individual swallowed up by a crowd is not aware of the fact that he is not exercising a normal amount of deliberation. Universal even among the wisest. The actual effect of modern advertising is not so much to convince as to suggest. We reason rarely. but it is easily overemphasized. Today we are Reasoning finding that suggestion is of universal application to all not persons. and every idea suggested is acted out with no hesitation whatever. If the crowd is a “lynching party” the whole atmosphere is one of revenge. His actions appear to him to be the result of reason. This idea is presented on all sides. There is no possible criticism or deliberation and so we have the extreme case of susceptibility to suggestion. both should be kept in mind. hence the desired result follows in a way unknown to the purchaser. and hence no idea can seem absurd and no action seems out of place. However.longlostmarketingsecrets. suggestion should not be subordinated to persuasion but should be supplemented by it. No other idea has a chance to arise in consciousness and hence this one idea. While in the shop I happened to call into conversation with the proprietor and he asked me if a friend had recommended him to me. Suggestion and persuasion are not antagonistic.

Later. In advertising some commodities argumentation is of more importance than suggestion.com 51 .1). I discovered that all I knew of the shop I had learned from advertisements and I doubt very much whether I ever read any of the advertisements further than the display type. I had seen his advertisements for months and from them had formed an idea of the shop. and for such things booklets and other similar forms of advertising are the most effective. as in my case. It puts the emphasis where the most can be accomplished and subordinates those mental processes which hold a second place in determining our actions. Advertisements that are seen frequently are Forms of difficult to distinguish in their force from ideas which are Suggestion secured from the words of our friends. Street railway advertising is especially effective at this point because the suggestion is presented so frequently that we soon forget the source of the suggestions and end by attributing it to the advice of friends. Such commodities are. We attribute to our social environment that which in reality has been secured from the advertisements which we have seen so often that we forget the source of the information. for www. As a matter of fact I was affected in just this manner. to the psychological situation.longlostmarketingsecrets. those suggestions are the most powerful which we receive from the actions and words of other persons. Doubtless many other customers would have given the same reply even though. but the emphasis is put upon suggestion. In the most successful advertising argumentation and forms of reasoning are not disregarded. no friend had spoken to them concerning the shop. and it seemed to me that I was running no risks. The can looked familiar. Advertising thus becomes a great social illusion. If I had seen these and similar cards for a few months. the exception and not the rule. I forgot where I had received my information and assumed that I had received it from a friend who patronized the shop. The second most effective class is probably the ideas suggested by the words of our Effective companions. even though I had never seen anyone actually using the paint. as I see this young lady using Jap-a-lac the suggestion to do the same thing is overpowering. The successful advertiser seems to have worked upon this hypothesis in constructing many advertisements. He has also taken advantage of the fact that we soon forget the person who originally suggested the idea and become subject to illusions upon the matter. Ideas which have the greatest suggestive power are those presented to us by the actions of other persons. in the reproduced advertisements of Jap-a-lac (no. in this particular. When occasion arose to purchase some paint for household use I called for Jap-a-lac under the assumption that I had seen it used frequently. I should assume that “everyone is using Jap-a-lac”. Inasmuch as more of our actions are induced by suggestion than by argumentation. As stated above.had never been recommended to me at all. Many a woman who has looked at these pictures has been immediately overcome by a desire to do the same thing and has put her desire into execution. however. The suggestion would thereupon be in an extreme form and be liable to cause me to imitate what I assumed every one else was doing. Thus. advertising conforms.

It seems that no form of action can be suggested by an advertisement that does not successfully challenge the reader to do what is proposed.com 52 . although at the time of the purchase of the paint my knowledge of it seemed to me perfectly adequate. and I feel sure that many women are convinced of the adequacy of this paint by these same advertisements. I had seen pictures of the Jap-a-lac paint can and had seen pictures of persons using the paint. but I know of no other source of information concerning this point. reproduced above. Women are. The suggested idea haunts one and even though the action may be absurd. more susceptible to suggestion than men.Jap-a-lac had been a household commodity for years. Apparently I had never heard an argument in favor of the paint but had acted upon mere suggestion. Soon after the purchase I began to write this chapter and I am unable to recall any instance of having seen Jap-a-lac in use. it is www. even though nothing more than the display and the picture is noticed.longlostmarketingsecrets. in general.

What could be more absurd than Westerfeld’s advertisement? The fact that this advertisement was highly successful is sufficient justification for its use. we are so highly susceptible to suggestion that the words of our companions are ordinarily held for true and the actions proposed by them are hastily carried out.longlostmarketingsecrets. by a logical process.difficult to resist. and that of necessity leads to a careful reading of the entire advertisements. The suggestiveness of the words of compansions is a value available to the advertiser. www. The three following advertisements have all appeared in street-cars and have met with phenomenal success. As stated above. logical machines. the words of our friends have strong suggestive power. Kerr’s studio was flooded with answers to the suggestion of “Guess who?” The suggestions in these three advertisements lead the readers to desire to act in the ways suggested. come to a reasonable conclusion. We are not cold.com 53 . On the contrary. who take data in and then. Many persons doubtless feel the suggestion to be irresistible to rub the end of the first finger when looking at this advertisement of Lucas’s Tinted Gloss Paint.

but this relationship seems to be suggested and it adds greatly to the value of the advertisement. The advertiser does not state that the words are those of the person depicted. he shows the likeness of a person whose face indicates the possession of a judgement we should be willing to take. Likewise in the reproduced advertisement of Arrow collars the genial washerwoman seems to assure us that “Arrow Collars don’t shrink in the wash”. to give it greater suggestive power. In the case of the Calox advertisement I am convinced when this www.com 54 .longlostmarketingsecrets. Thus in the reproduced advertisement of Postum Food Coffee the picture of the venerable doctor becomes associated in our minds with the statement “If coffee don’t agree. use Postum Food Coffee”. Later these words seem to have issued from a responsible person and come to have undue weight with us all.He places before the public a statement and then.

www.8) the direct suggestion. Indeed.longlostmarketingsecrets. There is also no necessary divorce between suggestion and the presentation of arguments. As I happen to need more tooth powder just now. These reproduced advertisements are presented as mere illustrations of a few of the many ways in which suggestion may be used by the advertiser. Thus in the reproduced advertisement of Hand Sapolio (No. I don’t wait for further evidence but accept uncritically the words which she is represented as using. Many forms of suggestion. “Yes. “Hand Sapolio should be on every wash-stand”. but the absurdity of the situation does not detract from the practical value of such forms of suggestion. is strengthened by the “reasons why”. the application of the two in the same advertisement often increases the value of each. We have but to consider the millions of persons who at least glance at advertisements.com 55 . are available to the advertiser. and the reasons why are strengthened by this suggestion. you ought to use Calox”. to be impressed by the possibilities opened to the man who can present his advertisement in a form that suggests powerfully the purchase or use or his commodity.beautiful girl points her finger at me and seems to say. it is absurd to place additional credence in these words of the advertiser simply because of the presence of an appropriate picture. When we stop to think of it. in addition to those presented above.

(b) an idea of the means to attain these ends. we feel somehow. Knowing. As I sit in my chair I am conscious of the furniture in the room. It includes a mental process and the resultant. voluntary actions. voluntary actions. we have a particular tone of feeling. At this time it will be well to confine our attention to but a part of these activities of the will. bodily activity. This activity may express itself either in bodily movements or in some such mental processes as attention or volition. Under the will may be included all the active processes of the mind. A careful consideration of the elemental processes involved in such actions is of great advantage in enabling the advertiser to bring about the decision desired.com 56 . Under the bodily activities are such as impulsive.longlostmarketingsecrets. at another it is primarily intellectual grasp of a situation and at other times it is especially a putting forth the will in attempting to accomplish some end or to reach some conclusion. finally. (c) a feeling of the value or worthiness of the different ends. and there is something for which we are striving. and of www.VII The Will: An Analysis During all the waking hours of the day there is something about which we are thinking. (d) a comparison of the values of the different ends and of the difficulties of the means and. choice. A definition of volition would not make the subject any clearer to us. Although each of the three aspect of consciousness may for a time predominate yet it is probable that all three activities are present at all moments of our conscious existence. Sometimes our condition is one of intense feeling. the trip that I might take. the line of thought which I am carrying out and the necessity of completing my task in a given time. It is probably true that a majority of our actions are performed without such consideration. (e) a choosing of one of the ends and striving to attain it. These five processes in a voluntary action may be illustrated as follows: (a) I think of a suit that I might buy. I feel pleased with the comfort of the situation and the excitement of composition.. viz. and we strive for something not yet attained. and all actions performed after consideration. but here the term is used in an un-technical sense and includes such things as decision. I am putting forth activity of will in striving to accomplish a certain end and to express myself on a typewriter. We know something. Voluntary actions may be analyzed into (a) an idea of two or more attainable ends. but it is because of the existence of voluntary action that the advertiser finds it necessary to proceed logically and to appeal to the reason of his customer. feeling and willing are the three universal aspects of all our mental activities. instinctive and voluntary actions.

the debt that I might pay. That the idea of the piano may be clear and distinct (a) illustrations may be used to advantage. the description should be as brief as is possible for completeness of presentation of essential features. and by any other means which would tend to associate the piano with feelings of pleasure. The means of securing the piano must be made to appear easy. (e) Pressure must be brought to bear to cause immediate decision and action on the part of the public in favor of the particular piano. The feeling of value may be awakened for the piano (c) by advertising it in the highest class of media. (c) I feel in imagination the pleasure of possessing the new suit. (e) I decide to take the trip and start for the ticket office. That the choice may be made at once and effort put forth to secure the piano (e) reasons for avoiding delay might be presented or the suggestion to action might be so strong that the tendency to procrastinate would be overcome. by emphasizing the elegance of the instrument and the perfection of the tone. (d) The value of the piano must be presented in such a way that. Although every customer who is induced to select any particular line of goods after consideration must inevitably perform the five processes as described. the method of sending the money. That this may be true it will be necessary to describe the strong points of the piano in such a way that the value of the piano seems great. the type used should be easily read. If this is a correct analysis of voluntary action the question which naturally arises in the mind of the advertiser is this: What can be done to cause the largest number of persons to decide in favor of my particular goods? Suppose that the article of merchandise under consideration be a piano: now how may the advertiser proceed in accordance with the analysis presented above? (a) The piano must be brought before the public in such a manner that the idea of it will be clear and distinct in the minds of the potential purchasers. In order that the public may know exactly how to secure the piano (b) the exact cost must be presented. Elaborations of each of these five points will suggest themselves to any thoughtful advertiser. the inconvenience of waiting for the train. (d) I compare the difficulties of possessing each and the pleasures derivable from the possession. (c) The piano must be presented in such a manner that its value seems great. when compared with other forms of action. and the satisfaction of having the debt paid. and the cost of it and the means of securing it seem less burdensome than those connected with competing pianos. the purchase of the piano seems the most desirable. (b) I think of the trouble of going to the tailor shop. It is assumed that other pianos will be considered by the possible purchasers and that when others are considered they will suffer by comparison (d). by indicating what a joy it is in a home. (b) The public must be informed exactly what is necessary to secure the piano. and although an ideal advertisement would be so constructed that www. the delights connected with the trip. the language used should conform to the mode of thinking of the public appealed to. by having a beautiful advertisement. and the distance to be covered to reach the creditor.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 57 . the delivery and setting up in the home might well be included in the statement of the advertisement.

longlostmarketingsecrets.2) occupied the cover page in a British magazine which is about twelve by sixteen inches in size. www. yet it is not to be assumed that each advertisement should be constructed so that it would be well adapted to promote each of the five processes. In the reproduced advertisement of Triscuit (No. Such a use of space can be justified only on the assumption that the public is already familiar with the sauce. The reproduced advertisement of Holbrook’s Sauce (No. In all this space nothing is shown or said which gives us an idea of the real nature of the product advertised. or that this is to be but a single link in the chain and that later or preceding advertisements supply what is deficient in this single advertisement. No one can read the advertisement without knowing what the product is made of.it would assist the customer in completing each of the five processes. After examining this advertisement carefully I am still at a loss to know the real nature of the product. On the other hand. This advertisement gives the reader a clear and vivid idea of the product advertised. it is quite true that many advertisements are ineffective because the writer has not paid attention to these fundamental psychological processes of voluntary actions. how it is manufactured and what it is good for.com 58 .1) the first step of the act of volition (a) is emphasized. how it looks.

In the advertisement of Triscuit no mention is made of the fact that it can be secured from all first-class grocers.com 59 . and many persons assume that Triscuit can be had only at the address given at the foot of the advertisement. A large proportion of goods that are widely distributed are advertised on the assumption that everybody knows that they are to be secured at all dealers.Many an otherwise good advertisement is weakened because it gives no adequate idea of the means necessary for securing the goods advertised. In the advertisement of Holbrook’s Sauce (No.2) no address is given and nothing is said of the place where it can be secured. The advertiser is so familiar with his goods and the means of securing them that he forgets that others know nothing of them.longlostmarketingsecrets. The writers of the advertisements have assumed that the public knows more of these goods than the facts warrant. www. It is not wise to assume any such knowledge on the part of the general public. It is needless to reproduce any particular advertisement to illustrate this point.

It is not sufficient to have a clear idea of an end and a definite idea of the means of securing it unless there is an accompanying feeling of value.4) presents the product as particularly worthy. All sizes from 15c to $2. The absence of such information is very common and impresses the writer as one of the weakest points in modern advertising. The reproduced advertisement of Nabisco (No.com 60 . This statement is sufficient for most persons. The third process in our analysis of voluntary action is the feeling of worthiness or value (c). The advertisement is intrinsically beautiful. send us his name and 10c and we will send free sample”. www.The reproduced advertisement of Jap-a-lac (No.longlostmarketingsecrets. The advertiser is thus compelled to make his commodity appear valuable. This advertisement gives us a clear idea of the means necessary for securing the advertised goods and hence facilitates the second process in a voluntary action and increases the chances of securing the desired action. hardware. “For sale by paint. This fact is accomplished by most advertisers but not by all. No advertisement should ever appear which leaves any doubt in the minds of possible customers as to where and how the goods advertised can be secured. The cut and the copy harmonize completely. but not for all. drug dealers. and we find this statement in addition: “If your dealer does not keep Jap-a-lac.3) leaves no doubt in the mind of the public as to the means of securing the paint.50”.

The young girl depicted could be described as “a fairy”, and “airy lightness and exquisite composition! Is characteristic of the entire cut. The copy appeals to our instinctive desires for savory viands in a most enticing manner, and also appeals to the feminine social instinct by the following words: “ …. to afford the hostess opportunity for many original conceptions in the serving of desserts”. The greatest feeling of worth attaches itself to those things which are the objects of our most fundamental instinctive desires. A feeling of worth inevitably attaches itself to every savory viand, to every beautiful object; and to every agency which furthers our social instincts. The fourth process in our analysis (d) is the comparison of competing ends as to value and means of acquisition. When an advertiser realizes that the public to which he is appealing will compare his goods with those of his competitor, he is tempted to resort to the questionable method of showing the weak points of his competitor’s merchandise or method of sales. There may be instances in which this method is justifiable and even necessary, but ordinarily it is self-destructive. The act of comparison (d) is a process in volition that the advertiser should not seek to encourage. It is a hindrance to the advertiser and his function is to minimize it. If I, as an advertiser, am offering goods in competition with other goods, I know that my goods will be compared with the others, and it is my place to give the reader such a clear and vivid idea of my goods (a) an d to make the means of securing them so plain (b) that my goods will not suffer by comparison. My purpose is best served by holding my goods up to the attention of the potential purchaser and not by emphasizing the weaknesses of those of my competitor. I must emphasize the strong points of my merchanidise and especially those points in which my goods are superior to competing goods, and in this way I get attention to those points at which my goods will gain by comparison. www.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 61

The last point in the analysis of the process of volition (e) is that of choosing one of the ends and striving to attain it. All the other stages of the process are but subsidiary to this. What can the advertiser do to secure or to facilitate this part of the process? It is a well-known psychological fact that at the moment of final decision all competing ideas are usually banished from the mind and attention is centred on the idea (the merchandise) which is chosen. At the moment of final choice we do not hold competing lines of action before us and then choose the one that seems the best. The process is one of elimination preceding the choice. We compare different lines of action and eliminate one after another till but one is left. This one has seemed better than the others and it is held to and acted upon. The acting upon it is often a part of the choice. The one line of action is before us and the very act of attending to the one idea results in the appropriate action. There may have been no conscious choice preceding the action but now that the action has commenced the competing ideas are kept from the mind and the action gets put into fulfillment. There are therefore two distinct things which the advertiser can do to facilitate this final step. In the first place he fills the mind of his potential customers with thoughts of his own particular goods and, in the second place, he suggests immediate action. The mind of the customer is filled by the processes described in (a), (b) and (c). Immediate action is suggested by (b) and by some such device as the return coupon, the direct command, etc. (For a fuller discussion of this point see chapters V and VI of “The Theory of Advertising”). The advertiser who fails to state the method of securing his goods fails to give one of the strongest possible suggestions to action. If it were even possible that every reader of the advertisement of Jap-alac already knew the price of it and where it could be secured, still the advertisement is strengthened by giving these details in that it gives the suggestion to action as nothing else could do. The suggestion to action might be strengthened by additional details but not by substituting for them.

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VIII The Will: Variety in Action
In the preceding chapter an analysis of a typical action was given without reference to the fact that actions are not ordinarily typical. No two acts are exactly alike. Individuals are different and employ diverse Differences methods in performing their acts. In the case of a single in individual the most diverse methods are employed at Individuals different times and under different circumstances. The personal differences in methods of deciding questions and resultant actions has been so beautifully expressed by Professor William James that it seems useless to attempt any improvement upon his presentation of the five methods of deciding or choosing: “The first method may be called the reasonable type. It is that of those cases in which the arguments for and against a given course seem gradually and almost insensibly to settle themselves in the mind and to end by leaving a clear balance in favor of one alternative, which alternative we then adopt without effort or constraint …. The conclusive reason for the decision in these cases usually is the discovery that we can refer the case to a class upon which we are accustomed to act unhesitatingly in a certain stereotyped way ….. The moment we hit upon a conception which lets us apply some principle of action which is a fixed and stable part of our Ego, our state of doubt is at an end. Persons of authority, who have to make many decisions in the day, carry with them a set of heads of classification, each bearing its volitional consequence, and under these they seek as far as possible to range each new emergency as it occurs. It is where the emergency belongs to a species without precedent, to which consequently no cut-and-dried maxim will apply, that we feel most at a loss, and are distressed at the indeterminateness of our task. As soon, however, as we see our way to a familiar classification, we are at ease again ….. The concrete dilemmas do not come to us with labels gummed on their backs. We may name them by many names. The wise man is he who succeeds in finding the name which suits the needs of the particular occasion best. “A ‘reasonable’ character is one who has a store of stable and worthy ends, and who does not decide about an action till he has calmly ascertained whether it be ministerial or detrimental to any one of these. In the next two types of decision, the final fiat occurs before the evidence is all ‘in’. It often happens that no paramount and authoritative reason for either course will come. Either seems a good, and there is no umpire to decide which should yield its place to the other. We grow tired of long hesitation and inconclusiveness, and the hour may come when we feel that even a bad decision is better than no decision at all.

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or possibly the other way. ‘Forward now!’ we inwardly cry. all solemn ones find theirs multiplied many fold.. which make new men of so many of us may be classed under this head. we might as well stand by this course as by the other. When one of these affects us. taken alone. will upset the balance in the direction of one of the alternatives. “In the second type our feeling is to a great extent that of letting ourselves drift with a certain indifferent acquiescence in a direction accidentally determined from without. It often happens. in the direction of one of the horns of the dilemma. and an instant practical acceptance of the more grim and earnest alternative which till then could not extort our mind’s consent. www. in deciding. supervening at a particular moment upon our mental weariness. but it comes from within. in the latter by a kind of creative contribution of something instead of a reason which does a reason’s work. automatically. and deliberation comes to an immediate end. “In the fifth and final type of decision. etc. But in either case we feel. seems powerless to make the act discharge. It comes when. we suddenly pass from the easy and careless to the sober and strenuous mood.Under these conditions it will often happen that some accidental circumstance. and as if by a spontaneous discharge of our nerves. all ‘light fantastic’ notions lose their motive power. The character abruptly rises to another ‘level’. All those ‘changes of heart’. ‘though the heavens fall’. may be either present or absent. to which we then feel ourselves committed. when the absence of imperative principles is perplexing and suspense distracting. as if we ourselves by our own wilful act inclined the beam: in the former case by adding our living effort to the weight of the logical reason which.com 64 . the feeling that the evidence is all in. as it were. which often ends deliberation as suddenly as the third form does. ‘awakenings of conscience’. after all. and not from without. with the conviction that. The consequence is an instant abandonment of the more trivial projects with which we had been dallying. But so exciting is this sense of motion after our intolerable pent-up state that we eagerly throw ourselves into it. and that things are in any event sure to turn out sufficiently right. The most sobering possible agents are objects of grief and fear. although an opposite accident at the same time might have produced the opposite result. The slow dead heave of the will that is felt in these instances makes a class of them altogether different subjectively from all the four preceding classes. “There is a fourth form of decision. and that reason has balanced the books. “In the third type the determination seems equally accidental. that we find ourselves acting.longlostmarketingsecrets. in consequence of some outer experience or some inexplicable inward change. The whole scale of values of our motives and impulses then undergoes a change like that which a change of the observer’s level produces on a view.

then suddenly of the this same advertisement becomes all-powerful. The fifth. whereas here both alternatives are steadily held in view. is of no significance to the advertiser except that it is the form which he seeks to obviate. The reproduced advertisement of Modern Eloquence (No. The man who is impulsive and who acts “intuitively”. The man who habitually waits in deciding till all the reasons for and against a line of action are before him belongs to the first class. www.If examined closely. He tries to get the public to dismiss all thought of competing articles. Of these five methods of decision some are of little significance to the advertiser although of primal significance to the psychologist. Everyone has probably experienced each of them at some time. The man who “flips a copper” whenever anything is to be decided belongs to the second class. and other forms of merchandise which appeal to the higher nature of man." These five methods of deciding are methods which we all use to a greater or less extent. but when the mood is changed the same advertisement might be most effective. but confines his argument to his own commodity. then.com 65 . good books. This is true in Reader advertising such things as life-insurance. This accounts for the fact that certain advertisements may be seen The Mood and read frequently with no effect for years. There is probably no one who decides questions habitually after the manner described in Professor James’ fourth and fifth classes. In the fourth of Professor James’ divisions the person. passes from the easy and careless to the sober and strenuous mood. These three classes are known to us all.longlostmarketingsecrets. belongs to the third class. yet some people habitually decide by one method and others by another.1) might not appeal powerfully to readers while they are in a careless and easy mood. its chief difference from the former cases appears to be that in these cases the mind at the moment of deciding on the triumphant alternative dropped the other one wholly or nearly out of sight. but who does not know why he acts so. and in the very act of murdering the vanquished possibility the chooser realizes how much in that instant he is making himself lose. To accomplish this he makes no mention of competitors. in deciding. homes.

or of the salesman is not recognized by the woman as the deciding element. neither will Fairly they exert themselves to find a store not centrally located if Successful a more convenient one is passed at the critical moment of decision. search through the back Advertising files of magazines to find an advertisement. If I belong to this second of Professor James’ classes.com 66 . an appeal to the artistic and sentimental might awaken her emotional nature sufficiently to cause her to decide. The appearance of the advertisement. but is one which approaches action upon suggestion and hence anything which the advertiser can do to suggest action aids in securing the results which come under this class. Women decide after this A “Woman’s fashion more frequently than men.In the third type. whether the presentation www. The second method of decision is not strictly a reasoning type. the decision is dependent upon a sudden spontaneity of an emotional nature and leaves but little for the advertiser to do. If a lady were debating the question as to which goods she should order.longlostmarketingsecrets. This class of person Poor will not. and that which awakens the emotion would be likely to be chosen. I will purchase the one which presents itself to me at the psychological moment. at the critical moment. Here the advertiser Reason” can do most by appealing to the artistic and sentimental natures of the possible customers. although in reality it is. which is mainly a form of suggestion. of the store. and if I am trying to decide which watch I shall buy.

2) is so exceedingly poor that it would be defended by but few.com 67 . An extensive advertiser recently said that any kind of advertising would succeed if the advertisements were large and if they appeared frequently enough.longlostmarketingsecrets.be by advertisement. The reproduced advertisement of Cook’s Flaked Rice (No. This statement is certainly not true but it does find some justification based on the decisions of such persons as are assigned to James’ second type.3) is similar to that of Pears’ Soap. salesman or store. The reproduced advertisement of Pears’ Soap (No. www. If a man were debating which sort of soap he should purchase and if at the critical moment he should see this advertisement it might possibly induce him to order Pears’.

automobiles and many other advertised articles.If these two advertisements (and others equally poor) were given extensive publicity they would undoubtedly increase the sale of the goods advertised simply because so many persons decide according to Professor James’ second class and because so many unimportant questions are decided by us all according to this method. combined. Furthermore. This is no justification of poor advertising. Among such goods would be included pianos. added to the apparent Differences complete freedom of the human will. Professor James’ first method of decision is of the greatest significance to advertisers of all sorts of merchandise.longlostmarketingsecrets. but especially to those who offer goods of a high price and of such a nature that the same person purchases but once or a few times during his life. to be the one indeterminable factor in the universe. The great diversity individuals and the numerous motives which influence the same individual. life-insurance. Human choice has always been assumed to be unknown. In spite of all this we have come to see that human action is governed by known laws and that by carefully studying the nature of society and the influences at work prophecies may be www. the persons who frequently use this first method of deciding are so numerous that it is essential to appeal to the “reason” of the public in exploiting any kind of merchandise. but it helps to explain why poor advertisements are sometimes successful. would seem.com 68 . to make an insuperable obstacle to reasoning in Motives with groups of people by any such means as the printed page.

even if such suspicions were ungrounded. even as to the age. Suspicion is nothing but an to be Avoided exaggerated tendency to call up possible evil consequences. The number of marriages each year is more regular than the number of deaths. It is frequently wise not to attempt to secure immediate response. social and industrial conditions the number and character of crimes remain constant. The suicides distribute themselves in a most remarkable manner. A publication which has been taken in the home for years. but the manner of presentation Suggestion 0f meets with marked differences in the response of the Evil public. The text and illustration of the advertisement. The advertiser can not be too careful in scrutinizing everything that goes to make up an advertisement to see that nothing is present which would increase the tendency to recall from the past experience evil consequences which have accompanied other actions. and the reputation of the medium. in reality it is not so. but if such consequences do not suggest themselves in too great a number and with too great vividness. etc. They could not be induced to respond at once but at a later time they do respond. The advertising manager of a publication should refuse not only all dishonest advertisements. social and industrial condition of the country that there will be increased or decreased demand for individual lines of goods. Even though the commodity to be sold may seem very simple.longlostmarketingsecrets. Despite all the uncertainty of human choice he knows that there are certain conditions which determine the number who will choose his commodity and take the pains to secure it. The same goods may be presented in a score of different ways. The presentation of these relationships and functions in a way that will cause the possible purchasers to respond is a task that is not likely to be overestimated. The goods remain the same. and confidence is an usual absence of the same tendency. It is his duty to know the commodity to be exploited and the public to be reached. the makeup. The wise merchant knows to a certainty from the political. The advertiser is the diplomat of the commercial and industrial world.made within certain limits which are sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes. Famine increases the number of crimes against property and decreases the number of marriages. Thus persons often respond to advertisements long after they first read them. although there has been no additional ground given for such action. Under given political.com 69 . We frequently hesitate to allow time for the suggestion of possible evil consequences. is inestimable in its value to the advertiser. We are all a little suspicious of hasty actions and the older we grow the more suspicious we become. action may follow. which has become trusted because of long years of reliable service. but also all those which would tend to make readers suspicious.. all unite to increase or decrease this tendency to hesitate and call up possible evil consequences. The essential thing in every object is the relations which it has and the functions which it fulfils. One presentation may invite suspicion and Consequences another confidence. occupation and sex of the person and the manner of committing the crime. for it requires more effort than it would if the public were www.

loses the contest. It is possible to hold two lines of action before us and with both thus attended to. it has done much to shorten the period of deliberation and secure decision in favor of the goods advertised. In purchasing an article that costs some hundreds of dollars most persons would deliberate and consider other goods of the same class. but the fear of hasty action was enough to restrain action. therefore. instead of those presented in the advertisement. but at the moment of decision one course has usually occupied the mind completely and the other. Every slur and every remark intended to weaken the opponent’s argument serves to call attention to the goods criticised and thus to divide the reader’s attention and so keeps the advertisement from having its true weight. others will wait till they see the second or third of the series and then answer. is unpleasing and is not common. There are some who will answer the first advertisement but will wait a week or so to answer. Advertisers are frequently surprised by the few responses which they receive at first from their advertisements and by the great response which they secure at a later time. although the first advertisement was in every way as good as the second. What the advertiser must do. The first time they saw the advertisement there was a personal desire for the goods advertised. It was pointed out above that deliberation often occurs because the presentation of one line of action suggests to our minds another similar and incompatible action.given a longer time in which to allay their suspicions. indeed. to decide for the one and against the other. This sort of deliberate action. Such a decision is made with conscious effort. The buyer may. Continuous consecutive advertising meets the method of response both of those suggestible creatures who act without hesitation and also of those who are too cautious to respond till after sufficient time has elapsed for all the evil consequences to present themselves. Thus in purchasing a piano or an automobile it is to be expected that no one would be satisfied with the presentation of one make but would consider each make in relation to others. and he can do this by so presenting his goods that they www.com 70 . If the advertisement can be so constructed that it holds the reader’s attention to the goods advertised and does not suggest competing goods. think of such goods as might be purchased. by dropping from the attention. At a later time such fear is diminished. but there are many others who will not do so. is common in actions where large interests are at stake. and the advertiser should in general make no references to competing goods. but the advertiser can not afford to occupy space in furthering this tendency. and action in favor of the object occupying the mind is commenced. and the mere fact that the advertisement had begotten a desire upon its first appearance serves to increase the desire upon the second reading of the same or a similar advertisement. is to help the reader to get rid of the necessity of decision by effort. We may debate between two courses of action and hold both clearly in mind for some time. yet it is the function of the advertiser to get the public to think of one particular article.longlostmarketingsecrets. There are persons who will answer an advertisement the first time they see it. Although this is true. as Suggestion Of Substitutes also that resulting from a suggestion of evil To be Avoided consequences.

3. In the second the goods were suggested at the time and they were needed and the purchase followed without further consideration. Healthful. chance to win. investment. An attractive and frequently repeated advertisement. In such a case the reader is unable to make up his mind and hesitation and procrastination follow until the initial desire for the goods has vanished. Under such circumstances decision becomes easy and prompt. our state of doubt is at an end”. The goods supply a present need. A single advertisement should not present competing goods unless sufficient argument is given to make it possible for the reader to make up his mind and to act at once. Labor saving. Upon this point the statements of several thousand persons were examined.. Among the effective motives or conceptions the following were prominent : 1.g.com 71 . the most significant thing in the discussion is the following sentence: “The conclusive reason for the decision in these cases usually is the discovery that we can refer the case to a class upon which we are accustomed to act unhesitatingly in a stereotyped way. 2. “He who hesitates is lost” is a frequent quotation. Of these seven reasons it will be observed that the second and last should not be included in the reasoning type. but it would be more applicable if we should change it to. Money considerations. In the seventh the purchaser was influenced by the constant suggestion which was offered by the frequently recurrent attractive advertisement. convenient or useful. 4 5 6 7 Reliability of the goods or the firm. “The possible customer who is caused to hesitate is lost”. The result was most interesting and instructive. In Professor James’ five methods presented above. Not only must the advertiser avoid presenting suggestions of evil consequences and possible substitutes for his own commodity but he must use the greatest skill to discover the conception which in any particular case will lead to action. Stylish.longlostmarketingsecrets.occupy the attention completely. e. One part of the advertisement may offer a substitute which causes us to hesitate about acting upon another part. cheapness. The parts of an advertisement may weaken instead of strengthen each other. Recently an attempt was made to discover the conceptions which actually are effective in leading persons to answer advertisements and to purchase advertised goods. www. It is possible to present two articles which seem equally desirable because too little description is given of the articles advertised. The moment we hit upon a conception which allows us to apply a principle of action which is a fixed and stable part of our Ego.

including such as the one shown in the cut. In the reproduced advertisement of Ivory Soap (No. Therefore if radiators are presented satisfactorily as a good investment. With very many persons it was found that a good investment is the conception which leads to immediate action. was evidently constructed on this principle. the desired action will follow.If the right conception is presented at the right time. the purity and reliability of the article is the quality of greatest concern.4) it is assumed that women purchase the soap and that for many of them. appearing in women’s magazines. www.longlostmarketingsecrets. Hence the conception of Ivory Soap as pure and reliable is the one conception above all others which will sell it. the question is settled at once and the radiators are purchased. The reproduced advertisement of the Americal Radiator Company (No.5).com 72 .

6) is open to severe criticism. The reproduced advertisement of Postum Cereal (No. www. that there are many persons to whom the conception of health is all powerful. For such this advertisement might be irresistible.Very many goods are advertised. and with great success. as being labor-saving.longlostmarketingsecrets. It should be remembered. convenient or useful. however.com 73 .

magazines and hundreds of other things are successfully advertised by emphasis upon the stylishness of the goods: upon the social prestige enjoyed by their possessors. www.com 74 .longlostmarketingsecrets. It is a wise advertiser that can select the conceptions that will fit into the principles of action of the greatest number of possible customers.Clothing. diamonds.

Throughout the day I found that the great majority of my actions and thoughts were merely habitual and were performed without conscious desire or deliberation. then I turned to the last page and from there looked through the paper from the last to the first page and so ended where I had begun. I put sugar on my breakfast food first and added cream later. I put my left show on first – I always do. put on my hat and left the house was peculiar to myself. knew me. I picked up the morning paper and glanced over the first page. It is an interesting study for any one to observe his An own actions and thoughts and to see what he does Interesting habitually. The manner in which I arose from the table. I put on my clothes in a stereo-typed order. Some effort is required to overcome the plasticity of the paper and to form the crease.com 75 . This is my habitual method of reading the morning paper. Study but found that if I should be compelled to record all my habitual actions and thoughts it would keep a stenographer busy all day and a camera would have to be directed toward me for every move I made. The paper is Plasticity plastic. My manner of walking was such that my friends. The actions as described above were not reasoned out and followed because they were the most rational. If Habits and I bend a piece of paper and crease it the crease will remain. I walked down town by the same street which I had been going over for years. I addressed my friends in such a manner that they recognised me even when they did not see me. I observed my brother’s actions at all these points and found that at every point his habits were different from mine. even if the paper is straightened out again. but an explanation of the phenomenon has been left to modern psychology. although I had not observed the fact till that time. and when I tried to reverse the order I found it very difficult. although there were several other streets equally good and convenient. I tried recently to make such a study of myself.IX Habit The Term habit has been so frequently confined to a few questionable or bad habits that the broader significance of the term is ordinarily lost. The fact of habit has been a matter of marvel and wonder for centuries. His actions were as reasonable as mine but not more so.longlostmarketingsecrets. but when the crease is once formed the plasticity of the paper preserves the crease. I took up my work and went through it in a regular routine. but when the new form is once impressed upon it. We are all creatures of habit and have some good and some bad ones. I put my coat on by putting on my right sleeve first. seeing me in the distance. I found that I got out of bed in the morning in a way peculiar to myself. and plasticity means simply that the substance offers some resistance to adopting a new form. www. it retains it.

for the nerve substance is plastic. It is easy for the paper to bend where it has been creased and it is likewise easy for action to take place in the brain where it has taken place before. Every thought we think forms a pathway through our brains and makes it easier for every other similar thought. Every action among these cells leaves it indelible mark. Some person or some animal walks along in a particular direction and breaks down some of the weeks and briars. That is why it is so easy to think our old habitual thoughts and why it is so hard to think new thoughts or to perform new movements. We think along certain lines and that is the same as saying that we have formed certain pathways of thought through our brains. We know how easy it is to take the old path and how hard it is to form a new one. www. We see how easy it is to think the old thoughts and to do the old things and how difficult the new ones are. and so these easier ones are said to have become habitual.com 76 . the crease becomes so well established that thinking and acting along that crease are easier than other thoughts or actions. Few men ever learn to dress well unless they have acquired the art in their youth.longlostmarketingsecrets. In the densest forest there are still some paths where you can walk with ease. This relationship of the mind to the brain in the formation of habits may be illustrated by the paths in a forest. In all the other places the briars have grown up and made it almost impossible to walk through them. and then when they are once formed (creased) they determine what we shall do and be. They go to the best tailors. Every time we think there is a slight change taking place in the delicate nerve cells which compose a large part of the brain. and every time that any one walks in this path it becomes easier. In all these things we see that we first form our brains. or ”crease”. Here the weeds and briars are trampled on and kept out of the way. but something about them betrays their former habits. It is easy now to think these habitual thoughts but to think a new thought is like beating a new path through a forest while to think along the old lines is like following the old paths where advance is easy. It is ordinarily true that no one ever learns a language after he is twenty-five years old so well that he can speak it without an accent. We all know men who have acquired wealth in middle life and who have tried to be good dressers. Some one else follows. but in vain. A habit in the brain is like a path in a forest.There is a most intimate relation between our brains and our thoughts. When a thought has been thought or an action performed many times. In a very real sense the thoughts and the actions form the brain. As far as language is Learning concerned a person seems to be fixed or creased by the Late in Life time he is twenty-five and he can never get rid of his former habits of speech. This is well shown in the case of language. and then when the brain is formed its plasticity is so great that it determines our future thinking and acting.

Even in private. which the advertiser addresses. Each of the potential customers has formed a rut in his thinking and thinks along that particular line or lines. is subject to the same laws of habit as the advertiser. otherwise he is doomed to become an “old fogy”. but the advertiser should in many cases make the necessary effort. When game is plentiful and hunters few. Thus. he would be extremely careful as to what he thinks and what he does. He should see to it that he does not allow his habits Getting gradually but surely to make impossible to him new forms of Into expression and new lines of thinking and writing. As soon. The advertiser is likely to “get into a rut” in his line of thinking and consequently in his presentation of his commodity before the public. The wise advertiser is always alert to detect these habits and to profit by his discovery. there are no incentives to right actions comparable with the inflexible laws of habit when these laws are fully appreciated. It takes great “Ruts” and determined effort to overcome an old habit or to form a new one.com 77 . The public. and then the customers can read it and understand it with ease. however. any marksman may be successful in bagging game. The success of the advertiser depends to an exceptionally great degree upon the confidence of the public. Some people look more at the right page than Your at the left. whether we think of single actions as determining our future characters or whether we think of them as determining the estimation in which we shall be held by others.longlostmarketingsecrets. www.As habits play such a large part in all of our thinking and acting it is important that the advertiser should understand what habits are and how he can make the most of the situation. The advertiser must know his customers. for it is too difficult to attempt to get them to think along new lines. If he could realize Personal that everything he does leaves on his brain an impression Habits which is to be a determining factor in all his future. as competition becomes keen only that marksman is successful who understands the habits of the game sought and who plans his method of approach according to the habits of the game. He should observe the Good working of the laws of habit in his own life. and if Customers’ that does not look interesting the page is passed by without Habits a glance at the bottom or middle. The advertisement should conform to their habitual modes of thought. He must know their habits of thought. He must present his commodity in such a way that the readers can understand it without being compelled to think a new thought. Habit gives regularity and persistence to our actions. Some glance first at the top of the page. If we know that a man acts uniformly in an honest manner we have such confidence in him that we call him an honest man and we believe that he will not break his habit of honesty in the future and we are therefore willing to trust him. Some people have formed the habit of looking at the last pages in magazines before they look at the others. The advertisement should conform to their habitual modes of thought.

longlostmarketingsecrets. www. There is much truth in this but also a great error. The advertiser of Pears’ Soap quoted a great truth when he put this at the head of his advertisement. It often takes extensive advertising to get the public into the habit. Habitual acts are always performed without deliberation. When the habit is once formed it acts as a great drive-wheel and makes further action easy in the same direction. The action of habit gives great value to advertising by making the effect of the advertisement to be not merely transient but permanent. but after a few repetitions the act becomes almost automatic and requires little or no deliberation. and habits are formed by just such repetitions. any printer or reporter might have been successful in advertising. but to-day no man can be successful who does not plan his campaign according to the habits of the public which he must reach. “How use doth breed a habit”. This can best be done by continuing the advertising. and the amount of sales may not warrant the expense during the first year. and so the advertisement would be an active agent in inducing the customers to continue to buy the soap even long years after the advertisement had ceased to appear. In the first instance the purchaser may have been induced to act only after much hesitation. If he could by advertising get persons to using Pears’ soap he would get them into the habit of using it.When advertising was more primitive than it is to-day and when competition was less keen. for when people do a thing once it is easier to get them to do it again. and there is a uniformity and a certainty about them which differentiates them from other forms of actions. thus taking advantage of the habit by securing prompt responses and at the same time taking care to preserve the habit. but since a habit formed is a positive asset such campaigns may be profitable. If an advertisement can get persons started to purchasing a Results Made particular brand of goods it has done much more than sell Permanent the goods in the immediate present. One great aim of the advertiser is to induce the public to get the habit of using his particular line of goods. It takes so much effort to form the habit that when it is once formed it should be made the most of.com 78 . Many advertisers work on the theory that as soon as they have got the public into the habit of using their goods they can stop their advertising and the sales will go right on.

In this room several hundred men are constantly reading newspapers and magazines – principally magazines. or by asking those engaged in the business of advertising. One of the habits which most of us have acquired is that of reading advertisements. I had formed a fixed habit of putting on my right sleeve before the left one. There is a very large number of magazines to choose from. in fact. and yet for years I did not know it – would have denied it. The fact that this has become habitual gives it a permanence and regularity similar to that of our other habits. the chairs are comfortable and the light is good. People have told me that they never look at the advertising pages of a magazine. libraries. Some of these men assured me that all persons who pick up a magazine look at the advertisements. I asked several professional advertising men as to the number of persons who read advertisements and the time which people in general devote to them. on trains –wherever and under whatever conditions people are in the habit of reading publications which contained advertisements. www. too.com 79 . The observation should be made on different classes of persons. It is not possible to find out how much other people read advertisements by observing one’s self.longlostmarketingsecrets. by asking personal friends. To know whether people in general read the advertisements or not it is necessary to watch a large number of persons who are reading magazines. I felt convinced that the advertising men were as wide of the mark as the group first mentioned. I observed her reading magazines and found that she seldom slighted the advertisements. and yet within an hour after making such a statement she was engaged in a conversation about articles which she knew only from statements appearing in the advertising columns of her periodicals. At almost any hour of the day one hundred men may be found there reading magazines. to keep an accurate account of the number who are reading the advertisements and of those who are reading the articles in the body of the magazine. Like other habits.X The Habit of Reading Advertisements As was shown in the preceding chapter. they scarcely ever take up a magazine without "glancing" at the advertisements. and that they put in as much time in reading them as they do in reading the body of the magazine. when. One lady told me that she was sure she never paid any attention to advertisements. Some months ago I visited the reading-room of the Chicago Public Library. in homes. In front of some of the chairs are tables on which the magazine may be rested. we are frequently not conscious of it. Thousands of magazine readers read advertisements more than they are aware. clubs. we are all creatures of habit.

if during the next few minutes he was engaged in reading advertisements. Of the first hundred observed Reading eighty-eight were reading from the body of the Advertisements magazine and twelve were reading advertisements.There are no conveniences for answering a mail-order advertisement at once. Thus. In all cases of doubt the man was not counted at all. Of the fourth hundred sixteen were reading advertisements. Making a summary of the six hundred magazine readers. Were reading advertisements.com 80 . different seasons of the year and different hours of the day. We get the exact number who are reading advertisements at any moment of time. jotted them down on my Conducted notebook and turned to his neighbor and took the data from him. and if the very next moment he turned to the reading matter. That is to say. but that might not detract from the reading of such advertisements. On the other hand. At my request a gentleman made similar tests at the same library. To know just how many are reading at any particular moment. Of the fifth hundred only five were reading advertisements. if I turned my attention to a man who was looking at the last page of the advertisements. Where there was a single column of advertisements next to a single column of reading matter at which the subject was looking. At each visit I made observations on one hundred men who were Percentage reading magazines. the following plan of investigation was followed. Some of the men who read there have but a few minutes to stay. I found sixty-five reading advertisements and four hundred and thirty-five reading from the body of the magazine. Of all the men he observed. If he was reading from the body of the magazine. unobserved by the readers. but few such cases. and his final results were in remarkable harmony with those given above. I began at the first table and. In every case this first observation determined the points in question. As I looked over the room to see how many were reading advertisements. Of the third hundred fifteen were reading advertisements. I took what data I wanted from him. however. etc.longlostmarketingsecrets. turned my attention to the first An Investigation man. By this system the same results are secured as we should get by taking a snap-shot of the room. Of the second hundred six were reading advertisements. going on different days of the week. it was sometimes impossible to tell what he was reading. exactly ten per cent. 10 ½ per cent. A man was reported as reading the advertisements if he was reading them the very first moment I turned my attention to him. he was still reported as reading advertisements. he was still reported as not reading advertisements. There were. Of the sixth hundred eleven were reading advertisements. while others are there to spend the day. www. if at my first observation he was just finishing his story in the body of the magazine and. I made six visits to the library. of all the men observed were reading advertisements. it seemed to me that a large part of them were thus engaged.

some of them were glancing at the display and reading nothing which was not particularly prominent. as here investigated. If the readers in libraries spend anything like tenfold as much time on the text as on the advertisements. most of those who were looking through the advertisements were not engaged in any serious attempt to understand the argument.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 81 . and if there is a general tendency with most readers to rush through or glance at the advertisements. but in all the tests referred to above. which was so clearly present in the Chicago Public Library. and as trips are usually some-what prolonged. and were reading in a hasty and indifferent manner. it behooves the advertiser to recognize the actual conditions and to construct his advertisements according to the habits of magazine readers. Many people turn every page of the advertising columns of a magazine and read none of the advertisements through. Under these circumstances the data at hand can not show more than certain general tendencies and certain specific facts as to how one class of readers is in the habit of reading the advertisements in magazines under the conditions mentioned above. the Most data were secured only from men. others were reading the complete argument of the advertisement. Magazine readers on a train frequently have but a single copy of a magazine at hand. a general tendency. Another element which enters into the question. is found in the fact that among such abundance of periodicals the reader becomes somewhat bewildered. The tendency to rush through the advertising pages of magazines. is.The fact that only ten per cent. but it is quite certain that he spends a comparatively short time on the advertisements. It would not be fair to assume from the data on hand that the average magazine reader spends ten-fold as much time on the text as he does on the advertisements. It is quite certain that the data thus far secured are not sufficient for any generalization as to the exact time or proportion of time which the general public devotes to the advertising columns of periodicals. Indeed. it is true that the regular subscribers to periodicals read them more nearly from cover to cover than readers who drop into a library to read. In the second place. www. It Women is quite generally believed that women read advertisements Interested more than men. the traveler frequently not only reads the text matter but reads many of the advertisements completely. it was the exception rather than the rule that any advertisement was read from beginning to end. A large part of them turned over the advertising pages. I believe. of the men were reading advertisements at any one point of time is not at all equivalent to saying that only one-tenth of them read – or glanced at – the advertisements. Some of the men were looking at the pictures in the advertising pages. but they turned them hastily and did not stop to read them unless in some way they were particularly interesting. tries to glance through many papers and does not read so carefully as he would ordinarily do under other circumstances. As far as I could tell.

reproduced herewith. Even in the most hasty glance the reader is enabled to get a good idea of the appearance and use of this commodity.2) has a beautiful picture. but it tells nothing about the goods advertised. Thus. this knowledge will often lead him to read the entire advertisement. The cut used should Illustrations be not a mere picture but an illustration.1). If he passes the advertisement with a single glance he will still be affected with what he has seen. If he is interested in such goods at all. and yet they never discover that it has anything to do with pencils. but do not take the trouble to notice what it is supposed to advertise. They remember the picture.longlostmarketingsecrets. www. The advertisement of the Venus Drawing Pencil. that fraction must be made to count. the illustration shows just how the ware looks and what it is good for.If the presentation of his goods is to be seen but a fraction of a second. Many people look at this picture as they turn the pages of the magazine. The cut should should be made to speak for itself and to tell the story so distinctly Illustrate that at a glance the gist of the advertisement is comprehended. (No. I know nothing more about Venus Drawing Pencils after seeing this picture than I did before. in the advertisement of Wilson’s Outside Venetians (No. reproduced herewith.com 82 .

(No. If he sees nothing more than the display of type. The next time he turns over the page of a magazine containing this advertisement his attention will be attracted by this familiar display. “Wanted – Good Neighbors”. he has seen enough to understand what it is all about and to be influenced in favour of the idea there presented.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 83 .In the advertisement reproduced herewith. Every one who glances at the advertisement understands it. A person could glance at this advertisement a score of times.4) does not indicate in any way that the advertisement is one of real estate. In the advertisement reproduced herewith. Every time he sees this advertisement the suggestion in favor of it becomes stronger and yet the reader himself may not be conscious of such influence. the type display.3) gives the gist of the whole matter. It has nothing to say to the casual reader. and would be weakened rather than strengthened by repetition. but he would know no more about it when he had seen it the last time than he did after he had seen it the first time. (No. www. the type display. “Advertising Taught by Mail”.

The type display should not be merely to attract attention, but must tell a story and tell it quickly. The display type and the picture About Type which merely attract and do not instruct are in many cases Display worthless, for in attracting attention to themselves they divert the attention from the thing advertised.

The picture and the meaningless headline will interest some people so much they will stop and read the advertisement through to try to figure out hat it all means. But the great majority of the readers will not stop at any particular advertisement, and unless they get something at a glance they get nothing at all. A large number of magazine readers see each advertisement, but only a few of them will stop to read it through. The advertiser must learn to make the best possible use of this casual glance of the multitude. Since many see the display and but few read the argument, an attempt should be made to construct a display that will not merely attract attention to itself, but be so constructed that it will beget interest in the goods advertised. Few people will admit that they are greatly influenced by advertising. I have discussed the question with many persons, and I have yet to find the first one who believes that he is materially influenced by magazine advertising in the purchases which he makes. One great cause for this personal delusion is found in the habit which they have formed of glancing through the advertising pages. They turn the pages rapidly and the individual advertisement makes so little impression that it is not remembered by them as having been seen at all. To say that the advertisement is forgotten is not equivalent to saying that it has not made a lasting impression. If I should Unrecognized glance at the same advertisement in different Value of magazines for each month for a number of years, it is Advertisements quite possible that these single glances would be forgotten. I might not remember ever having seen an advertisement, and yet my familiarity with the goods advertised might seem so great that I should believe that some of my acquaintances had recommended them to me or that I had used the goods years before. www.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 84

The following instance, which was also referred to in the chapter on Suggestion, illustrates this point perfectly. For years I have seen the advertisements of a certain tailor. Recently I entered his shop and ordered a suit of clothes. It so happened that the proprietor, who was conducting a vigorous advertising campaign, waited on me himself. As he took my order he asked me whether he had been recommended to me. I promptly replied that he had. I then began to try to recall who had recommended him, but found that I could not recall any such recommendation. I had seen his advertisement so often that I had forgotten the particular advertisements, but had retained the information which they had imparted. I had evidently confused the source of my information, for I fully believed that I had heard from some of my friends that this particular tailor was especially trustworthy. If he had asked me whether I might have been influenced by his advertisements or not, I might have answered that they had had nothing to do with it, although in fact they were the only source of my information about him and evidently were entirely responsible for the sale. The oftener we see an advertisement, the fewer are the chances that we will remember where we saw it, but the greater becomes our Familiarity feeling of familiarity with the goods advertised. As soon as With the we become familiar with the goods in this way and Goods unmindful of the source of the familiarity, we are likely to be subject to this delusion of supposing that we have heard our friends recommend the goods. Most people still are prejudiced against advertisements, and would not purchase the goods if they realized that their only source of information about the firm and about the goods was the advertisement; but as soon as they forget the source of the information they are perfectly willing to buy the goods, although they would repudiate the statement that they had been influenced by the advertisements. If a merchant should ask his customers whether they had been influenced largely by his advertisements or not, he would certainly receive a very discouraging report, and would be inclined to give up his advertisements as worthless, when, in fact, nothing but his advertisements had induced them to come to his store. The habit which the public has formed of reading advertisements so hastily makes it difficult for the advertisement writer to construct his advertisements to meet the emergency of the case; it makes it difficult for the merchant to discover the direct results of his advertising campaign, and, on the other hand, it makes the right sort of advertising peculiarly effective, by making the reader more susceptible to confusion as to the source of his information.

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XI The Laws of Progressive Thinking
In acquiring simple acts of skill we all use in the main the “try, try again” method. This is technically known as the “trial and error” method. We simply keep trying till we happen to hit it right, and then we imitate Four our successes till finally the skill is acquired. The first Processes of correct response may have been reflex, instinctive or Progressive merely accidental. When, however, we attempt to develop Thinking acts of skill or ideas in advance of our fellows this simple method of trial and error does not suffice. It is of course true that most of the actions of all of us and all the acts of many of us are not progressive in the sense here intended. By progressive thinking we mean the conception of new ideas, the invention of new methods of doing work, the construction of a new policy or a new instrument or something of a kindred nature. For such thinking the essential mental process involves nothing totally different from ordinary thinking, but it involves the ordinary processes in a more complete and efficient form. The processes referred to are the following four: observation, classification, inference and application. The laws of progressive thinking are derived from these processes and are nothing more than a demand for the complete carrying out of these four processes. The thinking of the advertiser does not differ from that of others; and in what follows the discussion will be confined to the advertiser and his problems, inasmuch as such a concrete problem seems more definite than a general discussion. Observation is logically the first step. All advertisers have eyes, but they do not all use them equally well. Observation should Observation begin at home. The advertiser should analyze his own response to advertisements, but unfortunately he is likely to become so prejudiced or hardened to advertisements that his own judgement must be taken with great caution. How does this advertisement or this part of the advertisement affect me? How does it affect my wife, my mother, my sister? How does it affect the persons who ride on the train with me or who pass by the billboards with me? This is the territory which is so near at home that we disregard it. Such observations must, of course, be supplemented by tests carried on by means of keying the advertisement, by consulting the sales department, etc. None of us are ideal observers. We can’t tell just how certain advertisements affect us or what element of the advertisement is the most effective. We do not observe accurately how advertisements affect those about us. We see only those things which we have learned to see or which have been pointed out to us. We are not skillful in discovering new methods

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In any large office care must be used in filing away material to see that the general heads are not only correct but that they are the most usable ones. the choice of mediums. the greatest care is necessary in choosing the right heads and in getting all the data under their appropriate general heads. but he has felt satisfied if he was an expert in the construction of advertisements. He must observe the public to which he is to make his appeal. yet the differences are great enough to secure success in one case and failure in another. But how many advertisers have grouped this data and formed any general statement concerning it? The process of classification involves that of analysis. Great skill Classification is necessary to make the right classifications. The man who makes the best use of his knowledge is the one who has it best analyzed and classified. logically speaking. the public and the advertisements. The illustrations were very similar and the arguments were largely identical throughout. one of which was successful and the other Inference one unsuccessful. Recently an advertiser sent me two such advertisements. i. The scattered data must be brought together before they can be utilized. In some cases the advertisements are very similar and the differences at first sight seem non-essential. every advertiser has a certain amount of data concerning the effectiveness of advertisements without illustrations in publications in which the text matter is largely illustrated. The two had been run in the same sizes and in the same and also in different publications. in getting them into shape so that we can use them. Advertisers have sent me two different advertisements which were carefully keyed. He must be a practical psychologist. The second step in the method. and the difficulty of forming new analyses is much greater than would be supposed by those who have not studied the process. For instance.com 87 . All the data must be analyzed and classified and reclassified. Under some circumstances it might be practically impossible to deduce the cause of the differences. Likewise in filing away our observations. He must observe his goods in order to know the possible qualities which may be presented with greatest force. One had been unsuccessful and the other had been extremely successful. the goods. In the past the advertiser has not been required to know his commodity or his public. so that the classification is never complete and the generalizations based on the classifications are continually increasing. for new observations require new classifications.of securing new data and so our observations are neither so accurate nor so extensive as they should be. The observations must be classified. the keying of advertisements and similar strictly technical accomplishments. The observations are not complete unless they include these three fields. is that of classification. In order that the new classifications may be made the data must be worked over and thought of in all the possible relations. It seemed quite evident www. The advertiser has an extensive field of observation and but little direction as to the best method.longlostmarketingsecrets.e. He must also be an advertising expert according to the narrow and fallacious use of that term.

Furthermore. In the successful advertisement the eye rested naturally at the point from which the advertisement looked the most artistic and from which the content of the advertisement could best be understood.longlostmarketingsecrets. it is quite certain that he never would have been heard from. but not in the quality of either of them. I think that I was correct in inferring that the difference lay in the display of the illustration and text matter. in teaching him how to classify or group his observations systematically. because a science can not lay down rules for things which are not yet discovered. Psychology is of assistance to every advertiser in helping him to observe widely and accurately. To suppose that a great psychologist would of necessity be a successful innovator in advertising is just as sane as to suppose that every one who understands electricity as well as Edison would have as great a record as he at the patent office. Science does not produce inventors but it is of great assistance to a genius and may cause him to become a great discoverer. This criticism has weight with any who should be so foolish as to suppose that every accomplished student of the human mind would of necessity be a successful advertiser. it should help him in drawing the correct conclusions from his classified experience. In the unsuccessful advertisement there was no resting place for the eye and no point or line of orientation (the line of orientation is the line which the eye follows in observing an illustration).that the difference must lie in the advertisements themselves and not in any extraneous matter. Any trained artist or even any one who had studied the theory which underlies artistic productions. but it takes an Edison or a Marconi to make a new application of these same laws. the line of orientation was such that the eye naturally followed the order which made the argument and display mutually strengthening.com 88 . If Edison and Marconi had not a comprehensive grasp of these laws they would not be inventors. but it can not lay down rules or suggest infallible methods for further discoveries and inventions. Science can formulate the laws of the phenomena as far as they have been discovered and applied. Certain keen students of advertising have prophesied but little benefit to advertising from the science of psychology. might very naturally have looked for this resting place for the eye or for the appropriate place for the line of orientation. and so the eye rested. at the conclusion. This does not minimize the value of science but it emphasized the need of originality and ingenuity in the man who strives to lead his profession and to invent new methods and to make new applications of those he has learned. The fourth step in the mental process of the progressive advertiser is that of applying the deductions drawn from the former experience. www. but unless these features were taken into consideration the wrong conclusion would have been drawn as to the cause of success or failure in the case of these two advertisements. at the point which was most inducive to immediate action. Others have as good a knowledge of all the phenomena connected with electricity as they and yet are unable to make a practical use of their knowledge. The laws concerning the force called electricity are known to Application thousands. If Edison had known nothing of the science of physics.

who then think most keenly about these classified The Method observations so as to draw the most helpful conclusions. Further and lastly who have the greatest ability in utilizing these Illustrated deductions in their advertising campaigns. those who are seeking better method of observation and of classification and who are never content with their past deductions or their applications. The data were turned over to me for such classification. and fourth. could have turned to the pages of his magazine and have made a personal observation as to the way the different advertisements affected him and what it was in any particular advertisement which interested him most. in some they noticed the testimonials or the prizes taken.com 89 . third.If psychology could do no more it would be of inestimable value. In these letters the writers told which advertisements they were the most interested in and what it was in each particular advertisement which interested them. Thus of the letters received one month. B. the present need of the reader. The most successful advertisers are those who observe most widely and accurately. etc. In some cases they had tried the goods advertised. the construction of the advertisement.longlostmarketingsecrets. second. it may be interesting to know that the reasons for advertisements’ proving interesting were in the order of their frequency. first. B. who classify their observations and group them in the most usable form. In the same month 508 were particularly interested because of money considerations. the task proved itself to be one of great difficulty. When he had read over the letters he had the data before him but it was in chaotic and worthless condition. and though this is not the place to give in full the general heads and the sub-heads under which the classification was finally made. 607 affirmed that they were most interested in their chosen advertisement because they believed that the firm or the medium or the goods were strictly reliable. To show what I mean at this point I will illustrate from methods employed by one of the leading advertisers of America. It was easy to tabulate the results and find out how many were especially interested in each particular advertisement. In observing the effect which advertisements produce upon a community it is much easier to learn which advertisements are effective than what it is in the particular advertisements which makes them interesting. but by the method described he multiplied his observations a thousand fold. But when it came to classifying the reasons – and often women’s reasons at that – for being interested in each advertisement. but as applications or new discoveries depend so largely on the formation of correct deductions and hypotheses. as an aid in making observations at this latter point. reliability. and all within the commodity with which he has to deal. psychology may even be of benefit in this last and most difficult step in the mental process of the innovator. Mr. financial consideration. The next step was to bring order out of chaos. www.. in some they had dealt with the firm. Mr. secured several thousands of letters from readers of issues of the magazine of which he was the advertising manager. They are the active men.

inference and application. these will in turn be classified. classification. It is not necessary to say that from the classifications of these data certain conclusions have been drawn and that attempts are being made to apply the conclusions to the planning of advertising campaigns. and 408 because of the present need. Indeed it is the method of progressive thinking in every line of human endeavor. These experimental applications will furnish new data. some because the advertisements offered a chance to get something for service instead of for cash. etc. To recapitulate the results: 607 for reliability. This method is applicable not only to writing advertisements but to every details of the profession.Some because they could get the goods advertised more cheaply than elsewhere. new conclusions deduced and further attempts at practical application will follow. 418 for the construction of the advertisement.longlostmarketingsecrets.. www. In this way we have an endless chain of observation. 508 for money considerations.com 90 . etc. The four steps are not fully differentiated in our actual experience but are presented here as distinct for the sake of clearness. In the same month 418 were most interested in a particular advertisement because it presented goods which they needed at that particular time.

That is to say. and therefore the letters have no rivals and would of necessity fill or occupy the attention for an instant of time. When the number of objects was increased threefold. Fundamental large objects. Again there are certain conditions which Attention favor attention and others which hinder it. This card was exposed to view for one twenty-fifth of a second. sudden contracts. the chances that any particular object would be seen was reduced fifty per cent.longlostmarketingsecrets. This may be demonstrated in a specific case as follows:: I had a card of convenient size and on it were four letters.. the chances of any particular object’s being seen were reduced to thirty-three per cent.e. the probabilities that any particular thing will catch our attention are in proportion to the absence of competing attractions. We seem to be compelled to attend to them by some mysterious instinctive tendency of our nervous A organization. This seems to indicate that. Among the conditions favoring attention the following is. it is safety to say that the letters would be seen. When the number of objects (i. up to a certain point all could be seen. seem to catch our attention with Law of irresistible force. the full-page advertisement is the ‘sure-to-be-seen’ advertisement and that the size of an advertisement determines the number of chances it has of being seen”. in one or both cases by every one who turns over the pages of the magazine.com 91 . If one hundred of these letters are placed on each of the pages the chances that any particular letter will be seen are greatly reduced. other things being equal. for the advertiser. etc. with more or less attention. letters) was doubled. of special significance. and as one turns the pages the attention is ordinarily not wider than the age. or until the page was turned over. The observers were still able to read but four letters. If I should place any particular four letters on the right and also the same letters on the left hand page of any magazine and have nothing else on the page. I then added four more letters to the card and exposed the letters as in the previous trials. In another discussion of the subject of Attention appeared the following paragraph (Theory of Advertising. and in that time all the four letters were read by the observers. The observers could read but four of the letters as in the previous trial but in this exposure there was no certainty that any particular letter would be read. I then added four other letters and exposed the card one twentyfifth of a second as before.. page 9): “Other things being equal. The power of any object to compel attention depends upon the absence of counter attraction. This follows because at the ordinary reading distance the field of even comparatively distinct vision is smaller than a single page of ordinary magazine size.XII Attention Value of Small and of Large Spaces There are certain things which seem to force themselves upon us whether we will or not. www. Thus moving objects.

The question is not as to the superiority of full pages in comparison with smaller spaces. a few failed even to look at the advertisements. www. just as they ordinarily do. for it costs practically twice as much. its attention value. but also as to the amount of information which each had furnished. These results were carefully tabulated as to the exact number of persons who mentioned each individual advertisement. not only as to the fact of bare remembrance.e. i.com 92 . read over the table of contents and looked over the reading matter. A quarter-page announcement is valuable for a half-page is worth more – is it worth twice as much? It is of course conceded that some advertisements are unprofitable regardless of the space occupied. To investigate the An Investigation question the following tests were made: I handed each of the forty students in my class a copy of the current issue of the Century Magazine.. the large or the small advertisements? Since profitableness is a very broad term and depends upon many conditions. I sent the same magazines to other persons in other parts of the country and had them use the magazines in the same way in which I had used them. etc. I surprised them by asking them to lay aside the magazines and write down all they could remember about each of the advertisements they had seen. the desire it had created to secure the goods. but not to read any poetry or long articles.longlostmarketingsecrets. some glanced through the advertisements. before opportunity had been offered to verify it by means of experiments with advertisements. But the real question is whether it is twice as valuable. we will for the present confine ourselves to one of the characteristics of a profitable advertisement. We then got together all references to each particular advertisement and so could compare the different advertisements. There are exceptions and special cases but the question can be intelligently stated as follows: Of all the advertisements being run in current advertising which is the more profitable. I then asked them to take the magazines and look them through. in proportion to the space occupied. Every advertiser knows that if he should occupy full pages he would secure more attention than if he should occupy quarter pages. At the end of ten minutes.Even a casual reader of advertisements is aware of the fact that fullpage advertisements attract his attention more than smaller advertisements. In this way tests were made with over five hundred persons mostly between the ages of ten and thirty. and that others are profitable when filling various amounts of space. Some of them put in all their time reading advertisements. yet one of the most perplexing questions which any advertiser has to deal with is the adequate amount of space for any particular advertisement or for any particular advertising campaign. All feel sure that any advertisement would be more valuable if it occupied a full page than if it occupied only half of it. The quotation presented above was deduced from a theoretical study of attention. It is also conceded that certain advertisements require a large space and that others are profitable as an inch advertisement but would be unprofitable if inflated to occupy a full page.

To obviate this difficulty. There are ninety-eight small advertisements. and a small advertisement less than a single time. To compare the full-page advertisements with the other advertisements in this particular magazine would be to compare advertisements of books and periodicals with advertisements of other classes of goods. which is an average of 9 times for each advertisement. a quarter-page advertisement was mentioned 30% oftener than a quarter page of small advertisements. The sixty-four full-page advertisements of books and periodicals were remembered 606 times. while of the half-page. sixty-four of them are advertisements of books and periodicals. other than those of books or periodicals. it is useless to consider such advertisements separately. (2) Those of books and periodicals.longlostmarketingsecrets. As less than a single quarter-page of small advertisements was of books and periodicals. The twenty-seven full-page advertisements of goods other than books or periodicals were remembered (mentioned in the reports of the five hundred persons tested) 530 times. a half page advertisement was mentioned 80% oftener than a half page of small advertisements. and a full-page of advertisements was mentioned 90% oftener than a full page of small advertisements. The thirty-nine half-page advertisements of goods other than books or periodicals were mentioned 358 times.com 93 . we shall divide all advertisements into two classes: (1) Those of goods other than books and periodicals. which is an average of 3 for each advertisement. quarter-page and small advertisements there is a total of about five pages devoted to books and periodicals.At the present time we shall consider all advertisements mainly from the standard of attracting attention sufficiently to be recalled by those who saw them. a half-page 9 times. The sixty-seven quarter-page advertisements. As is shown in the following table of all advertisements other than those of books and periodicals. The three quarter-page advertisements of books and magazines were mentioned only twelve which is an average of less than 1 for each advertisement. Out of the ninety-one full-page advertisements. which is an average of approximately 20 for each advertisement. and these were mentioned but 65 times which is an average of much less than 1 for each advertisement. which is an average of 9 times for each advertisement. were mentioned 223 times. The tabulated results for all advertisements other than of books and periodicals are as follows: www. The inefficiency of the small advertisement is made more striking when we consider that for all advertisements other than for those of books and periodicals a full page was mentioned approximately 20 times. a quarter-page 3 times.

When we consider the advertisements for books and periodicals. the differences are enormous. A half-page advertisement was noticed 50% oftener than two quarter-page advertisements.com 94 . www. In a view Not instances the illustration of one brand of goods was Sufficiently interpreted as an advertisement of the competing brand.longlostmarketingsecrets. and a full-page advertisement was mentioned 250% oftener than four quarter-page advertisements. The tabulated results for advertisements of books and periodicals are as follows: An advertisement was regarded as “remembered” if it was mentioned at all. In some instances the illustration along was remembered Numerical and the person mentioning it was unable to tell what Results advertisement the illustration was used with.

The above cut (No.On the other hand the results were frequently astounding in their revelation of the effectiveness of the advertisements in imparting the essential information and creating a desire for the goods.1.com 95 . is a reproduction of the report of one of the pupils Minneapolis. made after she had looked through the magazine for ten minutes without the knowledge that she would be called upon to report on what she had read.1).longlostmarketingsecrets. The advertisement described by this pupil was mentioned more than any other and is reproduced herewith as No. www.

We had in these pages advertisements of almost everything which has been advertised in magazines of recent years. We had all the different styles of display. the subjects knew nothing of the nature of the experiment. Each one was requested to look through the magazine and. Some of the subjects turned the pages rapidly and got through in three minutes. readers of magazines. We With Fifty took the binding wires out of a large number of magazines Adults and thus were able to make a collection of advertising pages without tearing the margins of the leaves. and to tell all about each of them. of colored cuts and tinted paper. A large part of them were heads of families. but some of them merely took the magazine and looked it through. supposing that it was the latest magazine. etc.Soon after the completion of the investigation described above a supplementary investigation was devised to see whether similar results would be secured from a more diversified An list of advertisements and from the class of persons for Investigation whom the advertisements were especially written. in every case tabulated. and then the subject was given the magazine again and asked to look it through and indicate each advertisement which he recognized as one which he had seen but had forgotten to mention. so we tried to get all kinds and conditions of people for subjects. others were thirty minutes in getting through. Some of them mentioned as high as thirty different advertisements.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 96 . With three exceptions. As soon as each subject had completely looked through the magazine it was taken away from him and he was asked to “mention” all the advertisements which he had seen. of type and illustration. all the hundred pages of the advertisements were turned. Some of them lived in a city and some in a country town. The average time for the fifty subjects was a little over ten minutes. www. What he said was written down. although all the one hundred pages of advertisements had been before his eyes but a moment before. This specially prepared magazine was handed to fifty adults. no one suspected that it was “made up” as he looked at it. We had these hundred pages bound up with the body of a current magazine and the whole think looked like any ordinary magazine. Some of them knew that it was for experimental purposes. From these leaves we chose one hundred pages of advertisements. As we had tried to choose all the different kinds of advertisements possible. and purchasers of the goods advertised. There was very great diversity in individuals in their ability to mention the advertisements which they had just seen. Indeed. We made use of magazines of different years and of different kinds. being careful to choose as many different styles of advertisements as possible. Thirty-three of them were women and seventeen men. one man was unable to mention a single advertisement which he had seen. but all used were of uniform magazine size.

which is an average of 1 1/12 times for each advertisement. who mentioned but three advertisements. Observers Others. in looking through the second time. That gives an average of ¼ mention for each advertisement. Some of them recognised as high as one hundred Diversity advertisements when looking through the second time and Among were surprised that they had forgotten to mention them. which is an average of 6 for each advertisement. we divided all advertisements into two classes: (1) advertisements of goods other than books and periodicals and called. These six were mentioned only 3 times. One subject. which is an average of 3 7/18 times for each. in addition to the “mentions”. Of the small advertisements only seven were of books and periodicals. (2) advertisements of books and periodicals. The forty-three pages of full-page miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned 281 times and recognized 544 times. That is. and only one of them was mentioned by any of the fifty. As in the previous investigations. therefore. which is an average of 34/93 for each advertisement. They were recognized by 24. were surprised to see how unfamiliar the magazine looked. The thirty-one full-pages were recognized (upon looking through the magazine a second time) 276 times by the fifty subjects. which is an average of 2 11/15 times for each. Each of these advertisements was thus recognized on an average almost 9 times. each of these advertisements was mentioned on an average of 6 23/43 times and recognized on an average of 12 28/43 times in addition.There was also great diversity in subjects in their ability to recognize the advertisements when they looked through the magazine the second time. which is an average of ½ for each advertisement. and that but once. could recognize only three others. which is an average of 2 23/31 times for each advertisement. The fifteen advertisements were recognized 118 times in addition. The thirty-one full-page advertisements of books and periodicals were mentioned 85 times by the fifty subjects. The fifteen half-page advertisements of miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned 41 times. There are but four half-page advertisements of books and periodicals. miscellaneous advertisements. which is an average of 7 13/15 times for each one. these seven were www. He had no recollection of having seen any of the others. There are six quarter-page advertisements of books and periodicals. which makes an average of 14/93.longlostmarketingsecrets. They were recognized 34 times. The thirty-six quarter-page miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned 39 times. The ninety-three small miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned 14 times. This would seem to indicate that certain persons may turn over the advertising pages of a magazine and yet hardly see the advertisements at all.com 97 . They were recognized 122 times.

longlostmarketingsecrets. The seven were recognized only twice. which is an average of 1/7 for each. or on the average of 2/7. The following tabulations will make clear the results secured from fifty adults: Tabulated results for all miscellaneous advertisements secured from fifty adults as follows: www.mentioned once.com 98 .

a half-page was more than twice as effective as a quarter-page. it was found that the subject knew what class of goods the fullpage advertisement represented much better than what the half-page represented. In a similar way. The exception referred to is the half-page advertisements of books which fell below all other sized advertisements. The report given by each subject was carefully analyzed to see how many times each advertisement impressed a subject sufficiently so that he would know at least what general class of goods the advertisement represented. that a half page advertisement was recognized oftener than two quarter-page advertisements.longlostmarketingsecrets. and that the quarter-page was better than the small advertisement. These three exceptional instances are of no significance inasmuch as the full-page advertisements had been previously mentioned and therefore had been excluded from those that could be merely recognized. that the half-page was better than the quarter-page. we had each subject see how many of the advertisements in the magazine he could recognise a few minutes after he had looked through it for the first time. yet it may have made such an impression on him that he could recall it if a Viewing need or something else should arise to suggest it to his mind. a full-page advertisement was mentioned oftener than two half-page advertisements.. half-page and quarter-page miscellaneous advertisements and half-page advertisements of books and periodicals. The results given above indicate that a quarter-page advertisement was recognized oftener than a quarter page of small advertisements. Thus. two half-page advertisements were mentioned oftener than four quarter-page advertisements.com 99 . Although an advertisement had not impressed the reader sufficiently to enable him to mention it after he had closed the magazine. In all of these cases it was found that the full-page advertisement was more than twice as effective as a half-page advertisement. the Ads.As is shown by the foregoing. for all kinds of advertisements.e. www. but as the number of “recognized” is very large. with but one exception. the apparent exception should not be emphasized. and four quarter-page advertisements were mentioned oftener than a full page of small advertisements. Results were then compiled as to the comparative values of the different-sized advertisements in impressing upon the subjects the individual brand or name of the goods advertised. Upon comparing the reports upon the different advertisements at this point. but that the full-page advertisements in three instances were recognized less often proportionately than smaller advertisements. results were compiled as to the Shown name and address of the firm. to find out how many of the advertisements had made Twice any appreciable impression. It was found that this Relative information was imparted much better by the larger Values advertisements. i. the price of the goods offered and the line of argument presented by the advertiser. and a quarter-page was more effective than a quarter page of small advertisements.

If the twenty persons who mentioned Pears’ Soap (No. These five were of the New York Central Railroad (No.3) but sixteen knew that it was an advertisement of soap at all. The advertisement in question is the familiar one of a boy in a raincoat putting packages of In-erSeal in a cupboard.longlostmarketingsecrets. Of the twenty-three persons who mentioned In-er-Seal.com 100 . Of the 24 persons who mentioned Ivory Soap (no. every one of them knew that it was an advertisement of Pears’ Soap.6). Egyptian Deities Cigarettes. www.4). reproduced herewith as No. and only fourteen knew that it was an advertisement of Ivory Soap. only sixteen knew that it referred to biscuits.5).The full-page advertisements which were mentioned by the greatest number of subjects were Ivory Soap (mentioned 24 times and reproduced herewith as No. Equitable Life Insurance Company and the Lyman D Morse Advertising Agency. while but nine knew that it was an advertisement of In-er-Seal goods. Waltham Watches (No. Only five of the full-page advertisements were mentioned by none of the fifty subjects. In-er-Seal (mentioned 23 times) and Pears’ Soap (mentioned 20 times.4).3).

There were many half-page. quarter-page and small advertisements which were mentioned and recognized by none of the fifty persons tested. www.com 101 .longlostmarketingsecrets.

The results indicated a very great difference between individual advertisements which filled the same space. even if Next filling a full-page. In the case of these one hundred pages of typical advertisements. In the number of times the advertisement was mentioned from memory. the specific name or brand of the goods. Quality is more important than quantity. and in the number of times that the advertisement conveyed definite information as to the general class of goods advertised. the size of the advertisements affected their value materially. and the increase of value is greater than the increase in the amount of space filled. yet the size is an important element. Size in any space. Certain styles of advertisements (depending upon Quality the goods advertised as well as on other things) are effective First. in the number of times it was recognized when the magazine was looked at for the second time. the price of the goods and the argument presented in favor of the goods – in all of these points (disregarding the exception mentioned above) the full-page advertisement was more than twice as effective as the quarter-page. the address of the firm. In other words. and others are comparatively worthless.com 102 .longlostmarketingsecrets. www. at all points considered in the two investigations described above. the name of the firm. the value of an advertisement increases as the size of the advertisement increases. the quarter-page was more effective than a quarter page of small advertisements. An advertiser should certainly give more heed to the quality of his advertisement than to its size.

This chapter presents the results of extensive investigations carried on to ascertain more definitely the stability of advertisers and to discover which sizes of advertisements seem to be the safest and most profitable. all which had appeared two of the Home Journal years. up to and including all of the firms which had appeared the eight years under consideration.com 103 . The larger ones also offer more opportunity for relevant text and appropriate illustrations.XIII The Mortality Rate of Advertisers In the preceding chapter it was shown that the larger advertisements attract the attention much more than the smaller ones. rather ephemeral. all which had appeared three of the years. however. 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years 5 years 6 years 7 years 8 years Average Number of Lines Used Annually by Each Firm. believe that the small advertisement is safer than the larger one and that the larger spaces are luxuries reserved for those who are able to incur losses without serious consequences. If the users of large spaces are reckless and the users of small spaces cautious and conservative. that they are in the magazines today and to-morrow have ceased to exist.. All firms were grouped together which had appeared in this magazine The Ladies’ but one of these years. After a careful analysis had been made the following significant results were secured: Number of Years the Firms Continued to Advertise. There is a tradition that the users of advertising space are.longlostmarketingsecrets. etc. The larger advertisements are best for imparting the desired information and for making a lasting impression on the possible customers. 56 lines 116 lines 168 lines 194 lines 192 lines 262 lines 218 lines 600 lines www. as a whole. persons with perfect faith in advertising who believe that all a firm has to do is to advertise and its success is assured. on the other hand. we should naturally suppose that the more conservative firms would be the ones which would stay in business longest and which might be looked for in each successive year in the advertising pages of certain magazines. Data were secured from all firms located west of Buffalo and advertising in the Ladies’ Home Journal for a period of eight years. Many business men. There are.

If it uses 116 lines annually it will be encouraged to attempt it the second year. That class of advertising which is the most Discontinued successful is the class most likely to be continued. we should expect to find the larger spaces surviving. so the data and discussion are not to be interpreted as having any special reference to the Century Magazine. but inasmuch as the data from all these merely confirm those presented above they are not added here. If it pays.) There were but 1. therefore. they continue it. but in general the statement is Advertising Not correct. www. they cease to advertise. however.com 104 . We have chosen Extensive Investigation the Century because it is one of the best advertising mediums. the Delineator. Harper’s. it uses 600 lines annually the results will be so satisfactory that it will continue to use the same magazine indefinitely. If the smaller spaces are more valuable in proportion to their size we should expect to find the small spaces surviving. confine the discussion to the question as it Results of manifests itself in the Century Magazine. If large spaces are more valuable in proportion to their size than small spaces. several investigations have been carried on. In articles in magazines for business men the statement is often made that we are finding it unnecessary to use large spaces. and Scribner’s for certain periods. In each one of these investigations we have secured results similar to those presented below from the Century.longlostmarketingsecrets. To find out definitely what the tendency is in regard to the use of space. with several of the leading advertising mediums in America. What has been the experience of advertisers – especially of magazine advertisers – on this point? It is a debated question whether there is a growing tendency toward larger or smaller advertisements. school announcements and announcements made by the publishers of the magazine were disregarded. We shall. Other data were secured from the entire number of firms advertising in the Ladies’ Home Journal. If. but will then drop out. but in a less thorough manner. We have conducted similar investigations.247 firms included in the data presented above. show a general tendency. (A very large number of the firms who continued in eight years continued in for a longer time. The survival of the fittest is as true in advertising as it is in organic nature. but that small spaces well filled are the more profitable. if it does not pay.This would seem to indicate that in general if a firm uses 56 lines annually in the Ladies’ Home Journal the results will be so unsatisfactory that it will not try it again. Every one can think of an Successful occasional exception. That class which is the least successful is the least likely to be continued. on the other hand. In preparing the tabulation. The following data. because it has had one of the most consistent histories and because all the files have been made available from the first issue of the magazine. Advertisers are in general wise business men and are usually able to tell whether their advertising pays or not.

In the following table the first column indicates the year. Several things in this tabulation are worthy of careful consideration.com 105 . With the exception of the Advertising years of financial distress in the nineties almost every year has shown an increase over the preceding year. while during the years of depression there is usually a decrease. the third column the total number of firms advertising in the magazine that year.longlostmarketingsecrets. The increase is seen to be greatest in the years of prosperity. the second column the total number of pages devoted to commercial advertising during that year in the Century Magazine. the fifth the average number of lines in each advertisement appearing in the magazine for that year. The growth has been so constant and has been sustained for so many years that it seems to be nothing more than a normal growth. www. the sixth the average number of times each firm advertised in the Century for that year. The total number of pages devoted to advertising has been increasing very rapidly till now there are over one thousand pages devoted to Increased advertising annually as compared with two hundred pages Space which was the approximate amount during the first ten years Devoted to of the existence of the magazine. the fourth the average number of lines used by each firm during the year.

Until 1890 each firm used on the average approximately one page annually. About the year 1890 the real struggle for existence set in among advertisements. Such. Certain advertising managers have seen the difficulty of crowding so many advertisements into the two groups at the front and the end of the magazines and have sought to avoid the difficulty by scattering the advertisements through the reading matter. This is shown by the fact that although the number of advertisers has decreased. and we find in the succeeding years that the users of small spaces grew gradually less.com 106 . From 1880 to 1890 the Advertisers increase was extremely rapid. In 1880 there were but 293 Decreasing firms. In that fierce struggle the small spaces proved to be incapable of competing with the larger spaces. for instance. In this way all advertisements are in some magazines placed “next to reading matter”. but it certainly has not been attained in 1890-1907. The question naturally arises as to the possibility of nine hundred firms advertising successfully during a single year in the same magazine. and that is the time to which we must look for the survival of the fittest. If the small advertisements had been the most profitable. Perhaps it is possible. The proof is not conclusive that this method of scattering the advertisements is of any great advantage. The point made clear by the fourth column of the table is that of the increase in the amount of space used annually by each advertiser. we can but wonder what will happen when a period of years comes which is less prosperous. however.longlostmarketingsecrets. This process is still continuing. From 1890 there has been a rapid falling off till in 1907 there were but 364 firms advertising in the magazine. the amount of space used has increased. The year 1907 was almost identical with the year 1890 as to the total advertising space and decrease in the number of advertisers is perhaps the most astounding fact observed in the development of advertising in America. as those of the early nineties when the number of firms was so greatly reduced. The fifth and sixth columns show that this Larger Space increase is not due to the more frequent insertion of Being Used advertisements but to the increased size of the individual advertisements. During the year 1907 fewer firms were advertising in this magazine than for any year for a quarter of a century. is not the case.The second point to be considered in the tabulation is the number of firms which advertised in the magazine in the years from 1870 to 1907. while in 1890 there were 910 firms advertising in the same magazine. such years. then the users of small spaces would have survived and would have appeared in the following years. Although the decrease has been slight during the recent prosperous years. It will be noticed that during the first ten years there were about Number of two hundred firms advertising. otherwise the firms would not have discontinued their contracts. www.

A physician prides himself not only in the number of his patients. In the end the magazine which has the lowest mortality rate will of course be the most profitable both to the buyer and to the seller of space. and if patients refuse to follow their advice they not infrequently refuse to treat them further. and indeed is now here. and the results of a failure should be looked upon as such a serious matter that periodicals which proved unprofitable in a large proportion of cases would be avoided. it is evident that one of the duties of the advertising manager and agent is to insist on the use of adequate space and to be able to advise what is adequate space in any particular case. able to give such advice.com 107 . It is also not to be assumed that all classes of merchandise can use full pages with Need for Experts profit and that no classes of business can be more in Advertising successful when using small spaces then when using larger ones. Every failure is an injury to the advertising medium. and if he has taken account of the advertising experience of the many and not of the few.longlostmarketingsecrets. Advertising can no longer be said to be in its infancy. There is no good reason why the advertising manager or agent should not be looked upon in the same way. I believe that the day is soon coming.It is not to be assumed that the size of a poor advertisement will keep it from failure any more than the age of a consumptive will be of supreme moment in determining his probable length of life. he should be able to assist the prospective advertiser in avoiding the pitfalls which have been the destruction of a very large proportion of all firms that have attempted to advertise. If he is sincere in his judgements. but they should have such confidence in their own judgements that they would refuse to handle the business of any firm which insisted on using spaces which court failure. and it is high time that the professional advertising men should awake to their responsibility and display the same wisdom that is displayed by the physician and the lawyer. It has now reached mature years. The lawyer is an expert along another line and he assumes his client will take his advice. and because of the comparative values of large and of small spaces as given above. and is ordinarily correct in his assumption. www. The point which should be emphasized is that the size of an advertisement is one of the vital elements and that every advertising agent or manager should be an advertising expert and should be able to give advice as to the size of an advertisement which would be the most profitable to present any particular firm with any particular test and illustration. The advertising agents and managers should not only be experts. when the advertising managers of our periodicals will pride themselves in the low mortality rate of their advertisers rather than in the total number of advertising pages appearing monthly. Physicians are retarded as experts along a certain line. but also in the low death rate of his patients. Because of the psychological effect produced by the larger spaces.

XIV The Psychology of Food Advertising
The taste of foods is partially a matter of sentiment and imagination. This is largely true of all foods, but is particularly applicable to foods as served by our modern chefs. Our rural ancestors were engaged The “Taste” of long hours of the day in strenuous toil in the open air. Foods For them eating was merely to relieve the pangs of hunger. Pork and beans would cause their mouths to “water”, and would be a more tempting morsel to them than are the best-prepared dishes of our gastronomic artists to us. Times have changed. We have turned from a rural population living out of doors into an urban population of sedentary habits. This change is manifesting itself yearly in the alterations which are being wrought in our food consumption. The cruder, grosser and unesthetic foods are finding fewer consumers, while those foods are finding a readier market which are more delicate in texture and more elegant and esthetic in appearance. Of all kinds of meat, pork is the one that is the least pleasing to the eye. It does not lend itself easily to any form of garniture, and it is not surprising that in the fifty years from 1850 to 1900 the American people had become more and more infrequent eaters of pork. In 1850 each inhabitant of the land ate on the average considerably more than one hog. In 1900 each inhabitant ate considerably less than one-half of a hog. This is a falling off of over 60 per cent. Of all the meat goods, eggs are perhaps the most pleasing in appearance. They are often used as garniture for other meats and are themselves easily garnished. It is not strange that in this same period of fifty years the use of eggs should be on the increase. The data are not at hand for the entire period, but in 1880 each inhabitant of the United States consumed, on the average, 110 eggs. In 1900 each inhabitant consumed 204 eggs. This is an increase of over 85 per cent. in twenty years, which must be regarded as a most remarkable change for any people to make. The appetite of our modern urban civilization is much more a matter of sentiment and imagination than was that of our rural ancestors. We all think that we prefer turkey to pork because the taste of the turkey is better than that of the pork. We should question the esthetic judgment of a man who would be so bold as to say that the taste of chicken is as good as that of quail. Even if I have such a cold in my head that I can smell nothing, I should greatly prefer maple sirup to sorghum molasses. It seems absurd that there should be any possibility of hesitation in choosing between these articles. The facts are that in each of these alternatives as to choice we are unable to distinguish the difference between the two by taste at all.

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The “tasting game” has proved itself to be extremely interesting to both old and young. In this game portions of food are given to blindfolded subjects who are then asked to identify the food by eating it. In arranging for this game, the foods should be carefully prepared. The meats should be chopped fine and no reasoning or characteristic dressing of any sort should be used. If these conditions are observed, and if in no extraneous manner the name of the food is suggested, the blindfolded subjects will make the most astounding mistakes in trying to name the most ordinary articles of diet. The following are some of the mistakes which will actually occur: Strawberry sirup may be called peach sirup or sugar sirup. Beef broth may be called chicken broth. The liquid in which cabbage has been boiled may be said to be the liquid from turnips. Malt extract may be called yeast or ale. Veal broth may be called the broth of mutton, beef or chicken. Raw potatoes chopped fine may be thought to be chopped acorns. White bread may be called whole-wheat bread. Boston brown bread may be called corn-meal cake. Beef, veal, port, turkey, chicken, quail and other meats will be confused in a most astounding manner. This “tasting game” would be impossible if we really discriminated between our articles of diet by the sense of taste. We are at once led to inquire for the reasons why we choose one article of food and reject another if their tastes are so similar that we cannot tell them apart when our eyes are closed or blindfolded. Why do we prefer turkey to pork? Of course there are certain cuts of pork which do not resemble certain parts of turkey, but the question has to do only with those parts of turkey and pork which cannot be easily discriminated with closed eyes. The correct answer to the question is that we prefer turkey to pork because turkey is rarer than pork and because there is a certain atmosphere or halo thrown about turkey which is not possessed by pork. We are inclined to think of pork as “unclean”, gross and unesthetic. Turkey has enveloped itself in visions of feasts and banquets. It is associated with Thanksgiving and all the pleasant scenes connected therewith. We have seen pictures in which turkey was so garnished that it looked beautiful. Grossness and sensuousness naturally attach themselves to the unesthetic process of eating and to the unesthetic articles of food, but turkey associates itself with our most pleasing thoughts and does not stand out in all its nudity as dead fowl. Again it may be asked, why do we prefer quail to chicken? This can be answered in terms similar to those in which we explained the preference for turkey as compared with pork. Quail is rarer than chicken. Furthermore, the quail is associated in our minds with the pleasures of the chase, the open fields, pure air, the copse of woods, vigorous exercise, days spent in agreeable companionship and exhilarating sport. Our ancestors lived by the chase, and we seem to have inherited a fondness and even love for everything connected therewith. It might also be added that quail is served in a more elegant form than chicken. The garnish is a large part of a quail, but chicken is likely to be served in its nudity. There is a delicacy and yet a plumpness about the quail which is not to be found in a chicken. It will be

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noticed that all these points of superiority of quail over chicken are independent of taste; yet they all have a part in determining our final judgment as to the taste of the meat. The American people have been long years in creating this sentiment in favor of the turkey and the quail, but it is well established, and it will make turkey and quail to be desired even when other meats equally good in taste are rejected. The man who has food-stuffs to sell would be fortunate if he could get this commodity in a class with turkey and quail. Such a result would insure him constant sales at a profitable price. Just as we are Creating an willing to pay more for turkey and quail than we are for “Atmosphere” pork and chicken, so we would be willing to pay more for for a Food any article of food which could be presented to us in Product such an appetizing atmosphere as they are. The questions which naturally arise in the mind of the advertiser are, can I create such a sentiment in favor of my commodity that it will be seen enshrined in sentiment? Has a glamour ever been created for an article of merchandise by advertising? This last question must certainly be answered in the affirmative. If the advertisements of Ivory Soap (No.1) have accomplished anything, it is this very thing. All of these advertisements have been of one class for a quarter of a century. They all bring out the one point of spotless elegance. These advertisements have created an atmosphere, and when I think of Ivory Soap a halo of spotless elegance envelops it, and I do not think of it merely as a prosaic chunk of fat and alkali. I have had this idea of spotless elegance so thoroughly associated with Ivory Soap by means of these many advertisements that I actually enjoy using Ivory Soap more than I would if the soap had not been thus advertised. The advertising of this soap not only induced me to buy it, but it influences me in my judgment of the soap after I have bought it.

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longlostmarketingsecrets. www. Most pianos are advertised merely as pianos. Many advertisements of the Chickering Piano are evidently devised to represent the piano as an article of furniture in a home which is most sumptuously and tastefully furnished. but other articles of furniture. be the central pat of the cut. The Chickering Piano may. but I find that my thought of the Chickering is biased by this air of elegance which hovers over it. often seem to say so little and at times it really seems that they squander their space by filling almost the entire page with the illustration and by saying so little directly about their merchandise.2). We are left to draw the conclusion for ourselves that if persons with such elegant homes choose the Chickering it must be good enough for us. etc.com 111 . are emphasized in a manner which seems to detract from the piano.. like those of Ivory Soap. The piano is set most artfully in this atmosphere of cultured refinement and elegance.Another advertising campaign which is to be likened to that of Ivory Soap is that of the Chickering Piano (No. indeed. and I can think of them as such. They are alike in that the goods advertised are not thrust out into the foreground of the illustration. These advertisements.

It seems to me that the sentiment created in favor of Ivory Soap and Chickering Pianos is quite comparable to that which exists in favor of turkey and quail. So far as I am concerned no advertiser of food-stuffs has quite equalled Ivory Soap and the Chickering Piano in creating a favourable sentiment or atmosphere in favor of this commodity. Their advertisements of Nabisco (No. The firm which has come the nearest to it is the National Biscuit Company.com 112 . www. are the qualities which we all feel as we look at the advertisements or read them. even bordering on the romantic and sentimental.longlostmarketingsecrets.3) are most excellent in that they create an atmosphere which is exactly suited to the article advertised. Delicacy and purity. These advertisements have been so successful with me that when I eat a Nabisco I seem to get a sentimental or romantic taste out of it.

it would not taste so good as it would under normal conditions. Sentiment is not easily or quickly engendered. or with something of that sort. If the firm is able to create a sentimental setting.longlostmarketingsecrets. If my appreciation of a soap or a piano can be increased by advertising. it will add immensely to the “taste” of the commodity. then most assuredly there is a great field for profitable endeavor for the advertiser of food-stuffs. The attempts thus far have been but halfhearted and infrequent. A soda-cracker is one of the most prosaic things imaginable. There are a few advertisers of food products who are trying to create an appetizing halo and to spread it over their goods.4). but if this style of advertising is continued I anticipate that Nabisco sugar wafers will taste better and better with each succeeding appearance of a good advertisement. or to associate the soda-cracker with something patriotic. The National Biscuit Company is undertaking a big task when it attempts to weave poetical associations about Uneeda Biscuit (No. I enjoy Nabisco wafers more because of these advertisements than I should if I had not seen them. www. food advertisements are woefully weak at this point. I were given a new flavor of Nabisco.If while in the dark. Nothing is influenced by sentiment and imagination more than the sense of taste. and nothing kills the flavor of an article of diet more than this feeling of the commonplace and the lack of poetical or esthetic sentiment. and if I did not know what it was.com 113 .4) is a very good attempt to give the Uneeda Biscuit a connection with man’s higher nature. The reproduced illustration shown herewith (No. but in general.

When we are displeased.Whether I like an article of food or not often depends upon what I think of the food before I taste it. Pleasure One of the functions of the advertiser is to please the Increases prospective customers in every way possible to knit Demand for agreeable suggestions about the product offered for sale. Here is the advertiser’s opportunity. Perhaps in no form of advertising is it so necessary to please the prospective customer as in food advertising. The savory morsel is eaten without thought as to its chemical constituents. but also upon the efficacy of the advertisements in creating the favourable atmosphere. and he should depict his food product in the most appetizing manner possible. They choose that which tastes good while they are eating it. Pleasure stimulates the appetite. but such foods should be regarded as medicine rather than as food. and refuse that which is displeasing to the palate. Foods Most persons choose their foods wholly upon the standard of taste. It is true that certain foods are bought because of their medicinal properties. we become insensible to appeals. The advertiser of food products should therefore present only the most pleasing suggestions. When we are pleased we are open to suggestions and are easily induced to act. Whether his goods will be classed with “pork” or with “turkey” depends not only on the real taste of the food-stuff. A careful study of the changed food fashions will discover many agencies at work.com 114 . and then his advertisements may make me like the taste of the goods after I have bought them. and are over-cautious in our actions.longlostmarketingsecrets. but www. and pleasure is the standard of choice. The trend of our diet is not dependent upon any one thing. He is able to influence me to buy the goods.

A table which contained many articles of food at once is not inviting to the epicure. or whatever is used to encase the goods as sold and delivered. The same modern housewife predetermines her choice of foods by what she knows of them in advance. bag. She wants those articles of food which come in neat packages and which can be served in neat and elegant form. bottle. can. and prefer many light courses rather than a few heavy ones. In her mind the package is intimately associated with the contents. we all form an idea of a good by the advertisements of it which we have seen. The glassware must be cut-glass and the silver of the most improved pattern. How much more appetizing are crackers packed in a box than the same crackers sold in bulk! Who will say how much is due to the form of the box in the enormous increase of crackers in American during the last few years! Would the American public ever have taken kindly to the cereal breakfast food if we had been compelled to buy it in the bulk? The housewife purchases the provisions for the table.among others will certainly be found the appearance of the food stuff. The package. Many advertisements which would otherwise be strong are weakened by overcrowding of good things. and as an efficient factor in determining whether the goods will be consumed in increasing or decreasing quantities. Like the housewives. even if we have not read them. the best of linen and artistically decorated china. If the advertisement looks pleasing and if the food is there presented in an appetizing manner.longlostmarketingsecrets. We like to have our meals serviced in courses. for this process is at work daily in all our homes. In her mind the appearance is an essential pat of the taste. The same principle holds with advertisements. The table must be decorated and the individual dishes garnished. www. and she does not believe that a food can be appetizing unless it looks as if it were. The package in which the goods are delivered is as surely associated with the food as is the linen of the table and all the other articles of service. must be regarded as an integral part of the food stuff. basket.com 115 . we believe that the food itself will be all right and we are prejudiced in favor of it. Her ideas may be molded by advertising. The modern housewife is insisting on a beautiful diningroom. The housewife who is insisting on all these details is the one the merchant should have in mind when he is planning for the sale of his goods. One thing that spoils the looks of food products is having them piled up in a confused mass. She knows that a meal does not taste good unless the linen is spotless and the service more or less formal and ceremonious.

I think I might like Wheatlet if it were serviced with any one of these fruits. www. but if it should be presented in such a confusion as this it would not be eaten at all.longlostmarketingsecrets.5) as reproduced herewith is not appetizing.The reduced advertisement of Wheatlet (no. for the appearance of the whole thing is ruined by the multitude of fruits which are thrown promiscuously into the illustration.com 116 .

but in such a simplified form that it is successful in suggesting wheat and does not overcrowd the illustration. www. while the advertisement of Wheatlet omits the presentation of the package. but it does not like to be reminded of the fact. pork and mutton. The advertisement of Wheatlet is not such as would have assisted in familiarizing her with the appearance of the package. the last mentioned emphasizes the appearance of the package.com 117 . and so we use the terms beef. The method which the house-keepers of the land employ in purchasing foods must be a factor in determining the appropriate form of advertising. Out of this bewildering multitude of packages she is pleased to see certain ones which are known to her. but tier upon tier of different goods are presented to her sense of sight. cans and boxes. In some instances householders make written lists of the goods desired. Our abhorrence of such ideas is registered Carnivorous? in our language. and an advertising campaign that familiarizes the housekeepers of the nation with the distinguishing appearance of any particular package has done much to increase its sale.6) has adopted the Wheatlet border.longlostmarketingsecrets. and thus it does not assist in attracting her eye to the goods advertised at the moment of decision. squirrel. still it is not so abhorrent as the thought of eating the flesh of the larger and domestic animals. It is disgusting to think of eating the flesh of dead cows. chicken. While the public is being made familiar with the food or the food container. As she enters the store she is confronted by rows and tiers of bottles. goose. hog-flesh and Are We sheep-flesh. At the moment of making the purchases for the week these two commodities might be on the shelf before the purchaser. It is by sight that she recognizes the various packages. We refuse to use the terms cow-flesh. In other instances the order is sent by telephone or by a messenger. a pleasing appeal should also be made to the esthetic nature of the possible customers. etc. These familiar packages catch her attention more than the scores of unknown ones. Accordingly we still use the same word to denote the live animal and the flesh in such instances as rabbit. as they catch her attention just at the time she is trying to recall the things of which she may be in need. The known ones are the packages which she is most likely to purchase. She has her list of purchases but imperfectly made out. It is not pleasing to think of eating the flesh of the smaller animals and of fowls. In perhaps the most cases the purchaser enters the grocery store in person. hogs and sheep. The reproduced advertisement of Egg-o-See is such that it has made her familiar with the package as it appears on the shelves and it would thus be called to her attention at the critical moment. the order is placed without looking at the goods at all. The human race is carnivorous. Of the two advertisements (Wheatlet and Egg-o-See).The reproduced advertisement of Egg-o-See (No. While in the grocery store the purchaser does not taste the various articles.

is not very appetizing to the civilized man or woman. There are whole nations which refuse to eat meat.com 118 . In advertising meats. We have changed from a rural to an urban population and hence require less meat foods. and what we do eat must always be presented in a pleasing manner and in a way which jars as little as possible against our refined and cultivated natures. As a nation our wealth is increasing rapidly and consequently we are better able to purchase meats now than fifty years ago.longlostmarketingsecrets. whether dead or alive.8) does not present an animal in its entirety. This advertisement makes no one hungry for Liebig Company’s extract of beef.7) is given up to the emphasizing of the point that this extract is secured from the carcasses of beautiful steers. That point should be taken Meat for granted and passed over as lightly as possible. and vegetarianism in our own country is but an indication of the revolt of the human mind against our carnivorous habits. we have become so cultured that we like to have our meats garnished till they cease to have the appearance of flesh at all. The sight of a fat pig might cause the mouth of a wolf to “water”.It is quite conceivable that the sight of a dead carcass would whet the appetite of a hyena. but we refuse to entertain the idea at meal time. but it represents too much of it. We know that beef is nothing but the flesh of dead cattle. Thus the reproduced advertisement of Liebig (No. www. The sight of an animal. The advertisement is intended to make the public familiar with the Liebig trade-mark. the fact should never be emphasized that the meat is the flesh of an animal. which is but a presentation of the trade-mark. (No. Our consideration and press to the front the fact that their Sensibilities meats are the flesh of animals. The reproduced advertisement of Armour & Co. Advertisements Certain advertisers have not taken this matter into vs. and the criticism is therefore directed against the choice of such a trade-mark rather than against this special advertisement. yet the government statistics show a great decrease per capita in the consumption of meats. Indeed.

www.9) is perhaps one of the most pleasing advertisements of meats that has appeared in our magazines. If smaller pieces of meat had been shown the result would have been entirely different.The carcasses as shown in the advertisement are too large to tempt our appetites and the general effect is rather disgusting. The reproduced advertisement of Armour’s potted ham and ox tongue (No.com 119 .longlostmarketingsecrets.

Associating The reproduced advertisement of White Star Coffee Foods with (No.longlostmarketingsecrets. Such an advertisement creates a demand for the goods and prejudices the customers in their favor. and to see them here as the representatives of a particular brand of coffee serves but to instil a dislike and even abhorrence for the product. and the ham and ox tongue will taste better to the customer after he has seen this advertisement. We not only object to thinking of ourselves as carnivorous but we object to having animals connected in any way with our foods.No one can look at the advertisement without being impressed with the desirability of these products. The border might include a cut of the container and the total effect be rendered none the less artistic. This would be a better advertisement for Armour & Co. Frogs are inherently Animals uncanny to most persons.10) is in every way disgusting.com 120 . www. The meat is presented in small pieces and is garnished till it is hardly recognizable. if the can were shown in which this meat had been purchased.

The other reproduced advertisement of the same brand of coffee (No.longlostmarketingsecrets. www.com 121 .11) is in no way objectionable and is a great improvement in point of display over the first one. It does not create a demand for coffee and in the cases where the demand already exists it does not convince the casual observer that White Star Coffee is particularly desirable. It is one of the most silly and destructive advertisements appearing in our current magazines.This advertisement never made anyone eager for a cup of coffee.

The assumption would be that it is a food especially adapted to their taste.Ordinarily we feed the animals what we do not care to eat ourselves. “it fills the bill”. The afflictions of mankind are here depicted in an exaggerated form. and who was willing to pay for the exploitation of his joke under the pretense of an advertisement.longlostmarketingsecrets. and I should not want to eat it myself. In a sense the advertisement is the representative of the food. and the assumption is that that which is good enough for the beasts is not fit for men and women. They are altogether a gruesome sight. Even the young goose seems to be disgorging the food for some unexplained reason. Here we have evidence of an amateur advertiser who was enamoured with his play on the words. In the reproduced advertisement of Korn Krisp (No. The paper is poor. the ink is the cheapest and the make-up is without taste. It may be possible that under very exceptional circumstances it would be advisable to introduce an animal in an advertisement of a food product. The Elegance advertising pages of many of our cheaper periodicals are nothing better than chambers of horrors. Food advertisements in such papers are practically worthless. The advertiser must seek to associate his food only with purity and elegance. and if the advertisement is associated with disgust6ing or Purity and displeasing objects the food is the loser thereby. Even in these www.com 122 .12) the food is represented as being fed to the fowls. but it should be done only with great caution and with full realization of the dangers incurred because of the inevitable association between the animal and the food advertised.

and other ills and unappetizing suggestions. www. The food advertisements are here associated with “skin diseases”. “pimples”. 13 is a reproduction of a section of one of the best American dailies. “backaches”. there are only a few. and the investments are usually of a questionable sort.longlostmarketingsecrets. “blood poison”.papers a few food advertisements are found.com 123 .13 they certainly are not preferred media for food advertisers. These advertisements of patent medicines and investment schemes made the readers suspicious and hence they are in a condition of mind which leads them to suspect the foods advertised as being adulterated and impure. “consumption”. The medicines are advertised by depicting the unwholesome aspects of life. Even good daily papers are open to this criticism. In these cheaper forms of publications the majority of advertisements are likely to be of patent medicines or of forms of investments. “asthma”. but. What value is the advertisement of Malt Marrow and of Armour’s Star Ham in such an environment? Until the daily papers have more to offer than such position as is indicated by No. fortunately. No. “whirling spray douche”. “eruptions”.

however. but inasmuch as the psychological effects of other forms are recognized and that of street car advertising is frequently not recognized. and advertisements appearing in them are benefited by this confidence which is bestowed upon everything appearing in them. Posters. Booklets.. the advertiser should consider the peculiar psychological effect of each particular form. We are led to form opinions and judgements by influences which we should reject if we were aware of them.com 124 . painted signs and similar forms of advertising admit of extensive display within a prescribed area and have great attention value. and the medium which the merchant should choose depends upon many conditions. circulars and similar forms of advertising admit of complete descriptions and may be put in the hands of only those who are interested in the commodity offered for sale. the quality of goods to be presented. etc. etc. this latter is selected for fuller presentation. Foremost among such conditions are expense. They appeal to the reason in a way not surpassed by any form of printed advertising. Our minds are constantly subjected to influences of which we have no knowledge. when in reality they had nothing to do with it. the class of persons to be reached. Equal with these conditions. The importance of these undiscovered causes in our every-day thinking and acting may be illustrated by the following example. bill-boards. The monthly magazine. the weeklies and the dailies carry authority which is lacking in other forms.longlostmarketingsecrets. After we have Importance of decided upon a certain line of action. The psychological effect of street car advertising is not generally recognized and in this presentation there is no attempt to praise one form of advertising and to decry all others. we frequently Time attempt to justify ourselves in our own eyes. the width of distribution of goods.XV The Unconscious Influence in Street Railway Advertising Every form of advertising has its particular psychological effect. These publications are held in high repute in the household. www. and so we discover certain logical reasons for our actions and assume them to have been the true cause.

com 125 . we ordinarily have to move our eyes farther in estimating the length of the longer one than in estimating the length of the shorter one. and there is a factor present in street railway advertising which causes us to be influenced by it more than would seem possible.Lines A and B are of equal length. The arrow pointing toward the line as shown in A causes us all to over-estimate the magnitude of the line. (For a fuller account of Away the investigation see Chapter X. A study of the situation discloses the fact that this unconscious influence is none other than TIME which manifests itself in three phases as presented below. and so get a sensation from the contraction of the muscles of the eyes. In judging the length of lines we run our eyes over them. We judge of the length of lines by the amount of this sensation derived from contracting the muscles which move the eyes. and one longer than the other. Magazines and newspapers have become so numerous and the daily duties so pressing that we can-not take time to read all the www. There are persons who read all the advertisements and there are others who glance at but few of them. We are not aware of the sensations received from these movements of our eyes. If two lines are equally distant from us. but it has been proved to be correct. for most advertisements in newspapers and magazines receive no more than a glance from the average reader. entering into the judgment. we should expect that they would appear to be as they actually are. our eyes will ordinarily move equal distances in traversing their lengths. The peculiar construction of the lines A and B induces the eye to move farther in estimating the length of A. and yet we estimate lengths of lines by them. and yet the results have been phenomenally great. If two lines are the same distance from us and are the same length. There has been much poor street railway advertising. As a result of investigations upon magazine and newspaper advertising the conclusion was reached that on the average only ten per Time cent.longlostmarketingsecrets. certain imperceptible causes which made us see the lines as of different length. We therefore assume that A is longer than B because our eyes move farther in estimating its length than in estimating the length of B. Some recent tests of the extent to which passengers have been influenced by such advertising showed most conclusively that there was an unrecognised power in it. This explanation was not discovered till recent years. Now why do we reach the conclusion that A is longer than B. and we see them in a clear light. of the time devoted to newspapers and magazines was Whiled spent in looking at the advertisements. when in reality such is not the case? If they are they are the same length. The ordinary reader of newspapers and magazines glances at all of the advertising pages and sees all the larger and more striking advertisements.) As a conclusion deduced from these results it was recommended that advertisements should be so constructed that the gist of each could be comprehended at a glance. There are many exceptions to this. The street railway advertiser controls an unrecognised force which is similar to that just described in the estimation of the length of lines. although A seems longer. The accepted explanation of this illusion is that there are.

Fifteen minutes may be regarded as a fair estimate. Statistics show that in the United States in the single year of 1902 about 5. There is sufficient opportunity to see every person in the car and to devote as much time to the process as good breeding will allow. Here there is no shortage of time. In the average American city the number of fares collected on street cars equals about 66 per cent. but what of it? If offers a diversion. Upon this estimate each inhabitant of our cities spends on the average as much as ten minutes a day in a street car. The figures for the year 1907 are very much in excess of those for 1902. The passenger has for once an abundance of time. Thereafter one is compelled to look at the floor or else above the heads of the passengers. She supposed that she had always known them. the passengers’ minds are not occupied. We cannot afford the time to do more. for to look out of the window the eyes are directed so nearly at the face of some passenger that one’s intentions are misjudged. and very much more time is whiled away by looking at the advertisements than we are aware of. www. She was not aware of the fact that Information she had been studying the advertisements. or that they had been recommended to her.advertisements. The amount of time spent in riding on street cars in America is far beyond the conception of most persons. In addition to these cash fares there were many transfers and passes. and flatly resented the suggestion that she had been influenced by them. In defense of one’s good breeding and to drive away the weariness of the ride many a passenger is compelled to turn his gaze on the placards which adorn the sides of the car. She did not remember when she had first heard of them. and in those few minutes we see a great number. yet she supposed that they had nothing to do with her esteem of the goods. counting the number of passengers. and so we devote but few minutes to them.000 million cash fares were collected for passengers on street cars. One young lady asserted that she had never looked at any of the cards in the cars in which she had been riding for years. When questioned further. and anything is better than looking at the floor. it appeared that she knew by heart almost every Time Secures advertisement appearing on the line (Chicago and Forgetfulness Evanston line).longlostmarketingsecrets. and that the goods advertised had won of Source of her highest esteem. To attempt to look out of a window opposite to you causes the lady opposite to wonder at your rudeness in staring at her. The case is different with street railway advertising. There are no data available for the length of time consumed by an average street car ride. He reads the card and then reads it again because he has nothing else to do. or watching the conductor ring up the fares. These rides become very monotonous. One can-not read a newspaper on a crowded car – I am acquainted only with crowded cars. This may be very silly. of the total population of the city. Some of the goods advertised were known to her only by these advertisements. that they were used in her home. Neither is it practicable to read a book or magazine on a jolting car – I am acquainted only with such.com 126 .

We devote the most time to Appreciation those subjects which we regard as the most important. The information which we receive from the card in the street car soon becomes a part of us. This same principle holds in music. it is not supposed to suggest lines of thought. It has no intrinsic importance and is consequently appropriately expressed in fast time. that which we hurry over seem unimportant. That which holds our thought for a longer time seems to us to be important. www. He speaks rapidly that which he wishes us to consider as of little importance. the more rapidly will the memory of the first appearance fade and leave us with the feeling that we have always known the goods advertised. Ideas which impress me as important cause me to think of them for lengthy periods of time. This is especially important in street car advertising. In poetry. (This point is more fully developed in Chapter VI. We weigh the importance of his statements and estimate their value in terms of the time which he gives to each. which is sublime.longlostmarketingsecrets. the lacing of my shoes very little. and we forget where we received it. deep or large – all such music is written in slow time. This forgetfulness of the source of our information is due to the interval which has elapsed between the first time the advertisement as seen and the present. the poet and the musician have simply accommodated themselves to our intuitive method of thinking and have been successful because they have conformed their expressions to the human method of thought.) The element of time as it enters the problem of advertising is recognized to a limited extent in the two phases thus far discussed. My profession takes most of my thought. the poet and the musician the effect is produced by this unrecognised element of time. He speaks slowly that which he wishes us to regard as of special significance. Music which means much – which suggests many thoughts.It has been said that we have learned nothing perfectly until we have forgotten how we learned it.com 127 . An advertisement has not accomplished its mission till it has instructed the possible customer concerning the goods and then has caused him to forget where he received his instruction. This has a special application to advertising. Suggestion. and that the advertisement itself is no essential part of our information. Ideas which are of more importance and which are supposed to call forth much thought from the reader are expressed in slow movements. Ideas which seem insignificant are dismissed immediately from my mind. never been mentioned in Increases Our connection with advertising. The orator. In the case of the orator. but there is another phase and one of even more importance which has. The more frequently the advertisement is seen. This element is recognized by every skilful public speaker. thoughts which are trivial or of minor importance are expressed by rapid movements. to Time the writer’s knowledge. The so-called “rag-time” is assumed to have no meaning.

The sickly child occupies her mind more than the well one. They go over the same road so frequently that the streets passed through cease to be interesting. unless there is a special interest in the advertisement. but the time devoted to any particular advertisement is very small. In street railway advertising we devote longer time than we really think is due to the advertisements. The reverse of this principle is not recognized by us at all and yet it is of primal importance.longlostmarketingsecrets. The mother is likely to think the most of the child which has caused her the most thought. I assume that my judgement is based on the goods themselves as they are presented to my reason. Under ordinary circumstances we bestow thought upon objects in proportion to their importance. and then we turn around and estimate the value of the goods advertised by the amount of time that we have devoted to the advertisement. There is indeed no form of advertising which is presented to such a large number of possible purchasers for such a long period of time and so frequently as is the advertising in street railway cars. The goods which through their advertisements have occupied our minds for long periods of time assume in our minds an importance which is often far in excess of anything which would have been anticipated by one who was not familiar with the peculiar power here described. Our old school-books. The sum total of the time thus devoted to the card is as great as the amount of time that we devote to many of our important interests. upon which we were compelled to bestow so many hours of study. the passengers on street railways have but little to distract their attention. in later years assume a value in our eyes far in excess of their real merit. Even those who have but little interest in the advertisements find that they glance at the cards frequently and that the eyes rest on a single card for a considerable length of time. This is not an absolute rule. This is the psychological explanation of the amazing potency of this particular form of advertising. and this accounts for the fact that she attributes to the sickly child an importance far beyond its real worth. but it expresses a principle. of course. Illustrations of this fact are to be found on every hand. That which occupies our minds for a great amount of time assumes thereby an importance which may be out of all proportion to its real value. Since newspapers and magazines cannot be easily read. The same card may be read or glanced at daily for as long a time as the card is left in the car. I am not aware of the fact that I am prejudiced in favor of the goods that have occupied my mind the longest periods of time. Yet it is as certain that this element of time has biased my judgement of the relative values of the goods as it is that the eye movement influences my judgment of the lengths of lines. In most other forms of advertising we devote to any particular advertisement only as much time as we think it is worth. In estimating the relative values of two competing lines of goods.As was shown above. Advertisements in newspapers and magazines are seen by a great number of the readers.com 128 . the cards have but few rivals for attention. www.

The campaign was to be conducted in different American The cities in the interest of local papers. and will also present a mass of information concerning newspapers that is of interest and profit to advertiser. Methods that make the experiences of others also available are even more valuable. for The two following questions naturally suggested themselves: Research What is there in the modern newspaper that appeals to the better classes of society. If the answers call for a difficult analysis of motives and interests. An attempt was made to include what could fairly be said to be the best citizens of www. If the questions call for the description of simple unemotional events. but it has the inestimable value of assisting the investigator to take advantage of the experiences of a great number of individuals.com 129 .longlostmarketingsecrets. There are many problems that the advertiser needs to investigate for which the questionnaire method alone is available. The answers to the questions are derived from the experiences of those who are to answer them. but in each case the Problems attempt was to be made to reach the best citizens of the city. reliance may be put in the answers received from all sincere respondents. A single illustration will indicate how such questions arise. This method has many defects. A carefully selected list was prepared containing the names of 4. A prominent advertising man was planning copy to be used on street-car cards designed to secure new subscribers to newspapers. and what motives should be appealed to in inducing them to begin a subscription? The problems here raised are clearly psychological and subject to the questionnaire method. how they may be investigated. less reliance can be placed in any single answer and greater caution must be used in drawing conclusions based upon the replies. One of the methods that modern psychology has developed is the so-called Questionnaire Method. One of the functions of every science is to develop methods that are useful for investigating problems which concern that particular science. which was employed in investigating them. A single question or a set of questions is presented to any desired group of persons. The questionnaire method is used to secure the concensus and the diversity of many individual opinions. Methods that enable one to make the greatest use of one’s own experiences are valuable.XVI The Questionnaire Method in Advertising Illustrated by an investigation upon newspapers Experience is the best teacher.000 of the most prominent business and professional men of Chicago.

the answers indicate careful deliberation and the utmost sincerity.longlostmarketingsecrets. with few exceptions. In case of doubt as to whether the replies were www. This list contained the names of men from very different classes of society.000 are disregarded in the present chapter.000”. The questionnaire as reproduced herewith was mailed to the 5. A large number of the slips were carefully keyed and even when no signature was attached the author of the replies was known.com 130 . and although they are very busy men.000 names constituting the two lists. another list of 1. but all.300 of the representative business and professional men.300 are Abundant and hereafter referred to as “the 2. The replies from the 1. In all the slips the key indicated at least to which one of the numerous groups the respondent belonged. Those receiving the Valuable questionnaire seemed much interested in the research. the 2. Although no place was provided for signatures. For the purpose of comparison. a good proportion signed their names to the paper or enclosed a personal.Chicago.000 names was prepared. signed letter.000 answered each of the questions. Replies were received from about 2. The number was so large that it contained a fully representative group. were adult men. and inasmuch as but approximately Replies 2.

The fact that each individual reads or scans a number of papers daily was brought out clearly by the answers to the first question. Haphazard. that fact should never be forgotten in estimating the results. What Chicago daily or dailies do you read?) Eighty-six of Papers per cent. the amount of space left for answering the first question suggested that the names of but one or two papers were to be written. This doubtless affected the results. reported themselves as reading more than a single Read paper. the haste of writing the names caused an understatement of the actual number of papers read. In the questionnaire reproduced herewith. Number (I. of those receiving the questionnaire took pains to fill out the blank. This proportion is unusually large and is to be attributed to several causes. was assumed to be honest and desirous of securing only the facts.com 131 . it is quite probable that the inadequate space and. and psychology is very popular just at present. As stated above. in some cases. As reported. and as all probable answers were suggested the results were certainly not greatly changed thereby. The answers were sought for as a means of “solving a psychological question”.filled out personally by the man to whom the questionnaire was sent. The difficulty of securing trustworthy replies is so great that the advertiser will usually be compelled to have the investigation carried on by a disinterested person. Doubtless in many cases the list would have to be confined to business associates or to personal friends. Ordinarily no suggestions should be made as to what answer is expected. owing to his university connection. A stamped return envelope was enclosed. voluntary answers received in competition for a prize or for the gaining of a paltry reward are not to be compared in value to voluntary replies from a carefully selected list.longlostmarketingsecrets. The subject under investigation was personally interesting. The space in the questionnaire left for writing the Daily names of the papers read was but a little over one inch in length. The number of suggestions was made so large that no particular one would have much more effect than the others. If any suggestions are made. The investigator. the figures are as follows: 14% read but one paper 46% read two papers 21% read three papers 10% read four papers 3% read five papers 2% read six papers 3% read all the papers (8) www. The advertiser might have great difficulty in selecting a group of persons whose answers would be significant and yet who would be willing to fill out the blanks. Over fifty per cent. as it was done in the present instance. Also in connection with the third question a series of answers were suggested. No proxies were desired. In spite of this fact the respondents took pains to write in a number of papers. they were rejected as not authentic.

Advertisements may be divided into two groups: classified and display advertisements. must be striking in appearance and must announce something in which the reader is particularly interested. the table of contents. unless sought for. the advertisement may be selected and read from beginning to end. These subsidiary papers contain a large part of the advertisements that are also contained in the preferred papers. Considering together the total number of papers read and the total amount of time spent in reading them. Reading Daily Four per cent. he could afford to neglect the subsidiary papers entirely. The advertiser should attempt. but most advertisers are convinced that it is not worth three times as much to have an advertisement seen in three papers as it is to have it seen in one. The classified are read only by those who search for them. If the advertiser could pick out the papers that command the most confidence of a relatively large number of readers. The writers were frequently careful to state that this fifteen minutes was the total time spent in reading all the papers and not the amount spent in reading each of the several papers read. Reported a greater amount of time. the weather reports. These few minutes admit of but the most cursory reading. The same advertisement seen in two or three papers may be more effective than if seen in but one. If the message which it is capable of imparting to those who glance at it is inviting. A few reported as much as two hours. to construct his advertisement so that a single glance at it may be effective in imparting information and in making an impression even through the advertisement is not to be under observation for more than a few seconds. is the reading of the head lines. but “just about fifteen minutes” was by far the most common answer. we reach the conclusion that a very decided majority of these representative business and professional men spend but approximately from five to ten minutes reading any particular paper. as reported. etc. The duplication of circulation represents a loss.com 132 . Then if time admits or if anything especially interesting is discovered. attention may be turned for a few seconds or minutes to a more leisurely reading of the articles discovered in the preliminary search. A favorite programme. The fourth question was IV. The display advertisements are glanced at by a very large number of persons who pick up the paper. answered that they spent less than fifteen Papers minutes daily. The papers are glanced through so hurriedly that an advertisement. which command the most attention. however. Do you spend on an average as much as fifteen minutes daily reading a Chicago daily? A decided majority seemed to consider fifteen minutes a fair Time Spent in estimate of the time spent in reading the daily papers. www.Some of the papers taken by any person are to be regarded as subsidiary and as commanding but little attention. The advertisement must tell its story quickly if at all. in order to be seen at all.longlostmarketingsecrets. Twenty-five percent.

but the most surprising thing was the lack of uniformity. but after the day’s work is over the evening paper is read and doubtless much more than fifteen minutes is devoted to it. he would employ the evening papers. etc. For business and professional men the reverse is true. three-fourths by two papers and over nine-tenths of all by using half the papers. Perhaps one-half of them could be reached by a single paper.A majority of the respondents answered the second question. State in order the five features of your paper that interest you most. etc. the business men who were members of an athletic club showed a decided preference for another paper. If he wanted to reach the better classes. naming the preferred paper. another for cartoons. The replies from the 2. The chief interest in the investigation centers in the answers to the third question. Many business and professional men prefer evening papers and many laboring men prefer the morning papers. (III. Particular groups of men displayed considerable uniformity in their preference for a single paper. the business and professional men who were members of one of the most prominent clubs preferred with equal uniformity still a different paper. With these men the evening papers are often to be regarded merely as subsidiary. if he wanted to reach the labouring class.longlostmarketingsecrets. Which one do you prefer?) A very Preferences respectable minority. Many answered that one paper was preferred Papers for general news. Likewise. The labouring classes have no time to read a morning paper.. This particular group could not be reached by using anything less than all the papers. and it is probable that they are preferred in more cases than are the morning papers. among them the morning papers are read in larger numbers and are preferred in more instances than the evening papers. the following plan was adopted. however. the one hundred professional men connected with one educational institution preferred one paper.com 133 . “less yellow”. If these statements did not have so many exceptions the advertiser’s task would be comparatively simple when it comes to choosing a medium for any particular advertisement. A majority of business and professional men fail to see advertisements appearing in evening papers and are not greatly affected by those that they do see.) To reduce the answers to some sort of a The Most comprehensible unit.000 showed somewhat of a uniformity in their selection of a preferred paper. another for special articles. (II. he would use the morning papers. e. A Interesting feature that was mentioned as first choice was credited Features of a Daily Paper www. but such instances are exceptions rather than the rule. The circulation of the evening papers in Chicago is greater than that of the morning papers.. “less venal”. confessed that they had no for Individual preference. than the others. Others refused to go on record as preferring any paper and so expressed themselves by saying that one paper was “less objectionable”. probably a majority of the labouring class is unaffected by advertisements appearing in the morning papers.g. another for moral tone.

8 15. in another but 6. 17. The features that were most uniformly interesting were the news items.9 per cent.4 1.13 . three points.7 per cent.9 . of course.8 4. For all the papers and for all the different groups into which the business and professional men were divided the striking fact was the uniformity of interests.88 1.44 .1 . the total result for all papers and all respondents is as follows: Local news Political news Financial news Foreign news Editorials General news Ethical tone (broadly considered) Sporting news Cartoons Special article Music Book reviews Arrangement Society notes Drama Art Advertisements Storiettes Weather Humor Per cent. two points.com 134 . one mentioned as fifth choice. 18. four points.8% and 12.0 7. one point.3 4.05 Inasmuch as these figures represent the distribution as found for all the papers combined. for instance.1 . In one paper 19.8%.with five points.4 1. 14. editorials and all other features mentioned by any of the respondents. Thus in one paper 19 per cent. In one paper it monopolizes 19. in the case of local news. and even in these the extremes are found in the papers that were least often mentioned as the preferred papers. Features that were interesting to any group in any paper were usually found to be interesting in all the papers and to all the groups.8 11.8%.1% respectively.5 9. of the interest is in financial news.2 6. of this total interest had been credited to politics.9%. This is true. 17. As thus found. it would.5% of the interest and in the others 18. one mentioned as third choice. In most particulars there is a pronounced similarity in the distribution of interest in the different papers. one mentioned as fourth choice.6%.3 9. which possessed over 75 per www.3 1.84 1.3%. These last illustrations from sporting news and finance are exceptional instances. one mentioned as second choice. in another but 2 per cent. In some features the diversity between papers is very great.longlostmarketingsecrets. The sum of all these points was arbitrarily assumed to represent the sum total of interest. of the interest is in sporting news. be anticipated that the same order would not hold exactly for an individual paper. It was then found what per cent. 13.7 5. 12.

Advertisements aiming to secure new subscribers to a newspaper should give most importance to the description of the news service of that particular paper. While it resulted in the presentation of many different answers.) Premiums Cartoons Special articles Reputation of paper Service (best delivery) 65% 10% 4% 4% 3% 1% 1% All other motives (about twenty in number) received scattering mention. Everyone seemed interested in news. etc. Local news. still the uniformity with which the news items were mentioned – observed in the answers to the third question – is even greater here. www. financial news. (V. What induced you to begin the subscription of the paper or Motives for papers which you are now taking?) Immediately following Beginning a Subscription the statement of the third question. These results make it clear that the Chicago dailies are valued as NEWS papers and as little else. advertisements did not seem to attract much attention. as printed in the questionnaire. music. Editorials. foreign news. All other features were low in interest with most of the groups and in most of the papers. storiettes. drama. general news.longlostmarketingsecrets. but the uniformity with which all groups expressed their interest in the news in each of the papers makes it quite certain that here we have the vital feature of the newspaper and that which gives it its name. society – all these combined do not possess so much interest as local news alone. and when cartoons and editorials were mentioned the writers were frequently careful to add that they were interested in these because they were a summary or index of some important news. This list of examples acted as a constant suggestion and made it more likely that the answers cited would be given than any original ones. of the total number of times each motive was mentioned: To keep informed concerning current events Ethical tone (including accuracy. of the total interest. suggestive answers were presented. art. The third question should be considered in connection with the fifth.com 135 .cent. As is indicated in the tabulation above. Of all the motives that could be classified the following show what per cent. Other features might be mentioned. No such suggestions were added to the statement of the fifth question and hence answers to this latter question are more reliable. political news and sporting news – these monopolize the interest of business and professional men. book reviews.

In waging a campaign to increase the circulation of newspapers the fact should be constantly before the advertiser’s mind that people are interested primarily in the news. A presentation of all the means employed to avoid mistakes. Daily Papers There are but few criticism of the less important features of the papers. and hence to present the news accurately. If a choice is to be made between papers equally good in news service. and one would not be justified in asserting that the lack of confidence is general unless other grounds for the statement were at hand. the editorials and the general lack of integrity of the papers. The present research was not devised to ascertain the degree of confidence in newspapers. etc. “desire to be informed”. then premiums and cartoons or even editorials and storiettes may become the deciding factor. In the main the criticism centred about the news service. There are almost no criticisms of the storiettes. they were criticized rather for the failure to present an unbiased report. or some analogous expression. would furnish a theme for further advertisements. News service is the desideratum.com 136 . of the business and professional men united in stating that the motive in first subscribing to their chosen papers was the desire to keep informed concerning current events. “to be up to the times and not a back number”. A truly educational campaign carried on in the interests of the two themes – completeness of news service and care to present the truth . The questionnaire invited no criticism of daily papers and yet many of these business and professional men volunteered criticisms which they inserted on the sheets of questions or Criticism of else wrote them in personal letters that were enclosed. There was no criticism of the newspapers for failure to know the facts. the society notes.would increase the circulation of any of the better metropolitan dailies. The phrase. All these seem to be as good as desired. the funny columns. www. “the potent censorship of Big Business”. nor does the reader express himself as aggrieved by the poor quality or even by the absence of any of them. The same sort of criticism is made of the editorial columns. the book reviews. occurred so often that it seemed to express a general lack of confidence.longlostmarketingsecrets. The following expressions were frequently used and are most suggestive: “to keep in touch with current events”. A description of the methods used by any great paper to secure the news would be a most powerful argument for securing new subscribers. “to be en rapport with the world”. In comparison with this desire for news of current events all other motives seem insignificant. The editor is believed to be unduly influenced by the business manager.It is a significant fact that sixty-five per cent. “to be informed as to what is going on”.

Individual interests are so varied that no paper can expect general circulation without criticism from many readers because of the events emphasized in news gathering. The news would have to be well written. Some persons have no interest in the sporting pages.longlostmarketingsecrets. The ideal paper would have to do only with facts. That all these functions are performed in many instances by the daily press can not be doubted.000 men the conviction is The Ideal forced upon one that they do not care to have a newspaper Newspaper serve as interpreter. others never admit reading crimes and casualties. the readers do not complain generally because of the presence of pages of material that they never read. However. Their literary entertainment is found in books and magazines. etc. Judging from the answers of 2. The ideal daily would put emphasis on the field that is not covered by the weeklies and monthlies. The unbiased presentation of these daily events would not5 be adequate. he finds long and inaccurate accounts of them. For them the daily newspaper must supply the place of all these.com 137 . for the busy man does not devote more than that time to any daily paper. He does complain because in place of a short and accurate account of things interesting to him. Editorials would find a place but they would be in the main concise statements concerning important events. For the business and professional man the circumstances are different.. but the interest would be mainly in the news itself and not in the reporter’s or the publisher’s views concerning it. The storiette is their only literature. There are many persons who read neither books nor monthly and weekly magazines.The newspaper that would be preferred by the representative business and professional men might not be popular with other classes of society. It would also present the events of the day in such form that they could be read in fifteen minutes. www.000 business and professional men answering my questionnaire read much besides the daily papers. All of the 2. to read articles which champion its rights and to follow some great leader in interpreting current events. That editor will be the most appreciated who selects the news most wisely and presents the unvarnished truth in all matters in which the constituency are interested. defender or advocate of the truth. Special articles would be in place in such a paper but they would deal in the main with current events. The man who is not interested in finance. The results as presented above make it quite evident that for the vast majority the daily paper is merely a news paper. does not complain because of the presence of these things. All that is desired is a brief but comprehensive publication of the news. For this class the ideal paper would be the one that serves this interest most perfectly. Cartoons would find a place in such papers but they would not be the same sort of cartoons that appear in the monthly comic papers. sports. That the better class of society has passed beyond this condition is likewise apparent. The whole reading world desires to secure pleasure from literature. The editor and the reporter must interpret the daily events.

The hope for relief from sensational journalism is to be found only in the discovery of the fact that a very influential class of business and professional men cannot be influenced by advertisements appearing in sensational publications. and one reason why advertising rates are higher in weeklies and monthlies for a proportionate amount of circulation is the fact that at the present time people have more confidence in these than in the dailies. Success in advertising is based on confidence. the results may be disquieting to the publishers. etc. Potential customers are not coldly logical and analytic in estimating commodities. The same advertisement seen in a cherished household publication carries all the respect and trust that has been created by the other departments of the publication. which had the full confidence of its readers. has it not surrendered to them also the field of advertising except for the announcement Medium of local sales and other similar events? Has it not ceased to be a competitor for national advertising? This conclusion does not follow. The sensational newspaper may possess the confidence of the lower classes of society and hence be a good advertising medium for reaching that class.com 138 . questionable financial schemes. Unless the newspapers are a valuable medium with the better classes. We do not appreciate even good food if served upon dirty dishes. however. but it will result in the production of some newspapers which conform to the demands of this great and influential body of citizens. but to ascertain which motives would appeal most profoundly to this class of society in inducing them to subscribe for newspapers.The question which the advertiser is sure to raise in this connection is. Many readers were interested in these advertisements and the space was well paid for. The significant fact was discovered. That this hope will be realized may be confidently anticipated if we may judge from the similar results which have been brought about of recent years in our best weeklies and monthlies. for the ideal newspaper. “What sort of advertisements could be valuable in what might be an ideal paper for the so-called better classes?” If the ideal paper The is fully differentiated from the weeklies and monthlies in Newspaper as an Advertising its “literary departments”. A few years ago all these publications contained advertisements of patent medicines.longlostmarketingsecrets. would be a powerful medium for all classes of advertisements. If later researches discover the fact that the lack of confidence is general with this class of society. that more advertising space could be sold in high grade magazines that did not accept such advertisements. An advertisement seen on garbage boxes may be a good advertisement and may announce real bargains but it possesses little influence. The present research was not undertaken to discover the value of newspapers as advertising media for the better class of society. We are not influenced even by a good advertisement appearing in daily papers if they seem to us to be in any way unreliable. Incidentally the fact is revealed that the newspapers do not have the confidence of many of this particular class of society. The space in the cleaner publications secured the www. they are not serviceable for many of the most influential advertisers.

The value of a publication as a advertising medium is in a large degree determined by the particular class of citizens whose confidence it possesses. Probably from fifty to ninety per cent. The sentiment seemed to be common that they were getting worse. render this pessimistic conclusion at least uncertain if not improbable. The better American metropolitan daily is a wonderful embodiment of enterprise. in proportion to circulation. weeklies and dailies. a larger price than any of the others for its advertising space. then these publications are not so valuable as advertising media as they might be. This is shown in monthlies. It will not be necessary for the better classes of society to boycott the firms advertising in the sensational newspapers – although such action might hasten the day of relief. The results of the investigation concerning the opinions of the 2. Sooner or later the publishers will find out the facts. space in Collier’s Weekly sells for 233 per cent.com 139 . of the total income from any newspaper is derived from its advertising pages. and likewise. for lack of confidence in one part is unconsciously extended to all parts. for every thousand of circulation the advertising space in the Century Magazine is worth 178 per cent. Two facts. circulation considered. If it would be strengthened as an advertising medium by an increased confidence on the part of the better classes of society. For instance. more than space in Hearst’s Sunday Magazine. If a large proportion of the better classes of society lack confidence in newspapers. The second fact is that the value of these pages is largely determined by the confidence which the public has in the paper as a whole.confidence of the class of society that had the money necessary to purchase the advertised goods. however. circulation being considered in both particulars. The Chicago evening papers are not able to secure so much for advertising space as the morning papers. In all the answers received from business and professional men there was no expression of a hope that the newspapers would ever be better than at present. Anything which makes these pages valuable will be diligently sought for even though the policy adopted may reduce the total subscription list. Newspapers are sure to conform to the demands of the people because any other policy would be suicidal on the part of the publishers. www. it is quite certain that the publishers will be equal to the emergency and will produce a paper that meets the enlightened and cultured demands.000 Chicago business and professional men show that the Chicago paper which was most often preferred in proportion to is total circulation is the paper that secures. That paper which was the least often preferred is the one which is compelled to sell its advertising space the cheapest.longlostmarketingsecrets. The first fact is that the newspapers are primarily dependent for their life upon the income from their advertising. more than that in the Popular Magazine.

com 140 . a large proportion of business and professional men will fill out the blank. Most business and professional men read more than one daily and hence may be reached by an advertisement even though it is not inserted in all the papers. Business and professional men subscribe for dailies because of the desire for news. The amount of time spent in reading advertisements must be very small. editorials. storiettes. are of secondary importance in inducing these men to subscribe for any particular paper.longlostmarketingsecrets.. from the publisher’s point of view. These business and professional men lacked confidence in their preferred daily papers. etc. Hence advertisements seen in such publications do not have the greatest possible influence. Prizes. Advertisements inserted both in the best and also in the poorer papers are largely lost in the latter because of duplication of circulation. www. The newspaper is. Most business and professional men spend about fifteen minutes daily reading papers. If the questions asked Conclusion are reasonable and interesting and if the motives of the person carrying on the research are not questioned. Hence advertisements should be so constructed that they will carry their message at a single glance. primarily an advertising medium and can attain its maximum value only when it secures the full confidence of its readers.The questionnaire method is available in securing data valuable in planning an advertising campaign. This fact may lead to an improvement in the ethical standards of our daily papers.