This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
WALTER DILL SCOTT
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING
longlostmarketingsecrets.com 4 .Contents Page I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI Introduction Memory: Remembering and Forgetting The Feelings and the Emotions Appeals to the customer’s sympathy Human Instincts Suggestion The Will: An Analysis The Will: Variety of Action Habit The Habit of Reading Advertisements The Laws of Progressive Thinking Attention Value of Small and of Large Spaces Mortality Rate of Advertising The Psychology of Food Advertising The Unconscious Influence in Street Railway Advertising The Questionnaire Method Illustrated by an Investigation Upon Newspapers 5 8 17 26 34 49 56 63 75 79 86 91 103 108 124 129 www.
and although each expects to see advertising established on psychological principles. the advertising writer and the teacher have one great object in common – to influence the human mind. we have a more hope prophet.I Introduction The typical business man is an optimist. As it is the human mind that advertising is dealing with. Business system was used in ascertaining the amount of circulation. and he is frequently surprised to see his vision realized in less time than he had even dared to hope. which is simply a systematic study of those same minds which the advertiser is seeking to influence. In Publicity. For him the future is full of possibilities that never have been realized in the past. certain enterprising men saw the possibilities of advertising ad began systematically to improve the whole profession of advertising. He is not. the author in Publicity hopes to see that day in the near future: “The time is not far away when the advertising writer will find the inestimable value of a knowledge of psychology. a day-dreamer. Artists were employed to construct appropriate illustrations and skilled typographers vied with each other in setting up the text in the most artistic and legible manner possible. when we are a little more enlightened. Advertising has as its one function the influencing of human minds. Occasionally one who was especially optimistic prophesied that at some time – perhaps in the distant future – advertisers would turn to psychology for guidance. however. These improvements have been as beneficial as the most sanguine could have hoped for. and other means were employed to discover the exact value of each style of advertisements and of each medium in which advertisements were inserted. and hence did not look to see advertisers actually turning to psychology in the immediate future. For. One such prophecy appeared in Printers’ Ink for October 1895: “Probably. Advertisements were keyed. but in and of themselves they were not sufficient to place advertising upon a scientific basis. This fact was seen by wise advertisers and such conceptions began to appear in print and to be heard in conventions of advertising men some ten years ago. The advertiser may well be regarded as typical of the class of American business men.” Printers’ Ink seemed to assume that it would be many years before we were “more enlightened”.” www. but one who uses his imagination in formulating purposes which lead to immediate action. for March 1901. like the teacher.longlostmarketingsecrets. however diverse their occupation may at first sight appear. His power of execution often surpasses that of his imagination. will study psychology. the advertisement writer. At a time when advertisements were poorly constructed and given limited circulation. its only scientific basis is psychology.com 5 . Unless it does this it is useless and destructive to the firms attempting it.
The leading advertising journals in America and Europe sought and published articles on the subject. He must know what repels and what attracts. “PSYCHOLOGICAL”. and as the manufacturer’s vocabulary is composed of many terms which were but recently technical terms used only by scientists. so the advertising world has turned its attention to the subject of psychology. Several of the leading advertising magazines and advertising agencies sought to father a movement which would result in such a presentation of the subject of psychology that it would be of use to the intelligent and practical advertiser. Elaborate investigations were undertaken and carried through to a successful issue.” www. and he must know the laws of the human mind. Just as the manufacturing word has been compelled to turn its attention to physics and chemistry. In a recent issue of Printers’ Ink (July 24. . 1907). Soon addresses were made before advertising clubs upon the specific topic of the psychology of advertising. As far as the advertiser could see all psychologies were written with a purely theoretical end in view. This condition made it quite difficult for the business man to extract that part of the subject which was of value to him. “Scientific advertising follows the laws of psychology.com 6 . He must know what will create an interest and what will fall flat. must carefully study psychology. either personally or through his advertising department. Another article by a leading advertiser contains the following sentences. He must understand how the human mind acts. and many words formerly used only by professional psychologists are today commonplace with advertisers.longlostmarketingsecrets. . on the other hand. They contained a vast amount of technical material devoid of interest to the layman who struggled through the pages. 1901) there had been no attempt to present psychology to the business world in a usable form. intelligent and successful advertisers began to devote attention to a systematic study of psychology.Previous to the appearance of this article (March. The successful advertiser. Several of the recent books on advertising and general business promotion deal more or less extensively with the subject. The changed attitude of the advertising world can be judged by reference to current advertising literature. These efforts on the part of the advertisers were successful in stimulating several professional psychologists to attempt such a presentation. Psychological laboratories were fitted up to make various tests upon advertisements. Psychologists turned to the study of advertising in all its phases while. one article has this significant heading. Investigators in the various parts of the country and among different classes of society united in their efforts to solve some of the knotty problems which are ever before the business man who desires publicity for his commodity. As a result of all these various efforts more has actually been accomplished during the last five years than the typical optimist even imagined. . He must be a student of human nature.
com 7 . while others are so important that they should be collected in a place and form such that they would be available to the largest possible number of readers. In articles appearing on the subject before the last few years. The worthless should be discarded and the valuable brought out into due prominence in systematic arrangement.longlostmarketingsecrets. The general reader will derive benefit from the reading of the book. the word “must” is here put in italics to draw attention to the actual emphasis used by the author. The professional psychologist will be interested in the contribution made to his science from a study of mind in a particular field of activity. Some articles appearing under this head are of minor significance. for he will be able to grasp some of the most fundamental psychological principles because they are here presented in concrete and comprehensible form. Although the attitude of the advertising world has changed and even though much has been done to present psychology in a helpful form to the advertisers. In view of this condition of affairs the author has assumed the pleasing task of systematizing the subject of the psychology of advertising and of presenting it in such a form that it will be of distinct practical value to all who are interested in business promotion.Although italics were not used in the original. all persons had spoken of the study of psychology as something which might be brought about in the future. At the present time the writers are asserting that the successful advertiser must study psychology and that he must do it at once. Incidentally it is hoped that the present volume will be welcomed by many who have no especial interest in business promotion. the work of the psychologist is not yet available to the business world because the material has not been presented in any one accessible place. Contributions are scattered through the files of a score of American and European publications. The psychology of advertising has reached a stage in its development where all that has thus far been accomplished should be reconsidered. www.
or states of mind. and the cards. Since he published his thesis many others have taken up the work. which have already once dropped from consciousness. as I do so I recognize the experience as belonging to my past. we can live over the same experiences and can recognize them as related to our past.longlostmarketingsecrets. I heard the shouts of teamsters. and his and their results are fairly well established and definite. live over the same experience and. I saw the people. Our memories gradually fade with time. in imagination. as the memory fades very slowly after the first day. What we remember for twenty minutes and what we can get others to remember for that time is of great concern. After two seconds the memory fades very rapidly. minutes and hours. but I cannot. for it is what we and they remember for longer times also. the wagons. Immediately after crossing the street I could have described the scene much better than I could now. my memory has faded. and the roar of elevated trains. of Germany. In short. This knowledge of former impressions. see their faces or hear their voices as I did yesterday. neither does it contain all the details of the actual experience. in imagination. is that is known as memory. I can imagine how the jungles of Africa must look. www. We forget rapidly during the first few seconds. I remember that there were teamsters and that they were shouting at their horses. in my imagination. but it is the part which persists. They have found that our memories are at their best two seconds after the experience has taken place. A year hence I shall probably have forgotten all about it. so that.II Memory Impressions once received leave traces of themselves. What we remember a day is a very small part of our experiences. To-day I can. Yesterday I was on the corner of Fifth avenue and Lake street in Chicago. the rattle of passing vehicles. It is not likely that any memory is so vivid as the original experience. As I try to recall the street scene yesterday I find that many of the details have escaped me. I cannot remember how the teamsters looked nor what sort of cries they were uttering. and has faded rapidly. Professor Ebbinghouse. This is an act of productive imagination.com 8 . so that in twenty minutes we have forgotten more of an experience than we shall forget in the next thirty days. I am therefore remembering my past experience. was the first to try to find out exactly how fast our memories do fade.
and still the name may be retained for a long period of time. think how it sounded when you heard the name.longlostmarketingsecrets.What the practical business man wants to know about memory can be put in two questions. The second principle is intensity. are the things we commit most easily and retain the longest. www. The details of a business or professional life which are connected in a series are not hard to learn. Repeat it One’s Own in all the ways possible – say it over aloud. then you should pay the maximum amount of attention to every repetition. and saw that these men and these events were all contemporaneous and together made what is known as the Renaissance. Such a list of unconnected dates would have cost me much unprofitable effort if I had been compelled to learn them separately. In this way the process of learning will be so reduced that a single repetition may be enough. and thus get associated with our previous experience. Durer. say it over to yourself. If you want to remember a name. but every one can improve his memory by the observance of a few wellknown and thoroughly established principles. and are not soon forgotten. If you apply the first principle and repeat the name. Michelangelo. write it. classify and systematize. The things which we think over. the application of the compass to navigation. recall it at frequent periods and until it has become thoroughly fixed in your mind. It was not associated with anything else. As a boy at school I learned by repetition that Columbus discovered America in 1642. I connected them all with the date of the discovery of America. the time of the activity of Copernicus. As it was. how can I so present my advertisements that they will be remembered by the public? It is not possible for a person for a poor memory to develop a good one. At a later time I was compelled to learn the approximate date of the fall of Constantinople. The first Four Principles principle is repetition. Titian. look at Memory it after it is written.etc. A man may have no trouble from forgetting the details of his business or profession. pay the strictest possible attention to it. First. and so cost me great effort of attention and frequent repetition before I had it thoroughly memorized. If you want to make sure that you of Improving will remember a name. how can I improve my own memory? Second. The third principle is that of association. the invention of printing. yet may have a poor memory for all events not thus associated. Holbein. At that time this was to me an entirely disconnected fact.com 9 .
The fourth principle is the one of least general application. yet it is the principle used by most persons who have “memory training” to sell. by thinking how unfortunate it is to have such a number to remember – 13 is supposed to be an unlucky number. Thus the reproduced advertisement of Vitalized Phosphites (No. One who has an unretentive memory cannot possibly change it my any method of training. but it has taken too many repetitions to secure the desired results. dates. www.longlostmarketingsecrets. it becomes worse than useless. for she is a short woman. We cannot forget this advertisement. we find that the question is answered by the proper application of the principles enunciated above. and by changing some of the features at each appearance of the advertisement. figures and similar data. I remember a friend’s telephone. The third principle given above – association – is the one by far of the most importance. It is fairly well established now that one’s native retentiveness is unchangeable. There is probably no one who does not make frequent use of it in attempting to remember names. indeed if an attempt is made to apply it too frequently.The fourth principle is that of ingenuity. I remember the name of Miss Low. When the question arises.1) is frequently repeated in identical form. This condition of affairs has made “memory training” a profitable business for the fakir. This method is applicable only to disconnected facts which we find difficulty in remembering by the methods given before. It may be a crude and an Remembered? expensive method. and 91 is seven times 13. and are willing to pay any one who will tell us how to train ours. It is. which is 1391. a method which was used by the Roman orators and has been used more or less ever since. We appreciate the value of a good memory.com 10 . but it seems to be effective. Which The advertisement that is repeated over and over Advertisements again at frequent intervals gradually becomes fixed in are the memory of the reader.how to construct an advertisement so that the reader cannot forget it. This method gains added effect by repeating one or more characteristic features. All he can do is to improve on his method of acquiring and recording knowledge. however. .
and hence the effect of repetition is secured.2) is but one of a series of advertisements in all of which the colored chef appears prominently.longlostmarketingsecrets.The reproduced advertisement of Cream of What (No. This characteristic feature causes us to associate all of the series. Similar statements could be made of a host of other excellent advertisements. www.com 11 . because the colored chef is never represented in the same way in any two of the advertisements as they appear from month to month. At the same time. there is sufficient diversity.
com 12 .longlostmarketingsecrets.3) will not soon be forgotten by those who are induced to send the name of their dealer to the Pompeian Manufacturing Company Rhymes and alliterations are rhetorical forms which seem to be of great assistance when we attempt to commit verses. Likewise the first and the last parts of any particular advertisement (unless very short) are the parts that we remember best. The first and the last advertisements in a magazine are the most effective. and the advertisement falls flat. The back cover-page is valuable because when the magazine is lying on a table the back cover-page is likely to be turned up. Bright colors impress us more Applied than dull ones. The bright-colored inserts and advertisements run in colors are remembered better than others. The rhythm and the alliteration must be excellent. The methods for securing The Second this intensity are many. An advertisement which secures a response sufficient to lead to the writing of a postal card has a chance of being remembered which is incomparably greater than that of other advertisements. www.The advertisement which makes an intense impression is one which the advertiser does not easily forget. In any experience it is the first and the last parts of it that impress us most and that get fixed most firmly in our memories. The advertisement of Ponpeian Massage Cream (No. and even when we do not want to remember them the rhythm may make such an impression that we can’t forget them. and even to be seen by those who do not look at the advertisements in the back of the magazine – if such persons still exist! The intensity of the impression which an advertisement makes is dependent upon the response which it secures from the readers. else they make the whole attempt seem ridiculous. because they make a greater impression on us. The second cover-page is valuable because it is so likely to be seen first. even though it were nothing more than the writing of a postal card. The pedagogue would call this action the “motor response”. but a few examples will serve to Principle make the method plain. The “Spotless Town” is an illustration of a successful application of this psychological fact. but in addition to that it is a valuable page because it is likely to be the first or the last seen by most readers. There is much poor advertising being done at the present time in a futile attempt to produce a successful imitation of the “Spotless Town”. Such action is vital in assisting the memory of the readers.
the result is ludicrous and futile. www. Advertising is a serious business.com 13 . Furthermore. The reproduced advertisement of Gold Dust (No. The reproduced advertisement of Rough on Rats (no.5) impresses some persons as silly. and unless the advertisement is extremely clever.Anything humorous or ridiculous – even a pun – is hard to forget. it is unwise to attempt to present the humorous side of life. that which impresses one person as funny may seem silly to another.longlostmarketingsecrets.4) seems funny to some. although it is highly valuable when well done. but does not to others. But unless the attempt is successful. while others think it funny.
and so that statement is remembered. but to cook it is full of interest. I find that both advertisements have made such an intense impression on me that they have stuck in my memory. The arguments of an advertisement should be such as are easily associated with the personal interests and with the former experience of the majority of the readers. Personally. and does not stand out as an isolated fact. whether it causes us to smile or to sympathize with the sorrows of others. but as a modification or addition of something already in his mind. and ordinarily does so. does not convince me of the desirability of the goods. The writer of advertisements must consider the principle of association.Anything will be remembered which awakens our emotions. The advertisement of Gold Dust (No. This is best done by appealing to those interests and motives which are the ruling principles of the reader’s thinking. and hence is a good form of advertising.4) pleases me and convinces me that the product is good. whether the thing be ugly or beautiful. The statement that the bond bears four per cent. and I see no prospect of being able to forget them soon.com 14 . even if he does it unconsciously. The advertisement of Rough on Rats amuses me because it is so excessively silly. but in connection with a whole series of facts which are constantly before his mind. not as an isolated fact. That which excites an emotion is not easily forgotten. if it can convince the reason at the same time that it stimulates the feelings. The Third He should present his argument in such a form that it will Principle naturally and easily be associated by the reader with his Applied own former experience.longlostmarketingsecrets. I should forget a recipe for a cake before I had finished reading it. for he immediately associated the bond of which this statement is made with the group of similar bonds. It does not please me. Interest is not forgotten by capitalist. www.
longlostmarketingsecrets. “Syrup of Figs” is a name for a patent medicine which is easily remembered. “Give your boy a lesson in the value of money and the growth of interest”. gold bonds”.6) is in direct violation of this principle. (No. The following expressions appeal powerfully to a manufacturer. although the product contains no figs. and if they were the purchasers of boys’ stockings. and so the advertisement appeals to those who have nothing to do with the business – except those who pay for the advertisement. “Keen Kutter” is a name for tools which is not easily forgotten. It pleases by its very ingenuity. www. In reality the men do not buy the stockings. more than any bank pays. Thus “Uneeda” is a name which cannot be Principle forgotten. The advertisement was evidently written by a man. allowing you a share of our profits”. but not to a mother: “Five per cent. etc. and appears to men as being a good advertisement. “Clip your coupons and make money”. “This is one per cent.The reproduced advertisement of the Buster Brown Stocking Co. It would be remembered by men.com 15 . Thus “Uwanta” is recognised as an imitation and is neither impressive nor pleasing. and allows you the use of the principal. it would be an excellent advertisement. The principle of ingenuity can have but an occasion application but there are instances when it has been employed with great The Fourth effectiveness. although most of Applied the attempts in this direction have been futile.
com 16 . The four principles enunciated above for impressing advertisements on the minds of possible customers are capable of unlimited application. and will not disappoint any. and the cost of his suits.longlostmarketingsecrets. He sold a business suit for $33. www.A tailor in Chicago advertised himself and his shop in such an ingenious way that no one could read his advertisement and forget the essential features of it. his telephone number was the same. and at the same time fixed in their minds his name and address. There were 33 letters in his name and address. His street number was 33. The number 33 stood out prominently as the striking feature of his advertisement and impressed many as being unique. for they are the laws which have been found to govern the minds of all persons as far as their memories are concerned.
gratitude. The word pain or displeasure will likewise be used to express simple painful sensations and also emotions which involve pain.longlostmarketingsecrets. and. In the present chapter we are interested in the effect which pleasure and pain and the different emotions have upon the mind and the body of the person experiencing them.III The Feelings and the Emotions We all know that is meant by pleasure and pain. even though significant. Pleasing experiences increase our muscular strength and cause us to feel like men. They are known only by experience. pride. but they affect directly the action of all the voluntary and involuntary muscles of the body. accompanying the physical change.com 17 . We open up and become subject to the influences in our environment. In pleasure the hands go out from the body. This increase of blood supply gives us a feeling of buoyancy and increased vitality. We feel more like undertaking great tasks and have more faith in our ability to accomplish them. on the other hand. interferes with the rhythm of breathing. These effects are not sufficiently recognized and yet they are of special significance to the advertiser. Pain decreases muscular strength and gives us a feeling of weakness and lack of confidence. Pleasures not only give greater strength to the voluntary muscles. Every pleasurable and every painful experience has a direct reflex effect on the bodily functions and also on the action of the mind. For the sake of brevity we shall use the word pleasure not merely to express such simple pleasures as tasting an appetizing morsel. hate. antipathy. by joy and grief. Effects of These effects are widespread and important. Some of Pleasure and these changes. we www. the shoulders are thrown back and the head elevated. Pleasures actually cause the limbs to increase in size. hindered and checked in carrying out our purposes. makes the lung action less deep. These feelings and emotions are not better understood after we have attempted to define them. is a feeling of expansiveness which services to heighten the pleasure. but also to express such pleasurable emotions as joy. love. such as fear. are not directly Pain detected without the use of delicate recording instruments. etc. With pain the limbs shrivel in size and this is accompanied by a feeling of depression. Under the influence of pleasure the efficiency of the heart-action is greatly enhanced. Displeasure. jealousy. Being pleased with what we are receiving. and we are all familiar with them. benevolence. and gives a feeling of being stifled. etc. which greatly enhances the already pleasing experience.
We become extremely suggestible. Dickens says: “A Through Their good. It is true that the artistic judgement is not possessed equally by all. He knows that they will place a larger order if they are feeling happy than if they are feeling otherwise. There are certain combinations of Understood colors which are regarded as pleasing and others which www. We refuse to receive suggestions. When in pain we question the motives of even our friends and only suspicious thoughts are called up in our minds. are not easily influenced and are in a suspicious attitude toward everything which is proposed. In pain we are displeased with the present experiences and so withdraw within ourselves to keep from being acted upon. To be beautiful a thing must possess certain characteristics which awaken a feeling of appreciation in the normal person. contented. We are prompt to act and confident of success. he would be feeling pessimistic and suspicious and would believe in the guilt of the defendant. certain combinations of sounds which are Appreciated universally called harmonies and others which are Though Not called discords. The merchant attempts to please the customer by the appearance of the store. “jolly up”.” Here Dickens expresses the fact that man is not pre-eminently logical. Keen observers of men have not been slow in Appealing to profiting by these facts. and suggestions will be given of concrete methods which are available to the advertiser in appealing to the sense of the beautiful. by courteous treatment and by every other possible method. and are likely to see everything in a favourable light. In pain the hands are drawn in towards the chest and the whole body draws in within itself as if to protect itself against outside influences. In the present chapter the importance of pleasing the advertiser by appealing to his esthetic sense will be emphasized. speaking Customers from the view-point of the defendant. In “Pickwick Papers”. If the juryman were discontented and hungry. The same pains must be taken by the advertiser in his attempts to please those to whom his appeals are made. well-breakfasted juryman is a capital Feelings thing to get hold of. Discontented or hungry jurymen always find for the plaintiff. The American slang expression. or at least it is not equally developed in all. These actions of the body are reflected in the mental attitude. These brief statements of facts serve to call to the reader’s attention the mental attitude in which the person is placed by the influence of pleasure and pain. means the pleasing by flattery of the one from whom it is desired to obtain a favor. There are. Beauty however.com 18 . The modern business man does his utmost to minister to the pleasure of the customers in his store. In pleasure our minds expand.longlostmarketingsecrets.become receptive and expand that we may take in more of the same sort. but that his thinking is influenced by his present state of feelings. The methods are open to the advertiser are relatively few and hence all available means should be employed most assiduously.
but. Here we have a series of straight lines divided by short cross lines. the esthetic feeling is not very pronounced. although they are able to appreciate his work. He has acquired this knowledge which others do not possess. Look at the lines carefully and you will probably feel that the lines A. The line D is divided at a point slightly above the middle.are displeasing. but he appreciates the harmony of tones when he hears it. if a straight vertical line is to be divided into two unequal parts. This is not an altogether unimportant discovery. but it appears to be divided into two exactly equal parts. For this reason the line E. Many persons would say that the line D www. as might be expected. The man without a musical education does not possess such knowledge. Such. In judging of vertical distances.com 19 . The uninitiated does not possess such knowledge or ability. although he is able to appreciate the work of the artist and can distinguish it from the work of the novice. appears to be divided into two slightly unequal parts and the lower section seems to be the smaller. look at No. As an illustration. The artist knows how to produce pleasing effects with symmetry and proportion of space forms. The musician knows what tones will harmonize and which ones will not. It seems almost absurd to suppose that the position of the point of division in a straight line would have anything to do with a feeling of pleasure. B and C are divided in a more pleasing manner than F. The colorist knows how to produce pleasing effects with colors. is certainly the case. In other words. Perhaps the simplest thing that could be suggested which would have an element of esthetic feeling connected with it is the bisection of a straight line. which is divided into two equal parts. There are likewise certain geometrical forms or space arrangements which are beautiful. however. and others which are displeasing.longlostmarketingsecrets. you prefer to have the division come above the middle.1. we over-estimate the upper half. G and H.
www.com 20 .618. The parts are not so different that they destroy the feeling of unity in the line. In vertical lines we seem to prefer the emphasis on the diversity. but a division which approximates the symmetrical division (and is not quite symmetrical) is displeasing. B and C cease to be more pleasing than those of F. B. while E appears as if an unsuccessful attempt has been made to divide the line into two equal parts. which is known as the “golden section”.longlostmarketingsecrets. in the divisions according to the ration of the golden section diversity is secured. so the divisions give diversity. Unity and diversity are essential elements in all esthetic pleasures. The divisions will now assume a new relation. or unity. The symmetry about this division pleases us. They have divisions which do not seem to be too much alike. which are divided according to the ratio of the “golden section”. The ratio of the smaller section of the line to the larger section in C and F is approximately that of 3 to 5. the lines will all be changed from vertical to horizontal. the result is pleasing of the line is divided into two sections which are respectively 3 and 5 inches long. G and H. it is the arithmetical expression of a simple proportion which is this : the short section is to the longer section as the longer section is to the sum of both sections. Exact experimentation and measurements of artistic productions show that there is a remarkable preference for this ratio. In these divisions of straight lines into two equal parts unity is secured. A line is divided most artistically. In fact. If you hold No. Any division of a line which approximates this golden section is pleasing. Line D seems to be perfectly symmetrical – its two parts appear equal. Although this fraction seems very formidable. The two parts of the lines A. for most persons the symmetrical divisions of E seem to be more pleasing than those of even C and F.1 sideways. A line is pleasing if its two parts are not too much alike and not too different. The divisions of lines A. if a vertical line is eight inches long. if the lower section is 1. which are not divided symmetrically. is more pleasing than A or H. while in horizontal lines the exact symmetry. That is to say.618 times as great as the upper. E now seems to be divided symmetrically and is more pleasing than D. and the unity is not entirely lost.is more pleasing than E. The exact ratio is that of 1 to 1. is most pleasing. for D appears to be divided into two equal pats. The most pleasing division of a horizontal line is that of perfect symmetry and the next most pleasing is that of the “golden section”. which is approximately that of 3 to 5. and most persons would say that this line. C and H appear too unequal and the two parts of Line E appear too nearly equal. which is divided symmetrically. Lines C and F are very pleasing.
some have a preference for the square. Think of the shape of the flags of all nations. The square seems to possess much symmetry but little diversity.2 The height of the rectangle is to its base as 3 to 5. In the rectangle the height is not equal to the length. cathedrals. In most of these objects we find a very decided tendency to make the height equal the width. In fact. of all the picture frames which you have ever seen. Look at the square and the rectangle in No. Each line is equal to every other line. envelopes. or else the height is to the width approximately as 3 is to 5. palaces. mirrors.) Men have been called on to decide this question times without number. it was originally called the “golden section of architecture”. because it was discovered to uniformly in architecture. The rectangle possesses both unity and diversity. The individual rooms not infrequently bear the same ratios as the height and width of the entire building. if window panes. The architect is called upon to decide this question every time he constructs a building in which the artistic effect plays any part – and it always should. www. In the square we have a very decided symmetry. By investigating a very large number of such decisions we may be able to discover something of value. Is a rectangle more pleasing than a square? (For Divisions of the sake of brevity of expression we disregard the fact that a Forms square is a particular form of a rectangle. cottages. books. Think of the temples. Careful measurement of such structures has revealed a striking tendence to approximately what we have learned as the “golden section”. sheets of paper. museums and all other structures in which the artistic element plays a large part. In a great proportion of these the height is not equal to the width.The discovery of the most pleasing proportion between the parts of straight lines would be of decidedly more importance of we should find that the same ratio holds for the parts of more complicated Artistic figures. but a line drawn through the centre of the figure divides it into two equivalent parts. playing cards. periodicals and all other objects in which the shape is determined to a greater or less extent by artistic demands.com 21 .longlostmarketingsecrets. A straight line drawn through the centre of the figure from any angle divides the figure into two equivalent parts. Most persons say that the rectangle is the most pleasing.
the result is not satisfactory.. The space used by an advertiser is usually a rectangle. the effect is pleasing because the difference is great enough to make it evident that the figure was not meant for a square. Thus. An ellipse that is too much like a circle is much less pleasing than an ellipse in which the smaller diameter is to the greater one as 3 is to 5. If one dimension of a rectangle exceeds the other by more than two hundred and fifty per cent. and if the disproportion becomes great because of the excessive height. This is accounted for because we overestimate the height of a square about three per cent. greater than its height appears to be a perfect square and so is more pleasing than the perfect square.. In choosing this space. upper left. but the surprising this is the lack of more exceptions. When we consider that the ratio of one dimension to the other is but a minor element in the total esthetic effect. Advertisements although he may be entirely unconscious of any such intention. greater than the height is more pleasing than the perfect square.A very careful investigator of the esthetic value of the different space forms gives some interesting results as the fruits of his labours. The difference between the two dimensions seems to become too great and the unity of the figure is weakened. That which has been said of the square and the rectangle holds equally true for the circle and the ellipse. The same holds true of a triangle also. the figure is displeasing because it looks like an imperfect square. we call the buildings skyscrapers and regard them as eyesores to the American cities. we are not surprised that we find exceptions to the conclusions reached in the foregoing. If the height of a rectangle is approximately eighteen per cent. does the advertiser take into consideration the relation of the height and width which will produce the most pleasing effect? Artistic Form He certainly does and the space he chooses meets the For conditions of esthetic pleasure as given above.. The fact that a right or left half-page may be next to reading www. A circle is a pleasing form which pleases because of its symmetry and regularity. Thus the rectangle whose base is three per cent. lower right and lower left) approximates most nearly the “golden section”.longlostmarketingsecrets. greater or less than its base. Next in the approximation to the standard is the division into upper and lower halves. A building whose width is many times its height is usually ugly and is designated as a shed. If the difference in the two dimensions of the rectangle becomes as great as forty per cent.com 22 . This order of esthetic effect is also the order of frequency of choice of space. and the last division into right and left halves. and the result is more pleasing than it is for any other ratio of base to height. Buildings that exceed in height the ratio as given here do not look beautiful. next comes the horizontal quarter. If one dimension of the rectangle exceeds the other approximately sixty per cent. we have the ratio of the “golden section”. Thus in an ordinary magazine the full page and the ordinary quarter-page (the upper right. a rectangle whose base is three per cent.
because of their oddity. but increase from the bottom upward in a pleasing proportion.3). The horizontal divisions are strictly bilateral symmetry. Such symmetry as this is Subdivisions called bilateral symmetry. www. It is to be hoped that no publisher will allow the pages of his magazine to be chopped up into vertical quarters. Almost every artist production can be subdivided into two equivalent parts by drawing a vertical line Artistic through the middle of it. The artistic subdivisions of spaces follow the laws of symmetry and the proportion as given above. As a typical example of Of bilateral symmetry as well as pleasing proportion in an Advertisements advertisement we reproduce herewith the advertisement of the Butler Paper Company (No. but what has been said of the larger spaces holds true of the smaller also. which serve to divide the text into two unequal divisions which are related to each other in a pleasing proportion. In this we see that the sub-divisions are not equal. although such shapes might be striking. Turn over the pages of advertisements in any magazine and look at the different spaces to see which class of spaces pleases you most and which least. Every subdivision of the display and of the text is centred. A marked display is found in the words “Snow Flake”.longlostmarketingsecrets.matter makes this division more popular than it otherwise would be. The line drawn vertically through this advertisement divides it into two symmetrical parts.com 23 . Such an arrangement of the vertical subdivisions is certainly more pleasing than equal subdivisions would be. Dotted liens are drawn to indicate the vertical divisions. (No mention has been made of small advertisements. for the effect would be most inartistic.) Some advertisers have used narrow spaces which extend entirely across the page. and diversity is secured. By such subdivisions as we have here the unity of the page is not destroyed. and you will probably chose the spaces in the order as indicated above. The effect has not been pleasing.
There are twelve different kinds of stars. i. that of the golden section. but each star has since main subdivisions and six minor subdivisions. while the darker border is too wide to meet the condition. It is not necessary to exaggerate the importance of these laws of symmetry and proportion. pleasing unity and diversity are both secured. its proportions would vary from that of the “golden section”.It should be observed that this advertisement of the Butler Paper Company has employed an unusually large number of figures which are symmetrical and many more which are arranged on the ratio of the “golden section”. but these rectangles are as near to the ration of the golden section as could be produced in such a complicated figure as this. There are enough starts to give diversity. They contribute an appreciable amount to the beautification of the advertising page and hence to the production of pleasure in the mind of every possible customer who sees the advertisement. The while rectangle on which the text is found is slightly too long to be in the exact ratio of the golden section.longlostmarketingsecrets. If this advertisement were either lengthened or shortened. It is no accident that the conventional ellipse at the top of the advertisement is in the same ratio as the rectangles. and the starts are sufficiently alike to give unity to the border as a whole. www.com 24 .e. As a result. and the results would be recognized by the ordinary observer as less satisfactory. The symmetry is pronounced in the twenty-four crystals or starts which are used as a decoration in the border.
Among such laws might be mentioned ease of comprehension.Inasmuch as the pleasure of the customer is of such fundamental importance the advertiser cannot afford to neglect any element which contributes to the total pleasurable effect.com 25 . ease of eye-movement. appropriate point of orientation and utility.longlostmarketingsecrets. www. and an appreciation of their importance by the advertisers of the land would lead to a beautification of the advertising pages of our publications and hence to an increase in their value to the advertiser. There are other laws which are of importance in giving a pleasing effect to a page. These laws are of universal application in laying out advertisements and in choosing spaces. Space will not admit of a presentation of these principles but the purpose of this chapter has been attained if the reader has become impressed with the importance of pleasing the possible customer and with the significance of such simple laws as that of proportion and symmetry in accomplishing the desired result.
I sympathize with animals because I believe that they have feelings similar to mine. By sympathy we mean in general a particular mental attitude which is induced by the realization of the fact that some one else is going through that particular form of experience. If I desire to be prosperous. my sympathy is greatest for those whom I might call my ideals. We are not indifferent as to the objects upon which we bestow our sympathy. I feel keen sympathy with the man who appears to be prosperous. We also saw how a pleasing effect could be produced by the judicious use of the laws of symmetry and proportion in constructing advertisements. but as I look at them I am not pleased at all. In the present chapter we shall continue the general discussion of the benefit of awakening the feelings and emotions and will confine the discussion to a single emotion.com 26 . I feel more sympathy for the higher animals (dogs and horses) than I do for the lower animals. but I sympathize most with those of my own set or clique. (No. with those who think the same thoughts that I think and who are in every way most like myself. If I desire to attain a certain station in life. I feel sympathetically towards those who are well dressed. for I believe their feelings are more like mine. www. After those of this inner circle of acquaintances. The feelings awakened sympathetically are intense enough to cause weeping. Their pleasure is not contagious so far as I am concerned. If I am ambitious to be a well-dressed man. that of sympathy. Illustrations They are enjoying themselves immensely and probably From never had a better time in all their lives than they are Advertisements having as members of this touring party.longlostmarketingsecrets. laughing and all the ordinary forms of expressing the emotions. I feel sympathetically with those who appear to have attained my ambition. I feel no sympathy with the tree that is struck by the woodman’s axe nor for the stone that is crushed under the wheels of Sympathy a traction engine. I have a certain amount of sympathy for all humanity. They are not my ideals and I therefore have comparatively little sympathy with them. and I weep because I see my friends weep.IV Appeals to the Customer’s Sympathy In the last chapter we saw the significance of pleasure and pain in inducting the proper attitude in the minds of the customers. I seem to be immune from all their pleasures. I may feel sympathy for the mouse For Our whose nest is destroyed or for the horse that is cruelly Ideal Selves treated. In the advertisement of Thomas Cook & Co. namely. Thus I laugh and feel happy because those about me are rejoicing. To a certain extent we seem to imagine ourselves as in the condition actually experienced by those about us and hence feel as we assume they must feel.1) I do not think of the old lady and gentleman as being of my class.
longlostmarketingsecrets. www.I have no desire to imitate their actions and become a member of Cook’s touring party.com 27 .
They seem to be enjoying the train immensely.2) may well be considered. These passengers on the Santa Fe stimulate me to imitate their action i.e.longlostmarketingsecrets. I believe that they have good taste and if they choose the California Limited for their wedding trip that train would certainly be desirable for my trips too. to get aboard the train and enjoy its luxuries. www.In contract with this Thomas Cook advertisement that of the Santa Fe Railroad (No. In every case of sympathy we imitate to a certain degree the objects of our sympathy.com 28 . The two persons here represented approximate my ideals.
and that the same holds true for their attendance upon dramatic representations. but to me it is ridiculous.4 is a reproduction of an advertisement of a fat-reducing tablet. Both the lady and the gentleman are the kind of people who we do not admire.3 is a reproduced advertisement of a fat-reducing compound. and the illustration is that of a lady who at once begets my sympathy. The illustration is supposed to be ludicrous. The fat lady in the illustration does not seem to make the best of a bad situation. www. The tragedy and the comedy are forms of literature and of dramatic representations which have always been popular. but that is no reason for me to imitate their actions and become one with them in any line of action. The material advertised might be good for such persons as the illustration depicts. She is apparently making the best of a bad condition. and consequently it is easy for me to imagine myself in her stead and to feel the need for relief from obesity and to take the necessary steps to secure such relief. who are far from our ideals and who present but few elements of likeness to ourselves. serve but to increase the apparent size. There are probably more great tragedies than comedies. If she is going to use the Howard Obesity Ointment. She dressed in plaids.No. but frequently there are comedies without any element of the tragic. which. No.com 29 . it certainly must be worth considering. I feel sorry for her and sympathize with her in her affliction. She certainly feels about the matter just as I should. as every corpulent person knows. There is scarcely a tragedy without its comic parts. but it is true that the ordinary men and women read more comedy (including the comic in a so-called tragedy) than tragedy.longlostmarketingsecrets.
. In appealing for funds to carry on the missionary work in Africa the minister may describe the deplorable and almost hopeless condition of the natives. should follow. it seems to me that when sympathy for sorrow is successfully awakened. the philanthropist. As far as my personal observations go. It must www. The hero (if it be the hero who suffers) is first introduced. or else he may tell of the prosperity and good cheer brought about by his own party. In raising money to found a charitable institution the philanthropist may tell of the squalor and misery of the persons in the district in which the institution is located. and appeal for the funds to continue the already successful work. it is more effective in bringing about the desired action than is sympathy for the joys of the persons concerned. etc. or else he may tell of the joys which the institution will bring into the lives of the persons concerned. In tragedy the reader or the spectator is usually introduced gradually into the emotional tone of the whole. and the reader or the spectator may be brought into the spirit of the whole at once without danger of any shock to the sensibilities because of the suddenness of the introduction of the emotional element. we are called upon to enter into his sorrows and to feel with him.longlostmarketingsecrets.In a comedy the rollicking fun may be introduced immediately. the minister. or else he may tell of the wonderful successes of the missionaries already on the field. In a political campaign the politician may relate the instances of wrong and oppression for which the opposing party is responsible. and then after we feel acquainted with him and have an interest in him. It certainly is questionable which method the politician.com 30 .
It seems to be assumed that everyone has sorrows enough of his own and therefore should not be called upon to share the sorrows of others. but the depiction of the rosier hues is more attractive to most people. but retrain it. In fact.be remembered. for allowing us to be insulted by such an audacious attack upon our sensibilities. than for those who give way to their feelings. Thus in No. www. Even in dramatic representations the expressions which accompany sorrow or pain are largely subordinated to apparent attempts to stifle such manifestations. it is not in good form to express grief at all. however. We weep more readily with those who seem to have great cause for weeping. Culture and good breeding have decreed that we shall not express our griefs in the sight or hearing of others. We are not allowed to parade our sorrows before the gaze of the public. This attitude towards expressions of grief seems to be quite universal. and in general loud or boisterous expressions of pleasure are not regarded as in good taste.com 31 . The depiction of the darker sides of life may be very effective. This attitude towards he manifestations of sorrow often causes us to be offended by manifestations of suffering. It may also be true that these most successful pathetic appeals would be avoided in the future by the very persons who had been moved most effectively. that the persons for whom the appeal is being made in all cases are those for whom the hearers have more than a passing interest. if not with the publisher. It is said that savages laugh more loudly than persons in civilized countries. and is taken so much as a matter of course that we feel offended when persons seeks to awaken our sympathy by any form of external manifestation. and the creating of this interest may be the product of a long process of education.5 there is an appeal made to our sympathy in such a ruse manner that we feel angered with the advertiser.longlostmarketingsecrets.
equally good results may be secured by representations of sorrow.6 is one of the most attractive Appeals to advertisements in the current issue of our magazines. Sympathy The smile is very contagious and the whole effect is so Attract clear and so pleasing that I can scarcely turn the page Attention without stopping to look at it. Thus No.7 sorrow is depicted in such a way that it succeeds in attracting the attention of the most visual reader of advertisements. Thus in No.One function of representations of feelings and emotions is to attract attention.com 32 . www. As far as the attention value is concerned.longlostmarketingsecrets.
6 and 7 are reproductions of advertisements which represent the opposite sorts of feelings. It is quite possible that an advertisement which might be good for the individual advertiser would be injurious to the many who are occupying space in the same publication.Bull. These Examples are sufficient to show that appeals to the sympathy. If you knew that one magazine carried advertisements which were pathetic in their illustrations and descriptions and that another magazine carried only bright and cheerful advertisements.Nos.longlostmarketingsecrets. 3 and 7 might also be questionable. It might be a very profitable advertisement for Dr. The advertising manager should not only refuse objectionable advertisers.5 may be good for the firm placing it. Personally.1. but the advertising manager. If such is the case.com 33 . it is the duty of advertising managers to see to it that the advertising pages of their publications are rendered attractive. which one would you pick up and look through? I believe that most persons would choose the magazine advertisements that present only the more cheerful aspects of life. by accepting it. may be used with great profit by the advertiser. when the advertising pages of our publications must be edited as carefully as the pages of the literary department. but we are all human beings. The effect which would be produced on adjoining spaces by such advertisements as are shown in No. either for pleasure or for pain. The time is coming. I enter into the pleasure of the smiling young man more fully than I enter into the sorrow of the grief-stricken one. and each awakens its appropriate kind of sympathy. We are not cold. logical machines. and yet it is difficult to tell which advertisement has the greater attentive value. Whether the dark or the bright side of life offers the most material for the advertiser may be questionable. and indeed has come. The advertisement reproduced in No. with hearts in our breasts and blood in our veins. but he should refuse all objectionable advertisements. and we enjoy the depictions of real life with all its joys and sorrows. has reduced the value of all other advertising spaces. but it may be so disgusting to all other persons that it renders them antagonistic and unsympathetic to all the advertisements seen for minutes after they have looked at this one. www. It may be attractive to such persons as need the cough syrup. but there is certainly no question as to the advisability of appeals to the sympathies.
when they can. he would www. why do the various animals do what seem to us strange things. Why do men always lie down. and we do not usually speak of the actions of man as being instinctive. which can control his instinctive actions and thus obliterate their instinctive appearance. for example. when taking his dinner.V Human Instincts We are all accustomed to think of the actions of animals as instinctive. although such actions are fundamentally instinctive. If you ask him why he should want to eat more of what tastes like that. and that every creature likes its own ways. Science may come and consider these ways. and find that most of them are useful. In a new environment and in the presence of unfamiliar objects. ever thinks of utility. and these few are sufficient for his ordinary environment.longlostmarketingsecrets. In his native and ordinary environment the animal shows a cleverness of action which is hardly to be distinguished from that of a man. Man possesses many more instincts than the animal and in addition has reason. the animal displays a stupidity which is most astounding. It is in this sense that the term is used throughout this discussion. but in the presence of environments unusual to his species he is at a loss as to his actions. subject herself to the tedium of incubating such a fearfully uninteresting set of objects as a nestful of eggs.com 34 . An instinct is usually defined as the faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends. But it is not for the sake of their utility that they are followed but because at the moment of following them we feel that that is the only appropriate and natural thing to do. Not one man in a billion. instead of revering you as a philosopher. on soft beds rather than on hard floors? Why do they sit around the stove on a cold day? Why do they prefer saddle of mutton and champagne to hard-tack and ditchwater? Why does the maiden interest the youth so that every thing about her seems more important and significant than anything else in the world? Nothing more can be said that that these are human ways. unless she has some sort of a prophetic inkling of the results? We can only interpret the instincts of brutes by what we know of instincts in ourselves. No one can carefully observe the actions of animals without being impressed with both the similarities and the differences between human and animal actions. without foresight of the ends. but we are inclined to object to the application to human actions of anything which would obliterate the distinctions between human and animal actions. on the other hand. The following quotation from Professor James will undoubtedly prove of interest: “Now. and takes to following them as a matter of course. The animal has but few instincts. He eats because the food tastes good and makes him want more. and without previous education in the performance. in the presence of such outlandish stimuli?” Why does the hen.
com 35 . It takes. Thus when an animal acts according to his “hunting instinct” he acts toward his victim in such a way that he makes the victim service his interests in providing food for himself and. of course our heart palpitates at the sight of the crowd.probably laugh at you as a fool. rather than upon the manner of the preservation and furtherance. to the animal which obeys it. that beautiful soul clad in that perfect form. probably. so far as to ask for the why of any instinctive human act. to the bear. and not scowl? Why are we unable to talk to a crowd as we talk to a single friend? Why does a particular maiden turn our wits so upside-down? The common man can only say. There is a great diversity in the methods of classifying instincts. It is done for its own sake exclusively. every impulse and every step of every instinct shines with its own sufficient light. so palpably and flagrantly made from all eternity to be loved!’ “And so. perhaps. does each animal feel about the particular things it tends to do in the presence of particular objects. ‘Of course we smile. To the broody hen the notion would probably seem monstrous that there should be a creature in the world to whom a nestful of eggs was not the utterly fascinating and precious and never-to-be-too-much-sat-upon object which it is to her.longlostmarketingsecrets. our classification will be based upon the interests of the individual. however mysterious some animals’ instincts may appear to us.” Every instinctive action is concrete and specific. As was said above. and that the knowledge thus secured may be utilized. and any method is justifiable if it is true and if it is helpful in making clear the nature of instincts. To the metaphysician alone can occur such questions as: Why do we smile. To the lion it is the lioness which is made to be loved. The connection between the savory sensation and the act it awakens is for him absolute and needs no proof but its own evidence. www. our instincts will appear no less mysterious to them. If instincts may be classified according as they tend toward the preservation and furtherance of the interests of the individual. or is of service in any way. every instinctive action is directed toward some object.” “Thus we may be sure that. when pleased. for others of his species. and seems at the moment the only eternally right and proper thing to do. but the effect of the action is to bring the object into a relation which will make it helpful toward the preservation or furtherance of the interests of the individual or of the species. of course we love the maiden. which are preserved and furthered. The classification we propose is justified in that it is true to the facts. what Berkeley calls a mind debauched by learning to carry the process of making the natural seem strange. and is the response of an individual directed toward some object. in short. and that it groups these actions in such a way that they may be better understood. And we may conclude that. the she-bear.
drink. I do not stop to consider whether it would be good for me or not. Nature has provided me with an instinctive desire to eat any and everything that tastes good. If it tastes good. exercise. and it might be supposed that I would select from the different foods those which were best for my health.The first interest of the individual which is instinctively preserved and further is his material possessions.” www.” and also this: ” … gives a relish you can’t resist. and that under normal conditions the choice would be such as would certainly Food conduce to the highest preservation and development of the Instincts body. but because I like the taste of running water and not of stagnant water.. such an instinct works wholly good. ripe fruit and fresh vegetables merely or principally because the former are injurious and the latter beneficial to my bodily health. etc. in general. the right drink. The individual acts instinctively toward every material thing which he may call “my” or “mine”. we shall. choose it and make the appropriate effort to secure it. but their instincts guide them so accurately that it seems to us they must do some of these things with that in view. and. I Possessions avoid extremes of temperature. If I think anything would taste good. but because it is pleasant for me to act that way.com 36 . when not perverted. temperature. they will act wisely in the presence of the appropriate stimuli. To Preserve there is nothing to which the term seems so applicable as And Further to my body. that is sufficient. I cannot keep from desiring it. etc. I decide on what I shall eat and drink according as it pleases or displeases me in the eating. irrespective of their tastes. They choose the right food. I do not refuse to drink stagnant water and seek running water because I think it is best for my bodily health to do so. This is so intimately mine that the distinction The Material between it and myself or me cannot be definitely drawn. of necessity.1) is this sentence: “ … it makes you eat. not because I think that thus I can preserve and further the development of the body. Herbert Spencer was of the opinion that mankind could follow instinct in the choice of food. rest. and that the bodily interests will best be furthered by passively following such instincts.. and decayed vegetables and seek beefsteak. He would hold that if that which is good for the body be presented in the proper light. Of The Instinct all the material things to which I apply the term my or mine.. I find that my instinct is stronger than my reason in choosing what I shall eat. etc. He believed that our instincts are so strong and so true that. I do not refuse grass. because these things seem pleasant to them. In the advertisement of Karo (no. The lower animals probably never do anything for the sake of the preservation and furtherance of their bodies.longlostmarketingsecrets. green fruit. I am a reasoning creature. the right companions.
Magazines devoted to fashions. If I had been afflicted for years with indigestion I might do otherwise.” We are all greatly attracted by the protection and ornamentation supplied by clothing. for they are emphasizing more and more the taste of the food. and I feel confident that foot advertisements have greatly improved during recent years. and are making health qualities secondary. but most persons have not yet been thus afflicted. but such are our human ways. We come to think of them almost as of our very bodies. The close personal attachment which we have for our clothing is beautifully brought out by Professor James: “We so appropriate our clothes and identify ourselves with them that there are few of us who. would not hesitate a moment. if asked to choose between having a beautiful body. and they seem good to us.com 37 . The sense organs (the organs of sight. temperature and touch) are the guardians of the body and whatever appears good to these sentinels is instantly desired. advertisements of clothing – all these have an unending attraction for us.longlostmarketingsecrets. The amount of time which most women and some men spend on the subject of dress might seem absurd to a critic. clad in raiment perpetually shabby and having an ugly form always spotlessly attired. and ordinarily such things tend to the preservation and furtherance of the welfare of the body. smell. while price is being emphasized less. How a small child will cry if his hat blows off or is taken! In our modern forms of civilization this instinct is Clothing weakened by the fact that we have so many clothes and Instinct change them so often that we hardly have time to become attached to any article of raiment before it is discarded. and it has been discovered that all forms of clothing can be advertised with profit by means of the printed page. sound. taste. My clothes are in a special sense mine. shopwindows decorated with beautiful garments.I should buy Karo at once if I believed it would be so enticing that it would make me go contrary to my reason and east it even if my better judgement told me I should not. www. but we choose them simply because they appear pleasing and not for ulterior ends. Clothing advertisements are read with avidity.
and not because she Hoarding foresees the necessity for the honey which will come upon And Proprietary her during the wintry months. and. There are many species of animals which thus collect and store away articles. fork and steel. If all the girls of the neighborhood are making collections too. nearly all the tools from the tool-closets. Making collections and hoarding is not confined to children. if possible. Occasionally some individual becomes absorbed in the process more than others and the results seem to us to be ludicrous. the glass of the same watch in another. three in number. The squirrel does not store the nuts so that he will have them to eat during the winter. forks and spoons. with several large augers. but when the winter comes on and nothing better is at hand of course he will eat them. a large carving-knife. As far as the individual squirrel is concerned.com 38 .” There are very few persons who at some time in their lives have not made a collection of some sort. several large plugs of tobacco. Professor Silliman thus describes the hoardings of a wood-rat in California made in an empty stove of an unoccupied house: “I found the outside to be composed entirely of spikes. so as to present the points of the nails outward. Such a thing would hardly be possible if the children did not have an instinctive desire to make collections. all of which must have been transported some distance. to secure the most beautiful.The most careful observers of the actions of bees assure us that the little industrious bee gathers and stores away the honey simply because she enjoys the process. as they were originally stored in different parts of the house. and the works in still another. composed of finely divided fibers of hemp-packing. Likewise the squirrel is said to collect nuts and store them away simply because that is the very action which is in itself more delightful than any other possible action. matches and tobacco. It is rather remarkable how all the children of a neighborhood may become interested in collecting such things as cancelled postagestamps.longlostmarketingsecrets. but they are instructive rather than ludicrous. but is common to all adults. the interest is greatly heightened. but he did not store them in order that he might not be reduced to starvation. of course. Interlaced with the spikes were the following: about two dozen knives. In the center of this mass was the next. all the butcher’s knives. The little girls who make collections of buttons become exceedingly enthusiastic in their endeavors to make large collections. The outside casing of a silver watch was disposed of in one part of the pile. all laid with symmetry. If he had not stored them he would have starved during the winter. The following is a description of the www. it was purely accidental that his storing the nuts provided against starvation. an old purse containing some silver. and in some cases – in an unusual environment – the results are very peculiar. To say that the young bee has a prophetic insight of the coming winter is to attribute to Instinct it wisdom which is far above human wisdom.
and he is despised for being such. etc. patched up with canvas and rope-yarns in the store room. and in order to make more storage-room. empty barrels. ‘the hermit’ covered his store-room with a network of ropes. The man who could make such a collection as this is a miser. although the proprietary instinct may play a part. and the objects are thrown away because their presence becomes a nuisance. We all like to collect money. Our proprietary instincts may be made use of by the advertiser in many ways. It might be insulting to a business man to tell him that he was labouring for money merely because of the pleasure he receives in the gathering and keeping of it. The desire is often not yielded to. There were at least two dozen old hats. but the obtaining and holding the money is sufficient stimulus to him. canes. As a wood-sawyer. and hung the ropes as full as they could hold of his curious collections. every hole and corner was filled. such a statement would ordinarily be but partially true. The desire to gain seems to overcome the better judgement of the more ignorant public and they www. the old man had never cast off a won-out basket. The empty barrels were filled. and the fact that it is useful and that others are making collections too merely tends to increase the instinctive desire to collect. Some had been actually worn in two. but the ends were carefully saved and stored away. pieces of common wire. and he allowed this zeal to obliterate the other possible interests of life.hoardings of a miser’s den which was emptied by the Boston City Board of Health: “He gathered old newspapers. Indeed. and also make it seem reasonable to himself. old bones. pieces of iron. As a coal-heaver. He imagines that he collects these things because of their usefulness. it certainly is not a complete explanation. He had too great a zeal for collecting and hoarding. cloth. even if every acquired dollar makes his difficulties greater by adding new responsibilities. fractured pots. although it may increase the tendency. There was nothing one could think of that wasn’t in that room. and bushels of such miscellany as is to be found only at the city ‘dump’. the old man had never thrown away a saw-blade or a wood-buck. No miser is aware of the fact that he collects for the pleasure he gets out of the collecting and the keeping. shelves were filled. The remarkable thing about this is that the public should be deluded by such a pretense. All persons everywhere are tempted by a possibility of gain. and there were dozens of the remains of the old things. fur. He may think that each thing he collects will come handy in some emergency. The octogenarian continues to collect money with unabated zeal. He does not desire that which money will secure. wrapping-paper.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 39 . and the chief dread of his life is that his despised relatives may secure his money when he is gone. battered tinware. although he may be childless. and the saw-blades were worn down to almost nothing in the middle. cast-off clothing. for. as is so frequently done in the cheaper forms of advertising media. silk and straw. We all seem inclined to keep bits of useless finery and pieces of useless apparatus.”. The irresponsible advertiser has been able to play upon this instinct of the public by offering something for nothings. but that it not the ground of his collecting. The bucks were rheumatic and could stand up. incapacitated umbrellas.
Why will a man wade in streams from morning till night. merely for the chance of a shot at a poor inoffensive deer? It certainly is not because of the value of the venison or of the The hide. For the civilized man such an instinct is often worthless. While engaged in the act he is perfectly indifferent to his health. What he wanted was the Instinct pleasure of killing the game.become the victims of all sorts of treachery.longlostmarketingsecrets. It is not uncommon for a sportsman to give away his Hunting game as soon as he has killed it. which he might thus interest in what he has to offer. and might often make it possible to minister to it with great profit. The reputable advertiser should not disregard this instinct. and such a thought would be incongruous to the whole situation. endanger his life.2) is an attempt to appeal to this instinct. The following advertisement of the American Reserve Bond Co. Why will a man ensure hardship for days. and incur great expense. both to himself and to the public.com 40 . www. but to our ancestors it was necessary for the preservation of life. (No. neither does he do it because he believes that it is good for his health. We like to hunt and to fish because we have inherited the hunting instinct from remote ancestors. or hold a baited hook for hours in the burning sun? It certainly is not because fish are valuable.
The prize-fighter is always accompanied by the admiring glances of the populace. meets with a ready response from the youth because he appeals directly to his powerful instincts.. and then the fiercer the struggle the better we like it. The same instinct is common to man. We are shut in as children. is beyond anything which could be attributed to their practical need. if he has built it himself he may make improvements upon it annually. The women have all sorts of fancy-work with which they may amuse themselves. the greater is our delight. As soon as the possibility of improving a home has passed it seems that both the hose and hostess seek excuses for going north or south or travelling abroad. The hunting instinct shows itself in our fiendish desire for conflict. revolvers.com 41 . etc. The annual sale of rifles. The following advertisement of Stevens Rifles (No. if they are The already constructed then we want to remodel or improve Constructing them. The accounts of atrocious crimes are read by those who are ashamed to confess it.The charm which a gun or a fishing tackle has for a civilized man is a most remarkable thing. and in our maturity the instinct is held in check by lack of exercise.3) is a good illustration of an appeal to the hunting instinct: The constructive instinct shows itself in a well-known manner in the bee and the beaver. We all like to construct things. If it is not so that we can make more changes the home loses interest. and is likely to be abandoned. If we had some opportunity to make things with our hands we should secure the best possible form of recreation and diversion from the anxieties of business life. In our urban civilization the men are deprived of one of the great pleasures of life. The conflict may be with a man. Indeed. There is hardly a man who at least once has not Instinct been conscious of a strong desire to build a house. Manual-training. and are not allowed to “make a muss” by our attempts at construction. www. The advertiser of guns. etc. fishing tackle.longlostmarketingsecrets. fishing tackle. The more ferocious the animal and the “gamier” the fish. fishing boats. but the results are not so uniform. If he purchases one already constructed. A street-brawl never fails to attract a crowd. revolvers. and domestic science are offering an opportunity to school-children to use their hands and give expression to this instinctive desire to construct things. then he is not content till he has remodelled it in some way.
everything that went on about her was only noticed so far as it had personal reference to her. she asked of everyone that he should appear interested in her. Now. so long as she sees that the child’s sleep is disturbed. and thus it is with all the higher animal mothers. the moment it stirs she awakes. but her child. pay her the requisite attention.The advertiser can appeal in many ways to this instinct. The Parental description which a German by the name of Schneider wrote of Instinct this instinct is clearly German. It is nothing to her that she herself is tired and needs rest. the center of the world is no longer herself. she must first be sure that the child is fed. though far stronger noises fail to arouse her now. naturally bred mothers. however. her whole being. The following advertisement of Golden Fleece yarn is such that it makes a woman’s fingers tingle with a desire to crochet.” www. and is sure to find ready attention and a willingness to pay for the opportunity to exercise this much-neglected instinct. transformed her entire egotism to the child.com 42 . it is in all unspoiled. is altered. at least.longlostmarketingsecrets. One of the most striking instincts in the entire animal kingdom is that of maternal love. Thus. The mother of one of the higher animals or of the The human infant is willing to sacrifice all for her infant. of the satisfaction of her vanity. She does not think of her own hunger. the whole world appeared made only for her. Until then she has had only thought of her own wellbeing. and lives only in it. in one word. but is an excellent description of the facts: “As soon as a wife becomes a mother her whole thought and feeling. and as far as possible fulfil her wishes. She has.
The latter feels only that it is an ever-lasting delight to hold the being which she has brought forth protectingly in her arms. to rock it to sleep.” (Condensed from James’ Psychology. seldom in that of the mother.com 43 . The advertisement of Cream of Wheat (No.) Anything that will administer to the needs of the child is a necessity in the eyes of the mother. to wash it. think of the proper purpose of maternal love for the preservation of the species. and why the look of the child and the care of it are so agreeable. so the mothers look upon expense as of secondary importance when supplying the needs of their children. in caring for their children. Few mothers.5) is but one of many advertisements which thus appeal most forcibly to all mothers. www. or to still its hunger. any more than the young man can give an account of why he loves the maiden. The matter of expense has to be considered by many mothers. Advertisers are very successful in appealing to this instinct. Such a thought may arise in the father’s mind. An article which in any way administers to the appearance or comfort of children needs but to be brought to the attention of mothers and it is sure to be desired by them with a desire which is much more than a passing fancy. to dress it.“She does not herself know why she is so happy. for it is enforced by the maternal instinct as inherited from countless generations. but as men think lightly of expense when satisfying their hunting instincts. and is so happy when she is near.longlostmarketingsecrets.
It is possible for the advertiser of all classes of clothing to take advantage of this characteristic of human nature and to present his garments as if they were being worn by this preferred set. on the contrary. The young man seems compelled to attempt to be at his best before the young lady.com 44 . We prefer the best of companionship. The young boy always tries to “show off” in the presence of young girls. the effect produced is distinctly harmful. We consult not only our preference but also the opinion of others in purchasing our clothes and our homes. but he does not know why. at the present time. Indeed. but in the absence of the best we accept the best available. When he comes into the presence of the young girl he seems compelled to undertake something bizarre which is sure to attract her attention. Solitary confinement is a severer form Affecting the of punishment than any other employed by civilized “Social Self” nations. but we want to be seen and noticed by them. it is doubtful whether he would be able to survive for any considerable period of time. and in choosing our friends and our professions. Why should I care for myself as I appear in the minds of other people? It is not necessary for me to explain the origin of such a regard for the opinion of others. and in purchasing and choosing we select those things which are approved by those whose esteem we most covet. Robinson Crusoe took great comfort in the companionship The Instincts of his man Friday. there are many classes of goods which are being presented as the preferred of the “veritable swells”. We are all afflicted as the young man and the boy. We are gregarious and want to be able to see other human beings. www.No one chooses solitude for a long period of time. It is often ridiculous that he should do so. that is a great argument in favor of such goods. If a particular style of clothing is preferred by the class of society whose esteem we court. if an individual should become wholly oblivious to the opinion of others. When. We seem compelled to strive for those things which will make us rise in the estimation of others. but it would hardly have been possible for the race to have developed without such a preference.longlostmarketingsecrets. an advertiser represents his goods as that preferred by a despised class of individuals. Not only do we want to see others. Indeed. and he does not know why he is doing it.
longlostmarketingsecrets.8) make us avoid them.6) makes us believe that by selecting a Gage hat we should be brought. in the eyes of our acquaintances. www.7) and of White Star Coffee (No.The reproduced advertisement of Gage Millinery (No.com 45 . for we do not want to be considered as in the class with frogs and peasants. into the class of persons here represented. The advertisements of Regal Shoes (No.
We do not exercise our limbs in order that we may develop them. We have a moral nature which. however. Such a view is evidently an exaggeration. it is quite certain that there would never be a fully developed adult again. by using them. the advertisement is of little or no value. It may be difficult to appeal especially to the moral judgement of the possible customer in presenting most goods. Socrates believed that all persons would prefer the right whenever they saw it.The Coffee and shoes may be all right. nevertheless. they are intensely interesting to all classes of persons. Such consideration of actions of others is most beneficial in the development of the moral sense. but. It Nature must be exercised in order that it may develop. of a seller of merchandise. of the nation’s leaders. Our limbs would be useless unless with them we inherited a desire to exercise them. If an advertiser’s argument. but we certainly do prefer what we regard to be the right and reject what we regard to be the wrong. or of a personal friend. This is especially true in regard to the actions of others.longlostmarketingsecrets. With every organ we Affecting the inherit a desire to exercise it in a way which makes for its Psychical development. This consideration may be of the actions of the hero in a story. illustration and condition of purchase are such that they offend the moral sense of the reader. but if. I am to be thought less of by my acquaintances. and when moral questions are presented in a true light. is in the crudest possible form.com 46 . The psychical nature is. We are disgusted and repulsed by what we regard as wrong in others. but little more than a possibility which needs vigorous exercise for its realization. but www. Along with our bodies we have inherited a psychical nature with all its diversified possibilities. in the beginning. The child’s mind is but a potential affair. the chief value of such exercise The Instincts may be the development of the limbs. but we have an inherited liking for the consideration of moral questions. I will have none of them. If the child exercised only when it realized that such exercise was necessary for the development of the body. and that all evil actions were from ignorance.
We have even as children an embryonic. the beautiful affects us without our knowledge of the fact. and that they must both be regarded with care by the advertiser. It tears its toys to pieces that it may learn of their construction. the moral judgment can safely be counted on. but the sales were disappointing. It wants to hear the story which the advertiser has to tell. in some way. but it is the one which will be most effective in impressing the possible customer. This advertisement seems to be extremely absurd. A book was offered to the public with the title. The public wants to know what is offered for sale. In the advertisements of books.longlostmarketingsecrets. Furthermore. At a later age the youth takes delight in the acquisition of knowledge independent of the utility of such knowledge. As an illustration. Whether the religious nature be developed from the moral or not.9). The title was changed to “The Wonders of Nature. Occasionally this characteristic of curiosity may be made use of by the advertiser in what might seem to be an absurd manner. and the sales were immediately increased and a second edition was necessary. and not to the manner of the representation. issue of the Atlantic Monthly.any offense to such a moral judgement must be scrupulously avoided. periodicals and schools. The advertisement which is most artistic may be one which never affects the public as being artistic at all. www. The best works of art are such that the attention is drawn wholly to what is represented. 1904. the Architecture of God”. but in the case of the child the intellect is little more than a spark which. The avidity with which we seek things which appeal to our religious nature is illustrated by a circumstance related in the September. whether they be appealed to directly by the advertisement or not. it has been able to arouse the curiosity of many readers. We stop and look at a beautiful advertisement. however. observe the reproduced advertisement of “What did the woggle bug say?” (No. is sufficient to indicate the presence of that which may be developed into a great light. The curiosity of the human race is the salvation of its intellect. The child is prompted by curiosity to examine everything that comes into its environment. esthetic nature. and yet the results be good. We need but to have objects of beauty brought to our attention and we desire them without being taught their desirability. “The Wonders of Nature”. One reason why so much attention is given to the advertising pages of our magazines is that they are so artistic. Things beautiful have a fascinating effect upon the unperverted individual. it certainly is true that the two are very closely connected. and yet.com 47 . and the advertiser must not have the most uninteresting one if he expects to take advantage of this instinctive desire of the individual to become acquainted with all novel objects and to learn all he can concerning new aspects of familiar ones. but may not be aware that it is the beauty that attracts us at all. We have an intellectual nature. and it is quite possible that it has been a successful advertisement. and at the same time makes a convenient point of attach for the advertiser. There are other stories to hear.
If he can find a method whereby his efforts are seconded by some of the most powerful of the human instincts. clothes. personal property and family (also the hunting and constructing instincts which are more complex than others of this class).We have seen above that we have instinctive responses to act for the preservation and furtherance of (1) our bodies. We have seen that to secure action along these lines it is not necessary to show the value of such action or the necessity of it. and the action is forthcoming immediately. but merely to present the proper stimulus. The discovery of such a method is a task for the leaders of the profession of advertising. He desires to produce the maximum of action along a certain line with the minimum of effort and expense to himself. (3) our mental faculties. The advertiser should study human nature to discover these hidden springs of action.com 48 . homes. (2) ourselves as we exist in the minds of others. www.longlostmarketingsecrets. his task will be simplified to the extreme.
The very thought of walking will inevitably lead to the act unless I stop the process by the thought of standing still. in the popular mind. I should then call it suggestion – if it met the second essential condition of suggestion. Suggestion is thus a relative term. If I think of an object to the east of me my whole body sways slightly in that direction. Such action is so slight that we ordinarily do not discover it without the aid of accurate recording instruments. If I were sitting in my office and considering the advisability of beginning a certain enterprise. Suggestion must be brought about by a second person or an object. Thought is dynamic in its very nature and every idea of an action tends to produce that action. and in many instances it might be difficult to say whether or not a particular act was suggestion. it has too often been associated on the one hand with hypnotism and on the other with indelicacy and vulgarity. In this way it has come to pass that the whole subject of suggestion has been passed by with less consideration than is due it. and every thought of an action which enters our minds is likely to result in Universality such action. In my musings and deliberations I should not say that one idea suggested another. What is Hypnotism in the hands of the scientist or of the fakir is well Suggestion known to be a form of suggestion. A story which does not specifically depart from that which conforms to the standards of propriety but which is so constructed that it leads the hearers to conceptions that are “off color” is said to be suggestive. I do not think first of walking and then of Suggestion make up my mind to walk. A scientific definition would not allow this use of the term but would substitute the expression “called up” for “suggested”. Every normal individual is subject to the influence of suggestion. etc. etc.longlostmarketingsecrets.VI Suggestion The mental process known as “Suggestion” is in bad repute because. Almost all so-called mind-reading exhibitions are nothing but demonstrations of the fact that every thought which we think expresses itself in some outward action. but if the same idea were called forth at the instigation of a second person or upon the presentation of an object. There is no uniformity in the meanings that are attached to the term suggestion even among the most careful writers. I might say that one idea “suggested” a second and this second a third.com 49 . conclusion or action must follow with less than the normal amount of deliberation. Thus I should say that one idea “called up” the second. Every idea of which we thin is all too liable to be held for truth. If the act followed a normal amount of consideration after a normal time for deliberation. www. it would not be suggestion. This second condition is that the resulting conception. while if the same act followed too abruptly or with too little consideration it might be a true case of suggestion.
but act under suggestion constantly. although the idea. The individual is affected by every member of the crowd and the influence becomes so overpowering that it can hardly be resisted. I did not suppose that his advertising was having any influence upon me. While in the shop I happened to call into conversation with the proprietor and he asked me if a friend had recommended him to me. It was once supposed that suggestion was something abnormal and that reason was the common attribute of men. and hence no idea can seem absurd and no action seems out of place. leads to its natural consequences. However. being dynamic. Occasionally customers are persuaded and convinced. Here the mind is so narrowed by the artificial sleep that no contradictory or inhibiting idea arises. In the same way we think that we are performing a deliberate act when we purchase an advertised commodity. hence the desired result follows in a way unknown to the purchaser. but more frequently they make their purchases because the act is suggested at the psychological moment. as presented. The idea is suggested by the advertisement. It can be read from the faces and actions of the individuals and is heard in their cries. and the impulsiveness of human nature enforces the suggested idea.com 50 .The most perfect working of suggestion is to be seen under hypnosis and in crows. while reason is a process which is exceptional. The actual effect of modern advertising is not so much to convince as to suggest. The individual swallowed up by a crowd is not aware of the fact that he is not exercising a normal amount of deliberation. No other idea has a chance to arise in consciousness and hence this one idea. Universal even among the wisest. Suggestion and persuasion are not antagonistic. There is no possible criticism or deliberation and so we have the extreme case of susceptibility to suggestion. and everywhere is suggested the idea of “lynch the culprit”. in advertising. while in fact we may never have deliberated upon the subject at all. This agitation has had some value.longlostmarketingsecrets. Some time ago a tailor in Chicago was conducting a vigorous advertising campaign. If the crowd is a “lynching party” the whole atmosphere is one of revenge. The effect of a crowd upon an individual approaches that of the hyptnotizer. and every idea suggested is acted out with no hesitation whatever. This idea is presented on all sides. suggestion should not be subordinated to persuasion but should be supplemented by it. There has been a great agitation of late among advertisers for “reason why” copy. I replied that such was the case. but it is easily overemphasized. We reason rarely. His actions appear to him to be the result of reason. In hypnosis the subject holds every idea presented as true. Today we are Reasoning finding that suggestion is of universal application to all not persons. is not criticised at all and no contradictory or inhibiting idea has any possibility of arising in his mind. both should be kept in mind. Thereupon I tried to recall who the friend was and finally came to the conclusion that this shop www. Some months after the advertising had begun I went into the tailor’s shop and ordered a suit.
In the most successful advertising argumentation and forms of reasoning are not disregarded. I forgot where I had received my information and assumed that I had received it from a friend who patronized the shop. As a matter of fact I was affected in just this manner. He has also taken advantage of the fact that we soon forget the person who originally suggested the idea and become subject to illusions upon the matter. The can looked familiar. The successful advertiser seems to have worked upon this hypothesis in constructing many advertisements. as in my case. Doubtless many other customers would have given the same reply even though.1). advertising conforms. Inasmuch as more of our actions are induced by suggestion than by argumentation. We attribute to our social environment that which in reality has been secured from the advertisements which we have seen so often that we forget the source of the information. as I see this young lady using Jap-a-lac the suggestion to do the same thing is overpowering. Ideas which have the greatest suggestive power are those presented to us by the actions of other persons. Advertisements that are seen frequently are Forms of difficult to distinguish in their force from ideas which are Suggestion secured from the words of our friends. in the reproduced advertisements of Jap-a-lac (no. even though I had never seen anyone actually using the paint. Later. and it seemed to me that I was running no risks.had never been recommended to me at all. in this particular. I discovered that all I knew of the shop I had learned from advertisements and I doubt very much whether I ever read any of the advertisements further than the display type. to the psychological situation. The second most effective class is probably the ideas suggested by the words of our Effective companions. however. It puts the emphasis where the most can be accomplished and subordinates those mental processes which hold a second place in determining our actions. but the emphasis is put upon suggestion. those suggestions are the most powerful which we receive from the actions and words of other persons. The suggestion would thereupon be in an extreme form and be liable to cause me to imitate what I assumed every one else was doing. Advertising thus becomes a great social illusion.com 51 . Thus. When occasion arose to purchase some paint for household use I called for Jap-a-lac under the assumption that I had seen it used frequently. As stated above. I had seen his advertisements for months and from them had formed an idea of the shop. Such commodities are. I should assume that “everyone is using Jap-a-lac”. the exception and not the rule.longlostmarketingsecrets. In advertising some commodities argumentation is of more importance than suggestion. for www. no friend had spoken to them concerning the shop. Street railway advertising is especially effective at this point because the suggestion is presented so frequently that we soon forget the source of the suggestions and end by attributing it to the advice of friends. and for such things booklets and other similar forms of advertising are the most effective. If I had seen these and similar cards for a few months. Many a woman who has looked at these pictures has been immediately overcome by a desire to do the same thing and has put her desire into execution.
com 52 . in general. I had seen pictures of the Jap-a-lac paint can and had seen pictures of persons using the paint. It seems that no form of action can be suggested by an advertisement that does not successfully challenge the reader to do what is proposed. Women are. although at the time of the purchase of the paint my knowledge of it seemed to me perfectly adequate. Soon after the purchase I began to write this chapter and I am unable to recall any instance of having seen Jap-a-lac in use.Jap-a-lac had been a household commodity for years. reproduced above. The suggested idea haunts one and even though the action may be absurd. Apparently I had never heard an argument in favor of the paint but had acted upon mere suggestion. but I know of no other source of information concerning this point. even though nothing more than the display and the picture is noticed. and I feel sure that many women are convinced of the adequacy of this paint by these same advertisements. it is www.longlostmarketingsecrets. more susceptible to suggestion than men.
On the contrary. What could be more absurd than Westerfeld’s advertisement? The fact that this advertisement was highly successful is sufficient justification for its use. The three following advertisements have all appeared in street-cars and have met with phenomenal success. Many persons doubtless feel the suggestion to be irresistible to rub the end of the first finger when looking at this advertisement of Lucas’s Tinted Gloss Paint. Kerr’s studio was flooded with answers to the suggestion of “Guess who?” The suggestions in these three advertisements lead the readers to desire to act in the ways suggested. by a logical process. As stated above. The suggestiveness of the words of compansions is a value available to the advertiser. www. and that of necessity leads to a careful reading of the entire advertisements.longlostmarketingsecrets.difficult to resist. come to a reasonable conclusion. the words of our friends have strong suggestive power. We are not cold.com 53 . logical machines. we are so highly susceptible to suggestion that the words of our companions are ordinarily held for true and the actions proposed by them are hastily carried out. who take data in and then.
com 54 . In the case of the Calox advertisement I am convinced when this www. but this relationship seems to be suggested and it adds greatly to the value of the advertisement. Thus in the reproduced advertisement of Postum Food Coffee the picture of the venerable doctor becomes associated in our minds with the statement “If coffee don’t agree. Later these words seem to have issued from a responsible person and come to have undue weight with us all.longlostmarketingsecrets. he shows the likeness of a person whose face indicates the possession of a judgement we should be willing to take. The advertiser does not state that the words are those of the person depicted. to give it greater suggestive power. Likewise in the reproduced advertisement of Arrow collars the genial washerwoman seems to assure us that “Arrow Collars don’t shrink in the wash”. use Postum Food Coffee”.He places before the public a statement and then.
Indeed. There is also no necessary divorce between suggestion and the presentation of arguments. in addition to those presented above. the application of the two in the same advertisement often increases the value of each. I don’t wait for further evidence but accept uncritically the words which she is represented as using. are available to the advertiser. These reproduced advertisements are presented as mere illustrations of a few of the many ways in which suggestion may be used by the advertiser. “Hand Sapolio should be on every wash-stand”. “Yes. to be impressed by the possibilities opened to the man who can present his advertisement in a form that suggests powerfully the purchase or use or his commodity. and the reasons why are strengthened by this suggestion.com 55 . Many forms of suggestion. As I happen to need more tooth powder just now. www.longlostmarketingsecrets. is strengthened by the “reasons why”. When we stop to think of it.8) the direct suggestion. We have but to consider the millions of persons who at least glance at advertisements. it is absurd to place additional credence in these words of the advertiser simply because of the presence of an appropriate picture. you ought to use Calox”. but the absurdity of the situation does not detract from the practical value of such forms of suggestion. Thus in the reproduced advertisement of Hand Sapolio (No.beautiful girl points her finger at me and seems to say.
Voluntary actions may be analyzed into (a) an idea of two or more attainable ends. we feel somehow. viz. This activity may express itself either in bodily movements or in some such mental processes as attention or volition. (b) an idea of the means to attain these ends. Sometimes our condition is one of intense feeling. choice. (e) a choosing of one of the ends and striving to attain it. feeling and willing are the three universal aspects of all our mental activities.VII The Will: An Analysis During all the waking hours of the day there is something about which we are thinking. These five processes in a voluntary action may be illustrated as follows: (a) I think of a suit that I might buy. but here the term is used in an un-technical sense and includes such things as decision. bodily activity. but it is because of the existence of voluntary action that the advertiser finds it necessary to proceed logically and to appeal to the reason of his customer. I am putting forth activity of will in striving to accomplish a certain end and to express myself on a typewriter. and we strive for something not yet attained. Although each of the three aspect of consciousness may for a time predominate yet it is probable that all three activities are present at all moments of our conscious existence. Under the bodily activities are such as impulsive. finally. and there is something for which we are striving. (d) a comparison of the values of the different ends and of the difficulties of the means and. As I sit in my chair I am conscious of the furniture in the room. voluntary actions. at another it is primarily intellectual grasp of a situation and at other times it is especially a putting forth the will in attempting to accomplish some end or to reach some conclusion. Knowing. and of www. I feel pleased with the comfort of the situation and the excitement of composition.longlostmarketingsecrets. and all actions performed after consideration. We know something.com 56 . instinctive and voluntary actions. It includes a mental process and the resultant. the line of thought which I am carrying out and the necessity of completing my task in a given time. A careful consideration of the elemental processes involved in such actions is of great advantage in enabling the advertiser to bring about the decision desired. we have a particular tone of feeling. It is probably true that a majority of our actions are performed without such consideration. At this time it will be well to confine our attention to but a part of these activities of the will. (c) a feeling of the value or worthiness of the different ends. voluntary actions. Under the will may be included all the active processes of the mind. A definition of volition would not make the subject any clearer to us. the trip that I might take..
the description should be as brief as is possible for completeness of presentation of essential features. Although every customer who is induced to select any particular line of goods after consideration must inevitably perform the five processes as described. and the cost of it and the means of securing it seem less burdensome than those connected with competing pianos. That the choice may be made at once and effort put forth to secure the piano (e) reasons for avoiding delay might be presented or the suggestion to action might be so strong that the tendency to procrastinate would be overcome. by indicating what a joy it is in a home. and the satisfaction of having the debt paid.longlostmarketingsecrets. (d) The value of the piano must be presented in such a way that. That this may be true it will be necessary to describe the strong points of the piano in such a way that the value of the piano seems great. Elaborations of each of these five points will suggest themselves to any thoughtful advertiser. If this is a correct analysis of voluntary action the question which naturally arises in the mind of the advertiser is this: What can be done to cause the largest number of persons to decide in favor of my particular goods? Suppose that the article of merchandise under consideration be a piano: now how may the advertiser proceed in accordance with the analysis presented above? (a) The piano must be brought before the public in such a manner that the idea of it will be clear and distinct in the minds of the potential purchasers. (e) Pressure must be brought to bear to cause immediate decision and action on the part of the public in favor of the particular piano. and by any other means which would tend to associate the piano with feelings of pleasure. (b) The public must be informed exactly what is necessary to secure the piano. the language used should conform to the mode of thinking of the public appealed to. by having a beautiful advertisement. the inconvenience of waiting for the train. the delivery and setting up in the home might well be included in the statement of the advertisement. the method of sending the money. when compared with other forms of action. the purchase of the piano seems the most desirable. In order that the public may know exactly how to secure the piano (b) the exact cost must be presented. the type used should be easily read. (d) I compare the difficulties of possessing each and the pleasures derivable from the possession. and although an ideal advertisement would be so constructed that www. and the distance to be covered to reach the creditor. It is assumed that other pianos will be considered by the possible purchasers and that when others are considered they will suffer by comparison (d). The feeling of value may be awakened for the piano (c) by advertising it in the highest class of media. by emphasizing the elegance of the instrument and the perfection of the tone. (e) I decide to take the trip and start for the ticket office. (c) I feel in imagination the pleasure of possessing the new suit.com 57 . (c) The piano must be presented in such a manner that its value seems great.the debt that I might pay. The means of securing the piano must be made to appear easy. That the idea of the piano may be clear and distinct (a) illustrations may be used to advantage. the delights connected with the trip. (b) I think of the trouble of going to the tailor shop.
No one can read the advertisement without knowing what the product is made of. This advertisement gives the reader a clear and vivid idea of the product advertised. yet it is not to be assumed that each advertisement should be constructed so that it would be well adapted to promote each of the five processes. In the reproduced advertisement of Triscuit (No. www.1) the first step of the act of volition (a) is emphasized. The reproduced advertisement of Holbrook’s Sauce (No. Such a use of space can be justified only on the assumption that the public is already familiar with the sauce. In all this space nothing is shown or said which gives us an idea of the real nature of the product advertised. or that this is to be but a single link in the chain and that later or preceding advertisements supply what is deficient in this single advertisement. After examining this advertisement carefully I am still at a loss to know the real nature of the product.2) occupied the cover page in a British magazine which is about twelve by sixteen inches in size. it is quite true that many advertisements are ineffective because the writer has not paid attention to these fundamental psychological processes of voluntary actions. On the other hand.com 58 .longlostmarketingsecrets.it would assist the customer in completing each of the five processes. how it is manufactured and what it is good for. how it looks.
The writers of the advertisements have assumed that the public knows more of these goods than the facts warrant. In the advertisement of Holbrook’s Sauce (No. www. It is needless to reproduce any particular advertisement to illustrate this point. The advertiser is so familiar with his goods and the means of securing them that he forgets that others know nothing of them. and many persons assume that Triscuit can be had only at the address given at the foot of the advertisement.Many an otherwise good advertisement is weakened because it gives no adequate idea of the means necessary for securing the goods advertised. It is not wise to assume any such knowledge on the part of the general public.com 59 .2) no address is given and nothing is said of the place where it can be secured.longlostmarketingsecrets. In the advertisement of Triscuit no mention is made of the fact that it can be secured from all first-class grocers. A large proportion of goods that are widely distributed are advertised on the assumption that everybody knows that they are to be secured at all dealers.
It is not sufficient to have a clear idea of an end and a definite idea of the means of securing it unless there is an accompanying feeling of value. drug dealers. The third process in our analysis of voluntary action is the feeling of worthiness or value (c).com 60 . The advertisement is intrinsically beautiful. The advertiser is thus compelled to make his commodity appear valuable. www. hardware.4) presents the product as particularly worthy. send us his name and 10c and we will send free sample”. All sizes from 15c to $2.longlostmarketingsecrets. “For sale by paint. This fact is accomplished by most advertisers but not by all. This statement is sufficient for most persons. The reproduced advertisement of Nabisco (No. This advertisement gives us a clear idea of the means necessary for securing the advertised goods and hence facilitates the second process in a voluntary action and increases the chances of securing the desired action. and we find this statement in addition: “If your dealer does not keep Jap-a-lac.50”. No advertisement should ever appear which leaves any doubt in the minds of possible customers as to where and how the goods advertised can be secured. The cut and the copy harmonize completely. The absence of such information is very common and impresses the writer as one of the weakest points in modern advertising.The reproduced advertisement of Jap-a-lac (No. but not for all.3) leaves no doubt in the mind of the public as to the means of securing the paint.
The young girl depicted could be described as “a fairy”, and “airy lightness and exquisite composition! Is characteristic of the entire cut. The copy appeals to our instinctive desires for savory viands in a most enticing manner, and also appeals to the feminine social instinct by the following words: “ …. to afford the hostess opportunity for many original conceptions in the serving of desserts”. The greatest feeling of worth attaches itself to those things which are the objects of our most fundamental instinctive desires. A feeling of worth inevitably attaches itself to every savory viand, to every beautiful object; and to every agency which furthers our social instincts. The fourth process in our analysis (d) is the comparison of competing ends as to value and means of acquisition. When an advertiser realizes that the public to which he is appealing will compare his goods with those of his competitor, he is tempted to resort to the questionable method of showing the weak points of his competitor’s merchandise or method of sales. There may be instances in which this method is justifiable and even necessary, but ordinarily it is self-destructive. The act of comparison (d) is a process in volition that the advertiser should not seek to encourage. It is a hindrance to the advertiser and his function is to minimize it. If I, as an advertiser, am offering goods in competition with other goods, I know that my goods will be compared with the others, and it is my place to give the reader such a clear and vivid idea of my goods (a) an d to make the means of securing them so plain (b) that my goods will not suffer by comparison. My purpose is best served by holding my goods up to the attention of the potential purchaser and not by emphasizing the weaknesses of those of my competitor. I must emphasize the strong points of my merchanidise and especially those points in which my goods are superior to competing goods, and in this way I get attention to those points at which my goods will gain by comparison. www.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 61
The last point in the analysis of the process of volition (e) is that of choosing one of the ends and striving to attain it. All the other stages of the process are but subsidiary to this. What can the advertiser do to secure or to facilitate this part of the process? It is a well-known psychological fact that at the moment of final decision all competing ideas are usually banished from the mind and attention is centred on the idea (the merchandise) which is chosen. At the moment of final choice we do not hold competing lines of action before us and then choose the one that seems the best. The process is one of elimination preceding the choice. We compare different lines of action and eliminate one after another till but one is left. This one has seemed better than the others and it is held to and acted upon. The acting upon it is often a part of the choice. The one line of action is before us and the very act of attending to the one idea results in the appropriate action. There may have been no conscious choice preceding the action but now that the action has commenced the competing ideas are kept from the mind and the action gets put into fulfillment. There are therefore two distinct things which the advertiser can do to facilitate this final step. In the first place he fills the mind of his potential customers with thoughts of his own particular goods and, in the second place, he suggests immediate action. The mind of the customer is filled by the processes described in (a), (b) and (c). Immediate action is suggested by (b) and by some such device as the return coupon, the direct command, etc. (For a fuller discussion of this point see chapters V and VI of “The Theory of Advertising”). The advertiser who fails to state the method of securing his goods fails to give one of the strongest possible suggestions to action. If it were even possible that every reader of the advertisement of Jap-alac already knew the price of it and where it could be secured, still the advertisement is strengthened by giving these details in that it gives the suggestion to action as nothing else could do. The suggestion to action might be strengthened by additional details but not by substituting for them.
VIII The Will: Variety in Action
In the preceding chapter an analysis of a typical action was given without reference to the fact that actions are not ordinarily typical. No two acts are exactly alike. Individuals are different and employ diverse Differences methods in performing their acts. In the case of a single in individual the most diverse methods are employed at Individuals different times and under different circumstances. The personal differences in methods of deciding questions and resultant actions has been so beautifully expressed by Professor William James that it seems useless to attempt any improvement upon his presentation of the five methods of deciding or choosing: “The first method may be called the reasonable type. It is that of those cases in which the arguments for and against a given course seem gradually and almost insensibly to settle themselves in the mind and to end by leaving a clear balance in favor of one alternative, which alternative we then adopt without effort or constraint …. The conclusive reason for the decision in these cases usually is the discovery that we can refer the case to a class upon which we are accustomed to act unhesitatingly in a certain stereotyped way ….. The moment we hit upon a conception which lets us apply some principle of action which is a fixed and stable part of our Ego, our state of doubt is at an end. Persons of authority, who have to make many decisions in the day, carry with them a set of heads of classification, each bearing its volitional consequence, and under these they seek as far as possible to range each new emergency as it occurs. It is where the emergency belongs to a species without precedent, to which consequently no cut-and-dried maxim will apply, that we feel most at a loss, and are distressed at the indeterminateness of our task. As soon, however, as we see our way to a familiar classification, we are at ease again ….. The concrete dilemmas do not come to us with labels gummed on their backs. We may name them by many names. The wise man is he who succeeds in finding the name which suits the needs of the particular occasion best. “A ‘reasonable’ character is one who has a store of stable and worthy ends, and who does not decide about an action till he has calmly ascertained whether it be ministerial or detrimental to any one of these. In the next two types of decision, the final fiat occurs before the evidence is all ‘in’. It often happens that no paramount and authoritative reason for either course will come. Either seems a good, and there is no umpire to decide which should yield its place to the other. We grow tired of long hesitation and inconclusiveness, and the hour may come when we feel that even a bad decision is better than no decision at all.
But in either case we feel. in the direction of one of the horns of the dilemma. “In the third type the determination seems equally accidental. “In the second type our feeling is to a great extent that of letting ourselves drift with a certain indifferent acquiescence in a direction accidentally determined from without. which often ends deliberation as suddenly as the third form does. although an opposite accident at the same time might have produced the opposite result. All those ‘changes of heart’. in deciding.longlostmarketingsecrets. with the conviction that. The consequence is an instant abandonment of the more trivial projects with which we had been dallying. seems powerless to make the act discharge. in consequence of some outer experience or some inexplicable inward change. we suddenly pass from the easy and careless to the sober and strenuous mood. and as if by a spontaneous discharge of our nerves. and that reason has balanced the books. It often happens. “There is a fourth form of decision. The whole scale of values of our motives and impulses then undergoes a change like that which a change of the observer’s level produces on a view.com 64 . ‘though the heavens fall’. to which we then feel ourselves committed. or possibly the other way. automatically. and deliberation comes to an immediate end. that we find ourselves acting. and an instant practical acceptance of the more grim and earnest alternative which till then could not extort our mind’s consent.. as if we ourselves by our own wilful act inclined the beam: in the former case by adding our living effort to the weight of the logical reason which. the feeling that the evidence is all in. When one of these affects us. and that things are in any event sure to turn out sufficiently right. The character abruptly rises to another ‘level’. ‘Forward now!’ we inwardly cry. supervening at a particular moment upon our mental weariness. may be either present or absent. “In the fifth and final type of decision. www. we might as well stand by this course as by the other. as it were. in the latter by a kind of creative contribution of something instead of a reason which does a reason’s work. ‘awakenings of conscience’.Under these conditions it will often happen that some accidental circumstance. The slow dead heave of the will that is felt in these instances makes a class of them altogether different subjectively from all the four preceding classes. which make new men of so many of us may be classed under this head. all ‘light fantastic’ notions lose their motive power. The most sobering possible agents are objects of grief and fear. will upset the balance in the direction of one of the alternatives. It comes when. But so exciting is this sense of motion after our intolerable pent-up state that we eagerly throw ourselves into it. but it comes from within. all solemn ones find theirs multiplied many fold. and not from without. after all. etc. when the absence of imperative principles is perplexing and suspense distracting. taken alone.
The fifth. in deciding. The man who is impulsive and who acts “intuitively”. whereas here both alternatives are steadily held in view. This accounts for the fact that certain advertisements may be seen The Mood and read frequently with no effect for years. good books. This is true in Reader advertising such things as life-insurance. Of these five methods of decision some are of little significance to the advertiser although of primal significance to the psychologist. but confines his argument to his own commodity. homes. then suddenly of the this same advertisement becomes all-powerful.longlostmarketingsecrets. is of no significance to the advertiser except that it is the form which he seeks to obviate. passes from the easy and careless to the sober and strenuous mood.1) might not appeal powerfully to readers while they are in a careless and easy mood.If examined closely.com 65 . its chief difference from the former cases appears to be that in these cases the mind at the moment of deciding on the triumphant alternative dropped the other one wholly or nearly out of sight. In the fourth of Professor James’ divisions the person. There is probably no one who decides questions habitually after the manner described in Professor James’ fourth and fifth classes. and other forms of merchandise which appeal to the higher nature of man. The reproduced advertisement of Modern Eloquence (No. www. He tries to get the public to dismiss all thought of competing articles. These three classes are known to us all. then. To accomplish this he makes no mention of competitors. The man who habitually waits in deciding till all the reasons for and against a line of action are before him belongs to the first class. yet some people habitually decide by one method and others by another. Everyone has probably experienced each of them at some time. and in the very act of murdering the vanquished possibility the chooser realizes how much in that instant he is making himself lose. but who does not know why he acts so. but when the mood is changed the same advertisement might be most effective. The man who “flips a copper” whenever anything is to be decided belongs to the second class." These five methods of deciding are methods which we all use to a greater or less extent. belongs to the third class.
neither will Fairly they exert themselves to find a store not centrally located if Successful a more convenient one is passed at the critical moment of decision. If a lady were debating the question as to which goods she should order. I will purchase the one which presents itself to me at the psychological moment. or of the salesman is not recognized by the woman as the deciding element. The appearance of the advertisement. Women decide after this A “Woman’s fashion more frequently than men. at the critical moment.longlostmarketingsecrets. but is one which approaches action upon suggestion and hence anything which the advertiser can do to suggest action aids in securing the results which come under this class. The second method of decision is not strictly a reasoning type. If I belong to this second of Professor James’ classes. of the store. search through the back Advertising files of magazines to find an advertisement.com 66 . and if I am trying to decide which watch I shall buy. whether the presentation www. and that which awakens the emotion would be likely to be chosen. Here the advertiser Reason” can do most by appealing to the artistic and sentimental natures of the possible customers. although in reality it is. This class of person Poor will not.In the third type. which is mainly a form of suggestion. the decision is dependent upon a sudden spontaneity of an emotional nature and leaves but little for the advertiser to do. an appeal to the artistic and sentimental might awaken her emotional nature sufficiently to cause her to decide.
www.be by advertisement. If a man were debating which sort of soap he should purchase and if at the critical moment he should see this advertisement it might possibly induce him to order Pears’. An extensive advertiser recently said that any kind of advertising would succeed if the advertisements were large and if they appeared frequently enough.longlostmarketingsecrets. The reproduced advertisement of Cook’s Flaked Rice (No. The reproduced advertisement of Pears’ Soap (No.3) is similar to that of Pears’ Soap. salesman or store. This statement is certainly not true but it does find some justification based on the decisions of such persons as are assigned to James’ second type.com 67 .2) is so exceedingly poor that it would be defended by but few.
Professor James’ first method of decision is of the greatest significance to advertisers of all sorts of merchandise. the persons who frequently use this first method of deciding are so numerous that it is essential to appeal to the “reason” of the public in exploiting any kind of merchandise. Human choice has always been assumed to be unknown. The great diversity individuals and the numerous motives which influence the same individual. but it helps to explain why poor advertisements are sometimes successful. Furthermore.If these two advertisements (and others equally poor) were given extensive publicity they would undoubtedly increase the sale of the goods advertised simply because so many persons decide according to Professor James’ second class and because so many unimportant questions are decided by us all according to this method. added to the apparent Differences complete freedom of the human will. In spite of all this we have come to see that human action is governed by known laws and that by carefully studying the nature of society and the influences at work prophecies may be www. This is no justification of poor advertising. automobiles and many other advertised articles. to be the one indeterminable factor in the universe. to make an insuperable obstacle to reasoning in Motives with groups of people by any such means as the printed page. life-insurance.com 68 . would seem. combined. Among such goods would be included pianos.longlostmarketingsecrets. but especially to those who offer goods of a high price and of such a nature that the same person purchases but once or a few times during his life.
the makeup. is inestimable in its value to the advertiser. The essential thing in every object is the relations which it has and the functions which it fulfils. Famine increases the number of crimes against property and decreases the number of marriages. social and industrial condition of the country that there will be increased or decreased demand for individual lines of goods. etc. The wise merchant knows to a certainty from the political. The suicides distribute themselves in a most remarkable manner. The goods remain the same. One presentation may invite suspicion and Consequences another confidence. which has become trusted because of long years of reliable service. We are all a little suspicious of hasty actions and the older we grow the more suspicious we become. and confidence is an usual absence of the same tendency. but also all those which would tend to make readers suspicious.longlostmarketingsecrets. but if such consequences do not suggest themselves in too great a number and with too great vividness. The number of marriages each year is more regular than the number of deaths. It is frequently wise not to attempt to secure immediate response. Under given political. We frequently hesitate to allow time for the suggestion of possible evil consequences. but the manner of presentation Suggestion 0f meets with marked differences in the response of the Evil public. The advertiser can not be too careful in scrutinizing everything that goes to make up an advertisement to see that nothing is present which would increase the tendency to recall from the past experience evil consequences which have accompanied other actions. A publication which has been taken in the home for years. The advertiser is the diplomat of the commercial and industrial world. Despite all the uncertainty of human choice he knows that there are certain conditions which determine the number who will choose his commodity and take the pains to secure it. The same goods may be presented in a score of different ways. The text and illustration of the advertisement. all unite to increase or decrease this tendency to hesitate and call up possible evil consequences. and the reputation of the medium. occupation and sex of the person and the manner of committing the crime. They could not be induced to respond at once but at a later time they do respond. The presentation of these relationships and functions in a way that will cause the possible purchasers to respond is a task that is not likely to be overestimated. action may follow. social and industrial conditions the number and character of crimes remain constant. The advertising manager of a publication should refuse not only all dishonest advertisements. in reality it is not so. even if such suspicions were ungrounded. It is his duty to know the commodity to be exploited and the public to be reached.. Even though the commodity to be sold may seem very simple.made within certain limits which are sufficiently accurate for all practical purposes. Thus persons often respond to advertisements long after they first read them.com 69 . for it requires more effort than it would if the public were www. although there has been no additional ground given for such action. even as to the age. Suspicion is nothing but an to be Avoided exaggerated tendency to call up possible evil consequences.
is common in actions where large interests are at stake.given a longer time in which to allay their suspicions. but at the moment of decision one course has usually occupied the mind completely and the other.com 70 . There are persons who will answer an advertisement the first time they see it. but the fear of hasty action was enough to restrain action. At a later time such fear is diminished. Thus in purchasing a piano or an automobile it is to be expected that no one would be satisfied with the presentation of one make but would consider each make in relation to others. Although this is true. indeed. It was pointed out above that deliberation often occurs because the presentation of one line of action suggests to our minds another similar and incompatible action. What the advertiser must do. In purchasing an article that costs some hundreds of dollars most persons would deliberate and consider other goods of the same class. and he can do this by so presenting his goods that they www. to decide for the one and against the other. Advertisers are frequently surprised by the few responses which they receive at first from their advertisements and by the great response which they secure at a later time. Continuous consecutive advertising meets the method of response both of those suggestible creatures who act without hesitation and also of those who are too cautious to respond till after sufficient time has elapsed for all the evil consequences to present themselves. and action in favor of the object occupying the mind is commenced. although the first advertisement was in every way as good as the second. The buyer may. loses the contest. is unpleasing and is not common. We may debate between two courses of action and hold both clearly in mind for some time. This sort of deliberate action. Every slur and every remark intended to weaken the opponent’s argument serves to call attention to the goods criticised and thus to divide the reader’s attention and so keeps the advertisement from having its true weight. but there are many others who will not do so. think of such goods as might be purchased. yet it is the function of the advertiser to get the public to think of one particular article. There are some who will answer the first advertisement but will wait a week or so to answer.longlostmarketingsecrets. The first time they saw the advertisement there was a personal desire for the goods advertised. but the advertiser can not afford to occupy space in furthering this tendency. by dropping from the attention. it has done much to shorten the period of deliberation and secure decision in favor of the goods advertised. others will wait till they see the second or third of the series and then answer. as Suggestion Of Substitutes also that resulting from a suggestion of evil To be Avoided consequences. instead of those presented in the advertisement. Such a decision is made with conscious effort. therefore. It is possible to hold two lines of action before us and with both thus attended to. is to help the reader to get rid of the necessity of decision by effort. and the advertiser should in general make no references to competing goods. If the advertisement can be so constructed that it holds the reader’s attention to the goods advertised and does not suggest competing goods. and the mere fact that the advertisement had begotten a desire upon its first appearance serves to increase the desire upon the second reading of the same or a similar advertisement.
Not only must the advertiser avoid presenting suggestions of evil consequences and possible substitutes for his own commodity but he must use the greatest skill to discover the conception which in any particular case will lead to action. Of these seven reasons it will be observed that the second and last should not be included in the reasoning type. The result was most interesting and instructive. Recently an attempt was made to discover the conceptions which actually are effective in leading persons to answer advertisements and to purchase advertised goods. convenient or useful. 4 5 6 7 Reliability of the goods or the firm.g.com 71 . but it would be more applicable if we should change it to. Under such circumstances decision becomes easy and prompt. Healthful. The goods supply a present need.. e. chance to win. In the second the goods were suggested at the time and they were needed and the purchase followed without further consideration. Money considerations.occupy the attention completely. Stylish. investment. Upon this point the statements of several thousand persons were examined. An attractive and frequently repeated advertisement.longlostmarketingsecrets. cheapness. In such a case the reader is unable to make up his mind and hesitation and procrastination follow until the initial desire for the goods has vanished. It is possible to present two articles which seem equally desirable because too little description is given of the articles advertised. The moment we hit upon a conception which allows us to apply a principle of action which is a fixed and stable part of our Ego. “He who hesitates is lost” is a frequent quotation. One part of the advertisement may offer a substitute which causes us to hesitate about acting upon another part. Labor saving. 2. “The possible customer who is caused to hesitate is lost”. In Professor James’ five methods presented above. our state of doubt is at an end”. the most significant thing in the discussion is the following sentence: “The conclusive reason for the decision in these cases usually is the discovery that we can refer the case to a class upon which we are accustomed to act unhesitatingly in a stereotyped way. In the seventh the purchaser was influenced by the constant suggestion which was offered by the frequently recurrent attractive advertisement. Among the effective motives or conceptions the following were prominent : 1. The parts of an advertisement may weaken instead of strengthen each other. A single advertisement should not present competing goods unless sufficient argument is given to make it possible for the reader to make up his mind and to act at once. www. 3.
com 72 .5).longlostmarketingsecrets.If the right conception is presented at the right time. In the reproduced advertisement of Ivory Soap (No. appearing in women’s magazines.4) it is assumed that women purchase the soap and that for many of them. the question is settled at once and the radiators are purchased. the desired action will follow. including such as the one shown in the cut. Hence the conception of Ivory Soap as pure and reliable is the one conception above all others which will sell it. www. With very many persons it was found that a good investment is the conception which leads to immediate action. the purity and reliability of the article is the quality of greatest concern. The reproduced advertisement of the Americal Radiator Company (No. was evidently constructed on this principle. Therefore if radiators are presented satisfactorily as a good investment.
For such this advertisement might be irresistible. www. however. that there are many persons to whom the conception of health is all powerful.longlostmarketingsecrets. and with great success. It should be remembered. convenient or useful.Very many goods are advertised. as being labor-saving.com 73 . The reproduced advertisement of Postum Cereal (No.6) is open to severe criticism.
longlostmarketingsecrets. magazines and hundreds of other things are successfully advertised by emphasis upon the stylishness of the goods: upon the social prestige enjoyed by their possessors. diamonds.com 74 .Clothing. www. It is a wise advertiser that can select the conceptions that will fit into the principles of action of the greatest number of possible customers.
It is an interesting study for any one to observe his An own actions and thoughts and to see what he does Interesting habitually. seeing me in the distance. I walked down town by the same street which I had been going over for years. I found that I got out of bed in the morning in a way peculiar to myself. I tried recently to make such a study of myself.longlostmarketingsecrets. but an explanation of the phenomenon has been left to modern psychology. and plasticity means simply that the substance offers some resistance to adopting a new form. I took up my work and went through it in a regular routine. I addressed my friends in such a manner that they recognised me even when they did not see me. but when the new form is once impressed upon it.IX Habit The Term habit has been so frequently confined to a few questionable or bad habits that the broader significance of the term is ordinarily lost. I put on my clothes in a stereo-typed order. The fact of habit has been a matter of marvel and wonder for centuries. and when I tried to reverse the order I found it very difficult. My manner of walking was such that my friends. I picked up the morning paper and glanced over the first page. The manner in which I arose from the table. I observed my brother’s actions at all these points and found that at every point his habits were different from mine. then I turned to the last page and from there looked through the paper from the last to the first page and so ended where I had begun. but when the crease is once formed the plasticity of the paper preserves the crease. knew me. although I had not observed the fact till that time. although there were several other streets equally good and convenient. If Habits and I bend a piece of paper and crease it the crease will remain. Study but found that if I should be compelled to record all my habitual actions and thoughts it would keep a stenographer busy all day and a camera would have to be directed toward me for every move I made. This is my habitual method of reading the morning paper. His actions were as reasonable as mine but not more so. put on my hat and left the house was peculiar to myself. The actions as described above were not reasoned out and followed because they were the most rational. I put my coat on by putting on my right sleeve first. even if the paper is straightened out again. We are all creatures of habit and have some good and some bad ones. I put sugar on my breakfast food first and added cream later. Some effort is required to overcome the plasticity of the paper and to form the crease. I put my left show on first – I always do. www. The paper is Plasticity plastic. it retains it.com 75 . Throughout the day I found that the great majority of my actions and thoughts were merely habitual and were performed without conscious desire or deliberation.
They go to the best tailors. It is ordinarily true that no one ever learns a language after he is twenty-five years old so well that he can speak it without an accent. In a very real sense the thoughts and the actions form the brain. In all the other places the briars have grown up and made it almost impossible to walk through them. Every action among these cells leaves it indelible mark. A habit in the brain is like a path in a forest.longlostmarketingsecrets. It is easy for the paper to bend where it has been creased and it is likewise easy for action to take place in the brain where it has taken place before. In all these things we see that we first form our brains. We think along certain lines and that is the same as saying that we have formed certain pathways of thought through our brains. This is well shown in the case of language. and then when they are once formed (creased) they determine what we shall do and be. This relationship of the mind to the brain in the formation of habits may be illustrated by the paths in a forest. Every thought we think forms a pathway through our brains and makes it easier for every other similar thought. That is why it is so easy to think our old habitual thoughts and why it is so hard to think new thoughts or to perform new movements. and then when the brain is formed its plasticity is so great that it determines our future thinking and acting. As far as language is Learning concerned a person seems to be fixed or creased by the Late in Life time he is twenty-five and he can never get rid of his former habits of speech. Few men ever learn to dress well unless they have acquired the art in their youth. Some person or some animal walks along in a particular direction and breaks down some of the weeks and briars. and every time that any one walks in this path it becomes easier. but something about them betrays their former habits. the crease becomes so well established that thinking and acting along that crease are easier than other thoughts or actions. We see how easy it is to think the old thoughts and to do the old things and how difficult the new ones are. Some one else follows.com 76 . It is easy now to think these habitual thoughts but to think a new thought is like beating a new path through a forest while to think along the old lines is like following the old paths where advance is easy.There is a most intimate relation between our brains and our thoughts. When a thought has been thought or an action performed many times. In the densest forest there are still some paths where you can walk with ease. We all know men who have acquired wealth in middle life and who have tried to be good dressers. for the nerve substance is plastic. or ”crease”. Every time we think there is a slight change taking place in the delicate nerve cells which compose a large part of the brain. We know how easy it is to take the old path and how hard it is to form a new one. and so these easier ones are said to have become habitual. www. Here the weeds and briars are trampled on and kept out of the way. but in vain.
com 77 .As habits play such a large part in all of our thinking and acting it is important that the advertiser should understand what habits are and how he can make the most of the situation. If he could realize Personal that everything he does leaves on his brain an impression Habits which is to be a determining factor in all his future. as competition becomes keen only that marksman is successful who understands the habits of the game sought and who plans his method of approach according to the habits of the game. he would be extremely careful as to what he thinks and what he does. The advertiser must know his customers. Some people have formed the habit of looking at the last pages in magazines before they look at the others. The advertisement should conform to their habitual modes of thought. and if Customers’ that does not look interesting the page is passed by without Habits a glance at the bottom or middle. He must present his commodity in such a way that the readers can understand it without being compelled to think a new thought. and then the customers can read it and understand it with ease. If we know that a man acts uniformly in an honest manner we have such confidence in him that we call him an honest man and we believe that he will not break his habit of honesty in the future and we are therefore willing to trust him. but the advertiser should in many cases make the necessary effort. Thus. He must know their habits of thought. Habit gives regularity and persistence to our actions. Some people look more at the right page than Your at the left. Some glance first at the top of the page. Each of the potential customers has formed a rut in his thinking and thinks along that particular line or lines. otherwise he is doomed to become an “old fogy”. Even in private. is subject to the same laws of habit as the advertiser. The advertisement should conform to their habitual modes of thought.longlostmarketingsecrets. any marksman may be successful in bagging game. for it is too difficult to attempt to get them to think along new lines. www. there are no incentives to right actions comparable with the inflexible laws of habit when these laws are fully appreciated. He should observe the Good working of the laws of habit in his own life. As soon. whether we think of single actions as determining our future characters or whether we think of them as determining the estimation in which we shall be held by others. The public. When game is plentiful and hunters few. He should see to it that he does not allow his habits Getting gradually but surely to make impossible to him new forms of Into expression and new lines of thinking and writing. The success of the advertiser depends to an exceptionally great degree upon the confidence of the public. It takes great “Ruts” and determined effort to overcome an old habit or to form a new one. which the advertiser addresses. The advertiser is likely to “get into a rut” in his line of thinking and consequently in his presentation of his commodity before the public. The wise advertiser is always alert to detect these habits and to profit by his discovery. however.
This can best be done by continuing the advertising. thus taking advantage of the habit by securing prompt responses and at the same time taking care to preserve the habit. “How use doth breed a habit”. The action of habit gives great value to advertising by making the effect of the advertisement to be not merely transient but permanent. In the first instance the purchaser may have been induced to act only after much hesitation. Many advertisers work on the theory that as soon as they have got the public into the habit of using their goods they can stop their advertising and the sales will go right on. but after a few repetitions the act becomes almost automatic and requires little or no deliberation. for when people do a thing once it is easier to get them to do it again. www. and the amount of sales may not warrant the expense during the first year.longlostmarketingsecrets. If an advertisement can get persons started to purchasing a Results Made particular brand of goods it has done much more than sell Permanent the goods in the immediate present. and there is a uniformity and a certainty about them which differentiates them from other forms of actions. and so the advertisement would be an active agent in inducing the customers to continue to buy the soap even long years after the advertisement had ceased to appear.When advertising was more primitive than it is to-day and when competition was less keen. It often takes extensive advertising to get the public into the habit. The advertiser of Pears’ Soap quoted a great truth when he put this at the head of his advertisement. If he could by advertising get persons to using Pears’ soap he would get them into the habit of using it. but to-day no man can be successful who does not plan his campaign according to the habits of the public which he must reach. but since a habit formed is a positive asset such campaigns may be profitable. It takes so much effort to form the habit that when it is once formed it should be made the most of. any printer or reporter might have been successful in advertising. When the habit is once formed it acts as a great drive-wheel and makes further action easy in the same direction. There is much truth in this but also a great error. and habits are formed by just such repetitions.com 78 . One great aim of the advertiser is to induce the public to get the habit of using his particular line of goods. Habitual acts are always performed without deliberation.
in homes. clubs. Thousands of magazine readers read advertisements more than they are aware. At almost any hour of the day one hundred men may be found there reading magazines. Some of these men assured me that all persons who pick up a magazine look at the advertisements. on trains –wherever and under whatever conditions people are in the habit of reading publications which contained advertisements.com 79 . It is not possible to find out how much other people read advertisements by observing one’s self. One lady told me that she was sure she never paid any attention to advertisements. People have told me that they never look at the advertising pages of a magazine. too. they scarcely ever take up a magazine without "glancing" at the advertisements. The fact that this has become habitual gives it a permanence and regularity similar to that of our other habits. the chairs are comfortable and the light is good. The observation should be made on different classes of persons. To know whether people in general read the advertisements or not it is necessary to watch a large number of persons who are reading magazines. There is a very large number of magazines to choose from. www. In this room several hundred men are constantly reading newspapers and magazines – principally magazines. I felt convinced that the advertising men were as wide of the mark as the group first mentioned. we are frequently not conscious of it. and that they put in as much time in reading them as they do in reading the body of the magazine.X The Habit of Reading Advertisements As was shown in the preceding chapter.longlostmarketingsecrets. I had formed a fixed habit of putting on my right sleeve before the left one. in fact. In front of some of the chairs are tables on which the magazine may be rested. by asking personal friends. One of the habits which most of us have acquired is that of reading advertisements. and yet for years I did not know it – would have denied it. I asked several professional advertising men as to the number of persons who read advertisements and the time which people in general devote to them. Like other habits. or by asking those engaged in the business of advertising. to keep an accurate account of the number who are reading the advertisements and of those who are reading the articles in the body of the magazine. libraries. Some months ago I visited the reading-room of the Chicago Public Library. when. we are all creatures of habit. I observed her reading magazines and found that she seldom slighted the advertisements. and yet within an hour after making such a statement she was engaged in a conversation about articles which she knew only from statements appearing in the advertising columns of her periodicals.
of all the men observed were reading advertisements. turned my attention to the first An Investigation man. There were. We get the exact number who are reading advertisements at any moment of time. If he was reading from the body of the magazine. jotted them down on my Conducted notebook and turned to his neighbor and took the data from him. he was still reported as not reading advertisements. but few such cases. Thus. while others are there to spend the day. Making a summary of the six hundred magazine readers. Some of the men who read there have but a few minutes to stay. exactly ten per cent. Of the second hundred six were reading advertisements. if at my first observation he was just finishing his story in the body of the magazine and. it seemed to me that a large part of them were thus engaged. but that might not detract from the reading of such advertisements. and his final results were in remarkable harmony with those given above. however. At my request a gentleman made similar tests at the same library. By this system the same results are secured as we should get by taking a snap-shot of the room. To know just how many are reading at any particular moment. it was sometimes impossible to tell what he was reading. That is to say. the following plan of investigation was followed. On the other hand. Were reading advertisements.com 80 . Of the fifth hundred only five were reading advertisements. 10 ½ per cent.longlostmarketingsecrets. Of the first hundred observed Reading eighty-eight were reading from the body of the Advertisements magazine and twelve were reading advertisements. In all cases of doubt the man was not counted at all. etc. In every case this first observation determined the points in question. Where there was a single column of advertisements next to a single column of reading matter at which the subject was looking. Of the fourth hundred sixteen were reading advertisements. I made six visits to the library. I took what data I wanted from him. Of all the men he observed. At each visit I made observations on one hundred men who were Percentage reading magazines. Of the sixth hundred eleven were reading advertisements.There are no conveniences for answering a mail-order advertisement at once. I found sixty-five reading advertisements and four hundred and thirty-five reading from the body of the magazine. www. Of the third hundred fifteen were reading advertisements. A man was reported as reading the advertisements if he was reading them the very first moment I turned my attention to him. different seasons of the year and different hours of the day. I began at the first table and. unobserved by the readers. going on different days of the week. if during the next few minutes he was engaged in reading advertisements. As I looked over the room to see how many were reading advertisements. he was still reported as reading advertisements. if I turned my attention to a man who was looking at the last page of the advertisements. and if the very next moment he turned to the reading matter.
most of those who were looking through the advertisements were not engaged in any serious attempt to understand the argument. but they turned them hastily and did not stop to read them unless in some way they were particularly interesting. and as trips are usually some-what prolonged. Under these circumstances the data at hand can not show more than certain general tendencies and certain specific facts as to how one class of readers is in the habit of reading the advertisements in magazines under the conditions mentioned above. The tendency to rush through the advertising pages of magazines. but in all the tests referred to above. As far as I could tell. the Most data were secured only from men. Some of the men were looking at the pictures in the advertising pages. In the second place. and were reading in a hasty and indifferent manner. Many people turn every page of the advertising columns of a magazine and read none of the advertisements through. is found in the fact that among such abundance of periodicals the reader becomes somewhat bewildered. which was so clearly present in the Chicago Public Library. Magazine readers on a train frequently have but a single copy of a magazine at hand. A large part of them turned over the advertising pages. it is true that the regular subscribers to periodicals read them more nearly from cover to cover than readers who drop into a library to read. I believe. some of them were glancing at the display and reading nothing which was not particularly prominent.The fact that only ten per cent. of the men were reading advertisements at any one point of time is not at all equivalent to saying that only one-tenth of them read – or glanced at – the advertisements. and if there is a general tendency with most readers to rush through or glance at the advertisements.com 81 . as here investigated. It Women is quite generally believed that women read advertisements Interested more than men. Indeed. others were reading the complete argument of the advertisement. it behooves the advertiser to recognize the actual conditions and to construct his advertisements according to the habits of magazine readers. the traveler frequently not only reads the text matter but reads many of the advertisements completely.longlostmarketingsecrets. tries to glance through many papers and does not read so carefully as he would ordinarily do under other circumstances. It is quite certain that the data thus far secured are not sufficient for any generalization as to the exact time or proportion of time which the general public devotes to the advertising columns of periodicals. www. If the readers in libraries spend anything like tenfold as much time on the text as on the advertisements. is. Another element which enters into the question. but it is quite certain that he spends a comparatively short time on the advertisements. a general tendency. it was the exception rather than the rule that any advertisement was read from beginning to end. It would not be fair to assume from the data on hand that the average magazine reader spends ten-fold as much time on the text as he does on the advertisements.
but do not take the trouble to notice what it is supposed to advertise.longlostmarketingsecrets. If he passes the advertisement with a single glance he will still be affected with what he has seen. this knowledge will often lead him to read the entire advertisement. reproduced herewith. The cut should should be made to speak for itself and to tell the story so distinctly Illustrate that at a glance the gist of the advertisement is comprehended. I know nothing more about Venus Drawing Pencils after seeing this picture than I did before. that fraction must be made to count.If the presentation of his goods is to be seen but a fraction of a second.com 82 . in the advertisement of Wilson’s Outside Venetians (No. The cut used should Illustrations be not a mere picture but an illustration. Many people look at this picture as they turn the pages of the magazine. the illustration shows just how the ware looks and what it is good for. (No. Thus. Even in the most hasty glance the reader is enabled to get a good idea of the appearance and use of this commodity. They remember the picture.2) has a beautiful picture. The advertisement of the Venus Drawing Pencil. reproduced herewith.1). and yet they never discover that it has anything to do with pencils. If he is interested in such goods at all. but it tells nothing about the goods advertised. www.
www. If he sees nothing more than the display of type. he has seen enough to understand what it is all about and to be influenced in favour of the idea there presented. The next time he turns over the page of a magazine containing this advertisement his attention will be attracted by this familiar display.In the advertisement reproduced herewith. but he would know no more about it when he had seen it the last time than he did after he had seen it the first time. the type display.longlostmarketingsecrets. and would be weakened rather than strengthened by repetition. A person could glance at this advertisement a score of times. (No.4) does not indicate in any way that the advertisement is one of real estate. It has nothing to say to the casual reader. In the advertisement reproduced herewith.3) gives the gist of the whole matter. Every one who glances at the advertisement understands it. the type display.com 83 . (No. Every time he sees this advertisement the suggestion in favor of it becomes stronger and yet the reader himself may not be conscious of such influence. “Advertising Taught by Mail”. “Wanted – Good Neighbors”.
The type display should not be merely to attract attention, but must tell a story and tell it quickly. The display type and the picture About Type which merely attract and do not instruct are in many cases Display worthless, for in attracting attention to themselves they divert the attention from the thing advertised.
The picture and the meaningless headline will interest some people so much they will stop and read the advertisement through to try to figure out hat it all means. But the great majority of the readers will not stop at any particular advertisement, and unless they get something at a glance they get nothing at all. A large number of magazine readers see each advertisement, but only a few of them will stop to read it through. The advertiser must learn to make the best possible use of this casual glance of the multitude. Since many see the display and but few read the argument, an attempt should be made to construct a display that will not merely attract attention to itself, but be so constructed that it will beget interest in the goods advertised. Few people will admit that they are greatly influenced by advertising. I have discussed the question with many persons, and I have yet to find the first one who believes that he is materially influenced by magazine advertising in the purchases which he makes. One great cause for this personal delusion is found in the habit which they have formed of glancing through the advertising pages. They turn the pages rapidly and the individual advertisement makes so little impression that it is not remembered by them as having been seen at all. To say that the advertisement is forgotten is not equivalent to saying that it has not made a lasting impression. If I should Unrecognized glance at the same advertisement in different Value of magazines for each month for a number of years, it is Advertisements quite possible that these single glances would be forgotten. I might not remember ever having seen an advertisement, and yet my familiarity with the goods advertised might seem so great that I should believe that some of my acquaintances had recommended them to me or that I had used the goods years before. www.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 84
The following instance, which was also referred to in the chapter on Suggestion, illustrates this point perfectly. For years I have seen the advertisements of a certain tailor. Recently I entered his shop and ordered a suit of clothes. It so happened that the proprietor, who was conducting a vigorous advertising campaign, waited on me himself. As he took my order he asked me whether he had been recommended to me. I promptly replied that he had. I then began to try to recall who had recommended him, but found that I could not recall any such recommendation. I had seen his advertisement so often that I had forgotten the particular advertisements, but had retained the information which they had imparted. I had evidently confused the source of my information, for I fully believed that I had heard from some of my friends that this particular tailor was especially trustworthy. If he had asked me whether I might have been influenced by his advertisements or not, I might have answered that they had had nothing to do with it, although in fact they were the only source of my information about him and evidently were entirely responsible for the sale. The oftener we see an advertisement, the fewer are the chances that we will remember where we saw it, but the greater becomes our Familiarity feeling of familiarity with the goods advertised. As soon as With the we become familiar with the goods in this way and Goods unmindful of the source of the familiarity, we are likely to be subject to this delusion of supposing that we have heard our friends recommend the goods. Most people still are prejudiced against advertisements, and would not purchase the goods if they realized that their only source of information about the firm and about the goods was the advertisement; but as soon as they forget the source of the information they are perfectly willing to buy the goods, although they would repudiate the statement that they had been influenced by the advertisements. If a merchant should ask his customers whether they had been influenced largely by his advertisements or not, he would certainly receive a very discouraging report, and would be inclined to give up his advertisements as worthless, when, in fact, nothing but his advertisements had induced them to come to his store. The habit which the public has formed of reading advertisements so hastily makes it difficult for the advertisement writer to construct his advertisements to meet the emergency of the case; it makes it difficult for the merchant to discover the direct results of his advertising campaign, and, on the other hand, it makes the right sort of advertising peculiarly effective, by making the reader more susceptible to confusion as to the source of his information.
XI The Laws of Progressive Thinking
In acquiring simple acts of skill we all use in the main the “try, try again” method. This is technically known as the “trial and error” method. We simply keep trying till we happen to hit it right, and then we imitate Four our successes till finally the skill is acquired. The first Processes of correct response may have been reflex, instinctive or Progressive merely accidental. When, however, we attempt to develop Thinking acts of skill or ideas in advance of our fellows this simple method of trial and error does not suffice. It is of course true that most of the actions of all of us and all the acts of many of us are not progressive in the sense here intended. By progressive thinking we mean the conception of new ideas, the invention of new methods of doing work, the construction of a new policy or a new instrument or something of a kindred nature. For such thinking the essential mental process involves nothing totally different from ordinary thinking, but it involves the ordinary processes in a more complete and efficient form. The processes referred to are the following four: observation, classification, inference and application. The laws of progressive thinking are derived from these processes and are nothing more than a demand for the complete carrying out of these four processes. The thinking of the advertiser does not differ from that of others; and in what follows the discussion will be confined to the advertiser and his problems, inasmuch as such a concrete problem seems more definite than a general discussion. Observation is logically the first step. All advertisers have eyes, but they do not all use them equally well. Observation should Observation begin at home. The advertiser should analyze his own response to advertisements, but unfortunately he is likely to become so prejudiced or hardened to advertisements that his own judgement must be taken with great caution. How does this advertisement or this part of the advertisement affect me? How does it affect my wife, my mother, my sister? How does it affect the persons who ride on the train with me or who pass by the billboards with me? This is the territory which is so near at home that we disregard it. Such observations must, of course, be supplemented by tests carried on by means of keying the advertisement, by consulting the sales department, etc. None of us are ideal observers. We can’t tell just how certain advertisements affect us or what element of the advertisement is the most effective. We do not observe accurately how advertisements affect those about us. We see only those things which we have learned to see or which have been pointed out to us. We are not skillful in discovering new methods
Recently an advertiser sent me two such advertisements. The two had been run in the same sizes and in the same and also in different publications. but he has felt satisfied if he was an expert in the construction of advertisements. for new observations require new classifications.e. is that of classification. The advertiser has an extensive field of observation and but little direction as to the best method. The second step in the method. Under some circumstances it might be practically impossible to deduce the cause of the differences.of securing new data and so our observations are neither so accurate nor so extensive as they should be. Advertisers have sent me two different advertisements which were carefully keyed. All the data must be analyzed and classified and reclassified. logically speaking. every advertiser has a certain amount of data concerning the effectiveness of advertisements without illustrations in publications in which the text matter is largely illustrated. the goods. He must be a practical psychologist.com 87 . one of which was successful and the other Inference one unsuccessful. He must observe his goods in order to know the possible qualities which may be presented with greatest force. in getting them into shape so that we can use them. the public and the advertisements. He must observe the public to which he is to make his appeal. But how many advertisers have grouped this data and formed any general statement concerning it? The process of classification involves that of analysis. the choice of mediums. For instance. Great skill Classification is necessary to make the right classifications. i. In the past the advertiser has not been required to know his commodity or his public. so that the classification is never complete and the generalizations based on the classifications are continually increasing. The observations must be classified. the greatest care is necessary in choosing the right heads and in getting all the data under their appropriate general heads. Likewise in filing away our observations. The illustrations were very similar and the arguments were largely identical throughout. and the difficulty of forming new analyses is much greater than would be supposed by those who have not studied the process. In any large office care must be used in filing away material to see that the general heads are not only correct but that they are the most usable ones. One had been unsuccessful and the other had been extremely successful. It seemed quite evident www. yet the differences are great enough to secure success in one case and failure in another. In some cases the advertisements are very similar and the differences at first sight seem non-essential.longlostmarketingsecrets. The man who makes the best use of his knowledge is the one who has it best analyzed and classified. The scattered data must be brought together before they can be utilized. He must also be an advertising expert according to the narrow and fallacious use of that term. The observations are not complete unless they include these three fields. In order that the new classifications may be made the data must be worked over and thought of in all the possible relations. the keying of advertisements and similar strictly technical accomplishments.
it should help him in drawing the correct conclusions from his classified experience. I think that I was correct in inferring that the difference lay in the display of the illustration and text matter. Psychology is of assistance to every advertiser in helping him to observe widely and accurately.that the difference must lie in the advertisements themselves and not in any extraneous matter. In the unsuccessful advertisement there was no resting place for the eye and no point or line of orientation (the line of orientation is the line which the eye follows in observing an illustration). Science does not produce inventors but it is of great assistance to a genius and may cause him to become a great discoverer. at the point which was most inducive to immediate action. Certain keen students of advertising have prophesied but little benefit to advertising from the science of psychology. Furthermore. might very naturally have looked for this resting place for the eye or for the appropriate place for the line of orientation. the line of orientation was such that the eye naturally followed the order which made the argument and display mutually strengthening. at the conclusion. This does not minimize the value of science but it emphasized the need of originality and ingenuity in the man who strives to lead his profession and to invent new methods and to make new applications of those he has learned. If Edison had known nothing of the science of physics. The laws concerning the force called electricity are known to Application thousands. in teaching him how to classify or group his observations systematically. but unless these features were taken into consideration the wrong conclusion would have been drawn as to the cause of success or failure in the case of these two advertisements.com 88 .longlostmarketingsecrets. If Edison and Marconi had not a comprehensive grasp of these laws they would not be inventors. The fourth step in the mental process of the progressive advertiser is that of applying the deductions drawn from the former experience. Any trained artist or even any one who had studied the theory which underlies artistic productions. because a science can not lay down rules for things which are not yet discovered. Science can formulate the laws of the phenomena as far as they have been discovered and applied. but not in the quality of either of them. it is quite certain that he never would have been heard from. and so the eye rested. In the successful advertisement the eye rested naturally at the point from which the advertisement looked the most artistic and from which the content of the advertisement could best be understood. Others have as good a knowledge of all the phenomena connected with electricity as they and yet are unable to make a practical use of their knowledge. www. but it can not lay down rules or suggest infallible methods for further discoveries and inventions. This criticism has weight with any who should be so foolish as to suppose that every accomplished student of the human mind would of necessity be a successful advertiser. To suppose that a great psychologist would of necessity be a successful innovator in advertising is just as sane as to suppose that every one who understands electricity as well as Edison would have as great a record as he at the patent office. but it takes an Edison or a Marconi to make a new application of these same laws.
in some they had dealt with the firm.. In these letters the writers told which advertisements they were the most interested in and what it was in each particular advertisement which interested them. and all within the commodity with which he has to deal. In some cases they had tried the goods advertised. and though this is not the place to give in full the general heads and the sub-heads under which the classification was finally made. who classify their observations and group them in the most usable form. first. the construction of the advertisement. In observing the effect which advertisements produce upon a community it is much easier to learn which advertisements are effective than what it is in the particular advertisements which makes them interesting.If psychology could do no more it would be of inestimable value. Mr. the present need of the reader. Mr. secured several thousands of letters from readers of issues of the magazine of which he was the advertising manager. could have turned to the pages of his magazine and have made a personal observation as to the way the different advertisements affected him and what it was in any particular advertisement which interested him most.longlostmarketingsecrets. third. financial consideration. 607 affirmed that they were most interested in their chosen advertisement because they believed that the firm or the medium or the goods were strictly reliable. The most successful advertisers are those who observe most widely and accurately. those who are seeking better method of observation and of classification and who are never content with their past deductions or their applications. who then think most keenly about these classified The Method observations so as to draw the most helpful conclusions. To show what I mean at this point I will illustrate from methods employed by one of the leading advertisers of America. The next step was to bring order out of chaos. reliability. it may be interesting to know that the reasons for advertisements’ proving interesting were in the order of their frequency. When he had read over the letters he had the data before him but it was in chaotic and worthless condition. but by the method described he multiplied his observations a thousand fold.com 89 . the task proved itself to be one of great difficulty. They are the active men. It was easy to tabulate the results and find out how many were especially interested in each particular advertisement. second. www. Thus of the letters received one month. The data were turned over to me for such classification. Further and lastly who have the greatest ability in utilizing these Illustrated deductions in their advertising campaigns. psychology may even be of benefit in this last and most difficult step in the mental process of the innovator. in some they noticed the testimonials or the prizes taken. B. In the same month 508 were particularly interested because of money considerations. and fourth. etc. But when it came to classifying the reasons – and often women’s reasons at that – for being interested in each advertisement. as an aid in making observations at this latter point. but as applications or new discoveries depend so largely on the formation of correct deductions and hypotheses. B.
Indeed it is the method of progressive thinking in every line of human endeavor. These experimental applications will furnish new data. The four steps are not fully differentiated in our actual experience but are presented here as distinct for the sake of clearness. In this way we have an endless chain of observation. www. and 408 because of the present need.. these will in turn be classified. inference and application. new conclusions deduced and further attempts at practical application will follow. 508 for money considerations. This method is applicable not only to writing advertisements but to every details of the profession. classification.longlostmarketingsecrets. In the same month 418 were most interested in a particular advertisement because it presented goods which they needed at that particular time. 418 for the construction of the advertisement. It is not necessary to say that from the classifications of these data certain conclusions have been drawn and that attempts are being made to apply the conclusions to the planning of advertising campaigns.com 90 . etc. etc. To recapitulate the results: 607 for reliability.Some because they could get the goods advertised more cheaply than elsewhere. some because the advertisements offered a chance to get something for service instead of for cash.
for the advertiser. If one hundred of these letters are placed on each of the pages the chances that any particular letter will be seen are greatly reduced.e. it is safety to say that the letters would be seen. Fundamental large objects. This may be demonstrated in a specific case as follows:: I had a card of convenient size and on it were four letters. Among the conditions favoring attention the following is. This seems to indicate that. other things being equal.XII Attention Value of Small and of Large Spaces There are certain things which seem to force themselves upon us whether we will or not. www. That is to say. Thus moving objects. the probabilities that any particular thing will catch our attention are in proportion to the absence of competing attractions. In another discussion of the subject of Attention appeared the following paragraph (Theory of Advertising. The power of any object to compel attention depends upon the absence of counter attraction. and as one turns the pages the attention is ordinarily not wider than the age. If I should place any particular four letters on the right and also the same letters on the left hand page of any magazine and have nothing else on the page. I then added four other letters and exposed the card one twentyfifth of a second as before. and therefore the letters have no rivals and would of necessity fill or occupy the attention for an instant of time. letters) was doubled. This card was exposed to view for one twenty-fifth of a second. sudden contracts.. with more or less attention. of special significance. The observers could read but four of the letters as in the previous trial but in this exposure there was no certainty that any particular letter would be read. up to a certain point all could be seen. the full-page advertisement is the ‘sure-to-be-seen’ advertisement and that the size of an advertisement determines the number of chances it has of being seen”. the chances that any particular object would be seen was reduced fifty per cent. This follows because at the ordinary reading distance the field of even comparatively distinct vision is smaller than a single page of ordinary magazine size. seem to catch our attention with Law of irresistible force. When the number of objects was increased threefold. We seem to be compelled to attend to them by some mysterious instinctive tendency of our nervous A organization. or until the page was turned over. When the number of objects (i. and in that time all the four letters were read by the observers..com 91 . etc. page 9): “Other things being equal. in one or both cases by every one who turns over the pages of the magazine.longlostmarketingsecrets. The observers were still able to read but four letters. the chances of any particular object’s being seen were reduced to thirty-three per cent. I then added four more letters to the card and exposed the letters as in the previous trials. Again there are certain conditions which Attention favor attention and others which hinder it.
I sent the same magazines to other persons in other parts of the country and had them use the magazines in the same way in which I had used them. its attention value. A quarter-page announcement is valuable for a half-page is worth more – is it worth twice as much? It is of course conceded that some advertisements are unprofitable regardless of the space occupied. not only as to the fact of bare remembrance. read over the table of contents and looked over the reading matter. In this way tests were made with over five hundred persons mostly between the ages of ten and thirty. We then got together all references to each particular advertisement and so could compare the different advertisements.longlostmarketingsecrets. yet one of the most perplexing questions which any advertiser has to deal with is the adequate amount of space for any particular advertisement or for any particular advertising campaign. and that others are profitable when filling various amounts of space. Every advertiser knows that if he should occupy full pages he would secure more attention than if he should occupy quarter pages. There are exceptions and special cases but the question can be intelligently stated as follows: Of all the advertisements being run in current advertising which is the more profitable. in proportion to the space occupied. but not to read any poetry or long articles. a few failed even to look at the advertisements. but also as to the amount of information which each had furnished. some glanced through the advertisements. etc. I then asked them to take the magazines and look them through.e. The question is not as to the superiority of full pages in comparison with smaller spaces. for it costs practically twice as much.com 92 . the desire it had created to secure the goods. i. At the end of ten minutes. www. just as they ordinarily do. To investigate the An Investigation question the following tests were made: I handed each of the forty students in my class a copy of the current issue of the Century Magazine. The quotation presented above was deduced from a theoretical study of attention. But the real question is whether it is twice as valuable. I surprised them by asking them to lay aside the magazines and write down all they could remember about each of the advertisements they had seen. the large or the small advertisements? Since profitableness is a very broad term and depends upon many conditions. It is also conceded that certain advertisements require a large space and that others are profitable as an inch advertisement but would be unprofitable if inflated to occupy a full page. Some of them put in all their time reading advertisements.Even a casual reader of advertisements is aware of the fact that fullpage advertisements attract his attention more than smaller advertisements. All feel sure that any advertisement would be more valuable if it occupied a full page than if it occupied only half of it. before opportunity had been offered to verify it by means of experiments with advertisements. we will for the present confine ourselves to one of the characteristics of a profitable advertisement.. These results were carefully tabulated as to the exact number of persons who mentioned each individual advertisement.
a quarter-page advertisement was mentioned 30% oftener than a quarter page of small advertisements. while of the half-page.longlostmarketingsecrets. other than those of books or periodicals. To compare the full-page advertisements with the other advertisements in this particular magazine would be to compare advertisements of books and periodicals with advertisements of other classes of goods. To obviate this difficulty. (2) Those of books and periodicals. and a full-page of advertisements was mentioned 90% oftener than a full page of small advertisements. which is an average of approximately 20 for each advertisement. and these were mentioned but 65 times which is an average of much less than 1 for each advertisement. The tabulated results for all advertisements other than of books and periodicals are as follows: www. As is shown in the following table of all advertisements other than those of books and periodicals. and a small advertisement less than a single time. The sixty-seven quarter-page advertisements. sixty-four of them are advertisements of books and periodicals. it is useless to consider such advertisements separately. a half-page 9 times. which is an average of 9 times for each advertisement. which is an average of 9 times for each advertisement. The three quarter-page advertisements of books and magazines were mentioned only twelve which is an average of less than 1 for each advertisement. we shall divide all advertisements into two classes: (1) Those of goods other than books and periodicals. The sixty-four full-page advertisements of books and periodicals were remembered 606 times.At the present time we shall consider all advertisements mainly from the standard of attracting attention sufficiently to be recalled by those who saw them. were mentioned 223 times. quarter-page and small advertisements there is a total of about five pages devoted to books and periodicals. The thirty-nine half-page advertisements of goods other than books or periodicals were mentioned 358 times. Out of the ninety-one full-page advertisements.com 93 . As less than a single quarter-page of small advertisements was of books and periodicals. a quarter-page 3 times. The twenty-seven full-page advertisements of goods other than books or periodicals were remembered (mentioned in the reports of the five hundred persons tested) 530 times. a half page advertisement was mentioned 80% oftener than a half page of small advertisements. There are ninety-eight small advertisements. The inefficiency of the small advertisement is made more striking when we consider that for all advertisements other than for those of books and periodicals a full page was mentioned approximately 20 times. which is an average of 3 for each advertisement.
longlostmarketingsecrets. In some instances the illustration along was remembered Numerical and the person mentioning it was unable to tell what Results advertisement the illustration was used with. The tabulated results for advertisements of books and periodicals are as follows: An advertisement was regarded as “remembered” if it was mentioned at all. the differences are enormous.com 94 . In a view Not instances the illustration of one brand of goods was Sufficiently interpreted as an advertisement of the competing brand. A half-page advertisement was noticed 50% oftener than two quarter-page advertisements.When we consider the advertisements for books and periodicals. www. and a full-page advertisement was mentioned 250% oftener than four quarter-page advertisements.
The above cut (No.1. The advertisement described by this pupil was mentioned more than any other and is reproduced herewith as No.1). www.On the other hand the results were frequently astounding in their revelation of the effectiveness of the advertisements in imparting the essential information and creating a desire for the goods.com 95 . is a reproduction of the report of one of the pupils Minneapolis. made after she had looked through the magazine for ten minutes without the knowledge that she would be called upon to report on what she had read.longlostmarketingsecrets.
Thirty-three of them were women and seventeen men. As soon as each subject had completely looked through the magazine it was taken away from him and he was asked to “mention” all the advertisements which he had seen. Some of them knew that it was for experimental purposes. so we tried to get all kinds and conditions of people for subjects. Some of them mentioned as high as thirty different advertisements. We made use of magazines of different years and of different kinds.Soon after the completion of the investigation described above a supplementary investigation was devised to see whether similar results would be secured from a more diversified An list of advertisements and from the class of persons for Investigation whom the advertisements were especially written. of type and illustration. supposing that it was the latest magazine. Each one was requested to look through the magazine and.com 96 . We had these hundred pages bound up with the body of a current magazine and the whole think looked like any ordinary magazine. This specially prepared magazine was handed to fifty adults. etc. and purchasers of the goods advertised. As we had tried to choose all the different kinds of advertisements possible. but some of them merely took the magazine and looked it through. A large part of them were heads of families. of colored cuts and tinted paper. Some of the subjects turned the pages rapidly and got through in three minutes. What he said was written down. but all used were of uniform magazine size. Some of them lived in a city and some in a country town. www. From these leaves we chose one hundred pages of advertisements. With three exceptions. and then the subject was given the magazine again and asked to look it through and indicate each advertisement which he recognized as one which he had seen but had forgotten to mention. and to tell all about each of them. readers of magazines. all the hundred pages of the advertisements were turned.longlostmarketingsecrets. being careful to choose as many different styles of advertisements as possible. Indeed. There was very great diversity in individuals in their ability to mention the advertisements which they had just seen. in every case tabulated. We had in these pages advertisements of almost everything which has been advertised in magazines of recent years. one man was unable to mention a single advertisement which he had seen. We With Fifty took the binding wires out of a large number of magazines Adults and thus were able to make a collection of advertising pages without tearing the margins of the leaves. although all the one hundred pages of advertisements had been before his eyes but a moment before. no one suspected that it was “made up” as he looked at it. others were thirty minutes in getting through. the subjects knew nothing of the nature of the experiment. We had all the different styles of display. The average time for the fifty subjects was a little over ten minutes.
(2) advertisements of books and periodicals. The fifteen half-page advertisements of miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned 41 times. As in the previous investigations. He had no recollection of having seen any of the others. There are but four half-page advertisements of books and periodicals. They were recognized 34 times. Some of them recognised as high as one hundred Diversity advertisements when looking through the second time and Among were surprised that they had forgotten to mention them. could recognize only three others. The thirty-six quarter-page miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned 39 times. That is. were surprised to see how unfamiliar the magazine looked. These six were mentioned only 3 times. we divided all advertisements into two classes: (1) advertisements of goods other than books and periodicals and called. which is an average of 3 7/18 times for each. That gives an average of ¼ mention for each advertisement. therefore.longlostmarketingsecrets. The thirty-one full-pages were recognized (upon looking through the magazine a second time) 276 times by the fifty subjects. Of the small advertisements only seven were of books and periodicals. which is an average of ½ for each advertisement.com 97 . who mentioned but three advertisements. which is an average of 34/93 for each advertisement. They were recognized 122 times. They were recognized by 24. which makes an average of 14/93. which is an average of 2 23/31 times for each advertisement. in looking through the second time. miscellaneous advertisements. which is an average of 1 1/12 times for each advertisement. Observers Others.There was also great diversity in subjects in their ability to recognize the advertisements when they looked through the magazine the second time. This would seem to indicate that certain persons may turn over the advertising pages of a magazine and yet hardly see the advertisements at all. which is an average of 2 11/15 times for each. which is an average of 6 for each advertisement. The fifteen advertisements were recognized 118 times in addition. The forty-three pages of full-page miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned 281 times and recognized 544 times. these seven were www. and only one of them was mentioned by any of the fifty. each of these advertisements was mentioned on an average of 6 23/43 times and recognized on an average of 12 28/43 times in addition. in addition to the “mentions”. There are six quarter-page advertisements of books and periodicals. The thirty-one full-page advertisements of books and periodicals were mentioned 85 times by the fifty subjects. which is an average of 7 13/15 times for each one. Each of these advertisements was thus recognized on an average almost 9 times. One subject. The ninety-three small miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned 14 times. and that but once.
longlostmarketingsecrets. The seven were recognized only twice. or on the average of 2/7.mentioned once.com 98 . which is an average of 1/7 for each. The following tabulations will make clear the results secured from fifty adults: Tabulated results for all miscellaneous advertisements secured from fifty adults as follows: www.
Results were then compiled as to the comparative values of the different-sized advertisements in impressing upon the subjects the individual brand or name of the goods advertised. that a half page advertisement was recognized oftener than two quarter-page advertisements. two half-page advertisements were mentioned oftener than four quarter-page advertisements. the apparent exception should not be emphasized. results were compiled as to the Shown name and address of the firm. but that the full-page advertisements in three instances were recognized less often proportionately than smaller advertisements. i. Thus. www. and a quarter-page was more effective than a quarter page of small advertisements. a half-page was more than twice as effective as a quarter-page. It was found that this Relative information was imparted much better by the larger Values advertisements.. we had each subject see how many of the advertisements in the magazine he could recognise a few minutes after he had looked through it for the first time. yet it may have made such an impression on him that he could recall it if a Viewing need or something else should arise to suggest it to his mind. and that the quarter-page was better than the small advertisement.longlostmarketingsecrets. for all kinds of advertisements. the price of the goods offered and the line of argument presented by the advertiser. The report given by each subject was carefully analyzed to see how many times each advertisement impressed a subject sufficiently so that he would know at least what general class of goods the advertisement represented. with but one exception.e. The results given above indicate that a quarter-page advertisement was recognized oftener than a quarter page of small advertisements. the Ads. it was found that the subject knew what class of goods the fullpage advertisement represented much better than what the half-page represented. In all of these cases it was found that the full-page advertisement was more than twice as effective as a half-page advertisement. In a similar way. Although an advertisement had not impressed the reader sufficiently to enable him to mention it after he had closed the magazine. to find out how many of the advertisements had made Twice any appreciable impression. These three exceptional instances are of no significance inasmuch as the full-page advertisements had been previously mentioned and therefore had been excluded from those that could be merely recognized. The exception referred to is the half-page advertisements of books which fell below all other sized advertisements. Upon comparing the reports upon the different advertisements at this point. half-page and quarter-page miscellaneous advertisements and half-page advertisements of books and periodicals. and four quarter-page advertisements were mentioned oftener than a full page of small advertisements. that the half-page was better than the quarter-page. but as the number of “recognized” is very large.com 99 . a full-page advertisement was mentioned oftener than two half-page advertisements.As is shown by the foregoing.
In-er-Seal (mentioned 23 times) and Pears’ Soap (mentioned 20 times.com 100 .4).The full-page advertisements which were mentioned by the greatest number of subjects were Ivory Soap (mentioned 24 times and reproduced herewith as No. reproduced herewith as No. Only five of the full-page advertisements were mentioned by none of the fifty subjects. Of the 24 persons who mentioned Ivory Soap (no. If the twenty persons who mentioned Pears’ Soap (No. www.5). Waltham Watches (No. Egyptian Deities Cigarettes. while but nine knew that it was an advertisement of In-er-Seal goods.3) but sixteen knew that it was an advertisement of soap at all.3). every one of them knew that it was an advertisement of Pears’ Soap.6). and only fourteen knew that it was an advertisement of Ivory Soap. only sixteen knew that it referred to biscuits. Equitable Life Insurance Company and the Lyman D Morse Advertising Agency. These five were of the New York Central Railroad (No.longlostmarketingsecrets.4). Of the twenty-three persons who mentioned In-er-Seal. The advertisement in question is the familiar one of a boy in a raincoat putting packages of In-erSeal in a cupboard.
quarter-page and small advertisements which were mentioned and recognized by none of the fifty persons tested.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 101 .There were many half-page. www.
Certain styles of advertisements (depending upon Quality the goods advertised as well as on other things) are effective First.The results indicated a very great difference between individual advertisements which filled the same space. In the case of these one hundred pages of typical advertisements. the address of the firm. and in the number of times that the advertisement conveyed definite information as to the general class of goods advertised. the size of the advertisements affected their value materially. yet the size is an important element. In the number of times the advertisement was mentioned from memory. the quarter-page was more effective than a quarter page of small advertisements. and others are comparatively worthless. even if Next filling a full-page. Size in any space.com 102 . the specific name or brand of the goods. the price of the goods and the argument presented in favor of the goods – in all of these points (disregarding the exception mentioned above) the full-page advertisement was more than twice as effective as the quarter-page. the value of an advertisement increases as the size of the advertisement increases. the name of the firm. An advertiser should certainly give more heed to the quality of his advertisement than to its size. www. Quality is more important than quantity. and the increase of value is greater than the increase in the amount of space filled. in the number of times it was recognized when the magazine was looked at for the second time. at all points considered in the two investigations described above. In other words.longlostmarketingsecrets.
com 103 . Many business men.longlostmarketingsecrets. etc. After a careful analysis had been made the following significant results were secured: Number of Years the Firms Continued to Advertise. There are. we should naturally suppose that the more conservative firms would be the ones which would stay in business longest and which might be looked for in each successive year in the advertising pages of certain magazines. as a whole. on the other hand.. all which had appeared two of the Home Journal years. 1 year 2 years 3 years 4 years 5 years 6 years 7 years 8 years Average Number of Lines Used Annually by Each Firm. The larger ones also offer more opportunity for relevant text and appropriate illustrations. Data were secured from all firms located west of Buffalo and advertising in the Ladies’ Home Journal for a period of eight years. rather ephemeral. all which had appeared three of the years. There is a tradition that the users of advertising space are. persons with perfect faith in advertising who believe that all a firm has to do is to advertise and its success is assured. believe that the small advertisement is safer than the larger one and that the larger spaces are luxuries reserved for those who are able to incur losses without serious consequences. If the users of large spaces are reckless and the users of small spaces cautious and conservative. however. that they are in the magazines today and to-morrow have ceased to exist. up to and including all of the firms which had appeared the eight years under consideration.XIII The Mortality Rate of Advertisers In the preceding chapter it was shown that the larger advertisements attract the attention much more than the smaller ones. This chapter presents the results of extensive investigations carried on to ascertain more definitely the stability of advertisers and to discover which sizes of advertisements seem to be the safest and most profitable. 56 lines 116 lines 168 lines 194 lines 192 lines 262 lines 218 lines 600 lines www. The larger advertisements are best for imparting the desired information and for making a lasting impression on the possible customers. All firms were grouped together which had appeared in this magazine The Ladies’ but one of these years.
We shall. but in general the statement is Advertising Not correct. on the other hand. but will then drop out. What has been the experience of advertisers – especially of magazine advertisers – on this point? It is a debated question whether there is a growing tendency toward larger or smaller advertisements. We have conducted similar investigations. with several of the leading advertising mediums in America. they continue it. In each one of these investigations we have secured results similar to those presented below from the Century. therefore. they cease to advertise. The following data.longlostmarketingsecrets. The survival of the fittest is as true in advertising as it is in organic nature. but in a less thorough manner. To find out definitely what the tendency is in regard to the use of space. That class which is the least successful is the least likely to be continued. we should expect to find the larger spaces surviving. That class of advertising which is the most Discontinued successful is the class most likely to be continued. If it pays. the Delineator. so the data and discussion are not to be interpreted as having any special reference to the Century Magazine. several investigations have been carried on. show a general tendency. confine the discussion to the question as it Results of manifests itself in the Century Magazine.com 104 . We have chosen Extensive Investigation the Century because it is one of the best advertising mediums. school announcements and announcements made by the publishers of the magazine were disregarded.This would seem to indicate that in general if a firm uses 56 lines annually in the Ladies’ Home Journal the results will be so unsatisfactory that it will not try it again. but inasmuch as the data from all these merely confirm those presented above they are not added here.247 firms included in the data presented above. Advertisers are in general wise business men and are usually able to tell whether their advertising pays or not. however. www. and Scribner’s for certain periods. If it uses 116 lines annually it will be encouraged to attempt it the second year. it uses 600 lines annually the results will be so satisfactory that it will continue to use the same magazine indefinitely. In articles in magazines for business men the statement is often made that we are finding it unnecessary to use large spaces. In preparing the tabulation. Every one can think of an Successful occasional exception. (A very large number of the firms who continued in eight years continued in for a longer time. Harper’s. If. because it has had one of the most consistent histories and because all the files have been made available from the first issue of the magazine. Other data were secured from the entire number of firms advertising in the Ladies’ Home Journal. if it does not pay. If large spaces are more valuable in proportion to their size than small spaces. If the smaller spaces are more valuable in proportion to their size we should expect to find the small spaces surviving.) There were but 1. but that small spaces well filled are the more profitable.
In the following table the first column indicates the year. The growth has been so constant and has been sustained for so many years that it seems to be nothing more than a normal growth. the sixth the average number of times each firm advertised in the Century for that year. Several things in this tabulation are worthy of careful consideration. With the exception of the Advertising years of financial distress in the nineties almost every year has shown an increase over the preceding year. the fifth the average number of lines in each advertisement appearing in the magazine for that year.longlostmarketingsecrets. the fourth the average number of lines used by each firm during the year. while during the years of depression there is usually a decrease. The increase is seen to be greatest in the years of prosperity. www. The total number of pages devoted to advertising has been increasing very rapidly till now there are over one thousand pages devoted to Increased advertising annually as compared with two hundred pages Space which was the approximate amount during the first ten years Devoted to of the existence of the magazine.com 105 . the third column the total number of firms advertising in the magazine that year. the second column the total number of pages devoted to commercial advertising during that year in the Century Magazine.
About the year 1890 the real struggle for existence set in among advertisements. In this way all advertisements are in some magazines placed “next to reading matter”. we can but wonder what will happen when a period of years comes which is less prosperous. for instance.The second point to be considered in the tabulation is the number of firms which advertised in the magazine in the years from 1870 to 1907.com 106 . and that is the time to which we must look for the survival of the fittest. The question naturally arises as to the possibility of nine hundred firms advertising successfully during a single year in the same magazine. otherwise the firms would not have discontinued their contracts. From 1890 there has been a rapid falling off till in 1907 there were but 364 firms advertising in the magazine. such years. Until 1890 each firm used on the average approximately one page annually. and we find in the succeeding years that the users of small spaces grew gradually less. however. then the users of small spaces would have survived and would have appeared in the following years. This process is still continuing. The proof is not conclusive that this method of scattering the advertisements is of any great advantage. During the year 1907 fewer firms were advertising in this magazine than for any year for a quarter of a century. is not the case. Although the decrease has been slight during the recent prosperous years. This is shown by the fact that although the number of advertisers has decreased. www. If the small advertisements had been the most profitable. The point made clear by the fourth column of the table is that of the increase in the amount of space used annually by each advertiser. Perhaps it is possible. Such. The fifth and sixth columns show that this Larger Space increase is not due to the more frequent insertion of Being Used advertisements but to the increased size of the individual advertisements. In 1880 there were but 293 Decreasing firms. The year 1907 was almost identical with the year 1890 as to the total advertising space and decrease in the number of advertisers is perhaps the most astounding fact observed in the development of advertising in America. From 1880 to 1890 the Advertisers increase was extremely rapid. the amount of space used has increased. while in 1890 there were 910 firms advertising in the same magazine. as those of the early nineties when the number of firms was so greatly reduced. In that fierce struggle the small spaces proved to be incapable of competing with the larger spaces.longlostmarketingsecrets. It will be noticed that during the first ten years there were about Number of two hundred firms advertising. Certain advertising managers have seen the difficulty of crowding so many advertisements into the two groups at the front and the end of the magazines and have sought to avoid the difficulty by scattering the advertisements through the reading matter. but it certainly has not been attained in 1890-1907.
but also in the low death rate of his patients. when the advertising managers of our periodicals will pride themselves in the low mortality rate of their advertisers rather than in the total number of advertising pages appearing monthly. The point which should be emphasized is that the size of an advertisement is one of the vital elements and that every advertising agent or manager should be an advertising expert and should be able to give advice as to the size of an advertisement which would be the most profitable to present any particular firm with any particular test and illustration. and it is high time that the professional advertising men should awake to their responsibility and display the same wisdom that is displayed by the physician and the lawyer. A physician prides himself not only in the number of his patients. In the end the magazine which has the lowest mortality rate will of course be the most profitable both to the buyer and to the seller of space. There is no good reason why the advertising manager or agent should not be looked upon in the same way.com 107 . and the results of a failure should be looked upon as such a serious matter that periodicals which proved unprofitable in a large proportion of cases would be avoided. www. Because of the psychological effect produced by the larger spaces. and if he has taken account of the advertising experience of the many and not of the few. The advertising agents and managers should not only be experts. Advertising can no longer be said to be in its infancy. It is also not to be assumed that all classes of merchandise can use full pages with Need for Experts profit and that no classes of business can be more in Advertising successful when using small spaces then when using larger ones. and because of the comparative values of large and of small spaces as given above. If he is sincere in his judgements.It is not to be assumed that the size of a poor advertisement will keep it from failure any more than the age of a consumptive will be of supreme moment in determining his probable length of life. and if patients refuse to follow their advice they not infrequently refuse to treat them further. it is evident that one of the duties of the advertising manager and agent is to insist on the use of adequate space and to be able to advise what is adequate space in any particular case. able to give such advice. and is ordinarily correct in his assumption. he should be able to assist the prospective advertiser in avoiding the pitfalls which have been the destruction of a very large proportion of all firms that have attempted to advertise. Physicians are retarded as experts along a certain line. It has now reached mature years. Every failure is an injury to the advertising medium. and indeed is now here. but they should have such confidence in their own judgements that they would refuse to handle the business of any firm which insisted on using spaces which court failure. I believe that the day is soon coming. The lawyer is an expert along another line and he assumes his client will take his advice.longlostmarketingsecrets.
XIV The Psychology of Food Advertising
The taste of foods is partially a matter of sentiment and imagination. This is largely true of all foods, but is particularly applicable to foods as served by our modern chefs. Our rural ancestors were engaged The “Taste” of long hours of the day in strenuous toil in the open air. Foods For them eating was merely to relieve the pangs of hunger. Pork and beans would cause their mouths to “water”, and would be a more tempting morsel to them than are the best-prepared dishes of our gastronomic artists to us. Times have changed. We have turned from a rural population living out of doors into an urban population of sedentary habits. This change is manifesting itself yearly in the alterations which are being wrought in our food consumption. The cruder, grosser and unesthetic foods are finding fewer consumers, while those foods are finding a readier market which are more delicate in texture and more elegant and esthetic in appearance. Of all kinds of meat, pork is the one that is the least pleasing to the eye. It does not lend itself easily to any form of garniture, and it is not surprising that in the fifty years from 1850 to 1900 the American people had become more and more infrequent eaters of pork. In 1850 each inhabitant of the land ate on the average considerably more than one hog. In 1900 each inhabitant ate considerably less than one-half of a hog. This is a falling off of over 60 per cent. Of all the meat goods, eggs are perhaps the most pleasing in appearance. They are often used as garniture for other meats and are themselves easily garnished. It is not strange that in this same period of fifty years the use of eggs should be on the increase. The data are not at hand for the entire period, but in 1880 each inhabitant of the United States consumed, on the average, 110 eggs. In 1900 each inhabitant consumed 204 eggs. This is an increase of over 85 per cent. in twenty years, which must be regarded as a most remarkable change for any people to make. The appetite of our modern urban civilization is much more a matter of sentiment and imagination than was that of our rural ancestors. We all think that we prefer turkey to pork because the taste of the turkey is better than that of the pork. We should question the esthetic judgment of a man who would be so bold as to say that the taste of chicken is as good as that of quail. Even if I have such a cold in my head that I can smell nothing, I should greatly prefer maple sirup to sorghum molasses. It seems absurd that there should be any possibility of hesitation in choosing between these articles. The facts are that in each of these alternatives as to choice we are unable to distinguish the difference between the two by taste at all.
The “tasting game” has proved itself to be extremely interesting to both old and young. In this game portions of food are given to blindfolded subjects who are then asked to identify the food by eating it. In arranging for this game, the foods should be carefully prepared. The meats should be chopped fine and no reasoning or characteristic dressing of any sort should be used. If these conditions are observed, and if in no extraneous manner the name of the food is suggested, the blindfolded subjects will make the most astounding mistakes in trying to name the most ordinary articles of diet. The following are some of the mistakes which will actually occur: Strawberry sirup may be called peach sirup or sugar sirup. Beef broth may be called chicken broth. The liquid in which cabbage has been boiled may be said to be the liquid from turnips. Malt extract may be called yeast or ale. Veal broth may be called the broth of mutton, beef or chicken. Raw potatoes chopped fine may be thought to be chopped acorns. White bread may be called whole-wheat bread. Boston brown bread may be called corn-meal cake. Beef, veal, port, turkey, chicken, quail and other meats will be confused in a most astounding manner. This “tasting game” would be impossible if we really discriminated between our articles of diet by the sense of taste. We are at once led to inquire for the reasons why we choose one article of food and reject another if their tastes are so similar that we cannot tell them apart when our eyes are closed or blindfolded. Why do we prefer turkey to pork? Of course there are certain cuts of pork which do not resemble certain parts of turkey, but the question has to do only with those parts of turkey and pork which cannot be easily discriminated with closed eyes. The correct answer to the question is that we prefer turkey to pork because turkey is rarer than pork and because there is a certain atmosphere or halo thrown about turkey which is not possessed by pork. We are inclined to think of pork as “unclean”, gross and unesthetic. Turkey has enveloped itself in visions of feasts and banquets. It is associated with Thanksgiving and all the pleasant scenes connected therewith. We have seen pictures in which turkey was so garnished that it looked beautiful. Grossness and sensuousness naturally attach themselves to the unesthetic process of eating and to the unesthetic articles of food, but turkey associates itself with our most pleasing thoughts and does not stand out in all its nudity as dead fowl. Again it may be asked, why do we prefer quail to chicken? This can be answered in terms similar to those in which we explained the preference for turkey as compared with pork. Quail is rarer than chicken. Furthermore, the quail is associated in our minds with the pleasures of the chase, the open fields, pure air, the copse of woods, vigorous exercise, days spent in agreeable companionship and exhilarating sport. Our ancestors lived by the chase, and we seem to have inherited a fondness and even love for everything connected therewith. It might also be added that quail is served in a more elegant form than chicken. The garnish is a large part of a quail, but chicken is likely to be served in its nudity. There is a delicacy and yet a plumpness about the quail which is not to be found in a chicken. It will be
noticed that all these points of superiority of quail over chicken are independent of taste; yet they all have a part in determining our final judgment as to the taste of the meat. The American people have been long years in creating this sentiment in favor of the turkey and the quail, but it is well established, and it will make turkey and quail to be desired even when other meats equally good in taste are rejected. The man who has food-stuffs to sell would be fortunate if he could get this commodity in a class with turkey and quail. Such a result would insure him constant sales at a profitable price. Just as we are Creating an willing to pay more for turkey and quail than we are for “Atmosphere” pork and chicken, so we would be willing to pay more for for a Food any article of food which could be presented to us in Product such an appetizing atmosphere as they are. The questions which naturally arise in the mind of the advertiser are, can I create such a sentiment in favor of my commodity that it will be seen enshrined in sentiment? Has a glamour ever been created for an article of merchandise by advertising? This last question must certainly be answered in the affirmative. If the advertisements of Ivory Soap (No.1) have accomplished anything, it is this very thing. All of these advertisements have been of one class for a quarter of a century. They all bring out the one point of spotless elegance. These advertisements have created an atmosphere, and when I think of Ivory Soap a halo of spotless elegance envelops it, and I do not think of it merely as a prosaic chunk of fat and alkali. I have had this idea of spotless elegance so thoroughly associated with Ivory Soap by means of these many advertisements that I actually enjoy using Ivory Soap more than I would if the soap had not been thus advertised. The advertising of this soap not only induced me to buy it, but it influences me in my judgment of the soap after I have bought it.
2).Another advertising campaign which is to be likened to that of Ivory Soap is that of the Chickering Piano (No.longlostmarketingsecrets.. but other articles of furniture. be the central pat of the cut. Most pianos are advertised merely as pianos. www. but I find that my thought of the Chickering is biased by this air of elegance which hovers over it. Many advertisements of the Chickering Piano are evidently devised to represent the piano as an article of furniture in a home which is most sumptuously and tastefully furnished. These advertisements. The piano is set most artfully in this atmosphere of cultured refinement and elegance. and I can think of them as such. like those of Ivory Soap. etc. often seem to say so little and at times it really seems that they squander their space by filling almost the entire page with the illustration and by saying so little directly about their merchandise. indeed. We are left to draw the conclusion for ourselves that if persons with such elegant homes choose the Chickering it must be good enough for us.com 111 . They are alike in that the goods advertised are not thrust out into the foreground of the illustration. are emphasized in a manner which seems to detract from the piano. The Chickering Piano may.
So far as I am concerned no advertiser of food-stuffs has quite equalled Ivory Soap and the Chickering Piano in creating a favourable sentiment or atmosphere in favor of this commodity.com 112 . are the qualities which we all feel as we look at the advertisements or read them. Their advertisements of Nabisco (No. These advertisements have been so successful with me that when I eat a Nabisco I seem to get a sentimental or romantic taste out of it. Delicacy and purity.It seems to me that the sentiment created in favor of Ivory Soap and Chickering Pianos is quite comparable to that which exists in favor of turkey and quail. The firm which has come the nearest to it is the National Biscuit Company. www. even bordering on the romantic and sentimental.3) are most excellent in that they create an atmosphere which is exactly suited to the article advertised.longlostmarketingsecrets.
If while in the dark. but in general.longlostmarketingsecrets. Nothing is influenced by sentiment and imagination more than the sense of taste. I enjoy Nabisco wafers more because of these advertisements than I should if I had not seen them. it will add immensely to the “taste” of the commodity. but if this style of advertising is continued I anticipate that Nabisco sugar wafers will taste better and better with each succeeding appearance of a good advertisement.com 113 . The National Biscuit Company is undertaking a big task when it attempts to weave poetical associations about Uneeda Biscuit (No. The attempts thus far have been but halfhearted and infrequent. If the firm is able to create a sentimental setting. If my appreciation of a soap or a piano can be increased by advertising. and if I did not know what it was. I were given a new flavor of Nabisco. The reproduced illustration shown herewith (No. or to associate the soda-cracker with something patriotic. or with something of that sort. www. There are a few advertisers of food products who are trying to create an appetizing halo and to spread it over their goods.4). and nothing kills the flavor of an article of diet more than this feeling of the commonplace and the lack of poetical or esthetic sentiment. Sentiment is not easily or quickly engendered. then most assuredly there is a great field for profitable endeavor for the advertiser of food-stuffs.4) is a very good attempt to give the Uneeda Biscuit a connection with man’s higher nature. food advertisements are woefully weak at this point. it would not taste so good as it would under normal conditions. A soda-cracker is one of the most prosaic things imaginable.
and he should depict his food product in the most appetizing manner possible. He is able to influence me to buy the goods. and are over-cautious in our actions. Whether his goods will be classed with “pork” or with “turkey” depends not only on the real taste of the food-stuff.longlostmarketingsecrets.Whether I like an article of food or not often depends upon what I think of the food before I taste it. They choose that which tastes good while they are eating it. When we are pleased we are open to suggestions and are easily induced to act. The advertiser of food products should therefore present only the most pleasing suggestions. Pleasure One of the functions of the advertiser is to please the Increases prospective customers in every way possible to knit Demand for agreeable suggestions about the product offered for sale. Perhaps in no form of advertising is it so necessary to please the prospective customer as in food advertising. we become insensible to appeals. It is true that certain foods are bought because of their medicinal properties. but www. When we are displeased. The trend of our diet is not dependent upon any one thing. Foods Most persons choose their foods wholly upon the standard of taste.com 114 . but also upon the efficacy of the advertisements in creating the favourable atmosphere. Pleasure stimulates the appetite. The savory morsel is eaten without thought as to its chemical constituents. and pleasure is the standard of choice. Here is the advertiser’s opportunity. and then his advertisements may make me like the taste of the goods after I have bought them. but such foods should be regarded as medicine rather than as food. and refuse that which is displeasing to the palate. A careful study of the changed food fashions will discover many agencies at work.
must be regarded as an integral part of the food stuff. we believe that the food itself will be all right and we are prejudiced in favor of it. The table must be decorated and the individual dishes garnished. www. we all form an idea of a good by the advertisements of it which we have seen. The modern housewife is insisting on a beautiful diningroom. Her ideas may be molded by advertising. How much more appetizing are crackers packed in a box than the same crackers sold in bulk! Who will say how much is due to the form of the box in the enormous increase of crackers in American during the last few years! Would the American public ever have taken kindly to the cereal breakfast food if we had been compelled to buy it in the bulk? The housewife purchases the provisions for the table. and prefer many light courses rather than a few heavy ones. In her mind the package is intimately associated with the contents. can. basket. The package. She knows that a meal does not taste good unless the linen is spotless and the service more or less formal and ceremonious. One thing that spoils the looks of food products is having them piled up in a confused mass. In her mind the appearance is an essential pat of the taste. The glassware must be cut-glass and the silver of the most improved pattern. and she does not believe that a food can be appetizing unless it looks as if it were. the best of linen and artistically decorated china. bottle. or whatever is used to encase the goods as sold and delivered. for this process is at work daily in all our homes. The housewife who is insisting on all these details is the one the merchant should have in mind when he is planning for the sale of his goods. The same modern housewife predetermines her choice of foods by what she knows of them in advance.longlostmarketingsecrets. We like to have our meals serviced in courses. and as an efficient factor in determining whether the goods will be consumed in increasing or decreasing quantities. Like the housewives. even if we have not read them. If the advertisement looks pleasing and if the food is there presented in an appetizing manner. A table which contained many articles of food at once is not inviting to the epicure. Many advertisements which would otherwise be strong are weakened by overcrowding of good things. She wants those articles of food which come in neat packages and which can be served in neat and elegant form.com 115 . The package in which the goods are delivered is as surely associated with the food as is the linen of the table and all the other articles of service. bag.among others will certainly be found the appearance of the food stuff. The same principle holds with advertisements.
for the appearance of the whole thing is ruined by the multitude of fruits which are thrown promiscuously into the illustration. I think I might like Wheatlet if it were serviced with any one of these fruits.5) as reproduced herewith is not appetizing.longlostmarketingsecrets. but if it should be presented in such a confusion as this it would not be eaten at all.com 116 . www.The reduced advertisement of Wheatlet (no.
It is disgusting to think of eating the flesh of dead cows. In some instances householders make written lists of the goods desired. chicken. but tier upon tier of different goods are presented to her sense of sight. and an advertising campaign that familiarizes the housekeepers of the nation with the distinguishing appearance of any particular package has done much to increase its sale. The method which the house-keepers of the land employ in purchasing foods must be a factor in determining the appropriate form of advertising. While the public is being made familiar with the food or the food container. We refuse to use the terms cow-flesh.com 117 . It is not pleasing to think of eating the flesh of the smaller animals and of fowls.6) has adopted the Wheatlet border. cans and boxes. As she enters the store she is confronted by rows and tiers of bottles. She has her list of purchases but imperfectly made out. www. While in the grocery store the purchaser does not taste the various articles. Out of this bewildering multitude of packages she is pleased to see certain ones which are known to her. The reproduced advertisement of Egg-o-See is such that it has made her familiar with the package as it appears on the shelves and it would thus be called to her attention at the critical moment. and thus it does not assist in attracting her eye to the goods advertised at the moment of decision. the last mentioned emphasizes the appearance of the package. Our abhorrence of such ideas is registered Carnivorous? in our language. but in such a simplified form that it is successful in suggesting wheat and does not overcrowd the illustration. In other instances the order is sent by telephone or by a messenger. goose. squirrel. The known ones are the packages which she is most likely to purchase. and so we use the terms beef. a pleasing appeal should also be made to the esthetic nature of the possible customers. Of the two advertisements (Wheatlet and Egg-o-See). It is by sight that she recognizes the various packages.longlostmarketingsecrets. the order is placed without looking at the goods at all. In perhaps the most cases the purchaser enters the grocery store in person.The reproduced advertisement of Egg-o-See (No. but it does not like to be reminded of the fact. At the moment of making the purchases for the week these two commodities might be on the shelf before the purchaser. as they catch her attention just at the time she is trying to recall the things of which she may be in need. while the advertisement of Wheatlet omits the presentation of the package. still it is not so abhorrent as the thought of eating the flesh of the larger and domestic animals. pork and mutton. hog-flesh and Are We sheep-flesh. hogs and sheep. The human race is carnivorous. Accordingly we still use the same word to denote the live animal and the flesh in such instances as rabbit. The advertisement of Wheatlet is not such as would have assisted in familiarizing her with the appearance of the package. These familiar packages catch her attention more than the scores of unknown ones. etc.
(No.longlostmarketingsecrets. That point should be taken Meat for granted and passed over as lightly as possible. In advertising meats. and what we do eat must always be presented in a pleasing manner and in a way which jars as little as possible against our refined and cultivated natures. The sight of an animal. We have changed from a rural to an urban population and hence require less meat foods. Our consideration and press to the front the fact that their Sensibilities meats are the flesh of animals. Indeed. www. This advertisement makes no one hungry for Liebig Company’s extract of beef.7) is given up to the emphasizing of the point that this extract is secured from the carcasses of beautiful steers. but we refuse to entertain the idea at meal time. is not very appetizing to the civilized man or woman.com 118 . The sight of a fat pig might cause the mouth of a wolf to “water”. Advertisements Certain advertisers have not taken this matter into vs. which is but a presentation of the trade-mark.It is quite conceivable that the sight of a dead carcass would whet the appetite of a hyena. Thus the reproduced advertisement of Liebig (No. yet the government statistics show a great decrease per capita in the consumption of meats. but it represents too much of it. whether dead or alive. The reproduced advertisement of Armour & Co. and the criticism is therefore directed against the choice of such a trade-mark rather than against this special advertisement. we have become so cultured that we like to have our meats garnished till they cease to have the appearance of flesh at all. As a nation our wealth is increasing rapidly and consequently we are better able to purchase meats now than fifty years ago. There are whole nations which refuse to eat meat. and vegetarianism in our own country is but an indication of the revolt of the human mind against our carnivorous habits.8) does not present an animal in its entirety. We know that beef is nothing but the flesh of dead cattle. the fact should never be emphasized that the meat is the flesh of an animal. The advertisement is intended to make the public familiar with the Liebig trade-mark.
www. The reproduced advertisement of Armour’s potted ham and ox tongue (No.9) is perhaps one of the most pleasing advertisements of meats that has appeared in our magazines. If smaller pieces of meat had been shown the result would have been entirely different.longlostmarketingsecrets.The carcasses as shown in the advertisement are too large to tempt our appetites and the general effect is rather disgusting.com 119 .
com 120 . Frogs are inherently Animals uncanny to most persons. Such an advertisement creates a demand for the goods and prejudices the customers in their favor. Associating The reproduced advertisement of White Star Coffee Foods with (No. The border might include a cut of the container and the total effect be rendered none the less artistic. This would be a better advertisement for Armour & Co. The meat is presented in small pieces and is garnished till it is hardly recognizable.10) is in every way disgusting.longlostmarketingsecrets. if the can were shown in which this meat had been purchased.No one can look at the advertisement without being impressed with the desirability of these products. and to see them here as the representatives of a particular brand of coffee serves but to instil a dislike and even abhorrence for the product. and the ham and ox tongue will taste better to the customer after he has seen this advertisement. www. We not only object to thinking of ourselves as carnivorous but we object to having animals connected in any way with our foods.
com 121 . It is one of the most silly and destructive advertisements appearing in our current magazines.This advertisement never made anyone eager for a cup of coffee.longlostmarketingsecrets.11) is in no way objectionable and is a great improvement in point of display over the first one. The other reproduced advertisement of the same brand of coffee (No. www. It does not create a demand for coffee and in the cases where the demand already exists it does not convince the casual observer that White Star Coffee is particularly desirable.
They are altogether a gruesome sight. Here we have evidence of an amateur advertiser who was enamoured with his play on the words. The Elegance advertising pages of many of our cheaper periodicals are nothing better than chambers of horrors.12) the food is represented as being fed to the fowls. The afflictions of mankind are here depicted in an exaggerated form. the ink is the cheapest and the make-up is without taste. and if the advertisement is associated with disgust6ing or Purity and displeasing objects the food is the loser thereby. “it fills the bill”. and I should not want to eat it myself. but it should be done only with great caution and with full realization of the dangers incurred because of the inevitable association between the animal and the food advertised. The paper is poor.longlostmarketingsecrets.com 122 . The assumption would be that it is a food especially adapted to their taste.Ordinarily we feed the animals what we do not care to eat ourselves. The advertiser must seek to associate his food only with purity and elegance. Even in these www. and who was willing to pay for the exploitation of his joke under the pretense of an advertisement. Even the young goose seems to be disgorging the food for some unexplained reason. Food advertisements in such papers are practically worthless. and the assumption is that that which is good enough for the beasts is not fit for men and women. It may be possible that under very exceptional circumstances it would be advisable to introduce an animal in an advertisement of a food product. In the reproduced advertisement of Korn Krisp (No. In a sense the advertisement is the representative of the food.
13 they certainly are not preferred media for food advertisers. and other ills and unappetizing suggestions.com 123 . “asthma”. www. and the investments are usually of a questionable sort. “eruptions”. “whirling spray douche”. Even good daily papers are open to this criticism.longlostmarketingsecrets. The medicines are advertised by depicting the unwholesome aspects of life. fortunately. The food advertisements are here associated with “skin diseases”.papers a few food advertisements are found. “pimples”. In these cheaper forms of publications the majority of advertisements are likely to be of patent medicines or of forms of investments. “blood poison”. “backaches”. No. there are only a few. 13 is a reproduction of a section of one of the best American dailies. “consumption”. but. What value is the advertisement of Malt Marrow and of Armour’s Star Ham in such an environment? Until the daily papers have more to offer than such position as is indicated by No. These advertisements of patent medicines and investment schemes made the readers suspicious and hence they are in a condition of mind which leads them to suspect the foods advertised as being adulterated and impure.
The importance of these undiscovered causes in our every-day thinking and acting may be illustrated by the following example. painted signs and similar forms of advertising admit of extensive display within a prescribed area and have great attention value. We are led to form opinions and judgements by influences which we should reject if we were aware of them. They appeal to the reason in a way not surpassed by any form of printed advertising. After we have Importance of decided upon a certain line of action. Posters. Booklets. circulars and similar forms of advertising admit of complete descriptions and may be put in the hands of only those who are interested in the commodity offered for sale. the weeklies and the dailies carry authority which is lacking in other forms. www. Foremost among such conditions are expense. we frequently Time attempt to justify ourselves in our own eyes.. when in reality they had nothing to do with it. and the medium which the merchant should choose depends upon many conditions. and advertisements appearing in them are benefited by this confidence which is bestowed upon everything appearing in them.longlostmarketingsecrets. however. These publications are held in high repute in the household. the width of distribution of goods. the advertiser should consider the peculiar psychological effect of each particular form. the quality of goods to be presented. this latter is selected for fuller presentation. but inasmuch as the psychological effects of other forms are recognized and that of street car advertising is frequently not recognized. Equal with these conditions. The psychological effect of street car advertising is not generally recognized and in this presentation there is no attempt to praise one form of advertising and to decry all others. The monthly magazine. the class of persons to be reached. etc.XV The Unconscious Influence in Street Railway Advertising Every form of advertising has its particular psychological effect.com 124 . Our minds are constantly subjected to influences of which we have no knowledge. bill-boards. and so we discover certain logical reasons for our actions and assume them to have been the true cause. etc.
com 125 . for most advertisements in newspapers and magazines receive no more than a glance from the average reader. The peculiar construction of the lines A and B induces the eye to move farther in estimating the length of A. The ordinary reader of newspapers and magazines glances at all of the advertising pages and sees all the larger and more striking advertisements. We are not aware of the sensations received from these movements of our eyes. As a result of investigations upon magazine and newspaper advertising the conclusion was reached that on the average only ten per Time cent. and so get a sensation from the contraction of the muscles of the eyes. Some recent tests of the extent to which passengers have been influenced by such advertising showed most conclusively that there was an unrecognised power in it. The arrow pointing toward the line as shown in A causes us all to over-estimate the magnitude of the line. We judge of the length of lines by the amount of this sensation derived from contracting the muscles which move the eyes.) As a conclusion deduced from these results it was recommended that advertisements should be so constructed that the gist of each could be comprehended at a glance. Magazines and newspapers have become so numerous and the daily duties so pressing that we can-not take time to read all the www. In judging the length of lines we run our eyes over them. of the time devoted to newspapers and magazines was Whiled spent in looking at the advertisements.Lines A and B are of equal length. This explanation was not discovered till recent years. The street railway advertiser controls an unrecognised force which is similar to that just described in the estimation of the length of lines. when in reality such is not the case? If they are they are the same length. and yet the results have been phenomenally great. and there is a factor present in street railway advertising which causes us to be influenced by it more than would seem possible. Now why do we reach the conclusion that A is longer than B. If two lines are equally distant from us. (For a fuller account of Away the investigation see Chapter X. entering into the judgment. and we see them in a clear light.longlostmarketingsecrets. If two lines are the same distance from us and are the same length. There are persons who read all the advertisements and there are others who glance at but few of them. certain imperceptible causes which made us see the lines as of different length. There are many exceptions to this. We therefore assume that A is longer than B because our eyes move farther in estimating its length than in estimating the length of B. we should expect that they would appear to be as they actually are. although A seems longer. A study of the situation discloses the fact that this unconscious influence is none other than TIME which manifests itself in three phases as presented below. There has been much poor street railway advertising. and one longer than the other. and yet we estimate lengths of lines by them. but it has been proved to be correct. The accepted explanation of this illusion is that there are. our eyes will ordinarily move equal distances in traversing their lengths. we ordinarily have to move our eyes farther in estimating the length of the longer one than in estimating the length of the shorter one.
There is sufficient opportunity to see every person in the car and to devote as much time to the process as good breeding will allow. of the total population of the city. He reads the card and then reads it again because he has nothing else to do. Some of the goods advertised were known to her only by these advertisements. When questioned further. The amount of time spent in riding on street cars in America is far beyond the conception of most persons. One can-not read a newspaper on a crowded car – I am acquainted only with crowded cars.longlostmarketingsecrets. Fifteen minutes may be regarded as a fair estimate. and so we devote but few minutes to them. One young lady asserted that she had never looked at any of the cards in the cars in which she had been riding for years. Neither is it practicable to read a book or magazine on a jolting car – I am acquainted only with such. yet she supposed that they had nothing to do with her esteem of the goods. but what of it? If offers a diversion. In the average American city the number of fares collected on street cars equals about 66 per cent. This may be very silly.advertisements. These rides become very monotonous. and that the goods advertised had won of Source of her highest esteem. counting the number of passengers. We cannot afford the time to do more. The case is different with street railway advertising. She was not aware of the fact that Information she had been studying the advertisements. To attempt to look out of a window opposite to you causes the lady opposite to wonder at your rudeness in staring at her. it appeared that she knew by heart almost every Time Secures advertisement appearing on the line (Chicago and Forgetfulness Evanston line). and in those few minutes we see a great number. Thereafter one is compelled to look at the floor or else above the heads of the passengers. and flatly resented the suggestion that she had been influenced by them. Statistics show that in the United States in the single year of 1902 about 5. In addition to these cash fares there were many transfers and passes. the passengers’ minds are not occupied. Here there is no shortage of time. The passenger has for once an abundance of time.com 126 . The figures for the year 1907 are very much in excess of those for 1902. for to look out of the window the eyes are directed so nearly at the face of some passenger that one’s intentions are misjudged. and anything is better than looking at the floor. or that they had been recommended to her. In defense of one’s good breeding and to drive away the weariness of the ride many a passenger is compelled to turn his gaze on the placards which adorn the sides of the car. or watching the conductor ring up the fares. She supposed that she had always known them. Upon this estimate each inhabitant of our cities spends on the average as much as ten minutes a day in a street car. There are no data available for the length of time consumed by an average street car ride. that they were used in her home. www.000 million cash fares were collected for passengers on street cars. She did not remember when she had first heard of them. and very much more time is whiled away by looking at the advertisements than we are aware of.
In poetry. the lacing of my shoes very little. The so-called “rag-time” is assumed to have no meaning. It has no intrinsic importance and is consequently appropriately expressed in fast time. We devote the most time to Appreciation those subjects which we regard as the most important. and that the advertisement itself is no essential part of our information. This element is recognized by every skilful public speaker. My profession takes most of my thought. www. The more frequently the advertisement is seen. In the case of the orator. That which holds our thought for a longer time seems to us to be important. This forgetfulness of the source of our information is due to the interval which has elapsed between the first time the advertisement as seen and the present. Ideas which impress me as important cause me to think of them for lengthy periods of time. deep or large – all such music is written in slow time. it is not supposed to suggest lines of thought. Suggestion. He speaks rapidly that which he wishes us to consider as of little importance. We weigh the importance of his statements and estimate their value in terms of the time which he gives to each. and we forget where we received it. but there is another phase and one of even more importance which has. This is especially important in street car advertising. never been mentioned in Increases Our connection with advertising.com 127 . An advertisement has not accomplished its mission till it has instructed the possible customer concerning the goods and then has caused him to forget where he received his instruction. the poet and the musician have simply accommodated themselves to our intuitive method of thinking and have been successful because they have conformed their expressions to the human method of thought. the poet and the musician the effect is produced by this unrecognised element of time. This same principle holds in music. (This point is more fully developed in Chapter VI. that which we hurry over seem unimportant. The information which we receive from the card in the street car soon becomes a part of us. Ideas which are of more importance and which are supposed to call forth much thought from the reader are expressed in slow movements. which is sublime. This has a special application to advertising. the more rapidly will the memory of the first appearance fade and leave us with the feeling that we have always known the goods advertised. The orator.It has been said that we have learned nothing perfectly until we have forgotten how we learned it. thoughts which are trivial or of minor importance are expressed by rapid movements. He speaks slowly that which he wishes us to regard as of special significance.longlostmarketingsecrets.) The element of time as it enters the problem of advertising is recognized to a limited extent in the two phases thus far discussed. Ideas which seem insignificant are dismissed immediately from my mind. to Time the writer’s knowledge. Music which means much – which suggests many thoughts.
The sum total of the time thus devoted to the card is as great as the amount of time that we devote to many of our important interests. I assume that my judgement is based on the goods themselves as they are presented to my reason. Yet it is as certain that this element of time has biased my judgement of the relative values of the goods as it is that the eye movement influences my judgment of the lengths of lines. The same card may be read or glanced at daily for as long a time as the card is left in the car. There is indeed no form of advertising which is presented to such a large number of possible purchasers for such a long period of time and so frequently as is the advertising in street railway cars. They go over the same road so frequently that the streets passed through cease to be interesting. This is the psychological explanation of the amazing potency of this particular form of advertising. Our old school-books.longlostmarketingsecrets.As was shown above. I am not aware of the fact that I am prejudiced in favor of the goods that have occupied my mind the longest periods of time. In estimating the relative values of two competing lines of goods. This is not an absolute rule. the passengers on street railways have but little to distract their attention. Illustrations of this fact are to be found on every hand. upon which we were compelled to bestow so many hours of study. Advertisements in newspapers and magazines are seen by a great number of the readers. The mother is likely to think the most of the child which has caused her the most thought. The reverse of this principle is not recognized by us at all and yet it is of primal importance. Under ordinary circumstances we bestow thought upon objects in proportion to their importance. www. That which occupies our minds for a great amount of time assumes thereby an importance which may be out of all proportion to its real value. of course. but it expresses a principle. the cards have but few rivals for attention. In street railway advertising we devote longer time than we really think is due to the advertisements. The sickly child occupies her mind more than the well one. but the time devoted to any particular advertisement is very small.com 128 . and then we turn around and estimate the value of the goods advertised by the amount of time that we have devoted to the advertisement. In most other forms of advertising we devote to any particular advertisement only as much time as we think it is worth. Even those who have but little interest in the advertisements find that they glance at the cards frequently and that the eyes rest on a single card for a considerable length of time. Since newspapers and magazines cannot be easily read. and this accounts for the fact that she attributes to the sickly child an importance far beyond its real worth. unless there is a special interest in the advertisement. in later years assume a value in our eyes far in excess of their real merit. The goods which through their advertisements have occupied our minds for long periods of time assume in our minds an importance which is often far in excess of anything which would have been anticipated by one who was not familiar with the peculiar power here described.
One of the methods that modern psychology has developed is the so-called Questionnaire Method. which was employed in investigating them. less reliance can be placed in any single answer and greater caution must be used in drawing conclusions based upon the replies. The questionnaire method is used to secure the concensus and the diversity of many individual opinions.com 129 .longlostmarketingsecrets. for The two following questions naturally suggested themselves: Research What is there in the modern newspaper that appeals to the better classes of society. If the questions call for the description of simple unemotional events. and what motives should be appealed to in inducing them to begin a subscription? The problems here raised are clearly psychological and subject to the questionnaire method.000 of the most prominent business and professional men of Chicago. Methods that make the experiences of others also available are even more valuable. how they may be investigated. A single illustration will indicate how such questions arise. One of the functions of every science is to develop methods that are useful for investigating problems which concern that particular science. and will also present a mass of information concerning newspapers that is of interest and profit to advertiser. If the answers call for a difficult analysis of motives and interests. An attempt was made to include what could fairly be said to be the best citizens of www. but it has the inestimable value of assisting the investigator to take advantage of the experiences of a great number of individuals.XVI The Questionnaire Method in Advertising Illustrated by an investigation upon newspapers Experience is the best teacher. The answers to the questions are derived from the experiences of those who are to answer them. A carefully selected list was prepared containing the names of 4. A prominent advertising man was planning copy to be used on street-car cards designed to secure new subscribers to newspapers. A single question or a set of questions is presented to any desired group of persons. There are many problems that the advertiser needs to investigate for which the questionnaire method alone is available. This method has many defects. Methods that enable one to make the greatest use of one’s own experiences are valuable. reliance may be put in the answers received from all sincere respondents. but in each case the Problems attempt was to be made to reach the best citizens of the city. The campaign was to be conducted in different American The cities in the interest of local papers.
the 2. with few exceptions.Chicago.000 names was prepared. Those receiving the Valuable questionnaire seemed much interested in the research.longlostmarketingsecrets. a good proportion signed their names to the paper or enclosed a personal. The number was so large that it contained a fully representative group.300 of the representative business and professional men. were adult men. In case of doubt as to whether the replies were www.000 answered each of the questions. The questionnaire as reproduced herewith was mailed to the 5.000”. signed letter. Although no place was provided for signatures. and inasmuch as but approximately Replies 2. The replies from the 1. For the purpose of comparison.com 130 . but all. In all the slips the key indicated at least to which one of the numerous groups the respondent belonged. the answers indicate careful deliberation and the utmost sincerity. A large number of the slips were carefully keyed and even when no signature was attached the author of the replies was known.300 are Abundant and hereafter referred to as “the 2. This list contained the names of men from very different classes of society. Replies were received from about 2. another list of 1. and although they are very busy men.000 are disregarded in the present chapter.000 names constituting the two lists.
If any suggestions are made. No proxies were desired. The advertiser might have great difficulty in selecting a group of persons whose answers would be significant and yet who would be willing to fill out the blanks. This proportion is unusually large and is to be attributed to several causes. In the questionnaire reproduced herewith. the haste of writing the names caused an understatement of the actual number of papers read. and psychology is very popular just at present.com 131 . The investigator. Haphazard. voluntary answers received in competition for a prize or for the gaining of a paltry reward are not to be compared in value to voluntary replies from a carefully selected list. The difficulty of securing trustworthy replies is so great that the advertiser will usually be compelled to have the investigation carried on by a disinterested person. was assumed to be honest and desirous of securing only the facts. A stamped return envelope was enclosed. This doubtless affected the results. that fact should never be forgotten in estimating the results. and as all probable answers were suggested the results were certainly not greatly changed thereby. Doubtless in many cases the list would have to be confined to business associates or to personal friends. the figures are as follows: 14% read but one paper 46% read two papers 21% read three papers 10% read four papers 3% read five papers 2% read six papers 3% read all the papers (8) www. Ordinarily no suggestions should be made as to what answer is expected. The number of suggestions was made so large that no particular one would have much more effect than the others. In spite of this fact the respondents took pains to write in a number of papers. The answers were sought for as a means of “solving a psychological question”. owing to his university connection. The space in the questionnaire left for writing the Daily names of the papers read was but a little over one inch in length. they were rejected as not authentic. Number (I. it is quite probable that the inadequate space and. As stated above.filled out personally by the man to whom the questionnaire was sent. What Chicago daily or dailies do you read?) Eighty-six of Papers per cent. As reported. the amount of space left for answering the first question suggested that the names of but one or two papers were to be written. reported themselves as reading more than a single Read paper. The fact that each individual reads or scans a number of papers daily was brought out clearly by the answers to the first question. of those receiving the questionnaire took pains to fill out the blank. Also in connection with the third question a series of answers were suggested. The subject under investigation was personally interesting. as it was done in the present instance. in some cases. Over fifty per cent.longlostmarketingsecrets.
The papers are glanced through so hurriedly that an advertisement.longlostmarketingsecrets. The display advertisements are glanced at by a very large number of persons who pick up the paper. as reported. Advertisements may be divided into two groups: classified and display advertisements.Some of the papers taken by any person are to be regarded as subsidiary and as commanding but little attention.com 132 . Do you spend on an average as much as fifteen minutes daily reading a Chicago daily? A decided majority seemed to consider fifteen minutes a fair Time Spent in estimate of the time spent in reading the daily papers. The writers were frequently careful to state that this fifteen minutes was the total time spent in reading all the papers and not the amount spent in reading each of the several papers read. Reading Daily Four per cent. the weather reports. attention may be turned for a few seconds or minutes to a more leisurely reading of the articles discovered in the preliminary search. These subsidiary papers contain a large part of the advertisements that are also contained in the preferred papers. Twenty-five percent. must be striking in appearance and must announce something in which the reader is particularly interested. etc. is the reading of the head lines. however. unless sought for. the table of contents. If the advertiser could pick out the papers that command the most confidence of a relatively large number of readers. which command the most attention. The fourth question was IV. but most advertisers are convinced that it is not worth three times as much to have an advertisement seen in three papers as it is to have it seen in one. the advertisement may be selected and read from beginning to end. he could afford to neglect the subsidiary papers entirely. The advertisement must tell its story quickly if at all. www. in order to be seen at all. These few minutes admit of but the most cursory reading. The classified are read only by those who search for them. Considering together the total number of papers read and the total amount of time spent in reading them. but “just about fifteen minutes” was by far the most common answer. Reported a greater amount of time. If the message which it is capable of imparting to those who glance at it is inviting. to construct his advertisement so that a single glance at it may be effective in imparting information and in making an impression even through the advertisement is not to be under observation for more than a few seconds. we reach the conclusion that a very decided majority of these representative business and professional men spend but approximately from five to ten minutes reading any particular paper. answered that they spent less than fifteen Papers minutes daily. The duplication of circulation represents a loss. A few reported as much as two hours. A favorite programme. Then if time admits or if anything especially interesting is discovered. The same advertisement seen in two or three papers may be more effective than if seen in but one. The advertiser should attempt.
than the others. the business and professional men who were members of one of the most prominent clubs preferred with equal uniformity still a different paper. he would employ the evening papers. A Interesting feature that was mentioned as first choice was credited Features of a Daily Paper www. he would use the morning papers. Perhaps one-half of them could be reached by a single paper. but such instances are exceptions rather than the rule. if he wanted to reach the labouring class. “less yellow”. A majority of business and professional men fail to see advertisements appearing in evening papers and are not greatly affected by those that they do see. Many answered that one paper was preferred Papers for general news. (III. another for moral tone. Others refused to go on record as preferring any paper and so expressed themselves by saying that one paper was “less objectionable”. The labouring classes have no time to read a morning paper. e. three-fourths by two papers and over nine-tenths of all by using half the papers. Particular groups of men displayed considerable uniformity in their preference for a single paper. naming the preferred paper... another for cartoons. “less venal”. The replies from the 2. etc. With these men the evening papers are often to be regarded merely as subsidiary. the one hundred professional men connected with one educational institution preferred one paper.g.longlostmarketingsecrets. and it is probable that they are preferred in more cases than are the morning papers. the following plan was adopted.000 showed somewhat of a uniformity in their selection of a preferred paper.com 133 .) To reduce the answers to some sort of a The Most comprehensible unit. State in order the five features of your paper that interest you most. Many business and professional men prefer evening papers and many laboring men prefer the morning papers. If he wanted to reach the better classes. The circulation of the evening papers in Chicago is greater than that of the morning papers. etc. confessed that they had no for Individual preference. For business and professional men the reverse is true. Which one do you prefer?) A very Preferences respectable minority. but after the day’s work is over the evening paper is read and doubtless much more than fifteen minutes is devoted to it. This particular group could not be reached by using anything less than all the papers. If these statements did not have so many exceptions the advertiser’s task would be comparatively simple when it comes to choosing a medium for any particular advertisement. probably a majority of the labouring class is unaffected by advertisements appearing in the morning papers. The chief interest in the investigation centers in the answers to the third question. the business men who were members of an athletic club showed a decided preference for another paper. another for special articles. (II. however. Likewise. but the most surprising thing was the lack of uniformity.A majority of the respondents answered the second question. among them the morning papers are read in larger numbers and are preferred in more instances than the evening papers.
1% respectively. which possessed over 75 per www. one mentioned as second choice.8%. in the case of local news.5% of the interest and in the others 18. 14. The features that were most uniformly interesting were the news items.7 per cent.5 9.0 7.13 . It was then found what per cent.7 5.44 . in another but 6.3 1.8 15. one mentioned as third choice. Thus in one paper 19 per cent. 13.05 Inasmuch as these figures represent the distribution as found for all the papers combined.3 4.1 .4 1.8 4.84 1.9%. four points. In some features the diversity between papers is very great. This is true. one mentioned as fifth choice. of the interest is in sporting news.8%. 18.8 11. it would. In one paper it monopolizes 19. In most particulars there is a pronounced similarity in the distribution of interest in the different papers.2 6.6%.4 1.1 . two points. three points. Features that were interesting to any group in any paper were usually found to be interesting in all the papers and to all the groups.with five points. These last illustrations from sporting news and finance are exceptional instances.3%. 17. In one paper 19. of this total interest had been credited to politics. The sum of all these points was arbitrarily assumed to represent the sum total of interest. of the interest is in financial news.8% and 12. For all the papers and for all the different groups into which the business and professional men were divided the striking fact was the uniformity of interests. the total result for all papers and all respondents is as follows: Local news Political news Financial news Foreign news Editorials General news Ethical tone (broadly considered) Sporting news Cartoons Special article Music Book reviews Arrangement Society notes Drama Art Advertisements Storiettes Weather Humor Per cent.longlostmarketingsecrets. in another but 2 per cent. 17.com 134 .88 1. be anticipated that the same order would not hold exactly for an individual paper. As thus found. 12. of course. one point.9 . for instance.9 per cent. one mentioned as fourth choice. editorials and all other features mentioned by any of the respondents. and even in these the extremes are found in the papers that were least often mentioned as the preferred papers.3 9.
drama. This list of examples acted as a constant suggestion and made it more likely that the answers cited would be given than any original ones.com 135 . as printed in the questionnaire. and when cartoons and editorials were mentioned the writers were frequently careful to add that they were interested in these because they were a summary or index of some important news. The third question should be considered in connection with the fifth. Everyone seemed interested in news.longlostmarketingsecrets. advertisements did not seem to attract much attention. As is indicated in the tabulation above. While it resulted in the presentation of many different answers. Local news.) Premiums Cartoons Special articles Reputation of paper Service (best delivery) 65% 10% 4% 4% 3% 1% 1% All other motives (about twenty in number) received scattering mention. Advertisements aiming to secure new subscribers to a newspaper should give most importance to the description of the news service of that particular paper. book reviews. still the uniformity with which the news items were mentioned – observed in the answers to the third question – is even greater here. (V. Of all the motives that could be classified the following show what per cent. etc.cent. www. foreign news. financial news. All other features were low in interest with most of the groups and in most of the papers. society – all these combined do not possess so much interest as local news alone. political news and sporting news – these monopolize the interest of business and professional men. general news. music. art. Editorials. Other features might be mentioned. No such suggestions were added to the statement of the fifth question and hence answers to this latter question are more reliable. These results make it clear that the Chicago dailies are valued as NEWS papers and as little else. What induced you to begin the subscription of the paper or Motives for papers which you are now taking?) Immediately following Beginning a Subscription the statement of the third question. storiettes. of the total number of times each motive was mentioned: To keep informed concerning current events Ethical tone (including accuracy. of the total interest. but the uniformity with which all groups expressed their interest in the news in each of the papers makes it quite certain that here we have the vital feature of the newspaper and that which gives it its name. suggestive answers were presented.
The phrase. occurred so often that it seemed to express a general lack of confidence. “to be up to the times and not a back number”. The questionnaire invited no criticism of daily papers and yet many of these business and professional men volunteered criticisms which they inserted on the sheets of questions or Criticism of else wrote them in personal letters that were enclosed. “to be en rapport with the world”. The same sort of criticism is made of the editorial columns. the funny columns. and one would not be justified in asserting that the lack of confidence is general unless other grounds for the statement were at hand. News service is the desideratum. the society notes. would furnish a theme for further advertisements. In the main the criticism centred about the news service. There are almost no criticisms of the storiettes.longlostmarketingsecrets. nor does the reader express himself as aggrieved by the poor quality or even by the absence of any of them. then premiums and cartoons or even editorials and storiettes may become the deciding factor. etc.com 136 . A truly educational campaign carried on in the interests of the two themes – completeness of news service and care to present the truth . “desire to be informed”. In comparison with this desire for news of current events all other motives seem insignificant. All these seem to be as good as desired. “to be informed as to what is going on”. In waging a campaign to increase the circulation of newspapers the fact should be constantly before the advertiser’s mind that people are interested primarily in the news. of the business and professional men united in stating that the motive in first subscribing to their chosen papers was the desire to keep informed concerning current events. and hence to present the news accurately. The following expressions were frequently used and are most suggestive: “to keep in touch with current events”. or some analogous expression. Daily Papers There are but few criticism of the less important features of the papers. The editor is believed to be unduly influenced by the business manager. the book reviews. The present research was not devised to ascertain the degree of confidence in newspapers. www. A presentation of all the means employed to avoid mistakes. the editorials and the general lack of integrity of the papers.would increase the circulation of any of the better metropolitan dailies. “the potent censorship of Big Business”. they were criticized rather for the failure to present an unbiased report. There was no criticism of the newspapers for failure to know the facts.It is a significant fact that sixty-five per cent. A description of the methods used by any great paper to secure the news would be a most powerful argument for securing new subscribers. If a choice is to be made between papers equally good in news service.
All of the 2. That editor will be the most appreciated who selects the news most wisely and presents the unvarnished truth in all matters in which the constituency are interested. he finds long and inaccurate accounts of them. The news would have to be well written. However. Cartoons would find a place in such papers but they would not be the same sort of cartoons that appear in the monthly comic papers.The newspaper that would be preferred by the representative business and professional men might not be popular with other classes of society. All that is desired is a brief but comprehensive publication of the news.com 137 .000 men the conviction is The Ideal forced upon one that they do not care to have a newspaper Newspaper serve as interpreter. Some persons have no interest in the sporting pages. For the business and professional man the circumstances are different. Individual interests are so varied that no paper can expect general circulation without criticism from many readers because of the events emphasized in news gathering. but the interest would be mainly in the news itself and not in the reporter’s or the publisher’s views concerning it.. He does complain because in place of a short and accurate account of things interesting to him. The unbiased presentation of these daily events would not5 be adequate.000 business and professional men answering my questionnaire read much besides the daily papers. defender or advocate of the truth. That all these functions are performed in many instances by the daily press can not be doubted. The results as presented above make it quite evident that for the vast majority the daily paper is merely a news paper. Editorials would find a place but they would be in the main concise statements concerning important events. The ideal paper would have to do only with facts. Judging from the answers of 2. for the busy man does not devote more than that time to any daily paper. For them the daily newspaper must supply the place of all these. The editor and the reporter must interpret the daily events. www. There are many persons who read neither books nor monthly and weekly magazines. to read articles which champion its rights and to follow some great leader in interpreting current events. That the better class of society has passed beyond this condition is likewise apparent. The man who is not interested in finance. does not complain because of the presence of these things. The ideal daily would put emphasis on the field that is not covered by the weeklies and monthlies. The whole reading world desires to secure pleasure from literature. Special articles would be in place in such a paper but they would deal in the main with current events. For this class the ideal paper would be the one that serves this interest most perfectly. the readers do not complain generally because of the presence of pages of material that they never read. others never admit reading crimes and casualties. The storiette is their only literature.longlostmarketingsecrets. etc. It would also present the events of the day in such form that they could be read in fifteen minutes. Their literary entertainment is found in books and magazines. sports.
We are not influenced even by a good advertisement appearing in daily papers if they seem to us to be in any way unreliable. Many readers were interested in these advertisements and the space was well paid for. The significant fact was discovered. has it not surrendered to them also the field of advertising except for the announcement Medium of local sales and other similar events? Has it not ceased to be a competitor for national advertising? This conclusion does not follow. Potential customers are not coldly logical and analytic in estimating commodities. the results may be disquieting to the publishers. The present research was not undertaken to discover the value of newspapers as advertising media for the better class of society. A few years ago all these publications contained advertisements of patent medicines. and one reason why advertising rates are higher in weeklies and monthlies for a proportionate amount of circulation is the fact that at the present time people have more confidence in these than in the dailies.longlostmarketingsecrets. We do not appreciate even good food if served upon dirty dishes. Incidentally the fact is revealed that the newspapers do not have the confidence of many of this particular class of society. If later researches discover the fact that the lack of confidence is general with this class of society. The same advertisement seen in a cherished household publication carries all the respect and trust that has been created by the other departments of the publication. for the ideal newspaper. but it will result in the production of some newspapers which conform to the demands of this great and influential body of citizens. The sensational newspaper may possess the confidence of the lower classes of society and hence be a good advertising medium for reaching that class. An advertisement seen on garbage boxes may be a good advertisement and may announce real bargains but it possesses little influence. which had the full confidence of its readers. “What sort of advertisements could be valuable in what might be an ideal paper for the so-called better classes?” If the ideal paper The is fully differentiated from the weeklies and monthlies in Newspaper as an Advertising its “literary departments”. however.com 138 . That this hope will be realized may be confidently anticipated if we may judge from the similar results which have been brought about of recent years in our best weeklies and monthlies. they are not serviceable for many of the most influential advertisers. etc. but to ascertain which motives would appeal most profoundly to this class of society in inducing them to subscribe for newspapers. The hope for relief from sensational journalism is to be found only in the discovery of the fact that a very influential class of business and professional men cannot be influenced by advertisements appearing in sensational publications. would be a powerful medium for all classes of advertisements. The space in the cleaner publications secured the www.The question which the advertiser is sure to raise in this connection is. Success in advertising is based on confidence. questionable financial schemes. that more advertising space could be sold in high grade magazines that did not accept such advertisements. Unless the newspapers are a valuable medium with the better classes.
www.confidence of the class of society that had the money necessary to purchase the advertised goods.000 Chicago business and professional men show that the Chicago paper which was most often preferred in proportion to is total circulation is the paper that secures. for every thousand of circulation the advertising space in the Century Magazine is worth 178 per cent. more than space in Hearst’s Sunday Magazine. in proportion to circulation. If it would be strengthened as an advertising medium by an increased confidence on the part of the better classes of society. and likewise. more than that in the Popular Magazine. Anything which makes these pages valuable will be diligently sought for even though the policy adopted may reduce the total subscription list. That paper which was the least often preferred is the one which is compelled to sell its advertising space the cheapest. If a large proportion of the better classes of society lack confidence in newspapers. The sentiment seemed to be common that they were getting worse. Sooner or later the publishers will find out the facts. The results of the investigation concerning the opinions of the 2. weeklies and dailies. a larger price than any of the others for its advertising space. The value of a publication as a advertising medium is in a large degree determined by the particular class of citizens whose confidence it possesses. however. For instance. then these publications are not so valuable as advertising media as they might be. Probably from fifty to ninety per cent.com 139 . render this pessimistic conclusion at least uncertain if not improbable. circulation being considered in both particulars. Two facts. It will not be necessary for the better classes of society to boycott the firms advertising in the sensational newspapers – although such action might hasten the day of relief. In all the answers received from business and professional men there was no expression of a hope that the newspapers would ever be better than at present. Newspapers are sure to conform to the demands of the people because any other policy would be suicidal on the part of the publishers. The second fact is that the value of these pages is largely determined by the confidence which the public has in the paper as a whole. circulation considered. for lack of confidence in one part is unconsciously extended to all parts. The first fact is that the newspapers are primarily dependent for their life upon the income from their advertising. space in Collier’s Weekly sells for 233 per cent. of the total income from any newspaper is derived from its advertising pages. The Chicago evening papers are not able to secure so much for advertising space as the morning papers.longlostmarketingsecrets. This is shown in monthlies. it is quite certain that the publishers will be equal to the emergency and will produce a paper that meets the enlightened and cultured demands. The better American metropolitan daily is a wonderful embodiment of enterprise.
Hence advertisements should be so constructed that they will carry their message at a single glance. Prizes. Most business and professional men spend about fifteen minutes daily reading papers.com 140 . from the publisher’s point of view. www. The newspaper is. These business and professional men lacked confidence in their preferred daily papers. Advertisements inserted both in the best and also in the poorer papers are largely lost in the latter because of duplication of circulation. primarily an advertising medium and can attain its maximum value only when it secures the full confidence of its readers.. If the questions asked Conclusion are reasonable and interesting and if the motives of the person carrying on the research are not questioned. The amount of time spent in reading advertisements must be very small. etc.The questionnaire method is available in securing data valuable in planning an advertising campaign. Hence advertisements seen in such publications do not have the greatest possible influence. storiettes. are of secondary importance in inducing these men to subscribe for any particular paper. a large proportion of business and professional men will fill out the blank. Business and professional men subscribe for dailies because of the desire for news. Most business and professional men read more than one daily and hence may be reached by an advertisement even though it is not inserted in all the papers. editorials.longlostmarketingsecrets. This fact may lead to an improvement in the ethical standards of our daily papers.